PHILOSOPHY OF MAN Course Outline
INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Defining philosophy Branches of philosophy Roots of philosophy Methods of philosophizing
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
Man as a rational being Cartesian mind and body dualism Man as subjectivity Man in the perspective of Eastern philosophies
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
Gabriel Marcel’s concept of freedom Freedom in Sartre’s existentialism Deliberation and choice - Aristotle Free will as the cause of Evil - Augustine
ETHICS AND MORALITY
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
Evil as forgetfulness - Plato Virtue as the golden mean - Aristotle The Categorical Imperative - Kant Master morality vs. Slave morality - Nietzsche
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
Utilitarian concept of justice Categorical concept of justice Value of Human Life Justice as fairness – Rawls
COURSE SPECIFIC TOPICS
3 6.‖ There is also the traditional lexical definition of philosophy: Both the etymological and lexical definitions of philosophy give us an idea what philosophy is. nevertheless the question of what is wisdom still remains. is also very problematic. Love might be understood as having an affectionate desire towards wisdom.
INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY
1. to take these two very different definitions as sufficient enough to describe this very broad discipline is still a subject of controversy regarding many armchair and professional philosophers alike.6.1 DEFINING PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is a subject that many students find hard to grasp.‖ Epistemology deals with the process by which we can know that something is true.
1. This misconception is really far from what philosophy is and what it aims to achieve. we can see that it poses more questions than it answers. at times their methods overlap each other that this distinction blurs. One of the reasons for this is the idea that the discipline of philosophy is too concerned with abstractions. If we examine the etymological definition. prayer. This introduction seeks to enlighten students and educators alike by discussing what philosophy really is and how important it is to man’s daily existence. though. especially those coming from the eastern tradition that philosophy is not only done through ―reason‖ alone. 1. So what is philosophy? Although the etymological definition is rather overused in most introductory courses in philosophy. It is important to remember. Various methods such as meditation. according to its etymological definition is simply. It addresses questions such as:
What can I know? How is knowledge acquired? Can we be certain of anything?
. mental experiments. Etymologically Philosophy is dissected into two Ancient Greek words: Philosophy then. a British philosopher.4
1.2 BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY Epistemology Epistemology is the study of ―knowledge. The application of philosophy is actually so vast and expansive that it can be applied to most other disciplines if not all. however. Some philosophers contend. a definition that is largely attributed to Alfred North Whitehead. and arguments that have nothing or little to do with practical life. it is important to discuss for it gives us a very basic and clear idea of what philosophy is. The lexical definition. ― love for wisdom. and some literary methods are used by eastern philosophers and regard the ―logical‖ and ―rational‖ approach to philosophy as biased and western in its roots. that the dichotomy between east and west is not absolute.
asserts that all our knowledge comes from our five senses. HERACLITUS: c. the Pythagoreans held that Number was the essence of reality. and the environment. John Locke. right and wrong. Heraclitus held that reality is constantly changing. the soul. decisions.610 – C. sexual morality. Aesthetics Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty. Ethics is involved with placing value to personal actions. that ―All is Change. and relations. Only fragments quoted from his work remain. All that we know about him comes to us from stories handed down by later writers. the death penalty. Thales was described by Aristotle as the first philosopher because he held the view that ―All is water. Beginning with the observation of the numerical relationship between musical notes. whose views are only known to us through the teachings of his followers. Ethics Ethics is the study of moral value. the first philosopher in recorded history.Within epistemology there are two important categories—rationalism and empiricism. It is the tool philosophers use to study other philosophical categories. was born on the Greek island of Samos.‖ PARMENIDES: C. pornography.507 BC Pythagoras. our minds are a ―blank slate‖ at birth. It attempts to address such issues as:
What is art? What is the relationship between beauty and art? Are there objective standards by which art can be judged? Is beauty in the eye of the beholder?
