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®¹i häc huÕ
tr−êng ®¹i häc khoa häc

nguyÔn gia ®Þnh





gi¸o tr×nh

C¥ Së TO¸N HäC









{a}
{a,b,c}
{a,b}

{c} {b}
{a,c} {b,c}






huÕ − 2005
L
`
O
.
I N
´
OI D
-
ˆ
A
`
U
Nh˜ u
.
ng ngu
.
`o
.
i m´ o
.
i b˘a
´
t d¯ˆa
`
u nghiˆen c´ u
.
u to´an ho
.
c thu
.
`o
.
ng ca’ m thˆa
´
y kh´o xˆay
du
.
.
ng th´oi quen ph´at biˆe

u mˆo
.
t c´ ach ch˘a
.
t ch˜e nh˜ u
.
ng ´ y kiˆe
´
n muˆo
´
n tr`ınh b`ay, kh´ o
ho
.
c tˆa
.
p c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap lˆ a
.
p luˆa
.
n d¯´ ung d¯˘a
´
n v`a kh´ o n˘a
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a to´an ho
.
c. Nh˜ u
.
ng kh´o kh˘an n`ay du
.
`o
.
ng nhu
.
b˘a
´
t nguˆo
`
n t` u
.
chˆo
˜
: mˆo
.
t l`a
khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c luyˆe
.
n tˆa
.
p vˆe
`
lˆ ogic to´an, mˆo
.
t chu’ d¯ˆe
`
nghiˆen c´ u
.
u c´ ach lˆa
.
p luˆa
.
n suy
diˆe
˜
n ´ap du
.
ng v`ao viˆe
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac d¯i
.
nh l´ y to´an ho
.
c; hai l`a do thiˆe
´
u c´ac kh´ ai
niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n v` a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap d` ung trong l´ y thuyˆe
´
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p m` a ng`ay nay
thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ´ap du
.
ng trong mo
.
i ng`anh to´an ho
.
c v`a d` ung l`am co
.
so
.
’ d¯ˆe

khai ph´a
v` a gia’ i th´ıch c´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a to´an ho
.
c (nhu
.
´anh xa
.
, quan hˆe
.
, ...); ba
l` a do khˆong n˘a
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c nh˜ u
.
ng kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
tr` u
.
u tu
.
o
.
.
ng, mˆo
.
t chu’
d¯ˆe
`
d¯ang ph´ at triˆe

n ma
.
nh m˜e v`a c´o a’ nh hu
.
o
.
’ ng d¯ˆe
´
n mo
.
i ng`anh to´an ho
.
c kh´ac, cu
.
thˆe

qua c´ac cˆ a
´
u tr´ uc d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
cu’ a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
quen thuˆo
.
c (nhu
.
tˆa
.
p c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, tˆa
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen, tˆa
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, tˆa
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a tˆa
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c).
D
-
u
.
o
.
.
c su
.
.
d¯ˆo
.
ng viˆen ma
.
nh m˜e cu’ a c´ ac d¯ˆo
`
ng nghiˆe
.
p trong c´ ac Khoa To´an-
Co
.
-Tin ho
.
c, Cˆ ong nghˆe
.
Thˆong tin v`a Vˆa
.
t l´ y (Tru
.
`o
.
ng D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Khoa ho
.
c-D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c
Huˆe
´
), c´ac Khoa To´an v`a Tin ho
.
c (Tru
.
`o
.
ng D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Su
.
pha
.
m-D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
) v`a
d¯˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t do nhu cˆa
`
u ho
.
c tˆa
.
p cu’ a c´ac sinh viˆen trong D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
o
.
’ c´ac Khoa
n´ oi trˆen, ch´ ung tˆoi ma
.
nh da
.
n viˆe
´
t gi´ao tr`ınh Co
.
so
.
’ To´an ho
.
c, trong khi trˆen thi
.
tru
.
`o
.
ng s´ach c´o kh´a nhiˆe
`
u t`ai liˆe
.
u liˆen quan d¯ˆe
´
n ho
.
c phˆa
`
n n`ay (nhu
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tr`ınh
b` ay ta’ n ma
.
n v`a r`o
.
i ra
.
c). D
-
iˆe
`
u m` a ch´ ung tˆoi mong muˆo
´
n l` a c´ac kiˆe
´
n th´ u
.
c cu’ a
ho
.
c phˆa
`
n n`ay pha’ i d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯u
.
a v`ao d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ , cˆo d¯o
.
ng, ch´ınh x´ac, cˆa
.
p nhˆa
.
t v`a b´am
s´ at theo yˆeu cˆa
`
u d¯`ao ta
.
o sinh viˆen c´ ac ng`anh To´an, Vˆa
.
t l´ y, Cˆong nghˆe
.
Thˆong tin
v` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
ng`anh k˜ y thuˆa
.
t kh´ ac cu’ a c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng d¯a
.
i ho
.
c v`a cao d¯˘a

ng. V´o
.
i su
.
.
nˆo

lu
.
.
c hˆe
´
t m`ınh cu’ a ba’ n thˆan, ch´ ung tˆoi thiˆe
´
t ngh˜ı d¯ˆay c`on l` a t`ai liˆe
.
u tham kha’ o
tˆ o
´
t cho c´ ac gi´ao viˆen gia’ ng da
.
y ho
.
c phˆa
`
n Nhˆa
.
p mˆon D
-
a
.
i sˆo
´
hay Co
.
so
.
’ To´an ho
.
c
Nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a t`ai liˆe
.
u n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c bˆo
´
tr´ı trong 6 chu
.
o
.
ng. Trong c´ac phˆa
`
n cu’ a
mˆo
˜
i chu
.
o
.
ng c´o nhiˆe
`
u th´ı du
.
cu
.
thˆe

minh hoa
.
cho nh˜ u
.
ng kh´ai niˆe
.
m c˜ ung nhu
.
nh˜ u
.
ng kˆe
´
t qua’ cu’ a ch´ ung. Cuˆ o
´
i cu’ a mˆo
˜
i chu
.
o
.
ng l`a nh˜ u
.
ng b`ai tˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n lo
.
c
t` u
.
dˆe
˜
d¯ˆe
´
n kh´o b´am theo nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a chu
.
o
.
ng d¯´o v`a liˆe
`
n sau d¯´o l`a c´ac l`o
.
i gia’ i
cu’ a ch´ ung. D
-
´o l`a c´ ac chu
.
o
.
ng vˆe
`
Lˆogic to´an v`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p,
´
Anh xa
.
, Quan hˆe
.
, Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen, Sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c, D
-
a th´ u
.
c.
Ch´ ung tˆoi xin chˆan th`anh c´am o
.
n c´ac d¯ˆo
`
ng nghiˆe
.
p d¯˜a d¯ˆo
.
ng viˆen v`a g´op ´ y
cho cˆong viˆe
.
c viˆe
´
t gi´ao tr`ınh Co
.
so
.
’ To´an ho
.
c n`ay v`a l`o
.
i c´am o
.
n d¯˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t xin
d` anh cho Khoa To´an-Co
.
-Tin ho
.
c (Tru
.
`o
.
ng D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Khoa ho
.
c-D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
) vˆe
`
su
.
.
gi´ up d¯˜o
.
qu´ y b´au v`a ta
.
o d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n thuˆa
.
n lo
.
.
i cho viˆe
.
c xuˆa
´
t ba’ n gi´ao tr`ınh n`ay.
Typeset by A
M
S-T
E
X
T´ac gia’ mong nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c su
.
.
chı’ gi´ao cu’ a c´ac d¯ˆo
`
ng nghiˆe
.
p v`a d¯ˆo
.
c gia’ vˆe
`
nh˜ u
.
ng thiˆe
´
u s´ot kh´o tr´anh kho’ i cu’ a cuˆo
´
n s´ach.
Cˆo
´
D
-
ˆo Huˆe
´
,
ˆ
A
´
t Dˆ a
.
u Tro
.
ng D
-
ˆong (2005)
Nguyˆe
˜
n Gia D
-
i
.
nh
2
CHU
.
O
.
NG I:
L
ˆ
OGIC TO
´
AN V
`
A T
ˆ
A
.
P HO
.
.
P
1.1. L
ˆ
OGIC TO
´
AN.
1.1.1. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
v`a c´ac ph´ep to´an lˆogic:
1.1.1.1. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
l`a mˆo
.
t cˆ au pha’ n ´anh mˆ o
.
t d¯iˆe
`
u d¯´ ung ho˘a
.
c sai, ch´ u
.
khˆong pha’ i v` u
.
a d¯´ ung v` u
.
a sai.
Th´ı du
.
:
1) Sˆo
´
35 chia hˆe
´
t cho 5: mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
2) M˘a
.
t tr`o
.
i quay quanh tr´ai d¯ˆa
´
t: mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
3) Tam gi´ac ABC c´o 3 g´oc vuˆong: mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
4) 2 < 5: mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
C´ac cˆau ho’ i, cˆau ca’ m th´an, cˆau mˆe
.
nh lˆe
.
nh, ... v` a n´oi chung c´ac cˆau khˆong
nh˘ a
`
m pha’ n ´anh t´ınh d¯´ ung sai cu’ a thu
.
.
c tˆe
´
kh´ach quan d¯ˆe
`
u khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c coi l`a
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
.
Trong lˆogic mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
, ta khˆong quan tˆam d¯ˆe
´
n cˆa
´
u tr´ uc ng˜ u
.
ph´ap c˜ ung nhu
.
´ y ngh˜ıa nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
m`a chı ’ quan tˆam d¯ˆe
´
n t´ınh d¯´ ung sai cu’ a mˆ o
˜
i mˆe
.
nh
d¯ˆe
`
.
D
-
ˆe

chı’ c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
chu
.
a x´ac d¯i
.
nh, ta d` ung c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai: p, q, r, ... v`a go
.
i
ch´ ung l`a c´ac biˆe
´
n mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
. Ta quy u
.
´o
.
c viˆe
´
t p = 1 khi p l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v`a
p = 0 khi p l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai. C´ ac gi´a tri
.
0 v`a 1 go
.
i l`a c´ac gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y cu’ a c´ac
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
.
George Boole d¯˜a nghiˆen c´ u
.
u phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ta
.
o ra c´ ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
m´o
.
i b˘a
`
ng
c´ ach tˆo

ho
.
.
p t` u
.
mˆo
.
t ho˘a
.
c nhiˆe
`
u mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯˜a c´o. C´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
m´o
.
i d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
c´ ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
ph´ u
.
c ho
.
.
p, ch´ ung d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ta
.
o ra t` u
.
c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
hiˆe
.
n c´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach
d` ung c´ ac ph´ep to´an lˆogic.
1.1.1.2. Ph´ep phu’ d¯i
.
nh: Phu’ d¯i
.
nh cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p , k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a p, d¯o
.
c l`a “khˆong
p”, l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai khi p d¯´ ung v`a d¯´ ung khi p sai.
Ph´ep phu’ d¯i
.
nh trong lˆ ogic mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
ph` u ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i ph´ep phu’ d¯i
.
nh trong ngˆon
ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a ph` u ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i ´ y ngh˜ıa cu’ a t` u
.
“khˆong” (“khˆong pha’ i”).
Th´ı du
.
: 1) p: “9 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆ o
´
le’ ” (D
-
), p: “9 khˆong l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
le’ ” (S).
2) p: “v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c x, y, (x + y)
2
< 0” (S), p: “tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c
x, y, (x +y)
2
≥ 0” (D
-
).
1.1.1.3. Ph´ep hˆo
.
i: Hˆo
.
i cu’ a hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p, q, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a p ∧ q, d¯o
.
c l`a “p v`a q”,
l`a mˆ o
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi ca’ p lˆa
˜
n q c` ung d¯´ ung v`a sai trong c´ ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c`on
la
.
i.
Ph´ep hˆo
.
i ph` u ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i ´ y ngh˜ıa cu’ a liˆen t` u
.
“v`a” cu’ a ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) p: “2 l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
” (D
-
) v`a q: “2 l`a sˆo
´
ch˜an” (D
-
) th`ı p ∧ q: “2 l`a
sˆ o
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
v`a l`a ch˘a
˜
n” (D
-
).
3
2) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“Sˆo
´
π l´o
.
n 3 v`a l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’” (S) l`a hˆo
.
i cu’ a hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“Sˆ o
´
π l´o
.
n ho
.
n 3” (D
-
) v`a “Sˆo
´
π l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’” (S).
1.1.1.4. Ph´ep tuyˆe

n: Tuyˆe

n cu’ a hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p, q, k´ y hiˆe
.
u p ∨ q, d¯o
.
c l`a “p
ho˘a
.
c q”, l`a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai khi ca’ p lˆa
˜
n q d¯ˆe
`
u sai v`a d¯´ ung trong mo
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p c`on la
.
i.
Ph´ep tuyˆe

n ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i liˆen t` u
.
“ho˘a
.
c” trong ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng theo ngh˜ıa
khˆong loa
.
i tr` u
.
, c´o ngh˜ıa l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“p ho˘a
.
c q” d¯´ ung khi v`a chı ’ khi ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t
trong hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p v`a q d¯´ ung.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) p: “3 nho’ ho
.
n 5” (D
-
) v`a q: “3 b˘a
`
ng 5” (S) th`ı p ∨ q: “3 nho’ ho
.
n
ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng 5” (D
-
).
2) p: “Paris l`a thu’ d¯ˆo nu
.
´o
.
c Anh” (S) v`a q: “6 l´o
.
n ho
.
n 8” (S) th`ı p ∨ q:
“Paris l`a thu’ d¯ˆo nu
.
´o
.
c Anh ho˘a
.
c 6 l´o
.
n ho
.
n 8” (S).
1.1.1.5. Ph´ep tuyˆe

n loa
.
i: Tuyˆe

n loa
.
i cu’ a hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p, q, k´ y hiˆe
.
u p ⊕q, d¯o
.
c
l` a “p ho˘a
.
c q (nhu
.
ng khˆong ca’ hai)”, l`a mˆ o
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi chı ’ c´o mˆo
.
t trong
hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p v`a q l`a d¯´ ung v` a sai trong mo
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c`on la
.
i.
Ph´ep tuyˆe

n loa
.
i ´ u
.
ng v´ o
.
i liˆen t` u
.
“ho˘a
.
c” trong ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng theo
ngh˜ıa loa
.
i tr` u
.
.
Th´ı du
.
: p: “

2 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’” (S) v`a q: “

2 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı ’” (D
-
) th`ı p ⊕q:


2 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ ho˘a
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı ’” (D
-
).
1.1.1.6. Ph´ep k´eo theo: Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo p ⇒ q, d¯o
.
c l`a “p k´eo theo q” hay
”nˆe
´
u p th`ı q”, l`a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai khi p d¯´ ung v`a q sai v`a d¯´ ung trong c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p c`on la
.
i.
Trong ph´ep k´eo theo n´ oi trˆen, p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gia’ thiˆe
´
t, c`on q d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a kˆe
´
t
luˆa
.
n.
V`ı ph´ep k´eo theo xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n o
.
’ nhiˆe
`
u no
.
i trong c´ac suy luˆa
.
n to´an ho
.
c, nˆen c´o
nhiˆe
`
u thuˆa
.
t ng˜ u
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung d¯ˆe

diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p ⇒q. Du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
th´ı
du
.
thu
.
`o
.
ng g˘a
.
p nhˆa
´
t.
– “Nˆe
´
u p th`ı q”,
– “p k´eo theo q”,
– “T` u
.
p suy ra q”,
– “p l`a d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d¯u’ d¯ˆe

c´o q”,
– “q l`a d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n d¯ˆe

c´o p”.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) “Nˆe
´
u hˆom nay tr`o
.
i n˘ a
´
ng, ch´ ung tˆoi s˜e d¯i ra b˜ai biˆe

n” l`a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh
d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a d¯´ ung tr` u
.
phi hˆom nay tr`o
.
i thu
.
.
c su
.
.
n˘a
´
ng, nhu
.
ng
ch´ ung tˆoi khˆong d¯i ra b˜ai biˆe

n.
2) “Nˆe
´
u hˆom nay l`a th´ u
.
hai th`ı 3 + 5 = 7” l`a mˆ o
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo v`a l`a
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i mo
.
i ng`ay tr` u
.
th´ u
.
hai.
Trong suy luˆ a
.
n to´an ho
.
c, ch´ ung ta x´et c´ac ph´ep k´eo theo thuˆ o
.
c loa
.
i tˆo

ng
qu´at ho
.
n trong ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m to´an ho
.
c vˆe
`
ph´ep k´eo theo
d¯ˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
nhˆan - qua’ gi˜ u
.
a gia’ thiˆe
´
t v`a kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n.
4
Khˆong may, cˆa
´
u tr´ uc nˆe
´
u - th`ı d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung trong nhiˆe
`
u ngˆon ng˜ u
.
lˆa
.
p tr`ınh
la
.
i kh´ ac v´o
.
i cˆ a
´
u tr´ uc d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung trong lˆogic to´an. D
-
a sˆo
´
c´ac ngˆon ng˜ u
.
lˆa
.
p tr`ınh
ch´ u
.
a nh˜ u
.
ng cˆau lˆe
.
nh nhu
.
nˆe
´
u p th`ı S (if p then S), trong d¯´o p l`a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
c` on S l`a mˆo
.
t d¯oa
.
n chu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (gˆo
`
m mˆo
.
t ho˘a
.
c nhiˆe
`
u lˆe
.
nh cˆa
`
n pha’ i thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n).
Khi thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n mˆ o
.
t chu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh g˘a
.
p nh˜ u
.
ng cˆa
´
u tr´ uc nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, S s˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n nˆe
´
u p l`a d¯´ ung, trong khi d¯´o S s˜e khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nˆe
´
u p l`a sai.
1.1.1.7. Ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng: Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng q”, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a p ⇔q,
l` a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi p v`a q c´o c` ung gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y v`a sai trong c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p c`on la
.
i.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng ph` u ho
.
.
p v´ o
.
i ´ y ngh˜ıa cu’ a cu
.
m t` u
.
“khi
v` a chı’ khi” hay “nˆe
´
u v`a chı ’ nˆe
´
u” cu’ a ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng. Trong to´an ho
.
c,
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng q” c´o thˆe

diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng: “d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆ a
`
n v` a d¯u’
d¯ˆe

c´ o p l`a c´o q”.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆ a
`
n v`a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

´ABC cˆan l`a hai g´oc o
.
’ d¯´ay cu’ a n´o b˘a
`
ng
nhau.
2) Dˆa
´
u b˘a
`
ng xa’ y ra trong bˆa
´
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Cauchy
n

a
1
a
2
. . . a
n

a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
n
khi v`a chı ’ khi a
1
= a
2
= = a
n
.
Sau d¯ˆay l`a ba’ ng chˆan tri
.
cu’ a c´ac ph´ep to´an lˆogic n´oi trˆen.
p q p p ∧ q p ∨ q p ⊕q p ⇒q p ⇔q
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
1.1.1.8. C´ ac ph´ep to´an lˆogic v`a c´ac ph´ep to´an bit: C´ac m´ay t´ınh d` ung
c´ ac bit d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n thˆong tin. Mˆo
.
t bit c´o hai gi´a tri
.
l`a 0 v`a 1.
´
Y ngh˜ıa cu’ a t` u
.
n` ay b˘a
´
t nguˆo
`
n t` u
.
binary digit (sˆo
´
nhi
.
phˆan). Thuˆa
.
t ng˜ u
.
n`ay do nh`a Thˆo
´
ng kˆe
ho
.
c nˆo

i tiˆe
´
ng John Turkey d¯u
.
a ra v`ao n˘am 1946. Bit c˜ ung c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y. Ta s˜e d` ung bit 1 d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n gi´a tri
.
d¯´ ung v`a bit 0 d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n gi´a tri
.
sai.
Ta s˜e d` ung c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u NOT, AND, OR, XOR thay cho c´ ac ph´ep to´an
−, ∧, ∨, ⊕ nhu
.
thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`am trong c´ac ngˆon ng˜ u
.
lˆa
.
p tr`ınh kh´ac nhau.
Thˆong tin thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n b˘ a
`
ng c´ach d` ung c´ac xˆau bit, d¯´o l`a d˜ay
c´ ac sˆ o
´
0 v`a 1. Khi d¯˜a l`am nhu
.
thˆe
´
, c´ ac ph´ep to´an trˆen c´ac xˆau bit c˜ ung c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung d¯ˆe

thao t´ac c´ ac thˆong tin d¯´o. Ta c´o thˆe

mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng c´ac ph´ep to´an bit
t´ o
.
i c´ac xˆau bit. Ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa c´ac OR bit, AND bit v` a XOR bit d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i hai xˆau
5
bit c´ o c` ung chiˆe
`
u d`ai l`a c´ ac xˆ au c´ o c´ac bit cu’ a ch´ ung l`a c´ac OR, AND v`a XOR
cu’ a c´ac bit tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng trong hai xˆau tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
Th´ı du
.
:
xˆau 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
xˆau 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
OR bit 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
AND bit 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
XOR bit 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
1.1.2. Su
.
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng lˆogic cu’ a c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c:
Trong lˆogic mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta d¯u
.
a ra kh´ ai niˆe
.
m cˆong th´ u
.
c, tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
kh´ai niˆe
.
m biˆe

u th´ u
.
c trong to´an ho
.
c.
1.1.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa:
1) C´ac biˆe
´
n mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p, q, r, ... l`a c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c,
2) Nˆe
´
u P, Q l`a c´ac cˆ ong th´ u
.
c th`ı P, P ∧ Q, P ∨ Q, P ⊕Q, P ⇒Q, P ⇔Q l`a
c´ ac cˆong th´ u
.
c,
3) Chı ’ chˆa
´
p nhˆa
.
n c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c d¯u
.
o
.
.
c th`anh lˆa
.
p b˘a
`
ng viˆe
.
c ´ap du
.
ng mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n c´ac quy t˘a
´
c 1)-2).
1.1.2.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cˆong th´ u
.
c A go
.
i l` a h˘a
`
ng d¯´ ung nˆe
´
u A nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
1 v´o
.
i
mo
.
i hˆe
.
gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y c´o thˆe

c´o cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
c´o m˘a
.
t trong A.
Cˆong th´ u
.
c A go
.
i l` a h˘a
`
ng sai nˆe
´
u A nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
0 v´o
.
i mo
.
i hˆe
.
gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y
c´ o thˆe

c´o cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
c´o m˘a
.
t trong A. Khi d¯´o ta go
.
i A l`a mˆo
.
t mˆau
thuˆ a

n.
Mˆo
.
t cˆong th´ u
.
c khˆong pha’ i l`a h˘a
`
ng d¯´ ung, c˜ ung khˆong pha’ i l`a mˆau thuˆa

n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a tiˆe
´
p liˆen.
1.1.2.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Hai cˆ ong th´ u
.
c A v`a B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng lˆogic,
k´ y hiˆe
.
u A ≡ B, nˆe
´
u A ⇔ B l`a mˆo
.
t h˘a
`
ng d¯´ ung. Hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c A ≡ B c`on d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a
mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c.
1.1.2.4. C´ac tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng lˆogic co
.
ba’ n:
1) Luˆa
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t:
p ∧ 1 ≡ p, p ∨ 0 ≡ p.
2) Luˆa
.
t nuˆo
´
t:
p ∧ 0 ≡ 0, p ∨ 1 ≡ 1.
3) Luˆa
.
t l˜ uy d¯˘a

ng:
p ∧ p ≡ p, p ∨ p ≡ p.
6
4) Luˆa
.
t phu’ d¯i
.
nh k´ep:
p ≡ p.
5) Luˆa
.
t giao ho´an:
p ∧ q ≡ q ∧ p, p ∨ q ≡ q ∨ p.
6) Luˆa
.
t kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p:
(p ∧ q) ∧ r ≡ p ∧ (q ∧ r), (p ∨ q) ∨ r ≡ p ∨ (q ∨ r).
7) Luˆa
.
t phˆan phˆo
´
i:
p ∧ (q ∨ r) ≡ (p ∧ q) ∨ (p ∧ r), p ∨ (q ∧ r) ≡ (p ∨ q) ∧ (p ∨ r).
8) Luˆa
.
t De Morgan:
p ∧ q ≡ p ∨ q, p ∨ q ≡ p ∧ q.
9) Mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng tiˆe
.
n ´ıch:
p ∧ p ≡ 0, p ∨ p ≡ 1,
p ⇔q ≡ q ⇔p, p ⇔q ≡ (p ⇒q) ∧ (q ⇒p), p ⇔q ≡ p ⇔q,
(p ⇒q) ≡ (p ∨ q),
(p ⇒q) ≡ (q ⇒p).
1.1.3. Suy luˆa
.
n to´an ho
.
c:
1.1.3.1. Suy luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch: Suy luˆa
.
n l`a r´ ut ra mˆ o
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
m´o
.
i t` u
.
mˆo
.
t hay
nhiˆe
`
u mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯˜a c´o.
Phˆan t´ıch c´ac suy luˆa
.
n trong ch´ u
.
ng minh to´an ho
.
c, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta thˆa
´
y mˆo
˜
i ch´ u
.
ng
minh bao gˆo
`
m mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n bu
.
´o
.
c suy luˆa
.
n d¯o
.
n gia’ n. Trong mˆo
˜
i bu
.
´o
.
c suy
luˆa
.
n d¯o
.
n gia’ n d¯´o, ta d¯˜a “ngˆa
`
m” vˆa
.
n du
.
ng mˆo
.
t quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n tˆo

ng qu´at d¯ˆe

t` u
.
c´ ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n l`a d¯´ ung (tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
, d¯i
.
nh l´ y, d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa, gia’
thiˆe
´
t) c´o thˆe

r´ ut ra mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
m´o
.
i. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta go
.
i c´ ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
xuˆa
´
t ph´at d¯˜a
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n l`a d¯´ ung l` a c´ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
, c`on mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
m´o
.
i d¯u
.
o
.
.
c r´ ut ra (nh`o
.
vˆa
.
n
du
.
ng c´ac quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n tˆo

ng qu´at) go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
qua’ lˆogic cu’ a c´ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
. Ph´ep
suy luˆa
.
n nhu
.
thˆe
´
go
.
i l` a suy luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch hay go
.
i t˘a
´
t l`a suy diˆe
˜
n.
1.1.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Gia’ su
.
’ A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
, B l`a nh˜ u
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c. Nˆe
´
u tˆa
´
t
ca’ c´ ac hˆe
.
gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
c´o m˘a
.
t trong c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c d¯´o
l` am cho A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
1 c˜ ung d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i l` am cho B nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
1,
t´ u
.
c l`a A
1
∧ A
2
∧ . . . ∧ A
n
⇒ B l`a mˆo
.
t cˆong th´ u
.
c h˘a
`
ng d¯´ ung, th`ı ta go
.
i B l`a hˆe
.
qua’ lˆogic cu’ a A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
. Khi d¯´o ta c˜ ung n´oi r˘a
`
ng c´o mˆo
.
t quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n
t` u
.
c´ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
t´o
.
i hˆe
.
qua’ lˆogic B cu’ a ch´ ung.
7
Quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n d¯´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a:
A
1
, A
1
, . . . , A
n
B
.
1.1.3.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
quy t˘ a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n thu
.
`o
.
ng d` ung:
1)
p
p ∨ q
(Quy t˘a
´
c cˆ o
.
ng).
2)
p ∧ q
p
(Quy t˘a
´
c r´ ut go
.
n).
3)
p, p ⇒q
q
(Quy t˘a
´
c kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n - Modus ponens).
4)
p ⇒q, q
p
(Quy t˘a
´
c kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n ngu
.
o
.
.
c - Modus tollens).
5)
p ⇒q, q ⇒r
p ⇒r
(Quy t˘a
´
c tam d¯oa
.
n luˆa
.
n).
6)
p ⇒q, q ⇒p
p ⇔q
(Quy t˘a
´
c d¯u
.
a tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng v`ao).
7)
p ∨ q, p
q
(Quy t˘a
´
c t´ ach tuyˆe

n).
8)
p ⇒r, q ⇒r
p ∨ q ⇒r
(Quy t˘a
´
c t´ach tuyˆe

n gia’ thiˆe
´
t).
9)
p ⇒q, p ⇒r
p ⇒q ∧ r
(Quy t˘a
´
c hˆo
.
i kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n).
10)
q ⇒p
p ⇒q
(Quy t˘a
´
c pha’ n d¯a’ o).
11)
p ⇒q, p ⇒q
p
(Quy t˘a
´
c pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng).
Th´ı du
.
:
1) Cho: Nˆe
´
u tr`o
.
i mu
.
a (p) th`ı sˆan u
.
´o
.
t (q) (d¯´ ung)
Tr`o
.
i d¯ang mu
.
a (d¯´ ung)
Kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n: Sˆan u
.
´o
.
t (d¯´ ung).
2) Cho: Nˆe
´
u hai g´oc d¯ˆ o
´
i d¯ı ’nh (p) th`ı b˘a
`
ng nhau (q) (d¯´ ung)
´
A v`a
´
B khˆong b˘a
`
ng nhau (d¯´ ung)
Kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n:
´
A v`a
´
B khˆong d¯ˆo
´
i d¯ı’nh (d¯´ ung).
3) Cho: Mo
.
i h`ınh vuˆong d¯ˆe
`
u l`a h`ınh thoi (p ⇒q) (d¯´ ung)
Mo
.
i h`ınh thoi c´ o c´ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo vuˆong g´oc (q ⇒r) (d¯´ ung)
Kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n: Mo
.
i h`ınh vuˆong d¯ˆe
`
u c´o c´ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo vuˆong g´oc (p ⇒r) (d¯´ ung).
8
1.1.3.4. Suy luˆa
.
n nghe c´ o l´ y: Suy luˆa
.
n nghe c´ o l´ y l`a suy luˆ a
.
n khˆong theo mˆo
.
t
quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n tˆo

ng qu´at n` ao d¯ˆe

t` u
.
nh˜ u
.
ng tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
d¯˜a c´o, r´ ut ra d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t kˆe
´
t
luˆa
.
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh. Nˆe
´
u c´ ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
d¯ˆe
`
u d¯´ ung th`ı kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n r´ ut ra khˆong ch˘ a
´
c ch˘a
´
n
d¯´ ung, m`a chı ’ c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t du
.
.
d¯o´an, gia’ thuyˆe
´
t.
Trong to´an ho
.
c c´o hai kiˆe

u suy luˆa
.
n nghe c´o l´ y thu
.
`o
.
ng d` ung, d¯´o l`a
– Ph´ep quy na
.
p khˆong ho`an to`an,
– Ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh l´ y trong h`ınh ho
.
c ph˘a

ng: “Hai d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng c` ung vuˆong
g´oc v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng th´ u
.
ba th`ı song song v´ o
.
i nhau”, ch´ ung ta nˆeu ra mˆo
.
t
“du
.
.
d¯o´an”: “Hai m˘a
.
t ph˘ a

ng c` ung vuˆ ong g´oc v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t m˘a
.
t ph˘ a

ng th´ u
.
ba th`ı song
song v´o
.
i nhau”.
D
-
ˆay l`a mˆo
.
t th´ı du
.
vˆe
`
ph´ep suy luˆa
.
n b˘a
`
ng tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
2) C´ac sˆo
´
2
2
0
+ 1, 2
2
1
+ 1, 2
2
2
+ 1, 2
2
3
+ 1, 2
2
4
+ 1 l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
Kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n: v´ o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n, sˆo
´
2
2
n
+ 1 l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
D
-
ˆay l`a lˆo
´
i suy luˆa
.
n quy na
.
p khˆong ho`an to`an d¯˜a nˆeu lˆen bo
.
’ i Fermat (1601-
1665) sau khi d¯˜a kiˆe

m nghiˆe
.
m v´o
.
i c´ac sˆo
´
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. Nhu
.
ng sau d¯´o Euler d¯˜a
chı’ ra r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i n = 5, kh˘ a

ng d¯i
.
nh n`ay khˆ ong d¯´ ung, ngh˜ıa l`a 2
2
5
+ 1 khˆong l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
3) 6 = 3 + 3, 8 = 3 + 5, 10 = 5 + 5, 12 = 5 + 7, . . . . Kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n: mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng ch˘ a
˜
n l´o
.
n ho
.
n 4 l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay mang tˆen l`a b`ai to´an Goldbach. D
-
ˆay l`a mˆo
.
t trong nhiˆe
`
u kh˘a

ng
d¯i
.
nh trong to´an ho
.
c chu
.
a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh.
4) Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
3
+ y
3
= z
3
khˆong c´ o nghiˆe
.
m nguyˆen, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
4
+ y
4
= z
4
khˆong c´ o nghiˆe
.
m nguyˆen. Kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n: phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
n
+ y
n
= z
n
khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m nguyˆen v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen n > 2.
Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c nˆeu ra bo
.
’ i Fermat n˘am 1637, go
.
i l`a “d¯i
.
nh l´ y cuˆo
´
i c` ung
cu’ a Fermat”. M˜ai d¯ˆe
´
n th´ ang 5 n˘am 1995, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay m´o
.
i d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ho`an to`an
ch´ u
.
ng minh xong bo
.
’ i nh` a to´an ho
.
c ngu
.
`o
.
i Anh tˆen l`a Wiles.
To´an ho
.
c l`a khoa ho
.
c cu’ a suy luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch. Tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
trong to´an
ho
.
c chı ’ d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tr`ınh b`ay b˘ a
`
ng c´ac suy luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch. Tuy nhiˆen, trong qu´ a tr`ınh
ph´ at minh, s´ang ta
.
o to´an ho
.
c, l´ y luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch g˘a
´
n ch˘a
.
t v´o
.
i c´ac suy luˆa
.
n nghe
c´ o l´ y. Ta d` ung quy na
.
p khˆong ho`an to`an hay tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
d¯ˆe

nˆeu ra c´ ac gia’ thuyˆe
´
t.
Sau d¯´o m´ o
.
i ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac gia’ thuyˆe
´
t n`ay b˘a
`
ng diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch.
1.1.4. C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh:
1.1.4.1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh l` a g`ı? Trong suy luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch, nˆe
´
u t` u
.
c´ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
, ta r´ ut ra kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n B b˘a
`
ng c´ach vˆa
.
n du
.
ng nh˜ u
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c suy
luˆa
.
n tˆo

ng qu´at th`ı ta n´oi B l`a kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n lˆogic cu’ a c´ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
v`a
suy luˆ a
.
n d¯´o l` a ho
.
.
p lˆogic. Nˆe
´
u tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
d¯ˆe
`
u d¯´ ung th`ı
ta go
.
i kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n lˆ ogic B l`a mˆo
.
t kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng minh v`a go
.
i suy luˆa
.
n d¯´o l`a mˆo
.
t
ch´ u
.
ng minh.
9
Phˆan t´ıch c´ac ch´ u
.
ng minh to´an ho
.
c ta thˆa
´
y mˆo
˜
i ch´ u
.
ng minh gˆo
`
m mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n bu
.
´o
.
c, mˆo
˜
i bu
.
´o
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t suy luˆa
.
n diˆe
˜
n di
.
ch trong d¯´o ta vˆa
.
n du
.
ng mˆo
.
t
quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n tˆo

ng qu´at. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, mˆo
.
t ch´ u
.
ng minh to´an ho
.
c gˆo
`
m ba bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n
cˆ a
´
u th`anh:
1) Luˆa
.
n d¯ˆe
`
, t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh.
2) Luˆa
.
n c´ u
.
, t´ u
.
c l`a nh˜ u
.
ng mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n (d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa, tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
,
d¯i
.
nh l´ y, gia’ thiˆe
´
t) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆa
´
y l`am tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
trong mˆo
˜
i suy luˆa
.
n.
3) Luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng, t´ u
.
c l`a nh˜ u
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c suy luˆa
.
n tˆo

ng qu´at d¯u
.
o
.
.
c vˆa
.
n du
.
ng
trong mˆo
˜
i bu
.
´o
.
c suy luˆa
.
n cu’ a ch´ u
.
ng minh.
1.1.4.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p: Khi ta ch´ u
.
ng minh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
B b˘ a
`
ng c´ach va
.
ch r˜o B l`a kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n lˆogic cu’ a nh˜ u
.
ng tiˆe
`
n d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
,
ngh˜ıa l`a B l`a mˆo
.
t kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng minh th`ı ta n´oi l`a d¯˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
B.
Th´ı du
.
: H˜ay ch´ u
.
ng minh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: “Nˆe
´
u n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
le’ th`ı n
2
c˜ ung
l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
le’ ”.
Gia’ su
.
’ r˘a
`
ng gia’ thiˆe
´
t cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo n`ay l`a d¯´ ung, t´ u
.
c l`a n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
le’ . Khi d¯´o n = 2k +1, v´o
.
i k l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra n
2
= 4k
2
+4k +1 =
2(2k
2
+ 2k) + 1. Do d¯´o n
2
l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
le’ .
1.1.4.3. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh t`ım pha’ n th´ı du
.
: Gia’ su
.
’ ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng
minh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p sai. Nˆe
´
u ta t`ım d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
q, tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d¯˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t cu’ a p l`a
sai. Khi d¯´o q d¯´ ung v`a p ⇒ q l`a d¯´ ung. Do d¯´o theo quy t˘a
´
c kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n ngu
.
o
.
.
c th`ı p
l` a d¯´ ung. T` u
.
d¯´o p l`a sai.
Th´ı du
.
: Cho m v`a n l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
kh´ac khˆong bˆa
´
t k` y. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng n+m <
nm l` a khˆong d¯´ ung. Chı ’ cˆa
`
n lˆa
´
y n = m = 1 th`ı 1 + 1 = 2 > 1.1.
1.1.4.4. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh pha’ n d¯a’ o: Gia’ su
.
’ ta cˆ a
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh
p ⇒ q. Nˆe
´
u ta ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c q ⇒ p th`ı theo quy t˘a
´
c pha’ n d¯a’ o, ta c´o p ⇒ q
d¯´ ung. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh p ⇒q, ta c´o thˆe

chuyˆe

n sang ch´ u
.
ng minh q ⇒p
l` a d¯u’ .
Th´ı du
.
: Cho a l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ kh´ac 0. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u b l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo
tı’ th`ı ab c˜ ung l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı’.
Ta viˆe
´
t a =
m
n
, v´o
.
i m, n l`a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen kh´ac 0. Nˆe
´
u ab l`a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ th`ı ta
c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t ab =
k
l
v´o
.
i k, l l` a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen v`a l = 0. Khi d¯´o b =
ab
a
=
k/l
m/n
=
kn
lm
v` a suy ra b l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
1.1.4.5. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng: Co
.
so
.
’ lˆogic cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng l`a nhu
.
sau: muˆo
´
n ch´ u
.
ng minh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p l`a d¯´ ung,
ta gia’ thiˆe
´
t p l`a sai, t´ u
.
c l`a p l`a d¯´ ung. Sau d¯´o ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng p ⇒q l`a d¯´ ung
v` a q l`a d¯´ ung. Do d¯´o theo quy t˘a
´
c pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng th`ı p l`a d¯´ ung. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆe
´
n
mˆau thuˆa

n (luˆa
.
t b`ai trung).
10
Th´ı du
.
: Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng u
.
´o
.
c sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen nho’ nhˆa
´
t kh´ ac 1 cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen
l´ o
.
n ho
.
n 1 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
Gia’ su
.
’ k l`a u
.
´o
.
c tu
.
.
nhiˆen nho’ nhˆa
´
t kh´ac 1 cu’ a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n (n > 1) v`a k
khˆong l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
. Do d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i u
.
´o
.
c sˆo
´
m cu’ a k sao cho 1 < m < k. Nhu
.
ng
khi d¯´o m c˜ ung l`a mˆ o
.
t u
.
´o
.
c sˆo
´
cu’ a n. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i k l`a u
.
´o
.
c tu
.
.
nhiˆen
nho’ nhˆa
´
t kh´ ac 1 cu’ a n.
1.1.4.6. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh x´et tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p: Trong
to´an ho
.
c, d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ao d¯´o l`a d¯´ ung, ta c´o thˆe

x´et n´o trong tˆa
´
t ca’
c´ ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c´o thˆe

c´o.
Th´ı du
.
: Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng t´ıch cu’ a 3 sˆo
´
nguyˆen liˆen tiˆe
´
p chia hˆe
´
t cho 3.
V´o
.
i n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen, ta viˆe
´
t n = 3q + r v´o
.
i q l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen v`a
r = 0, 1, 2.
a) r = 0 : n = 3q hay n chia hˆe
´
t cho 3, khi d¯´o n(n + 1)(n + 2) chia hˆe
´
t cho
3.
b) r = 1 : n = 3q + 1 hay n + 2 = 3(q + 1) hay n + 2 chia hˆe
´
t cho 3, khi d¯´o
n(n + 1)(n + 2) chia hˆe
´
t cho 3.
c) r = 2 : n = 3q + 2 hay n + 1 = 3(q + 1) hay n + 1 chia hˆe
´
t cho 3,
n(n + 1)(n + 2) chia hˆe
´
t cho 3.
1.1.4.6. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh quy na
.
p: Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay s˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
tr`ınh b`ay trong Chu
.
o
.
ng IV vˆe
`
“Sˆo
´
nguyˆen v`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen”.
1.2. T
ˆ
A
.
P HO
.
.
P.
1.2.1. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p v`a c´ach x´ac d¯i
.
nh mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p:
1.2.1.1. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p: Nh˜ u
.
ng d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tu
.
tˆa
.
p do mˆo
.
t t´ınh chˆ a
´
t
chung n`ao d¯´o th`anh lˆa
.
p mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. D
-
ˆay khˆong pha’ i l`a mˆo
.
t d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa m`a chı ’
l` a mˆo
.
t su
.
.
mˆo ta’ cho ta mˆ o
.
t h`ınh a’ nh tru
.
.
c quan cu’ a kh´ai niˆe
.
m d¯´o.
Su
.
.
mˆo ta’ mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng du
.
.
a trˆen mˆo
.
t kh´ ai niˆe
.
m tru
.
.
c quan vˆe
`
mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng n`ao d¯´o d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c nh`a to´an ho
.
c ngu
.
`o
.
i D
-
´ u
.
c Georg Cantor d¯u
.
a ra
lˆ a
`
n d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen v`ao n˘am 1895. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t h`ınh th`anh t` u
.
kh´ai niˆe
.
m tru
.
.
c quan d¯´o
cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯˜a dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆe
´
n nh˜ u
.
ng nghi
.
ch l´ y ho˘a
.
c c´ ac mˆau thuˆa

n lˆogic nhu
.
nh`a triˆe
´
t
ho
.
c ngu
.
`o
.
i Anh Bertrand Russell d¯˜a chı ’ ra n˘am 1902. Nh˜ u
.
ng mˆau thuˆa

n lˆ ogic
d¯´o c´o thˆe

tr´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng c´ach xˆay du
.
.
ng mˆo
.
t l´ y thuyˆe
´
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p xuˆa
´
t ph´at t` u
.
nh˜ u
.
ng gia’ thiˆe
´
t co
.
ba’ n, go
.
i l`a c´ac tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
. Tuy nhiˆen, ch´ ung ta s˜e d` ung phiˆen
ba’ n ban d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a Cantor, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a l´ y thuyˆe
´
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ngˆay tho
.
, ch´ u
.
khˆong
ph´at triˆe

n phiˆen ba’ n tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
cu’ a l´ y thuyˆe
´
t n`ay, bo
.
’ i v`ı tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
xem x´et trong t`ai liˆe
.
u n`ay c´ o thˆe

xu
.
’ l´ y phi mˆau thuˆa

n b˘a
`
ng c´ ach d` ung l´ y thuyˆe
´
t
ban d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a Cantor.
C´ac vˆa
.
t hay d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng th`anh lˆa
.
p mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p go
.
i l`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p d¯´o.
11
Trong ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta d` ung nh˜ u
.
ng t` u
.
nhu
.
: nh´om, to`an
thˆe

, tˆa
.
p thˆe

, ch` um, bˆa
`
y, d¯`an, ... d¯ˆe

n´oi vˆe
`
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ao d¯´o.
Mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u bo
.
’ i c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai in hoa: A, B, C, D,
E, X, Y , Z, ... Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u bo
.
’ i c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai in
thu
.
`o
.
ng: a, b, c, d, x, y, z, ...
Th´ı du
.
:
1) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, k´ y hiˆe
.
u N.
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen, k´ y hiˆe
.
u Z.
3) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, k´ y hiˆe
.
u Q.
4) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c, k´ y hiˆe
.
u R.
5) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c, k´ y hiˆe
.
u C.
6) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯iˆe

m trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng.
7) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sin 3x −sin x + sin2x = 0.
8) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sinh viˆen n˘am th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t ng`anh tin ho
.
c cu’ a tru
.
`o
.
ng D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c
Khoa ho
.
c.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u:
– D
-
ˆe

chı’ a l`a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A, ta viˆe
´
t a ∈ A v`a d¯o
.
c l`a “a thuˆ o
.
c
A” hay “a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A”.
– D
-
ˆe

chı’ b khˆong pha’ i l`a mˆ o
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A, ta viˆe
´
t b / ∈ A ho˘a
.
c
b∈A v`a d¯o
.
c l`a “b khˆong thuˆo
.
c A” ho˘a
.
c “b khˆong pha’ i l`a mˆ o
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p A”.
1.2.1.2. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p rˆ o
˜
ng: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p khˆong ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n`ao go
.
i l`a tˆa
.
p rˆo
˜
ng, k´ y
hiˆe
.
u ∅.
Th´ı du
.
: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
+1 = 0 l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p rˆo
˜
ng.
1.2.1.3. C´ach x´ac d¯i
.
nh mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
1. Liˆe
.
t kˆe tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p: Theo c´ach n`ay, d¯ˆe

x´ac
d¯i
.
nh mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ao d¯´o ta liˆe
.
t kˆe d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p 4 sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t l`a:
¦1, 2, 3, 4¦.
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai trong ba’ ng ch˜ u
.
c´ai tiˆe
´
ng Anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t l`a:
¦a, b, c, . . . , z¦.
3) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen ch˘a
˜
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t l`a:
¦0, 2, 4, 6, . . . , 2n, . . . ¦.
Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng khi liˆe
.
t kˆe c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ta khˆong quan tˆam d¯ˆe
´
n
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
cu’ a ch´ ung.
2. Chı ’ r˜o thuˆo
.
c t´ınh d¯˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Ta
c´ o thˆe

x´ac d¯i
.
nh mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p b˘a
`
ng c´ach chı ’ r˜o c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t chung cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯´o d¯ˆe

sau d¯´o du
.
.
a v`ao c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t n`ay ta c´o thˆe

kh˘a

ng d¯i
.
nh
mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng n`ao d¯´o c´o l` a mˆ o
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯´o hay khˆong. C´ac t´ınh
chˆa
´
t nhu
.
vˆa
.
y go
.
i l` a thuˆo
.
c t´ınh d¯˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p.
Th´ı du
.
: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac u
.
´o
.
c sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng cu’ a 24 l`a:
12
A = ¦1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24¦
v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t la
.
i l` a:
A = ¦n ∈ N : n[24¦.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p tˆo

ng qu´at, nˆe
´
u tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.

x, sao cho x c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t T th`ı ta viˆe
´
t:
X = ¦x [ x c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t T¦ ho˘a
.
c X = ¦x : x c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t T¦.
1.2.1.4. Gia’ n d¯ˆ o
`
Venn: C´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c˜ ung c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c minh hoa
.
b˘a
`
ng h`ınh
v˜e nh`o
.
d` ung gia’ n d¯ˆo
`
Venn, do nh`a to´an ho
.
c ngu
.
`o
.
i Anh John Venn lˆa
`
n d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen
d¯u
.
a ra v`ao n˘am 1881. Trong c´ ac gia’ n d¯ˆo
`
Venn, tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p v˜ u tru
.
U - tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ch´ u
.
a
tˆ a
´
t ca’ c´ac d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng d¯ang x´et - d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t. Bˆen
trong h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t n`ay, nh˜ u
.
ng miˆe
`
n ph˘a

ng gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng cong kh´ep
k´ın khˆong tu
.
.
c˘a
´
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. D
-
ˆoi khi c´ ac d¯iˆe

m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
d` ung d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. C´ac gia’ n d¯ˆo
`
Venn thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
d` ung d¯ˆe

chı’ ra mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p.
1.2.1.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Nˆe
´
u c´o ch´ınh x´ac n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ phˆan
biˆe
.
t trong A, v´o
.
i n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen khˆong ˆam, th`ı ta n´oi r˘a
`
ng A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p
h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n v`a n l`a ba’ n sˆo
´
cu’ a A. Ba’ n sˆo
´
cu’ a A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a [A[. Mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a vˆo ha
.
n nˆe
´
u n´o khˆong pha’ i l`a h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai trong ba’ ng ch˜ u
.
c´ai tiˆe
´
ng Anh. Khi
d¯´o [A[ = 26.
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p vˆo ha
.
n.
1.2.2. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p con v`a quan hˆe
.
bao h`am:
1.2.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p con (hay tˆa
.
p con)
cu’ a B, k´ y hiˆe
.
u A ⊂ B, nˆe
´
u mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A l`a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y,
A ⊂ B khi v`a chı ’ khi v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ A k´eo theo x ∈ B.
Khi c´ o A ⊂ B, ta c`on n´oi “A l`a mˆo
.
t bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n cu’ a B” hay “A bao h`am trong
B”. Khi d¯´o ta c` on viˆe
´
t B ⊃ A v`a d¯o
.
c l`a “B bao h`am A” hay “B ch´ u
.
a A”.
Quan hˆe
.
“⊂” d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a quan hˆe
.
bao h`am. C´ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c A ⊂ B, B ⊃ A
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a c´ac bao h`am th´ u
.
c.
Nˆe
´
u A ⊂ B v`a c´o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ thuˆ o
.
c B nhu
.
ng khˆong thuˆo
.
c A th`ı ta
n´ oi A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con thu
.
.
c su
.
.
cu’ a B hay bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n thu
.
.
c su
.
.
cu’ a B.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen l`a tˆa
.
p con thu
.
.
c su
.
.
cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac
sˆ o
´
nguyˆen.
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac h`ınh vuˆong l`a tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t, c˜ ung
nhu
.
l`a tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p c´ac h`ınh thoi.
1.2.2.2. T´ınh chˆa
´
t: V´o
.
i A, B, C l`a 3 tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p bˆa
´
t k` y, ta luˆon c´ o:
1) ∅ ⊂ A,
2) A ⊂ A,
3) nˆe
´
u A ⊂ B v`a B ⊂ C th`ı A ⊂ C.
13
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, 1) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c suy ra t` u
.
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“x ∈ ∅ ⇒ x ∈ A” l`a luˆon luˆon d¯´ ung
(do “x ∈ ∅” l`a sai). 2) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c suy ra t` u
.
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“x ∈ A ⇒ x ∈ A” l`a luˆon luˆ on
d¯´ ung. Cuˆo
´
i c` ung 3) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c suy ra t` u
.
t´ınh d¯´ ung cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
“(x ∈ A ⇒ x ∈
B ∧ x ∈ B ⇒x ∈ C) ⇒(x ∈ A ⇒x ∈ C)”
1.2.2.3. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p l˜ uy th` u
.
a: Cho X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Tˆ a
.
p l˜ uy th` u
.
a cu’ a X, k´ y
hiˆe
.
u {(X) hay 2
X
, l` a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X, t´ u
.
c l`a
{(X) = ¦A [ A ⊂ X¦.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) V´o
.
i X = ¦a, b, c¦ th`ı ta c´ o
{(X) = ¦∅, ¦a¦, ¦b¦, ¦c¦, ¦a, b¦, ¦a, c¦, ¦b, c¦, X¦.
2) {(∅) = ¦∅¦, {(¦∅¦) = ¦∅, ¦∅¦¦.
1.2.2.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Hai tˆa
.
p A v`a B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a b˘a
`
ng nhau, k´ y hiˆe
.
u A = B,
nˆe
´
u A ⊂ B v`a B ⊂ A.
Th´ı du
.
: V´o
.
i A = ¦1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30¦ v`a B = ¦n ∈ N : n[30¦ th`ı ta c´o A = B.
1.2.3. C´ac ph´ep to´an tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p:
1.2.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Ho
.
.
p cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A ∪ B (d¯o
.
c l`a
“A ho
.
.
p B”), l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆ o
`
m c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ thuˆ o
.
c ´ıt nhˆ a
´
t mˆo
.
t trong hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
A, B, t´ u
.
c l`a
A ∪ B = ¦x [ x ∈ A ∨ x ∈ B¦.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) V´o
.
i A = ¦a, b, c, d¦ v`a B = ¦c, d, e, f¦, ta c´o A∪B = ¦a, b, c, d, e, f¦.
2) V´o
.
i A = ¦x ∈ N [ x chia hˆe
´
t cho 2¦ v`a B = ¦x ∈ N [ x chia hˆe
´
t cho 3¦,
ta c´ o A ∪ B = ¦x ∈ N [ x chia hˆe
´
t cho 2 ho˘a
.
c 3¦.
1.2.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Giao cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A ∩ B (d¯o
.
c l`a
“A giao B”), l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ v` u
.
a thuˆo
.
c A v` u
.
a thuˆo
.
c B, t´ u
.
c l`a
A ∩ B = ¦x [ x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ B¦.
Hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a r`o
.
i nhau nˆe
´
u giao cu’ a ch´ ung l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p rˆo
˜
ng.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) V´o
.
i A = ¦a, b, c, d¦ v`a B = ¦c, d, e, f¦, ta c´o A ∩ B = ¦c, d¦.
2) V´o
.
i A = ¦x ∈ N [ x chia hˆe
´
t cho 2¦ v`a B = ¦x ∈ N [ x chia hˆe
´
t cho 3¦,
ta c´ o A ∩ B = ¦x ∈ N [ x chia hˆe
´
t cho 6¦.
3) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ v`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac sˆo
´
vˆo tı’ l`a hai tˆa
.
p con r`o
.
i nhau
cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c.
1.2.3.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Hiˆe
.
u cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A`B hay A−B,
l` a tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ thuˆ o
.
c A nhu
.
ng khˆong thuˆo
.
c B, t´ u
.
c l`a
A ` B = ¦x [ x ∈ A ∧ x / ∈ B¦.
14
Nˆe
´
u B ⊂ A th`ı ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u A ` B = C
A
B hay B khi A d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh r˜o
v` a go
.
i d¯´o l`a phˆa
`
n b` u cu’ a B trong A.
Hiˆe
.
u d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A ⊕B, l` a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
x´ ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i
A ⊕B = (A ` B) ∪ (B ` A) = ¦x [ (x ∈ A ∧ x / ∈ B) ∨ (x / ∈ A ∧ x ∈ B)¦.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) V´o
.
i A = ¦a, b, c, d¦ v`a B = ¦c, d, e, f¦, ta c´o A`B = ¦a, b¦, B`A =
¦e, f¦ v`a A ⊕B = ¦a, b, e, f¦.
2) V´o
.
i A = ¦x ∈ R [ x < 1¦ = (−∞, 1), ta c´o C
R
A = ¦x ∈ R [ x ≥ 1¦ =
[1, +∞).
1.2.3.4. C´ac h˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p co
.
ba’ n: Mˆo
˜
i tˆa
.
p con cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t t´ınh chˆa
´
t (mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
) x´ac d¯i
.
nh n´o trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯˜a
cho. V´o
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng n`ay, c´ac ph´ep to´an tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c chuyˆe

n sang c´ac ph´ep to´an
lˆ ogic: phu’ d¯i
.
nh tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n b` u, tuyˆe

n tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ho
.
.
p, hˆ o
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i giao, tuyˆe

n loa
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i hiˆe
.
u d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
T` u
.
c´ac tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng lˆogic co
.
ba’ n trong 1.1.2.4, v´o
.
i A, B, C l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p con
cu’ a tˆa
.
p v˜ u tru
.
U, ta c´o c´ ac h˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p co
.
ba’ n du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay (lu
.
u ´ y
r˘ a
`
ng mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
x ∈ ∅ c´o gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y 0 v`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
x ∈ U c´o gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y 1).
1) Luˆa
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t:
A ∩ U = A, A ∪ ∅ = A.
2) Luˆa
.
t nuˆo
´
t:
A ∩ ∅ = ∅, A∪ U = U.
3) Luˆa
.
t l˜ uy d¯˘a

ng:
A ∩ A = A, A ∪ A = A.
4) Luˆa
.
t b` u:
A = A.
5) Luˆa
.
t giao ho´an:
A ∩ B = B ∩ A, A ∪ B = B ∪ A.
6) Luˆa
.
t kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p:
A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C, A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C.
7) Luˆa
.
t phˆan phˆo
´
i:
A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C), A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C).
15
8) Luˆa
.
t De Morgan:
A ∩ B = A ∪ B, A ∪ B = A ∩ B.
1.2.3.5. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p trˆen m´ay t´ınh: C´o nhiˆe
`
u c´ach d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
c´ ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p trˆen m´ay t´ınh. Mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap l`a lu
.
u tr˜ u
.
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p theo c´ ach khˆong s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
. Tuy nhiˆen, nˆe
´
u d¯iˆe
`
u d¯´o d¯˜a l`am d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, th`ı viˆe
.
c
t´ınh ho
.
.
p, giao ho˘a
.
c hiˆe
.
u cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p s˜e rˆa
´
t mˆa
´
t th`o
.
i gian, v`ı mˆ o
˜
i ph´ep t´ınh
d¯´o d¯`oi ho’ i mˆ o
.
t lu
.
o
.
.
ng t`ım kiˆe
´
m rˆa
´
t l´o
.
n d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Ta s˜e c´o o
.
’ d¯ˆay mˆo
.
t
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap lu
.
u tr˜ u
.
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ b˘a
`
ng c´ ach d` ung su
.
.
s˘a
´
p t` uy ´ y c´ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a
tˆ a
.
p v˜ u tru
.
. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ay s˜e l`am cho viˆe
.
c t´ınh nh˜ u
.
ng tˆo

ho
.
.
p cu’ a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p tro
.
’ nˆen dˆe
˜
d`ang ho
.
n.
Gia’ su
.
’ tˆa
.
p v˜ u tru
.
U l`a h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n (v`a c´ o k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c ho
.
.
p l´ y d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i dung
lu
.
o
.
.
ng bˆo
.
nh´o
.
). Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t, h˜ay chı’ r˜o su
.
.
s˘a
´
p t` uy ´ y c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a U, ch˘a

ng
ha
.
n a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, sau d¯´o biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tˆa
.
p con A cu’ a U b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t xˆau bit c´o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai n, trong d¯´o bit th´ u
.
i o
.
’ xˆau n`ay l`a 1 nˆe
´
u a
i
∈ A v`a l`a 0 nˆe
´
u a
i
/ ∈ A.
D
-
ˆe

nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c´ac xˆau bit cho c´ ac ho
.
.
p, giao v` a hiˆe
.
u d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p, ta s˜e thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep to´an Boole trˆen c´ ac xˆau bit biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
d¯´o. T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´ o xˆau bit d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ho
.
.
p, giao, hiˆe
.
u d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng l`a OR bit, AND bit,
XOR bit cu’ a hai xˆau bit biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯˜a cho.
Th´ı du
.
: V´o
.
i U = ¦x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
¦, A = ¦x
1
, x
3
, x
5
, x
6
, x
8
¦, B = ¦x
2
, x
3
, x
4
, x
6
,
x
9
, x
10
¦, ta c´ o:
A 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
B 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
A ∩ B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
A ∪ B 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
A ⊕B 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
1.2.4. T´ıch Descartes:
1.2.4.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho n d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, ta th`anh lˆa
.
p mˆ o
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i
tu
.
o
.
.
ng m´o
.
i l` a (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
), trong d¯´o a
1
o
.
’ vi
.
tr´ı th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t, a
2
o
.
’ vi
.
tr´ı th´ u
.
hai,
..., a
n
o
.
’ vi
.
tr´ı th´ u
.
n v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a bˆo
.
n s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
.
Hai bˆo
.
n s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
(a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) v`a (b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a b˘a
`
ng
nhau, k´ y hiˆe
.
u (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) = (b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
), nˆe
´
u a
i
= b
i
v´o
.
i i = 1, 2, . . . , n.
D
-
˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, d˜ay c´o hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a c˘a
.
p s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
hay go
.
i t˘a
´
t l`a c˘a
.
p.
16
1.2.4.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: T´ıch Descartes cu’ a n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
A
1
A
2
A
n
hay
n
Π
i=1
A
i
, l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac bˆ o
.
n s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
(a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
),
trong d¯´o a
i
∈ A
i
v´o
.
i i = 1, 2, . . . , n, t´ u
.
c l`a
A
1
A
2
A
n
= ¦(a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) [ a
i
∈ A
i
, i = 1, 2, . . . , n¦.
D
-
˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, khi A
1
= A
2
= = A
n
= A th`ı ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u A
1
A
2
A
n
= A
n
.
Th´ı du
.
: V´o
.
i A = ¦x, y¦, B = ¦0, 1, 2¦, C = ¦a, b¦, ta c´ o
A B C = ¦(x, 0, a), (x, 0, b), (x, 1, a), (x, 1, b), (x, 2, a), (x, 2, b),
(y, 0, a), (y, 0, b), (y, 1, a), (y, 1, b), (y, 2, a), (y, 2, b)¦.
1.2.5. Su
.
.
lu
.
o
.
.
ng ho´a:
1.2.5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: H`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
l`a mˆo
.
t cˆ au ch´ u
.
a biˆe
´
n v`a tro
.
’ th`anh mˆe
.
nh
d¯ˆe
`
khi ta thay biˆe
´
n d¯´o b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu
.
thˆe

thuˆ o
.
c mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p x´ac d¯i
.
nh.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) P(x): “x l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
” l`a h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen
tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
2) Mˆo
˜
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh l` a mˆo
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
+
4x + 3, l`a mˆo
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c. N´o
tro
.
’ th`anh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i x = −1 v`a x = −3.
3) Bˆa
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh l`a mˆo
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n bˆa
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(x − 3)(x + 2) < 0, l`a mˆo
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac
sˆ o
´
thu
.
.
c. N´o tro
.
’ th`anh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ R, sao cho −2 < x < 3.
4) Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
+y
2
= z
2
l`a mˆo
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
ba biˆe
´
n.
5) X´et cˆau:
If x > 0 then x := x + 1
Khi g˘a
.
p cˆ au n`ay trong chu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh, gi´a tri
.
cu’ a biˆe
´
n x o
.
’ d¯iˆe

m d¯´o trong qu´ a
tr`ınh thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n chu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh s˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯˘a
.
t v`ao P(x), t´ u
.
c l`a d¯˘a
.
t v`ao cˆ au “x > 0”.
Nˆe
´
u P(x) d¯´ ung d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ay cu’ a x, th`ı lˆe
.
nh g´an x := x + 1 s˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n v`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a x s˜e t˘ang lˆen 1. Nˆe
´
u P(x) l`a sai d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
d¯´o cu’ a x, th`ı
lˆe
.
nh g´an s˜e khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n v`a gi´a tri
.
x khˆong thay d¯ˆo

i.
Khi tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac biˆe
´
n trong h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯ˆe
`
u d¯u
.
o
.
.
c g´an cho gi´a tri
.
x´ac d¯i
.
nh,
th`ı mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
ta
.
o th`anh s˜e c´o gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y. Tuy nhiˆen, c`on c´o mˆo
.
t c´ach quan
tro
.
ng kh´ac d¯ˆe

biˆe
´
n c´ac h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
th`anh c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
, m`a ngu
.
`o
.
i ta go
.
i l`a su
.
.
lu
.
o
.
.
ng ho´a. Ta x´et o
.
’ d¯ˆay hai loa
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng ho´a, d¯´o l`a lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
phˆo

du
.
ng v`a lu
.
o
.
.
ng
t` u
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p v`a P l`a mˆo
.
t t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A, ngh˜ıa
l` a P(x) l`a mˆ o
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen A. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
A
P
= ¦x ∈ A [ P(x)¦,
17
ngh˜ıa l`a tˆa
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x ∈ A sao cho P(x) d¯´ ung. Du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay l`a c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p c´o thˆe

x˜ay ra.
1.2.5.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p A
P
= A, ngh˜ıa l`a tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.

cu’ a A d¯ˆe
`
u thoa’ m˜an t´ınh chˆ a
´
t P. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a:
∀x ∈ A, P(x)
hay go
.
n ho
.
n l`a (∀x)(P), d¯o
.
c l`a “v´o
.
i mo
.
i x thuˆ o
.
c A, x thoa’ m˜an t´ınh chˆa
´
t P”.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u ∀ (d¯o
.
c l`a “v´o
.
i mo
.
i”) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
phˆo

du
.
ng.
1.2.5.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p A
P
= ∅, ngh˜ıa l`a c´o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆ o
.
t phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ cu’ a A thoa’ m˜an t´ınh chˆ a
´
t P. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a:
∃x ∈ A, P(x)
hay go
.
n ho
.
n l`a (∃x)(P), d¯o
.
c l`a “c´o ´ıt nhˆ a
´
t (hay tˆo
`
n ta
.
i) phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x thuˆ o
.
c A thoa’
m˜an t´ınh chˆa
´
t P”. K´ y hiˆe
.
u ∃ (d¯o
.
c l`a “c´o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t” hay “tˆo
`
n ta
.
i”) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a khˆong gian c´ac lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
.
1.2.5.4. Ch´ u ´ y: 1) Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p A
P
= ∅, ngh˜ıa l`a khˆong c´ o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n`ao
cu’ a A thoa’ m˜an t´ınh chˆ a
´
t P. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay ch´ınh l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
:
(∃x)(P)
v` a trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay A
P
= A, t´ u
.
c l`a (∀x)(P), trong d¯´o P k´ y hiˆe
.
u t´ınh chˆa
´
t
khˆong P. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
(∃x)(P) ≡ (∀x)(P).
2) Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p A
P
= A, ngh˜ıa l`a khˆong pha’ i mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A d¯ˆe
`
u
thoa’ m˜an t´ınh chˆ a
´
t P. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay ch´ınh l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
:
(∀x)(P)
v` a trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay A
P
= ∅, t´ u
.
c l`a (∃x)(P). Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
(∀x)(P) ≡ (∃x)(P).
Th´ı du
.
: 1) X´ac d¯i
.
nh t´ınh d¯´ ung sai cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sau:
(∃x ∈ R) (4x −3 = −2x + 1) l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
(∃x ∈ Q) (x
2
= 2) l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
(∀x ∈ R)(∀y ∈ R) (x < y) l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
(∀x ∈ R)(∃y ∈ R) (x +y = 1) l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
18
2) H˜ay biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n cˆ au: “Mo
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯ˆe
`
u c´o ch´ınh x´ ac mˆo
.
t ngu
.
`o
.
i ba
.
n tˆo
´
t
nhˆa
´
t” th`anh mˆo
.
t cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (lˆogic).
Gia’ su
.
’ P(x, y) l`a cˆ au “y l`a ngu
.
`o
.
i ba
.
n tˆo
´
t nhˆa
´
t cu’ a x”. Khi d¯´o cˆau trong
th´ı du
.
c´o thˆe

di
.
ch th`anh:
(∀x) (∃y) (∀z) [P(x, y) ∧ ((z = y) ⇒P(x, z)].
3) T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa vˆe
`
t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`am sˆo
´
ta
.
i mˆo
.
t d¯iˆe

m, ta c´o: h`am
f x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A ⊂ R l`a liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i a ∈ A nˆe
´
u v`a chı’ nˆe
´
u
(∀ > 0) (∃δ > 0) (∀x ∈ A) ([x −a[ < δ ⇒[f(x) −f(a)[ < ).
Khi d¯´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach lˆa
´
y phu’ d¯i
.
nh ta c´o: f khˆong liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x = b khi v`a chı ’ khi
(∃ > 0) (∀δ > 0) (∃x ∈ A) ([x −b[ < δ ∧ [f(x) −f(b)[ ≥ ).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P CHU
.
O
.
NG I
1. Trong c´ac cˆau sau d¯ˆay, cˆ au n`ao l`a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
? X´ac d¯i
.
nh gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y
cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´o.
a) Khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i qua.
b) Tˆo

ng c´ac g´oc trong mˆ o
.
t tam gi´ac c´ o b˘a
`
ng 180
o
khˆong?
c) x l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
le’ .
d) Sˆo
´
124 chia hˆe
´
t cho 4.
e) 51 chia cho 6 d¯u
.
o
.
.
c 8 du
.
2.
2. H˜ay d¯u
.
a mˆo
˜
i mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay vˆe
`
da
.
ng hˆo
.
i ho˘a
.
c tuyˆe

n cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯o
.
n, sau d¯´o h˜ay t`ım gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´o.
a) 1 <

3 < 2.
b) [ sin
π
12
[ > 1.
c) Sˆo
´
235 chia hˆe
´
t cho 5 nhu
.
ng khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho 2.
d) 5 v`a 7 l` a hai sˆo
´
le’ nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau.
e) H`ınh thoi ABCD c´o AB = AC v`a AD ⊥ BC.
3. T`ım phu’ d¯i
.
nh cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sau:
a) Khˆong c´o ˆo nhiˆe
˜
m o
.
’ Huˆe
´
.
b) M` ua h`e o
.
’ TP. Hˆo
`
Ch´ı Minh l`a n´ong v`a n˘a
´
ng.
c) 4 + 8 = 11.
d) 2
2
5
+ 1 = 4294967297 v`a khˆong pha’ i l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
4. H˜ay ph´ at biˆe

u c´ac d¯i
.
nh l´ y sau d¯ˆay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo p ⇒ q ho˘a
.
c
p ⇔q.
a) G´oc ngo`ai cu’ a mˆo
.
t tam gi´ac b˘ a
`
ng tˆo

ng hai g´oc trong khˆong kˆe
`
v´o
.
i n´o.
19
b) Mo
.
i d˜ ay d¯o
.
n d¯iˆe
.
u v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n d¯ˆe
`
u l`a d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
c) Mo
.
i h`am liˆen tu
.
c trˆen mˆo
.
t khoa’ ng d¯´ong v` a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n d¯ˆe
`
u d¯a
.
t gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n
nhˆa
´
t v`a nho’ nhˆa
´
t trˆen khoa’ ng d¯´o.
d) Nˆe
´
u tam gi´ac ABC l`a tam gi´ac cˆan th`ı n´ o c´o hai g´oc b˘a
`
ng nhau v`a d¯a’ o
la
.
i.
e) Mo
.
i d˜ ay Cauchy (trong R) l`a hˆ o
.
i tu
.
v`a chı ’ c´ac d˜ay d¯´o m´o
.
i hˆ o
.
i tu
.
.
5. Cho p, q v`a r l`a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
:
p: Ba
.
n bi
.
c´ um.
q: Ba
.
n thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi cuˆ o
´
i kho´a.
r: Ba
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆen l´o
.
p.
H˜ay diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t c´ ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sau th`anh nh˜ u
.
ng cˆau thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng:
a) p ⇒ q, b) q ⇔ r,
c) q ⇒ r, d) p ∨ q ∨ r,
e) (p ⇒ r) ∨ (q ⇒ r), f ) (p ∧ q) ∨ (q ∧ r).
6. Cho p v`a q l`a hai mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
:
p: Ba
.
n l´ai xe v´o
.
i tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h.
q: Ba
.
n bi
.
pha
.
t v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´ a tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho ph´ep.
H˜ay viˆe
´
t c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sau b˘a
`
ng c´ach d` ung p v`a q v`a c´ac to´an tu
.
’ lˆogic.
a) Ba
.
n khˆong l´ai xe v´o
.
i tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h.
b) Ba
.
n l´ai xe v´o
.
i tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h nhu
.
ng ba
.
n khˆong bi
.
pha
.
t v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´ a
tˆ o
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho ph´ep.
c) Ba
.
n s˜e bi
.
pha
.
t v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho ph´ep nˆe
´
u ba
.
n l´ai xe v´o
.
i tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h.
d) Nˆe
´
u ba
.
n khˆ ong l´ai xe v´ o
.
i tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h th`ı ba
.
n s˜e khˆ ong bi
.
pha
.
t
v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´ a tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho ph´ep.
e) L´ai xe v´o
.
i tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h l`a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

bi
.
pha
.
t v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho
ph´ep.
f ) Ba
.
n bi
.
pha
.
t v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho ph´ep nhu
.
ng ba
.
n khˆong l´ai xe v´o
.
i tˆo
´
c
d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h.
g) Mˆo
˜
i lˆa
`
n ba
.
n bi
.
pha
.
t v`ı vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a tˆo
´
c d¯ˆo
.
cho ph´ep l`a ba
.
n d¯˜a l´ai xe v´ o
.
i tˆo
´
c
d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 60km/h.
7. Ph´at biˆe

u mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯a’ o v`a pha’ n d¯a’ o cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo sau:
a) Nˆe
´
u hˆom nay c´o gi´o m` ua D
-
ˆong B˘a
´
c th`ı ng`ay mai tr`o
.
i gi´a r´et.
b) Tˆoi d¯ˆe
`
u d¯i ra b˜ai t˘a
´
m bˆa
´
t c´ u
.
ng`ay n` ao tr`o
.
i n˘ a
´
ng.
c) Nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
chia hˆe
´
t cho 6 th`ı chia hˆe
´
t cho 2 v` a cho 3.
d) Nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
chia hˆe
´
t cho 9 th`ı tˆo

ng c´ac ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
cu’ a n´o chia hˆe
´
t cho 9.
8. Lˆa
.
p ba’ ng gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y cho c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
ph´ u
.
c ho
.
.
p sau:
a) p ⇒ (q ∨ r),
b) p ⇒ (q ⇒ r),
c) (p ⇒ q) ∨ (p ⇒ r),
20
d) (p ⇒ q) ∧ (p ⇒ r),
e) (p ⇔ q) ∨ (q ⇔ r),
f ) (p ⇔ q) ⇔ (q ⇔ r).
9. T`ım c´ac OR bit, AND bit v`a XOR bit cu’ a c´ac c˘a
.
p xˆau bit sau:
a) 1011110, 0100001;
b) 11110000, 10101010;
c) 0001110001, 1001001000;
d) 1111111111, 0000000000.
10. Lˆa
.
p c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
ph´ u
.
c ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p, q v`a r sao cho n´o d¯´ ung khi:
a) p, q l`a d¯´ ung v`a r l`a sai, nhu
.
ng l`a sai trong mo
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c`on la
.
i.
b) Hai trong ba mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
p, q v`a r l`a d¯´ ung v`a sai trong mo
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c`on
la
.
i.
11. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
k´eo theo sau l`a h˘ a
`
ng d¯´ ung:
a) (p ∧ q) ⇒ p,
b) p ⇒ (p ∨ q),
c) p ⇒ (p ⇒ q),
d) (p ∧ q) ⇒ (p ⇒ q),
e) p ⇒ q ⇒ p,
f ) p ⇒ q ⇒ q,
g) [(p ∨ q) ∧ (p ⇒r) ∧ (q ⇒r)] ⇒r.
12. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng:
a)
p ⇔q, q ⇔r
p ⇔r
b)
p ∧ q ⇒p
p ⇒q
.
c)
p ⇒q, r ⇒s
(p ∧ r) ⇒(q ∧ s)
.
d)
p ⇒q, r ⇒s
(p ∨ r) ⇒(q ∨ s)
.
13. D` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: “hai
d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo cu’ a h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t th`ı b˘ a
`
ng nhau”.
H˜ay chı ’ ra c´ac bu
.
´o
.
c suy luˆa
.
n trong ch´ u
.
ng minh.
14. Ch´ u
.
ng minh ho˘a
.
c b´ac bo’ r˘a
`
ng t´ıch cu’ a hai sˆo
´
vˆo tı ’ l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı ’.
15. Ch´ u
.
ng minh ho˘a
.
c b´ac bo’ r˘a
`
ng n
2
− n + 41 l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
khi n l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng.
16. D` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
3

3 l`a
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı’.
21
17. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho 5 th`ı b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a
n´ o khi chia cho 5 s˜e du
.
1 ho˘a
.
c 4.
18. H˜ay diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sau d¯ˆay b˘a
`
ng ngˆon ng˜ u
.
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng v`a x´ac
d¯i
.
nh t´ınh d¯´ ung sai cu’ a c´ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´o. Sau d¯´o h˜ay lˆa
.
p mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
phu’ d¯i
.
nh cu’ a
c´ ac mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen.
a) (∃x ∈ R) (∀y ∈ R) (x +y = 1).
b) (∀x ∈ R) (∃y ∈ R) (x +y = 1).
c) (∀n ∈ N) (∃m ∈ N) (n < m).
d) (∃n ∈ N) (∀m ∈ N) (n < m).
19. Cho P(x) l`a cˆ au “x n´oi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
ng Anh” v`a Q(x) l`a cˆ au “x biˆe
´
t ngˆon ng˜ u
.
C”. H˜ay diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t c´ac cˆau sau b˘a
`
ng c´ach d` ung P(x), Q(x) v` a c´ac ph´ep to´an lˆogic.
Cho khˆ ong gian c´ ac lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sinh viˆen o
.
’ D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
.
a) C´o mˆ o
.
t sinh viˆen o
.
’ D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
n´oi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
ng Anh v`a biˆe
´
t C.
b) C´o mˆo
.
t sinh viˆen o
.
’ D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
n´oi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
ng Anh nhu
.
ng khˆong biˆe
´
t
C.
c) Mo
.
i sinh viˆen o
.
’ D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
d¯ˆe
`
u n´oi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
ng Anh ho˘a
.
c biˆe
´
t C.
d) Khˆong c´ o mˆo
.
t sinh viˆen n` ao o
.
’ D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
n´oi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
ng Anh ho˘a
.
c biˆe
´
t
C.
20. Cho F(x, y) l`a cˆau “x c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t y”, v´o
.
i khˆ ong gian l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i
ngu
.
`o
.
i trˆen thˆe
´
gi´o
.
i. H˜ay d` ung c´ac lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
d¯ˆe

diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t c´ ac cˆau sau:
a) Mo
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯ˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t A.
b) B c´ o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mo
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i.
c) Mo
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯ˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ai d¯´o.
d) Khˆong c´o ai c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tˆa
´
t ca’ mo
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i.
e) Mo
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯ˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

bi
.
l` u
.
a ga
.
t bo
.
’ i ai d¯´o.
f ) Khˆong ai c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ca’ A lˆa
˜
n B.
g) C c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ınh x´ac hai ngu
.
`o
.
i.
h) C´o ch´ınh x´ac mˆo
.
t ngu
.
`o
.
i m`a ai c˜ ung l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
i) Khˆong ai c´o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ınh m`ınh.
j) C´o mˆo
.
t ngu
.
`o
.
i n` ao d¯´o c´ o thˆe

l` u
.
a ga
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ınh x´ac mˆo
.
t ngu
.
`o
.
i tr` u
.
ba’ n
thˆan m`ınh.
21. Cho c´ ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A, B, C. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) (A ∩ B) ` C = A ∩ (B ` C).
b) (A ∪ B) ` C = (A ` C) ∪ (B ` C).
c) A ` (B ` C) = (A ` B) ∪ (A ∩ C).
d) (A ` B) ∪ (B ` C) ∪ (C ` A) ∪ (A ∩ B ∩ C) = A ∪ B ∪ C.
22. X´et xem c´ac d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c sau d¯ˆay d¯´ ung hay khˆong.
a) (A B) ∩ (C D) = (A ∩ C) (B ∩ D).
b) (A B) ∪ (C D) = (A ∪ C) (B ∪ D).
22
23. Cho c´ ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A, B, C. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) A ⊕A = ∅.
b) A ⊕∅ = A.
c) A ⊕B = B ⊕A.
d) A ⊕B = (A ∪ B) ` (A ∩ B).
e) (A ⊕B) ⊕C = A ⊕(B ⊕C).
f ) A ∩ (B ⊕C) = (A ∩ B) ⊕(A ∩ C).
24. H˜ay chı’ r˜o c´ ac ph´ep to´an trˆen c´ac xˆau bit d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nhu
.
thˆe
´
n`ao d¯ˆe

t`ım c´ ac tˆo

ho
.
.
p sau cu’ a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p:
A = ¦a, b, c, d, e¦, B = ¦b, c, d, g, p, t, v¦
C = ¦c, e, i, o, u, x, y, z¦, D = ¦d, e, h, i, n, o, t, u, x, y¦.
a) A ∪ B,
b) A ∩ B,
c) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C),
d) A ∪ B ∪ C ∪ D.
25. Cho A, B, C l`a 3 tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
[A ∪ B ∪ C[ = [A[ +[B[ +[C[ −[A ∩ B[ −[B ∩ C[ −[A ∩ C[ +[A ∩ B ∩ C[.
T`ım cˆong th´ u
.
c cho tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n.
26. Mˆo
.
t cuˆo
.
c ho
.
p gˆo
`
m 12 ngu
.
`o
.
i tham du
.
.
d¯ˆe

b`an vˆe
`
3 vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
. C´o 8 ngu
.
`o
.
i ph´ at
biˆe

u vˆe
`
vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
I, 5 ngu
.
`o
.
i ph´ at biˆe

u vˆe
`
vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
II v`a 7 ngu
.
`o
.
i ph´ at biˆe

u vˆe
`
vˆa
´
n
d¯ˆe
`
III. Ngo`ai ra, c´o d¯´ ung 1 ngu
.
`o
.
i khˆ ong ph´ at biˆe

u vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
n`ao. Ho’ i nhiˆe
`
u l˘a
´
m
l` a c´ o bao nhiˆeu ngu
.
`o
.
i ph´ at biˆe

u ca’ 3 vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
.
23
TRA

L
`
O
.
I V
`
A HU
.
´
O
.
NG D
ˆ
A
˜
N GIA

I B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
CHU
.
O
.
NG I
1. a) Khˆong pha’ i l` a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
.
b) Khˆong pha’ i l` a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
.
c) Khˆong pha’ i l` a mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
.
d) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
e) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
2. a) p ∧ q, v´ o
.
i p: “1 <

3” v`a q: “

3 < 2”, l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
b) p ∨ q, v´ o
.
i p: “sin
π
12
> 1” v`a q: “sin
π
12
< −1”, l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
c) p ∧ q, v´ o
.
i p: “Sˆo
´
235 chia hˆe
´
t cho 5” v` a q: “Sˆo
´
235 khˆ ong chia hˆe
´
t cho
2”, l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
d) p ∧ q, v´ o
.
i p: “5 v`a 7 l`a hai sˆo
´
le’ ” v`a q: “5 v`a 7 l`a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung
nhau”, l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung.
e) p ∧ q, v´ o
.
i p: “H`ınh thoi ABCD c´o AB = AC” v`a q: “H`ınh thoi ABCD
c´o AD ⊥ BC”, l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sai.
3. a) C´o ˆo nhiˆe
˜
m o
.
’ Huˆe
´
.
b) M` ua h`e o
.
’ TP. Hˆo
`
Ch´ı Minh l`a khˆong n´ong ho˘a
.
c khˆong n˘a
´
ng.
c) 4 + 8 = 11.
d) 2
2
5
+ 1 = 4294967297 ho˘a
.
c l`a mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
4. a) p ⇒q, v´o
.
i p: “α l`a g´oc ngo`ai cu’ a mˆo
.
t tam gi´ac” v`a q: “α b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng hai
g´oc trong khˆong kˆe
`
v´o
.
i n´o”.
b) p ⇒ q, v´ o
.
i p: “(x
n
) l`a d˜ay d¯o
.
n d¯iˆe
.
u v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n” v`a q: “(x
n
) l`a d˜ay hˆo
.
i
tu
.
”.
c) p ⇒ q, v´ o
.
i p: “f l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c trˆen khoa’ ng d¯´ong v` a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n [a, b]” v`a
q: “f d¯a
.
t gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t v`a nho’ nhˆa
´
t trˆen [a, b]”.
d) p ⇔ q, v´ o
.
i p: “Tam gi´ac ABC l`a tam gi´ac cˆan” v`a q: “Tam gi´ac ABC
c´ o hai g´oc b˘a
`
ng nhau”.
e) p ⇔q, v´o
.
i p: “D˜ay sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c (x
n
) l`a d˜ay Cauchy” v`a q: “D˜ay sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c (x
n
)
l` a hˆ o
.
i tu
.
”.
5. a) Nˆe
´
u ba
.
n bi
.
c´ um th`ı ba
.
n thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi cuˆ o
´
i kho´a.
b) Ba
.
n khˆong thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi cuˆo
´
i kho´a l`a d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n v`a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

ba
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
lˆen l´ o
.
p.
c) Ba
.
n thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi cuˆo
´
i kho´a l`a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

ba
.
n khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆen l´o
.
p.
d) Ba
.
n bi
.
c´ um ho˘a
.
c ba
.
n thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi cuˆ o
´
i kho´a ho˘a
.
c ba
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆen l´o
.
p.
e) Ba
.
n bi
.
c´ um l`a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

ba
.
n khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆen l´o
.
p ho˘a
.
c ba
.
n thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi
cuˆo
´
i kho´a l` a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

ba
.
n khˆ ong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆen l´o
.
p.
f ) Ba
.
n bi
.
c´ um v`a thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi cuˆo
´
i kho´a ho˘a
.
c khˆong thi tru
.
o
.
.
t k` y thi
cuˆo
´
i kho´a v` a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆen l´o
.
p.
24
6. a) p.
b) p ∧ q.
c) p ⇒ q.
d) p ⇒ q.
e) p ⇒ q.
f ) q ∧ p.
g) p ⇔ q.
7. a) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯a’ o: Nˆe
´
u ng`ay mai tr`o
.
i gi´a r´et th`ı hˆom nay c´o gi´o m` ua D
-
ˆong
B˘a
´
c. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
pha’ n d¯a’ o: Nˆe
´
u ng`ay mai tr`o
.
i khˆong gi´a r´et th`ı khˆong c´ o gi´o m` ua
D
-
ˆong B˘a
´
c v`ao hˆom nay.
b) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯a’ o: Nˆe
´
u tˆoi d¯i ra b˜ai t˘a
´
m th`ı ng`ay d¯´o tr`o
.
i n˘a
´
ng. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
pha’ n d¯a’ o: Nˆe
´
u tˆoi khˆong d¯i ra b˜ai t˘a
´
m th`ı ng`ay d¯´o tr`o
.
i khˆ ong n˘a
´
ng.
c) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯a’ o: Nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
chia hˆe
´
t cho 2 v`a cho 3 th`ı chia hˆe
´
t cho 6.
Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
pha’ n d¯a’ o: Nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho 2 ho˘a
.
c cho 3 th`ı khˆong chia
hˆe
´
t cho 6.
d) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯a’ o: Tˆo

ng c´ac ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
chia hˆe
´
t cho 9 th`ı sˆo
´
d¯´o chia
hˆe
´
t cho 9. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
pha’ n d¯a’ o: Tˆo

ng c´ac ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho
9 th`ı sˆo
´
d¯´o khˆong chia h´et cho 9.
8.
p q r p ⇒(q ∨ r) p ⇒(q ⇒r) (p ⇒q) ∨ (p ⇒r)
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
9. a) 1111111, 0000000, 1111111;
b) 11111010, 10100000, 01011010;
c) 1001111001, 0001000000, 1000111001;
d) 1111111111, 0000000000, 1111111111.
25
(p ⇒q) ∧ (p ⇒r) (p ⇔q) ∨ (q ⇔r) (p ⇔q) ⇔(q ⇔r)
0 1 1
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
10. a) p ∧ q ∧ r.
b) (p ∧ q ∧ r) ∨ (q ∧ r ∧ p) ∨ (r ∧ p ∧ q).
11. a) Nˆe
´
u (p ∧ q) d¯´ ung th`ı p d¯´ ung.
b) Nˆe
´
u p d¯´ ung th`ı p ∨ q d¯´ ung.
c) Nˆe
´
u p d¯´ ung th`ı p sai v` a khi d¯´o p ⇒ q l`a d¯´ ung.
d) Nˆe
´
u p ∧ q l`a d¯´ ung th`ı ca’ p v`a q d¯ˆe
`
u d¯´ ung v`a khi d¯´o p ⇒ q l`a d¯´ ung.
e) Nˆe
´
u p ⇒ q d¯´ ung th`ı p ⇒ q sai v`a khi d¯´o p d¯´ ung (v`a q sai).
f ) Nˆe
´
u p ⇒ q d¯´ ung th`ı p ⇒ q sai v`a khi d¯´o q sai (v`a p d¯´ ung), t´ u
.
c l`a q l`a
d¯´ ung.
g) Nˆe
´
u [(p ∨q) ∧ (p ⇒r) ∧ (q ⇒r)] d¯´ ung th`ı ca’ ba p ∨ q, p ⇒r, q ⇒r d¯ˆe
`
u
d¯´ ung v`a khi d¯´o p ho˘a
.
c q d¯´ ung, nˆen r l`a d¯´ ung.
12. a) Nˆe
´
u p ⇔q v`a q ⇔r l`a d¯´ ung th`ı gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y cu’ a p v`a q, cu’ a q v`a r l`a
nhu
.
nhau. Do d¯´o gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y cu’ a p v`a r l`a nhu
.
nhau hay p ⇔r l`a d¯´ ung.
b) Nˆe
´
u p sai th`ı p ⇒ q l`a d¯´ ung. Nˆe
´
u p d¯´ ung th`ı p sai v` a do p ∧ q ⇒ p l`a
d¯´ ung nˆen p ∧ q l`a sai. Do d¯´o q l`a sai hay q l`a d¯´ ung. Khi d¯´o p ⇒q l`a d¯´ ung.
c) Nˆe
´
u p sai ho˘a
.
c r sai th`ı p ∧ r l`a sai nˆen (p ∧ r) ⇒(q ∧ s) l`a d¯´ ung. Nˆe
´
u p
d¯´ ung v`a r d¯´ ung th`ı do p ⇒q v`a r ⇒ s l`a d¯´ ung nˆen q v`a s l`a d¯´ ung. Do d¯´o q ∧ s
d¯´ ung, nˆen (p ∧ r) ⇒(q ∧ s) l`a d¯´ ung.
d) Nˆe
´
u p sai v` a r sai th`ı p ∨ r l`a sai nˆen (p ∨ r) ⇒ (q ∨ s) l`a d¯´ ung. Nˆe
´
u p
d¯´ ung ho˘a
.
c r d¯´ ung th`ı do p ⇒ q v`a r ⇒ s l`a d¯´ ung nˆen q ho˘a
.
c s l`a d¯´ ung. Do d¯´o
q ