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La Farge Cement Services, Inc.
(Payloader, Forklift, Crane & Dump Truck)
June 25, 2011
PEOPLE360 CONSULTING CORPORATION
Report No. IR1506-‐11-‐00003
Deaths and heavy equipment
Deaths and heavy equipment
Over 60% of the deaths this year involve heavy equipment
So far this year, 26 construction workers in Ontario have died from injury. More information is on the chart on the next page. Falls account for nine of the deaths. And close analysis shows that 16 of the 26 deaths—or 62%—involved heavy vehicles or equipment such as dump trucks or backhoes. There are a variety of ways that heavy equipment can present hazards if you don’t have the proper protection or controls. For example, you can be ® electrocuted if the equipment contacts an overhead powerline ® crushed if your equipment overturns ® struck by or crushed by material being moved by heavy equipment ® crushed if caught between the equipment and a wall or other object ® run over by a heavy vehicle. Over the next few pages, we identify some of the dangers of working with heavy vehicles or equipment, and we explain briefly how to protect yourself and your co-workers. We can’t say everything in a few pages, but CSAO can give you more information if you want it. All you have to do is call or email: 1-800-781-2726, firstname.lastname@example.org
Three workers were killed this year after dump-truck boxes contacted overhead powerlines. Constructors must have written procedures to prevent contact when equipment could encroach on the minimum allowable distance to a powerline stated in section 188 of the Construction Regulation (Ontario Regulation 213/91 in the “green book”). The Regulation requires, among other things, that constructors K ensure that operators get written notification of the electrical hazards before they begin work K place warning devices (such as signs) near the powerlines so that the equipment operator can always see at least one of them K designate a competent worker as a signaller to warn the operator when any part of the equipment, load, or hoist line approaches the minimum allowable distance to a powerline. (See section 1 (1) of the Regulation for the legal definition of “competent worker.”) There are other requirements. The Summer 2006 edition of Construction Safety magazine contained a detailed article on the subject. Call CSAO for your copy or download it from www.csao.org.
CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MAGAZINE
Workforce Safety & Insurance
I. INTRODUCTION Improper procedures used by our employees can cause injury, disability, or death. By outlining and following safe operating procedures for use of heavy equipment, we learn to prevent injury and safeguard ourselves and our coworkers.
II. GOALS To ensure all employees know and understand the safe operating procedures for the safe operation and maintenance of Heavy Equipment. III. PURPOSE To reduce the risk of a work related injury or death by maximizing personal safety during Heavy Equipment operation.
Safe Operating Procedures for the Following Heavy Equipment: • • • • • • • Backhoe Dozers Loaders Road Graders Scrapers Skidsteers Trucks
General Safety for Heavy Equipment Only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate the designated equipment. 1. Personal protective equipment is mandatory and may include the following: - boots or safety shoes - eye/face protection - long pants - hard hat - hearing protection - gloves 2. Pre-start/Walk around inspection: • Check for loose or worn parts and repair or replace immediately. • Check all fluid/coolant levels. Caution: Open the radiator cap only when the engine is cooled. • Inspect hydraulic line connectors and hoses for leaks before applying pressure to the system. Use paper or cardboard, not your hands, to search for leaks. Hydraulic fluid escaping under pressure can penetrate skin and cause serious bodily
Caution: harm. • •
Check tires for cuts, bulges, irregularities, abnormal wear and proper inflation. A fire extinguisher and first aid kit shall be mounted in the cab.
3. Machine Maintenance: • When servicing equipment, fasten a Do Not Operate tag on the steering wheel. Review Lock Out/Tag Out Procedures prior to servicing any equipment.
chains. back it out or stop engine and get help. Check all gauges. drop-offs. or lunch boxes from the cab.WorkforceSafety. Clean windshield. Identification plates are attached to all machines. Starting and Testing: EXHAUST FUMES ARE DANGEROUS . 7. • Know work area clearances . Do not operate the machine with wet. "DO NOT OPERATE" until the proper repairs have been made. Do not make mechanical adjustments while the unit is in motion. holes. Test brakes against ground speed to be certain there is no malfunction. Remove or secure any loose items such as tools. light.Workforce Safety & Insurance www. Always follow the manufacturer's recommendations for pulling or towing. Know the stopping distance at any given working speed. hand rails. Drive at speeds compatible with working conditions. Do not park on a steep incline. Machine Operation SMOKING IS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES. 6. Test steering right and left. pedals. instruments and warning devices to assure that they are functioning properly and the readings are within normal range. mirrors and lights.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • • • • Ensure the cab area is clean and free of debris and tools. Do not coast downhill. If a malfunction is observed. Work Site: • Check and mark the area for underground cables. 4. 5. and partially hidden obstacles and wires. greasy. Controls should be in neutral and the parking brake set before starting engine. Ensure all implement controls are operating properly. steps. Lower all the hydraulic equipment before shutting down or getting off the machine. and floor to prevent slips and falls. Only the operator is permitted to ride on the machine.watch for overhead or underground objects. 2 June 2003 .ALWAYS HAVE A RUNNING MACHINE IN A WELL VENTILATED AREA. Warn personnel in the area that you are starting the engine. Start the engine only from the operator's seat. and water mains. Remove all oil. grease or mud and snow from grab irons. While backing up use extra care and sound the horn to clear the area. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acquaint yourself with the controls before operating the machine. gas lines. Mount properly: DO NOT GET ON OR OFF A MACHINE THAT IS IN MOTION • • Maintain a 3-point contact with the steps and hand rails while getting on/into the machine .do not use the controls or steering wheel as a handhold. If the machine is stuck. or muddy hands or shoes. Do not permit anyone to stand or pass under the bucket or lift arms. • • • • • • • • Fasten your seat belt and adjust the seat prior to starting. Select a gear that will prevent excessive speed when going downhill. Follow the manufacturer's load capacity limits.