1. Logic Logic is the study of right reasoning. on the other hand. Thus knowledge comes from our experiences.‖ PYTHAGORAS: c. To use the terminology of the empiricist.‖ More specifically it is the study of reality that is beyond the scientific or mathematical realms. 535 – c. Important ethical issues today include abortion.546 BC Thales. Metaphysics Metaphysics is the study of ―reality.‖ The metaphysical issues most discussed are the existence of God. Good logic includes the use of good thinking skills and the avoidance of logic fallacies. and the afterlife. 582 – c. euthanasia. It also asserts that we are born with innate ideas that precede any experiences we may have with our physical senses.547 BC
. lived in the Greek city of Miletus on the western coast of Asia Minor. The term ―metaphysics‖ itself literally means ―beyond the physical.610 – c.2 ROOTS OF PHILOSOPHY Ancient Greek Philosophy THALES: c. Rationalism holds that knowledge is gained primarily through the mind. Empiricism.475 BC Heraclitus lived in the Greek city of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor in the eastern Mediterranean. Rationalism stresses reason as the most important element in knowing. No works written by Thales have survived.
the founder of Skepticism. Plato held that all of reality was divided between a higher. non-physical realm of truths and spent his life analyzing what could be known by the senses. perfect. which he termed ―Being‖.‖ Roman Philosophy EPICURUS: 341 – 270 BC Living in Athens before Rome had gained control of Mediterranean. Aquinas rejected the Platonic otherworldliness that had influenced the church since the days of Augustine. Anselm was nominated archbishop or Canterbury. Reason supplements and does not contradict faith. 200 AD Almost nothing is known about Sextus Empiricus’ life except that he was a physician and saw himself in a line of Skeptics dating back to Pyrrho (361-170 BC).D. non-physical realm of truths and the lower. because of his careful. influenced Roman intellectual life for 500 years after his death. the truths of theology and science are mutually compatible. and Against the Professors. AUGUSTINE: c. The highest pleasures are those that are long lasting. ANSELM: 1033 – 1109AD Born in northwestern Italy. Sextus summarized the principles of skepticism in three works: Outlines of Pyrrhonism. southern Italy. Aristotle. 354 – 430 AD Augustine.1225 – 1274 A. SEXTUS EMPIRICUS: c. Anselm successfully resisted the desires of two English kings (William II and Henry I) to control and tax religious institutions. Epicurus taught that happiness is achieved when we wisely pursue pleasure. was born in Stagira. SOCRATES: 469 – 399 BC Socrates. like expensive possessions. Aquinas’ works were declared the official philosophy of the Catholic Church in 1879. undivided. born in North Africa. eternal. Sometime in the 3rd century BC. Considered the greatest philosophical achievement of the Middle ages. like sexual intercourse. Middle Ages Philosophy ST. ST. Though a student at Plato’s Academy. ARISTOTLE: 400 – 320 BC Aristotle. On the Trinity summarizes key elements of Christian theology. Aristotle abandoned his teacher’s emphasis upon a higher. and The City of God attacks paganism and presents an extended description of the Christian view of history. like those produced by the simple life and the company of good friends. than the nature of reality. he became bishop of Hippo in northern Africa five years later. and became leader of a group of thinkers known as the Eleatics. PLATO: 427 – 347 BC Plato. Aquinas served as a professor of theology in Paris and Naples and was largely responsible for reconciling the ideas of Aristotle with Christian beliefs. At the core of this argument is the view that a careful analysis of the definition of God will prove that God must exist. lived his entire life in Athens. THOMAS AQUINAS: c. In Parmenides’ view. Against the Dogmatists. imperfect physical universe. England in 1093. as carried on by his followers. perhaps the most famous of all philosophers. As archbishop. the Confessions is a classic autobiographical description of the inner workings of Christian life.
. Anselm became a monk at the age of 27 and after only two years. At 19. was named prior of the monastery at Bec in southern France. Continuing to advance in the church hierarchy. all change is an illusion. Deeply influenced by Socrates. or short lasting. Epicurus’ philosophy. and argued instead for Aristotle’s sense-based analysis of reality. Among his many writings. Unlike Thales and other early thinkers. lived in the closing decades of the Western Roman Empire.Parmenides founded a school of philosophy in Elea. is known as the ―Father of Science. is unchanging. In Aquinas’ view. however. Macedonia in northern Greece. and extensively recorded observations. Ordained a priest at 37. ST. Socrates was more concerned with the health of the soul. Aquinas was expected to pursue a career in politics of the military. he joined the Dominican Order and remained true to his determination to become a monk. he became his teacher’s biographer. one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Growing up in central Italy as the son of aristocratic parents. the lowest pleasures are those that are costly. despite being imprisoned by his parents in a tower for a year. one of history’s most influential thinkers. lived and died in Athens. Reality.
‖ GOTTFRIED WILLHELM VON LEIBNIZ: 1646 – 1716 From youth. At the remarkable age of 21. Hobbes works.‖ Under Louis’ protection. A rationalist. in Meditations on First Philosophy. Thereafter. in opposition to the medieval supremacy of the church. ―Defend me with your sword and I will defend you with my pen. in which he deduces an elaborate philosophical system following the model of geometry. Hobbes met some of the best minds of his day.WILLIAM OF OCKHAM: c. hydraulic press. and a tutor of Charles II of England. Spinoza’s central beliefs include the view that God and Nature are identical. absolute certitude. In Leviathan. because of their attack upon traditional Christian positions. RENE DESCARTES: c. Thomas Hobbes was a mathematician. At 41. In De Corpore he argued that philosophy’s sole subject should be the study of bodies in motion. in which he makes important contributions to calculus. ―I think. he is offered a professorship. that he is pronounced a heretic and formally cast out of his synagogue. In 1324 Ockham was charged with heresey. a series of aricles attacking the Jesuits. and develops a graphing technique (now known as the Cartesian system). Leibniz develop the notion of kinetic energy and is the first to publish a system of calculus. an English Franciscan philosopher-theologian studied at Oxford where he became influenced by the thought of Duns Scotus and Peter Lombard. 1588-1679 AD Besides his work in philosophy and political theory. BARUCH SPINOZA: 1632 . and have no existence. which he declines. Spinoza receives an orthodox Jewish education. Spinoza supports himself on the meager earnings of a lens grinder. Ockham is said to have remarked to Louis. Four years later. As a philosopher. Pascal experienced a powerful religious transformation and entered the Jansenist monastery at Port-Royal. universals like ―dog‖ or ―triangle‖ are merely names. a translator of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. worked on mathematical studies. This victory of English citizens of the monarchical system helped shape Locke’s lifelong support of democracy. Leibniz serves a succession of German dukes of Hanover. BLAISE PASCAL: c. Pascal eventually broke ith his religious superiors. therefore I am. he conducted important researches in geometry. writing. Leibniz holds that the mind at birth contains innate truths which can be developed and clarified as the mind matures. Enlightenment Philosophy JOHN LOCKE: 1632 – 1704 AD The founder of British Empiricism. Descartes dies of pneumonia at the age of 54. King Charles I was tried and beheaded for treason. Spinoza’s main contribution to philosophy is his Ethics. However. his major work. 1285 – 1344 AD William of Ockham. reading difficult philosophical works with ease. Hobbes argued for the absolute power of kings. he publishes La Geometrie. He stayed with the Jansenists for four years. as Plato thought. but his trial did not reach a conclusion. Blaise Pascal invented the barometer. independently of our language. a country in political turmoil. Spinoza has been so strongly influenced by the work of Descartes and other Christian thinkers. under a pseudonym.1677 AD Born into a jewish family in Amsterdam. Renaissance Philosophy THOMAS HOBBES: c. Marin Mersenne and Rene Descartes. For the rest of his life. probability theory. that all events are predetermined and that the highest human happiness is produced when reason actively controls the passions and focuses upon ―the intellectual love of God. Ockham’s important contributions to philosophy include his work in logic and his analysis of the problem of universals. syringe and a calculating machine. Descartes attempts to build a philosophical system based on a single. In 1654. until his death at 39. the pope’s enemy. Descartes studies in a Jesuit school and then sets out to learn from the ―book of the world‖ by traveling through Europe and serving in two armies. and. When Locke was 17. Ockham wrote all of his most important political works. including Galileo. Leibniz argues that God has created the best of all possible worlds and that reality is based upon an infinite number of spiritual entities he terms monads. Among his other accomplishments. In addition. France. His writings on the natural rights of man invluenced the American Bill of
. Leibniz demonstrates his genius. Ockham allied himself with Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. 1623 – 1662 AD One of the most remarkable geniuses of his day. which links algebra to geometry. provoked intense opposition. John Locke was born in 17th century England. Under Ockham’s view. cogito ergo sum. by the age of 24. and the ―theory of indivisibles‖. Choosing a political rather than an academic career. a forerunner of calculus.‖ Summoned to Sweden to teach his philosophy to Queen Christina. 1596 – 1650 AD Born in La Haye in northwestern France.
he began research at 16 that would lead to his great philosophical work. esse est percipi – to be is to be perceived. Bentham’s career was notably pragmatic. In addition to important work in metaphysics and epistemology. according to legend. he proposed the doctrine of tabula rasa. Berkeley combined empiricism. Kant’s major works include. what appears to be the physical universe is really only our idea of matter. as well as to determine what we shall do. Rousseau’s major works include Discourse on the Arts and the Sciences (1750). DAVID HUME: 1711 – 1776 David Hume. with the unusual view that ideas are the only reality. educational practices. but ends in skepticism. Roused by David Hume’s skeptical arguments. According to Berkeley’s principle. Hitherto. the year of the American Revolution. Social Contract (1762). he was ―uncommon wake minded. Bentham states a central principle of Utilitarianism: ―Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters. Despite the peculiarities that may have occupied his mind near death. he inspired many social reforms. Hume died in 1776. Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1755). a careful analysis of what our senses tell us reveals that we can know nothing about cause and effect. the view that the mind is like a blank tablet which is filled by information acquired by the senses. kant argued that philosophers must look inward at the ways the mind constructs the universe. philosophers had looked outward at the universe. Instead. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) and Metaphysics of Morals (1797). Rousseau addressed the question of the origin and proper powers of government. The great dramas of Kant’s life were internal. London. Hume’s philosophy begins in empiricism. economics. he faced death with great calm. it is our won pleasure and pain. Prolegomena To Any Future Metaphysics (1783). In addition to philosophy. the clothed skeleton of English philosopher Jeremy Bentham is permanently exhibited at University College. espoused the new economics of Adam Smith. Gifted with remarkable intellectual powers. the ―laws‖ that guide motion and change.C. He lived a life of mechanical punctuality. and history. all ideas reside. George Berkeley went on to a remarkably varied career which included composing works of philosophy. was a strong advocate for the rising tide of democracy. the view that little if anything can be known for certain.Rights.‖ Thus. the supposed agreement among citizens and their rulers as to their mutual obligations. Ireland. pain and pleasure.1832 In accordance with his will. or any other general principle of nature. attempting to found a college in Bermuda. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. A treatise on Human Nature. Scotland. ultimately.‖ Suffering from cancer. in God’s mind. GEORGE BERKELEY: 1685 – 1704 Born in Kilkenny. In A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonus (1713). and his autobiography. According to his mother. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU: 1712 – 1778 Despite his important contributions to music. his neighbors set their clocks by the minute he passed their house during his daily walk.‖ Hume left the University of Edinburgh after three years to pursue a career in philosophy. grew up on a moderately well to-do family. not god’s direction. or the guidance of eternal ethical principles. and the Constitution. As a founder of Utilitarianism. and esthetic theory. the Declaration of Independence. all sense-based knowledge of matter is really knowledge of ideas of matter. It is from them alone to point out what we ought to do. Confessions (1781) IMMANUEL KANT: 1724 – 1804 Immanuel Kant never ventured further than 80 miles from his birthplace. he especially concerned himself with the social contract. Swiss born jean Jacques Rousseau’s most influential work was in political theory. In ―An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation‖ (1789). especially in the penal system. a philosophical topic since the 5th century B. and founded the radical magazine Westminster Review (1823). becoming an Irish Bishop and touting the medicinal benefits of drinking tar water (a mixture of pine tar and water). born in Edinburgh. Hume also made important contributions to sociology. A friend described him as ―one of the sweetest tempered men and the most benevolent that was born. Kant broke new ground in ethics with his analysis of human nature and the will. Thus. that should determine life’s path. In Berkeley’s view. the belief that all knowledge comes through the senses. Germany. Kant established what he believed would be an entirely new direction for philosophical investigation. the view that all knowledge comes through the senses. though all we know about the universe is based on sense evidence. Konigsberg. politics. Locke attacked the rationalistic view that the mind contains innate truths. All that we know of the world is sensebased knowledge. A variation of this view is as old as
. Philosophy of the Industrial Revolution JEREMY BENTHAM: 1748 . Critique of Pure Reason (1781).
This ―picture theory‖ of language claims that sentences form word pictures. yet deeply artistic style. as evidenced in his major work.‖ the attempt to assign numerical values to pleasure and pain. it has been aptly described as a ―logical poem. whose phenomenology he rejected in favor of a philosophy that was almost its direct opposite. earning a medal for his actions. tub soaking. he developed a new method for sorting and typing blood that continued to be used for decades after. Marx’s major works include ―Manifesto of the Communist Party‖ (1848) and the three volumes of ―Das capital‖ (the last volumes were published after his death). Financially supported by Frederick Engels. given his
. Wittgenstein is almost unique in having developed not just one. Mill. He believed that being was inextricably tied with time. Wittgenstein claimed that language is a tool. it is better to let nature have her way. his vocal support of the Nazi party in its early days tainted his later career. Both approaches are primarily concerned with the relationship between our ability to understand the world and language. Modern Philosophy LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN: 1889 . Mill had a nervous breakdown which lasted for two years. or more accurately a variety of tools. MARTING HEIDEGGER: 1889 – 1976 Born in Germany. For his radical views. only eight people attended Marx’s funeral. Latin at eight. He was wounded in battle during WWI. he developed a widely used dictionary for children. second.‖ Mill was strongly influenced by his father’s friend. Wittgenstein’s first approach. Jeremy Bentham. Heidegger never apologized for his earlier support. probably more than any other philosopher. ―I never was a boy. a small amount of high quality pleasure. however.the Greek philosopher Epicurus. which focused upon an analysis of the human situation. making truly free choices. Marx developed his views during years of research in the library of the British Museum. he designed and supervised the construction of a house for his sister that is acclaimed as a work of art. KARL MARX: 1818 -1883 Born in Germany. During WWII. but two radically original approaches to philosophy. Bentham’s arguments powerfully influenced not only legislators but also many other thinkers. all pleasure is the same. a question that dates back to the Pre-Socratics. JOHN STUART MILL: 1806 – 1873 John Stuart Mill. claimed that sentences (propositions) form a kind of picture that we compare to the world. As a schoolteacher in Vienna. we can only understand the world through language.1951 Born in Austria to a wealthy industrialist family. While he strongly denounced the action of the Nazis in WWII. under the influence of his overbearing father. secret voting. and the way our language happens to work controls how we understand the world and what we are able to understand. and trade unions. reorganization of parliament. Mill made two crucial changes in Bentham’s Utilitarianism. First. In his late teens. Mill endorsed free trade. Heidegger was primarily concerned with the study of the question of being. Ludwig Wittgenstein had a fierce daring in all his pursuits. One of the leading liberals of his day. he remarked. Marx’s description of historical change as being driven by economic class struggle powerfully influenced the development of both economics and modern theories of history. Karl Marx lived the life of a revolutionary. Generally unrecognized during his life. his views are embraced by millions. Mill made a crucial distinction between the quantity and quality of pleasure. he rejected Bentham’s ―hedonic calculus. For Mill. This book strongly influenced Jean Paul Sartre and other involved in the movement known as existentialism. equality for women. The influence of Marx upon the modern world has been enormous. This lack of regret is perhaps appropriate. The ―Tractatus‖ is written in a simple. whether it is produced by soaking in the tub or listening to opera. including his younger colleague John Stuart Mill. a wealthy British manufacturer who became his co-author. which we then compare with the world in the same way that we might compare a model of a building to the original. his account of the dynamics of society laid the foundation for sociology. As one of the founders of Communism. like Bentham. is more valued than a large amount of low quality pleasure. and lived the last three decades of his life exiled in London. ―Being and Time‖ brought Heidegger instant fame in Europe. Later in life. dedicated himself to social reform. Heidegger studied under Husserl. the founder of Utilitarianism. never played at cricket. opera listening. began to study Greek at three. a term Heidegger used to describe humans when we are bring uniquely ourselves. There is no single or necessary logic to how language works. and he thought that the Nazis would provide a means to allow people to be more ―authentic‖.‖ Wittgenstein’s second approach to philosophy said that our knowledge of the world is completely dependent upon language. Heidegger was deeply concerned about the way technological society had alienated people. just as not all tools function in the same way. For Bentham. ―Being and Time‖. logic at 12 and political economy at 13. developed in the ―Tractatus‖. His genius was displayed in every undertaking – despite having no formal training. he was expelled from Cologne and Paris (twice).
upon closer inspection they reveal themselves to be sophisticated and. ARGUMENT FALLACIES Four Fallacies of Relevance Appeal to Ignorance (Ad Ignorantiam) – consists in arguing that because a claim has not been demonstrated to be wrong. Sartre met Simone de Beauvoir. Some books are written with a single argument in mind. the problems generated by human freedom. among other topics. he spent several years teaching at secondary schools before resigning to devote himself to writing. These attributioins are all the more shocking considering that Rorty passed through some of the finest institutions of the American academic establishment. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority (Ad Verecundiam) – the authority we are citing is in a position to provide compelling evidence even though he is not. Sartre is regarded as the foremost exponent of existentialism. Premise 2: Many students in this school fail to fulfill their requirements and are prone to absenteeism. JEAN-PAUL SARTRE: 1905 – 1980 Sartre. and an anti-realist. existentialism is an atheistic philosophy which focuses on. He (allegedly) maintains that there is no truth.‖ RICHARD RORTY: 1931 – 2007 Richard Rory has been labeled a relativist. CONSIDERATIONS IN ARGUMENTS Length – Arguments can be long or short. receiving a doctorate from Yale in 1956 and teaching with distinction at Princeton. no real world. the University of Virginia and Stanford. To apologize for this support would have been to apologize for being who he was. Bad Arguments – an argument can fail for any number of reasons. rejection by his classmates caused him to escape into the world of books. Arguments and Disputes – An argument in our sense is not a dispute.philosophical beliefs that the things that make us unique individuals are our free choices. Ex: My lawyer said that eating too much rice is bad for my health. Though superficially Rorty’s claims range from unintelligible to appalling. and no grounds for saying that what the Nazis did was morally wrong. Its premises may be false. Conclusion: Students of this school must become more responsible in attending class regularly and submitting their requirements on time. After the war. 1. or provide inadequate support for the conclusion. an irrationalist. who became is lifelong companion. We are ―condemned to be free. An inference is made each time a person draws a conclusion from a premise or set of premises. was a precocious child. As he revealed in his autobiography. Sartre joined the French Resistance and was eventually imprisoned by the Nazis.
. raised by his maternal grandfather. for many. While studying at the Sorbonne in Paris. THE WORDS. Ex: The cake I baked is delicious because no one has told me it’s not. or irrelevant.3 METHODS OF PHILOSOPHIZING Logic & Argumentation An argument is a set of claims. a philosophy which traces its roots to the work of Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche in the 19th century. During World War II. Example: Premise 1: A student must be responsible for his regular attendance and the fulfillment of his requirements on time. one of which is meant to be supported by the others. Some people dispute in order to resolve a disagreement while arguing may not necessarily need any resolution. the claim is right. quite appealing. As presented by Sartre.
I will vote for Noynoy in the next elections. Appeal to Popular Attitudes (also Ad Populum) – popular attitudes and the emotions associated with them can be manipulated to incline people to accept claims that have not been demonstrated. Ex: Its either you’re with us or you’re against us. Ex: Most people believe that Noynoy should be re-elected. The door opened because Manuel sneezed.‖ whereas it actually means ―an exception to a rule is a test of the rule.Appeal to Popular Belief (Ad Populum) – asserting that a claim is correct just because people generally believe it is. Hasty Generalizations – consists in generalizing on the basis of an inadequate set of cases. Jessica and Anne like wearing yellow. Slippery Slope – the mistaken idea behind the slippery slope fallacy is that when actions can be arrayed along a continuum. Ex: Don’t wear a red shirt if your skin is dark. The Exception That Proves the Rule – The saying is often mistakenly taken to mean ―an exception to a rule establishes its truth. Most people here in Aurora think that a red shirt does not suit people who have dark skin. Four Fallacies of Criticism Against the Person (Ad Hominem) – consists in rejecting a claim by offering as grounds some personal characteristics of the person supporting it. All women probably like wearing yellow.
. Roque Ferriols. Two Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence False Cause (Post Hoc) – involves concluding that because on event occurred before another. S. Loaded Question (Complex Question) – consists in attempting to get an answer to a question that assumes the truth of an unproved assumption. Two Fallacies of Defense Definitional Dodge – consists in redefining a crucial term in a claim to avoid acknowledging a counterexample that would falsify the claim. Straw Man – consists in misrepresenting an opponent’s claim or argument so that it is easier to criticize or so obviously implausible that no criticism is needed. Four Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumptions False Dilemma (False Alternatives) – consists in giving arguments that present alternatives as exhaustive and exclusive when they are not. Begging the Question (Petitio Principii) – a question is ―begged‖ when reasons justifying an answer to it are only apparently presented in an argument. Ex.J. Ex: The door opened because Manuel sneezed. justifying the first action is equivalent to justifying the most extreme ones. Pooh-Pooh – to pooh-pooh an argument is to dismiss it with ridicule as not worthy of serious considerations.‖ READING:
by Fr. Name Calling (Loaded Words) – to apply judgmental terms without providing reasons is another way of trying to get something for nothing. the first was the cause of the second.
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. The derivation of the word. The account of the history of a word or element of a word  Lexical definition is definition that comes from the dictionary.theologicalstudies. Etymology: 1. http://www.org/articles/article/1527417/17150. 2.