• Ground the funnel or fuel nozzle against the filler neck to avoid sparks when refueling. Be sure everyone is in the clear before swinging or moving in any direction. • Do not use gasoline or diesel fuel for cleaning parts. swing or stop unnecessarily fast. • When backing up traffic. block the wheels and set the parking brakes. • When parking. always apply the parking brake and block the rear wheels front and back to prevent any unnecessary movement. NEVER swing or position attachment or load over personnel or vehicle cabs. breathed or contacted on skin or eyes seek medical attention immediately. and open flames. • If swallowed. Keep open flames and sparks away from area. 9. Never allow personnel to walk or work under any part of the machine or load while the machine is operating. When lifting a load. Be sure attachment or load doesn’t catch on obstructions when lifting or swinging. • PTO shields are mandatory on all PTO-driven equipment. • When parking on a grade. 3 June 2003 . do not lift. tube or atomizer away from yourself and others while testing the diesel cold start system. BACKHOES • • • • • KNOW THE WORKING RANGE OF THE MACHINE. 11. and slow moving equipment on highways/roadways. use hand or turn signals. 10. warning signs. hydraulics to the ground. lower all loader. Shut Down/Parking • Park on level ground.Workforce Safety & Insurance www. disconnecting or servicing the PTO unit. pull over and allow the vehicles to pass. • Wear snug fitting clothing when operating the power take-off. • Point the openings of the valve. Road Rules • When turning. Do not keep them in the operator’s compartment. • When operating stationary PTO equipment.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • During snow removal. • Store replacement ether cylinders in a cool dry place away from direct sunlight. Work in a well-ventilated area. • Do not smoke while refueling. Follow recommendations on the MSDS sheets. • Check the battery and electrolyte levels according to manufacturers instructions. sparks. 8. load limits. • Know where the fire extinguishers are located. Ether .WorkforceSafety. • Obey all traffic regulations. or when near rotating equipment. Know local traffic laws regarding lights. Refueling • Shut off and cool the engine and any electrical equipment before fueling. buckets. Keep away from heat. be alert for any obstructions covered by snow.Cold Start Precautions • Diesel cold start systems contain ether which is explosive. • Ensure the fueling area is well ventilated. Operating a PTO • Shut off the engine and wait until the PTO stops completely before getting off. 12.
Be sure hitch points and the towing device are adequate. Do not allow riders on the machine unless additional seat. Report any needed repairs noted during operation. Never exceed the lifting capacity of the machine. This will reduce the stability of the machine. Work up and down slopes. Keep the machine well back from the edge of an excavation. Remember . Stay a safe distance from the edge of cliffs. Then. the excavator may tip over if the slope is too steep.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • • • • • • • • • • • • Never allow anyone to ride the attachment or the load. DOZERS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Operate the controls only with the engine running. Keep the machine under control and do not work it over its capacity. The operator must satisfy himself that no one will be endangered before moving the machine. seat belt. Level off the work area if possible. ridges. immediately dispose of the load and turn the machine downhill. overhangs.Workforce Safety & Insurance www. at ground level. Turn off the engine and allow the machine to cool before working on the machine. and slide areas. Always be sure that slings or chains used to lift the load are of adequate strength and that they are in good condition.you may be able to lift the load in close. whenever possible. If necessary. or slopes. Connect trailing equipment to a drawbar or hitch only. When working with the bucket on the uphill side. Watch your boom clearance at all times. approximately 40cm (15 in) above ground level. rather than sideways. as this reduces stability and increases the tendency for the machine to slide. Avoid working with the tracks across the slope. Block the tongue or hitch of trailing equipment to align it with the drawbar or hitch. Do not load a truck unless the driver is in a safe place. but as the load radius and elevation change. Stay within the lifting limits shown on the Load Rating Chart. load the truck from the rear or side.WorkforceSafety. Never straddle a cable. and rollover protection are provided. and the operator must pay close attention to the signals. Use a signal person. The signal person must be in direct communication with the operator. Most fluids on the excavator are hot enough to cause severe burns at normal operating temperatures. Avoid undercutting the machine. Personnel are prohibited to be between the machine and trailing equipment when maneuvering to connect them. banks. or other obstructions. Avoid swinging or extending the bucket farther than necessary in a downhill direction. and when crossing ditches. June 2003 4 . This is an extremely dangerous practice. If the machine begins to sideslip on a grade. Be careful to avoid the condition which could lead to tipping when working on hills. wire rope. or similar device nor allow others to do so. Carry implements close to the ground. provide adequate shoring to prevent the machine from falling into the excavation. the lifting capacity of the excavator may decrease.
lower all attachments and stop engine first. Ensure the grader is properly equipped for grading in dry or forested areas. water mains. use extra care. slide areas. NO RIDERS ALLOWED.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________ LOADERS • • • • • • • • • • • This is a one-person machine. Know your stopping distance at any given speed. feet. When hooking up trailing equipment. Stay in gear when traveling downhill . Check the local traffic laws for correct traveling requirements. cones. and flagmen. The further a loaded bucket is from the ground the more unstable the loader becomes. ledges. When back filling. Keep work area level.WorkforceSafety. Do not coast downhill. Know the pinch points and wrap points on the loader. Watch for bystanders and never allow anyone to be under or to reach into the grader and its attachments while operating. banks. Never move a load above the heads of other workers. and terrain. and other obstructions. Use extreme care to avoid tipping when working on hills. Do not dismount from the grader with the engine running . ROAD GRADER • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Do not permit riders in or on the grader. flashing lights. use extra care to ensure persons and vehicles are clear of the grader. Operate at a speed consistent with working conditions. or slopes. electrical lines. Relieve the hydraulic system pressure before performing any service. ditches. body. Ensure loader has an adequate rear counterweight When crossing exposed railroad tracks. Be careful when operating with the wheels at right angle to a slope. underground cables. Keep close to inside bank when working on a side hill road or cut. and combustibles may be present. avoid developing ruts by occasionally back dragging the bucket to smooth the surface. pull over and allow traffic to pass. ridges. 5 June 2003 . Avoid lubrication or mechanical adjustments with the grader in motion or the engine operating. Carry loaded buckets as close to the ground as possible. keep all personnel away. Match speed of the vehicle to job conditions. as close to the ground as possible. dust. Slow down and carry the bucket. Use caution when crossing side hills. loaded or empty. Note and avoid all hazards and obstructions such as overhangs.Workforce Safety & Insurance www. Use precautions. Use extreme care when working with hydraulic systems. or curbs reduce speed and cross at an angle. Extend the blade to material near outer edge. ditches. visibility. Keep your head. When working near traffic areas or at night. use extreme caution. Know and use hand signals required for particular jobs and know who has the responsibility for signaling. Select a gear that will prevent excessive speed when going downhill.this will help control speed. Do not operate the grader in areas where volatile gases. barricades. and hands away from all moving parts. ridges. or gas lines. red flags or red lights. Before backing up. If necessary. The weight of the material plus the weight of the machine could cause the new construction to collapse. Grader is a one-person piece of equipment. such as flares or reflectors. limbs. Use extreme caution when operating a loader on a side slope.
setting the 6 June 2003 . dry shoes using the grab bars or handrails provided. Park on a level surface. Use a hand line to pull equipment up onto the platform. and when crossing ditches. NEVER leave the machine without first lowering the bucket. and floor of any slippery substances. rather than sideways. Carry bowl close to the ground. block the machine.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • • Cross obstacles at an angle and at slow speed. Carry the load as low as possible. stopping the engine. Stop the engine.WorkforceSafety. Visually check for the presence of others in the area and warn them away. overhangs. Do not allow riders on the machine unless additional seat. and obstructions. Avoid sharp turns and slopes with a raised load. with the heavy end of the machine pointed uphill. Adjust the seat. Lower bowl to the ground and apply slight down pressure. Operate the machine only while seated. Work up and down slopes. NOTE: This is very important as improperly balanced skid-steer loaders are easily upset. and slide areas. approximately 40cm (15 in) above ground level. Personnel are prohibited from being between the machine and trailing equipment when maneuvering to connect them. Keep the machine under control and do not work it over its capacity.Workforce Safety & Insurance www. Avoid steep slopes completely. soft spots. Check overhead for utility lines. Do not undercut banks or materials that are piled high. Be especially alert for children. fasten the seat belt. Operate with extreme caution near areas with sharp drop-offs. or slopes. or other obstructions. Travel straight up or down. If the machine is garaged. Block the tongue or hitch of trailing equipment to align it with the drawbar or hitch. SKIDSTEERS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Check to see that counterweights as recommended by the manufacturer are in place. Check for proper operation of all controls and protective devices while moving slowly in an open area. Mount the machine wearing clean. set the brake. Operate the vehicle only on level surface when cutting high banks. Operate with caution on uneven surfaces. Operate the controls only with the engine running. Clean steps. seat belt. Check horn and backup alarm to see that they are working. lower the bowl and bring the machine to a safe stop. Be careful to avoid the condition which could lead to tipping when working on hills. ridges. pedals. Clear the driving compartment for loose items that might interfere with the controls. and rollover protection are provided. SCRAPERS • • • • • • • • • • • • • Do not try to climb on or off the machine when carrying tools or supplies. whenever possible. If necessary to park on a grade. banks. Be alert for sudden movement of machine when going over center of obstacle. leave the door or some windows open for ventilating the exhaust. or other obstructions. Stay a safe distance from the edge of cliffs. Check the work area for hazards such as holes. to avoid cave-ins or falling of material. If the machine begins to sideslip on a grade. and place transmission in park or neutral before cranking the engine. doorway clearances. CARBON MONOXIDE KILLS! Start the engine and check all controls to see that they are functioning properly.
Make sure that the spreader chains aren’t set if you intend to dump in a pile. • • • • • • • • • June 2003 7 . Allow adequate stopping distance between the truck and the vehicles in front of it. Our motor vehicle policy.WorkforceSafety. Always make sure that your seatbelt is properly fastened before driving the truck. TRUCKS • • • Truck drivers will be properly and thoroughly trained before attempting to do any work with or on any type of truck. Check the area around the truck for obstructions (tree limbs. Carefully check the area around the truck before placing it into motion.) before raising the dump box.Workforce Safety & Insurance www. Objects or people that are very close to the truck may not be visible from the driver’s seat. Place the gearshift into neutral and set the parking brake before starting the engine. Do not attempt to operate any dump truck unless you have the proper license and training. Do not rely on the truck’s hydraulic system to hold the box up while you work under it. Do not try to raise the box with the truck parked parallel with the slope. Always try to be on a level surface when you raise the dump box. etc. NEVER work under a raised box (not even “for just a little bit”) unless the box is adequately supported by a prop rod or cribbing. Dismount the machine carefully.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • parking brake. overhead wires. This form is an excellent tool to help the operator remember to check all necessary items. Remember that a dump truck is much more apt to tip over (or run into overhead obstructions) when spreading material then it is when dumping in a pile. If stopping for any length of time. lock the ignition and remove the key. Always use the steps and grab irons and face the vehicle when getting in or out of the truck. As the box raises the truck’s center of gravity goes up and the truck becomes less stable and more apt to tip over. Allow the engine to reach operating temperature and the air pressure to build to operating pressure before placing the truck into motion. If you must dump on a slope place the truck so that it faces straight up. as well as State and Federal regulations prohibit the operation of commercial motor vehicles by individuals who do not have the proper training and license. and placing the shift in park or neutral. Thoroughly inspect the truck for any defects that may inhibit safe operation of the vehicle. DOT regulations require that the operator fill an inspection form each day before placing the truck into operation. Do not jump out of the loader. or down the slope.
Electrocutions 25.4 % 3. Struck by falling load 4. Based on Report of Serious Accident 1985-1990.FORKLIFT SAFETY Percentage of Forklift Accidents OSHA has identified key factors that have contributed to employees accidents from lift trucks. Elevated employee on truck 5. Ran off Dock or other Surface 6. 6.1 % 2. 1. Tip over 2.4 % 4. 7.4 % 12. Struck by powered industrial truck 3.4 % 4.1 % 3. 12. 14. improper use Accident during maintenance Obstructed view Improper Equipment Falling from Platform or curb Not powered industrial truck accident Other employee struck by load Carrying excess passenger Vehicle left in gear Falling from Trailer Speeding Number of Reports 59 53 45 37 26 19 15 14 10 10 9 9 8 8 6 6 5 Forklift Safety. 11.2 % 7. Unloading Unchocked Trailer 12.1 % 4.1 % 3. Employees overcome by CO or propane fuel 10. 9.8 % 14. Faulty powered Industrial Truck 11. 15. Operator Inattention Overturn Unstable load Operator struck by load Elevated employee No Training Overload. Improper Use of Vehicle 14.6 % 1. 5. Lost Control of Truck 8.0 % Causes of Accidents Cause 1. 8. 10.0 % 6. 13. 3. 1 . Truck Struck material 9. Employee Fell from Vehicle 13. 4. 17.3 % 18. 16. Improper Maintenance Procedures 7. 2.
The sides of the triangle as shown in the illustration are formed by the center of each front wheel and the center of the rear wheel or at the center of the axle if there are two rear wheels.STABILITY TRIANGLE Forklift have a “stability triangle”. 2 . Forklift Safety. A vertical line extending from the center of gravity of the vehicle-load combination must be inside of the stability triangle to prevent the forklift from tipping forward. falling sideways or dropping its load.
These actions will have the following effects: Action Tilting the load forward Raising the Load while tilted forward Driving on an incline with the load downhill Stopping forward travel or accelerating backward Tilting the load back Raising the load while tilted back Driving on an incline with the load uphill Accelerating forward or stopping backward travel Driving across an inclined surface Driving across a rough or uneven surface Turning Center of Gravity Moves Toward the front axle Toward the rear axle Toward the downhill side of the triangle Toward the low side of the triangle Toward the side now facing the original direction of travel. Forklift Safety. 3 .
Put a check in the box if the item is OK. Steering and horn Brakes Lights and alarm Tilt Mast Scissors Reach Raising and lowering forks Side shifter Coolant level Fire extinguisher Brakes Tires Gauges Leaks Fuel Level Oil Level Propane Tank Overheard guard ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Forklift Safety.PRE-USE INSPECTION Check each items before the shift starts. Explain any unchecked items at the bottom and report them to a supervisor. Your safety is at risk. Do not use an unsafe forklift. 4 .
or stopping. Moving it to a spot that allows the lift truck to turn around and approaching it with the heavy side toward the forks. grease. stop signs. Any grade can be hazardous. turn the load around by approaching it from the opposite side. 7. traveling or setting down a load. Other hazards that cannot be moved such as doorways. Always be on the alert for employees on foot. Never run over loose objects. painted walkways. If the heavier part of the load is facing away from the operator. 10. water or any other element that could affect turning. Paths of travel should also be free of oil. speed limit signs. a worker may stop his lift truck. Brake lights on all vehicles improve operator safety. Before lifting any load. Keep alert to their stopping or turning. Always allow for proper clearance when lifting. Proper lighting and added visual awareness signals will also assist in greater operator safety. Never indulge in stunt driving or horseplay. starting. Keep loads centered on the forks so that there is a balance of load weight. make provisions with the supervisor ahead of time. Pedestrians should have designated walking areas that do not create an exposure to moving equipment. 12. This may require lifting. Overhead hazards should be relocated if possible. Travel up or down any grade slowly. Give other pieces of power equipment as much room as possible.should be highlighted with black and yellow stripes. 6. Wear gloves to protect the hands. Keep the heavier part of the load towards or against the mast. properly adjust and lock the forks in place to prevent movement. 8. If a load is too long or wide. Do not tailgate other equipment. 4. Items such as sprinkler pipes or gas pipes could be moved to prevent being struck by the lift truck load and mast. 11. visitors. traveling. get off and be in danger of being struck by the lift truck behind him.GENERAL SAFETY GUIDELINES: 1. 9. convex or panoramic mirrors. 5. 5 . other pieces of power equipment. emergency equipment and tight quarters. Forklift Safety. Operating surfaces should be smooth and free of holes. bumps or any other restriction to safe operation 2. If following too close. A good rule of thumb is to keep three to five lengths behind the lift truck in front of you. Flashing lights. beams and other obstacles. such as rolls of carpeting. Pre-plan the route of travel before picking u an oddshaped load. 3. intersections and machine and storage areas should be highlighted as much as possible to prevent collisions or damage to property. racking.
When lifting a load. 25. 14. or storing. Loads should always be against the backrest. the greater probability that the stability of the lift truck is effected. 17. When coming to a crosswalk. shrink-wrap pallets or add metal/plastic banding to allow for greater safety when transporting. Ensure that the forks of the lift truck are long enough to safely handle the load. Should the operator make an error. lower the load to the floor. Always keep your arms. Once in place. place the lift truck controls in neutral. the person would be easily be pinned by the lift truck. keep the load upgrade. always travel straight up or down the incline. In the event of a chemical spill. even for those pieces of power equipment that contain attachments. Properly dispose of waste. handling. Loads should be made as stable before moving bags. It is not unusual for an operator to be moving a lift truck and have a foot. know where the appropriate cleanup kit is stored. When pulling into an elevator. 22. When approaching a ramp. 6 . boxes and other individual items. Alert everyone near the load that it is about to be spotted. This keeps it against the mast and backrest for stability. slow down and be prepared to stop. turn off the power. or head make contact with another object. Never turn on a ramp or slope. Ensure that the backrest is in place. approach and enter slowly with the forks first. 20. Forks should be at least 2/3 of the length of the load being moved. have them stand clear. If possible. 15. legs. The higher the load is raised. When traveling down a ramp. 24. Itʼs more difficult to spill a load after it has been properly tilted.13. turns become much safer. Never drive up to anyone who is standing in front of a machine or other object. keep the load upgrade for the same purpose – for greater stability. and head within the confines of the lift truck. and set the brake. Using the horn to alert other operators and pedestrians adds to Forklift Safety. 23. they should be cross-stacked for greater stability. Tilting the load allows the load to be cradled. Be sure your lift truck is properly rated for the areas in which it may be traveling. Be sure to yield the right of way to other vehicles where required. feet. The lift truck should keep centered on the elevator. 19. 18. Obey traffic rules as required by your employer and as identified by regulations. It is recommended that empty lift trucks be operated with the forks downgrade. Once you are on level surface. hands. 16. 21. tilt it back for greater stability. Wear the appropriate PPE. Never make turns while a load is elevated because the lift truck can tip over. arm. 26. Handle all cleanup situations per safety guidelines.
Never tow trailers. Just steering around a hazard allows it to remain a hazard for the next operator. Use caution when approaching or proceeding through any blind spot. Make turns at slow speeds.Never use your lift truck to lift another lift truck. 7 . Be sure the lift truck is not in motion when any load is being raised or lowered. brakes set. Keep the mast low when traveling.If stopped or parked on an incline. and a slow-moving vehicle emblem to the powered equipment.If the unit has to operate on a roadway. controls neutralized. holes or obstacles. the forks are to be lowered. Slippery floors are invitations to incidents or injuries if the operator does not slow down. 27. Always look in the direction of travel. power shut off. 32. The operator and any other employee on the roadway must wear a reflective vest. Forklift Safety. Keep loads as low as possible when transporting. 32. Avoid ruts. and key removed.Great care must be exercised when lifting a load to deposit it on racking. always operate at a speed that allows you to have full control of the equipment. while traveling through a facility. Never turn on a ramp.A lift truck can tip over when empty. railroad cars. be sure to add flashing lights. If. Never allow anyone to ride or be lifted on your forks. 32. 32. Reduce speed when making turns. 28. 32. or other power equipment. Once the load has be made level up t the spot where it will be deposited. Accept no riders on your power equipment. There may be times when the operator wonʼt be able to look over the top of the load for safe trabvel. then lower the forks to deposit the load. 32. 32. 31. therefore travel in reverse. get off. and remove the hazard. Anticipate obstructions or personnel when making blind corners. Bring the lift truck to a safe stop in a safe manner.When a powered industrial truck is left unattended. stop.Powered equipment should be equipped with multi-purpose fire extinguisher if the equipment travels in an area where no fire extinguisher is readily available.improved safety. the lift truckʼs wheels are to be choked. you see a block of wood or other obstacle or hazard in the path of travel. tilt forward. Someone to direct traffic may be necessary. When traveling. 29. 32. reflectors. 30. Stop without damaging or spilling the product being handled.
32. 5. Wearing PPE is essential when handling LPG. The gas flammable and could be explosive. The gas can be very cold and cause damage to the skin and eyes. sparks. 3. 4. 2. Emergency spill units should be nearby and all employees should be trained in the use of these units. face shields or goggles are needed. Place “No Smoking” signs where all LPG is stored and handled. Forklift Safety. the acid and water may expand and cause a run-over of liquid. 8 . Battery acid and corrosion on the battery are harmful to the skin and eyes. keep water ¼” above the plates. or any other ignition source must be avoided. LPG is heavier than air and will settle in low areas. it is best to use a mechanical device. A “No Smoking” rule must be strictly enforced during refilling. Workers should not “hot charge” a battery during lunch breaks. 2. This process can cause malfunction of electrical components an shorten the life of the battery.32. which is explosive. Ensure LPG tanks are properly anchored to the lift truck. When a manual method of handling is used. 5. A “No Smoking” rule must be enforced.No one is allowed to work or walk under elevated forks. Do not add water to the neck of the battery. If there is too much water. Wear appropriate PPE. Have a CO2 fire extinguisher or multi-purpose extinguisher available at all storage and filling areas. BATTERY CHARGING AREA: 1. LPG POWERED VEHICLES: 1.OSHA considers a truck unattended when the operator is 25 or more feet form the vehicle or the vehicle is not within their vision. Allow a battery to cool down for an entire shift. Have defective hold-down straps repaired as needed. Open flames. All batteries are heavy. When pushing or pulling a battery in or out of a vehicle. Batteries contain hydrogen gas. this rules applies whether the forks are empty or loaded. 3. back injuries and pinched fingers are usually the result. 4. Heavy duty gloves.
Follow fire regulations. be sure they are UL/FM approved. If portable containers are used for refueling. Gasoline is highly flammable. 2. However. when heated or pressurized the liquid burns as readily as gasoline. 5.GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL 1. Forklift Safety. 9 . Place proper “No Smoking” signs where gasoline is handled or stored. Ensure flame arrestors are intact within the container. Ensure that the proper storage of fuels is outside and as far away form any building as possible. Properly identify all containers for content. The “No Smoking” rule is paramount when pumping or handling gasoline. 4. Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than gasoline and is more difficult to ignite. 3. it can cause fire or explosion if not handled properly.
” . ask them to show you the signals for “Load Up. Then.” and “Use Main Line.Hoisting signals Demonstrate IHSA’S SAFETY TALKS Demonstrate the hoisting signals below for your crew.” “Turn Right. Ask them to repeat after you and practice them so that they become natural.
bulldozer. trips. or falls. Demonstrate Demonstrate 3-point contact by mounting and dismounting from a truck. Identify controls To climb on and off construction equipment safely. • Break 3-point contact only when you reach the ground.3-point contact CSAO’S SAFETY TALKS 20 Vehicles and equipment List vehicles & equipment used on site Explain dangers Getting on and off equipment is not as easy as it sounds. . That means two hands and one foot or two feet and one hand on the equipment at all times. traction strips. • Use the parts designed by the manufacturer for mounting and dismounting—steps. handgrips. Ask your crew to try out 3-point contact as well. machine tracks. etc. or other piece of heavy equipment on site. footholds. • Keep these parts clear of mud. always maintain three points of contact. • Don’t use wheel hubs. or a stable platform. and other hazards that can cause slips. • Mount and dismount facing the equipment. the cab. or door handles for mounting and dismounting. • Climb on and off only when the equipment is stationary. snow. grease. runningboards. More than one-quarter of all injuries to equipment operators and truck drivers occur during mounting and dismounting.
general fatigue. These are caused by work position whole-body vibration (WBV) segmental vibration visual work http://www. Other research reveals that the most common work-related symptoms reported among operating engineers include shoulder problems. Prolonged sitting. Based on total injuries reported.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. followed by slips and falls (22.5%).csao. CSAO Unique risk factors Heavy equipment operators are exposed to risk factors considerably different from those in other construction trades. Injuries Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) injury reports show that the average number of lost-time injuries (LTIs) for operators in the period 1994-1996 was 102 per year. The majority of the back injuries (43%) were caused by overexertion. 12% to the shoulder or arm. followed by operating equipment (26%) and dismounting (14%). Most of the back injuries occurred while lifting (42%). B.htm Page 1 of 8 . and irritability. and 9% to the ankle.T. stomach disorders. and the repetitive operation of controls are major risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among operators.) Project Coordinator. whole body vibration. 29% were to the back. (P. Back injuries to equipment operators are higher than the industry average for construction (25%).Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM Health Risks FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATORS by Nadine Marks. low back pain.Sc.
Sitting flattens out the small of the back. they remain stretched and slack for a while and cannot properly support the low back. diesel fuel exhaust. This syndrome is called "white finger disease" because constriction of the blood vessels causes whitening of the fingers as well as pain or numbness. Work Position Heavy equipment operators are required to sit for extended periods of time. In addition.htm Page 2 of 8 .org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. This exertion can lead to sore tired muscles and muscle strain. This increases pressure on the spinal discs and limits their ability to absorb vibration. Sitting exerts almost twice the pressure through the back that standing does. especially in the presence of vibration. During extended sitting. lifting immediately after prolonged sitting increases the risk of back injury. The repetitive operation of equipment controls also entails risks. in colder weather operators may experience arthritic symptoms in the hands and/or Raynaud's syndrome.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM environmental factors such as weather. Other causes can also contribute to injury in the heavy equipment operator. Additionally. and start to hurt when the back is in one position for any length of time. ligaments in the back stretch and slacken. For this reason. Even after you stand up. Operating hand controls may result in a repetitive strain disorder of the arm with shoulder or elbow tendinitis. back muscles tire. and noise psychological stress. Posture http://www. Holding a foot pedal down over a long period of time may cause stiffness and spasm in the legs and low back. Back and neck muscles must work continuously to hold the head in position.csao. become stiff.
When driving for long periods. Displays should be located so that they can be read accurately from a normal operating position. slow and easy. slide the seat back. Seating material should be suitable to vehicle type. If possible. Ideally. Backrests are designed to support the natural curves in your spine. A backrest (lumbar support) will improve the seat's shape and your own posture. The impact of jumping puts additional stress and shock on your spine. Jumping down from vehicles may also cause knee and ankle injuries. Remember that 14% of back injuries to heavy equipment operators are caused by improper dismounting from the vehicle. Over the years this can result in low back injury. Before entering or exiting the cab. Avoid lifting immediately after driving. This will give you more room and prevent the need to twist. Maintaining good sitting posture is important. your ligaments are stretched and unable to support your spine properly. Armrests should be available to help reduce postural stress to the back and should fold up out of the way at the operator's discretion. Ideally.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM is Important Recommendations Maintaining proper posture is important to good back health. which can lead to back and leg pain. your spinal discs are at risk of injury. If a back support is not available.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. Try to keep your back straight and avoid twisting when getting in and out. The first two to three minutes after you exit your vehicle is a high-risk time for injury. Consider these ergonomic points: Frequently used controls should be in the most favourable position for reaching and grasping. http://www. adjust your seat and steering wheel so that you can use the pedals and still keep your low back in contact with the seat back. an air suspension system with individual weight adjustments is best. will help reduce the stress on your spine from sitting. The right backrest for you will depend on your build and the size and shape of the equipment seat. The wallet may put your spine out of alignment and exert pressure on your sciatic nerve. Always face your vehicle when dismounting and maintain 3-point contact. shift position occasionally to give your back a change of position. A standing back bend. Your muscles are tired.htm Page 3 of 8 . Cabs should be equipped with adjustable seating that provides good lumbar support. Bend at your hips and knees rather than at your back. Don't drive with your wallet in your back pocket. Avoid jumping down from your vehicle. Give yourself a couple of minutes to stretch and rest before trying to lift anything heavy. especially the low back lumbar curve. Try to get out of your vehicle for a couple of minutes every hour or two and gently stretch backwards. the back of your seat should be tilted at 110 degrees from your legs to reduce disc pressure and relax back muscles.csao. a rolled-up towel placed in the small of your back can help. But sitting is still hard on your back and requires frequent changes of position.
Additionally. Heavy equipment vibration is transmitted through the seat of the vehicle to the operator's spine. other factors may influence operator exposure. operators are often required to drive backwards or look from one side of their vehicle.csao. This alters the direction of vibration through your body and helps reduce its effects. forcing them to adopt a twisted posture. Recommendations Maintain equipment in sound working order. When a vehicle hits an unexpected pothole or bump. tilt your seat a notch or two every 30 minutes. Take extra care and reduce travel speed over rough terrain (shale or rock). But even when vibration levels are within ISO standards. the operator's muscles may not have time to contract properly to protect against neck and back injuries. WBV has also been shown to affect the cardiovascular system (increased heart rate and blood pressure). Use specially designed cushions with vibration-reducing material. Poor ergonomic design of cabs.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. the International Standards Organization (ISO) has developed a standard providing numerical limits for exposure to WBV. and controls can also affect the operator's musculoskeletal health. Because of these health concerns. If possible. seats. and may lead to problems with the urogenital and gastrointestinal systems (abdominal pain and nausea). the type of terrain travelled. such as how well the machine is maintained. 12% of back injuries to operators are due to shocks or jolts sustained while driving.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM Three Sources of Vibration Whole Body Vibration Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of mechanical vibration transmitted through a supporting surface to the body. Try to get out of your vehicle every one to two hours for a few minutes to give your body http://www. and vibration from other equipment. This is considered a risk factor for the development of back and neck disorders. Long-term exposure to whole body vibration may cause low back disorders such as disc herniations. Operators are subjected to various sources of vibration: low-frequency vibration caused by tires and terrain high-frequency vibration from engine and transmission shock from running into potholes or obstacles. In fact. A good suspension system and correct tire pressure will help to reduce vibration. seat design.htm Page 4 of 8 . may accelerate degenerative changes in the spine.
signallers.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. In addition. As a result. They have to monitor their changing environment and watch for overhead powerlines. Visual Work Operators must not only operate equipment but also keep an eye on site activity at all times. take breaks and give your eyes a rest. use shields or filters. poor visibility from the cab. Equipment controls should have vibration-reducing material built into the grips.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM a break from vibration. Improved Cabs Reduce Risks ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Weather http://www. underground utilities. and glaring sunlight on bright days can contribute to eye strain. Keep windshield wiper blades in good working condition. Heavy equipment operators are exposed to segmental vibration when they operate controls. Equipment operators may report symptoms of Raynaud's syndrome or arthritis in their hands. Segmental Vibration Segmental vibration is transmitted through the hands and arms and is known to cause specific health effects such as Raynaud's syndrome (white finger disease). eye strain and fatigue can become an occupational hazard. jackhammers. site traffic. Construction workers are exposed to segmental vibration when using equipment such as grinders. especially in colder weather.csao. Take breaks when possible and stretch your fingers and hands.htm Page 5 of 8 . Recommendations Wear gloves to keep your hands warm in cold weather. and workers on foot. and power tools. reduced visibility in rainy or winter conditions. If reflection or glare makes displays difficult to read. Recommendations When possible. obstacles. Ensure that there's an adequate number of defogging vents in the cab and that they're located in the correct position to prevent side and back windows from fogging up.
including training in the proper use of plugs and muffs. Diesel Exhaust The chronic effects of diesel exhaust exposure can include lung function disorders and lung cancer. Studies have reported an excess risk of lung cancer in heavy equipment operators. Pay particular attention to the exhaust pipe and check for any leaks in the system. Recommendations Cabs of heavy equipment should be enclosed to reduce noise and air-conditioned to allow operators to keep doors closed. attributed in part to soot particles and constituents such as benzene in diesel fuel exhaust. Always maintain 3point contact and face the vehicle to avoid slips and falls. Further research should be conducted to determine levels of diesel exhaust exposure among equipment operators. A CSAO study concluded that operators in equipment with no cabs or with open doors may be exposed to levels exceeding 90 dBA for an 8-hour period.csao. But the industrial regulations stipulate a maximum of 90 dBA exposure for eight hours. In winter. Take it slow and easy when getting in or out of equipment in winter. Periodic maintenance should be carried out to reduce noise caused by equipment that is not well tuned or working properly. Allow extra time in winter to clean ice and snow from equipment. ice and snow can make mounting or dismounting from equipment hazardous and lead to slips and falls.htm Page 6 of 8 . Noise exposures on Ontario construction sites are not regulated. Bulldozer operators in the study had the highest average exposure at 102. Controls and grips may also be cold and contribute to Raynaud's syndrome or arthritic conditions of the hand. In summer they may have to contend with heat in cabs that aren't air-conditioned. Hearing protection programs. Recommendations Cabs should be equipped with adequate air-conditioning in summer and heat in winter. Recommendations Ensure that the equipment is in good working condition and properly maintained. should be implemented. http://www. Noise Operators are exposed daily to high levels of noise from heavy equipment.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM Equipment operators must work in all kinds of weather.4 dBA.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. Research has demonstrated that excessive exposure to noise in the workplace may induce hearing loss.
Operators should be encouraged to do a pre-work warm-up and take enough stretch breaks to reduce their exposure to vibration and prolonged sitting. Additionally. Conclusions Strategies to reduce work-related health problems among heavy equipment operators should include the following: in-depth evaluations of vehicle designs to determine possible improvements in-depth evaluation of work practices to identify safer. they may work for 4 or 5 hour stretches in virtual isolation.htm Page 7 of 8 . exposure to hazards such as vibration and noise. healthier approaches implementing sound ergonomic procedures training workers in how to prevent musculoskeletal injury focusing attention on the psychological aspects of operating heavy equipment in the http://www. and the repetitive operation of hand and foot controls.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM Psychological Stress Heavy equipment operators are exposed to psychological stress from the physical conditions already described: the size and power of the equipment they operate.csao. Recommendations Employers and supervisors should 1) be aware of the physical and psychological stress under which equipment operators must often work and 2) understand the controls and practices that can help to reduce stress. Operators may work 10 or 12 hour shifts during the construction season. Fatigue can be a significant factor in their overall psychological well-being. Ergonomic improvements in cab design can help to reduce musculoskeletal hazards and some of the psychological stress that goes along with them. responding only to signals from co-workers. changing site conditions that require constant monitoring. prolonged sitting.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. Exercise programs and active forms of recreation to keep fit can improve mental attitude and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injury.
unions and workers can help to reduce and control the occupational hazards affecting heavy equipment operators. Back to Contents http://www.Health Risks for Heavy Equipment Operators 6/24/11 9:02 PM unique construction environment.csao.org/UploadFiles/Magazine/Vol9No3/93health. contractors.htm Page 8 of 8 . suppliers. equipment manufacturers. Through their coordinated efforts.
Arms Underneath Machine Transmission. Stem Caps Bucket Cutting Edge. Housing. please refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual or any other applicable manuals and instructions for this product. Differentials. Leaks Fluid Level Function. Weight. function Cleanliness ENGINE COMPARTMENT Engine Oil Engine Coolant Radiator All Hoses Fuel Filters / Water Separator All Belts Air Filter Overall Engine Compartment ON THE MACHINE. Lights Mirrors Cab Air Filter Gauges. Leaks Cracks. Damage. Duo-cone Seals Hydraulic Tank Transmission Oil Lights. Damage. Loose Mounting Bolts Charge. Lines. Windows Windshield Wipers / Washers Doors INSIDE THE CAB Seat Seat Belt & Mounting Horn. their respective logos. Wheels. Wear. Indicators. please contact your local Caterpillar dealer. Damage. Wear. Age Proper Function Damage. Able to Reach Pedals Damage. Wear Excessive wear. Cracks Restriction Indicator Trash or Dirt Buildup. Wear Spots. Hoses Loader Frame. Leaks Fluid Level Drain Moisture Leaks. Damage / Fluid Level Open properly. Dust Damage.1 CAT. Transfer Case Steps and Handholds Fuel Tank Differential and Final Drive Oil Air Tank (if equipped w/ air brakes) Axles – Final Drives. Front and Rear Battery Compartment Inflation. FROM THE GROUND Tires. Damage Broken Glass. Adjust for Best Visibility Dirt. Loose Nuts & Bolts Fluid Level Fluid Level Fin Blockage. Switches. Lug Nuts. OUTSIDE THE CAB Handholds ROPS Fire Extinguisher/System Windshield. If you have questions.Safety & Maintenance Inspection: Wheel Loaders Operator/Inspector______________________________ Date__________________ Time_______________ Serial Number_________________________ Machine Hours_________________________ What are you looking for? Evaluator Comments What are you inspecting? For more information. are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission. Leaks. CATERPILLAR. Damage Leaks. © 2009 Caterpillar All Rights Reserved . Adjustment. Cleanliness Wear. broken glass Adjustment-Height. Cleanliness Fuel Level. Backup Alarm. Leaks Excessive wear. Damage Leaks Condition. Moldboard Bucket Lift and Tilt Cylinders. Damage Excessive wear. Damage. Controls Overall Cab Interior V0810. Leaks Leaks / Drain Water (if equipped) Tension. “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE trade dress. Wear Fluid Level. or Wiring Cleanliness. Leaks Condition and Cleanliness Damage. as well as corporate and product identity used herein. Damage to Lens. Damage. Brakes.
Damage. Visual Check Squeeze Rubber Dirt Trap or Check the Restriction Alarm (if equipped) Condition In Cab Attached and Information Matches Model. If you have questions.Safety & Maintenance Inspection – Fork Lifts Operator/Inspector_____________________ Date________________ Time__________________ Serial Number_________________ Machine Hours_____________________ What are you looking for? What are you inspecting? Evaluator Comments For more information. Torn. please refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual or any other applicable manuals and instructions for this product. Damage Attached. Defroster. Leaks. Instrument Monitors Pass/Fail Leaks. Serial Number and Attachments Condition. Fuel Level. please contact your local Caterpillar dealer With Engine OFF Fuel Hydraulic Oil Engine Oil Radiator Coolant Transmission Fluid Tires Forks. Retractor Hood Latch Brake Fluid With Engine ON Accelerator or Direction Control Pedal Service Brake Parking Brake Steering Operation Drive Control – Forward/Reverse Tilt Control – Forward and Back Hoist and Lowering Control Attachment Control Horn and Lights Cab (if equipped) – Heater. their respective logos. Visible. Temperature. Cables and Stops Overhead Guard Safety Warnings Battery All Engine Belts Engine Air Cleaner Fuel Sedimentor (Diesel) Operator's Manual Nameplate Seat Belt. Level Condition and Pressure Check Condition Visual Check. CATERPILLAR. Level Leaks. Level Leaks. Wipers Gauges: Ammeter. Level Leaks. Level Leaks. Ripped. Top Clip Retaining Pin and Heel Hydraulic Hoses. Damage to housing Adjusted and Securely Fastened Leaks. Buckle. Level Functioning Smoothly and Properly Functioning Smoothly and Properly Functioning Smoothly and Properly Functioning Smoothly and Properly Functioning Smoothly and Properly Functioning Smoothly and Properly Functioning Smoothly and Properly Operation Functioning Properly Functioning Properly Functioning Properly Action Needed V0810. Damage Attached. are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission. Engine Oil Pressure.1 CAT. as well as corporate and product identity used herein. Mast Chains. © 2010 Caterpillar All Rights Reserved . Rips. “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE trade dress. Hour Meter. Legible (Refer to Parts Manual for Location) Check Water/Electrolyte Level and Charge Cracked.
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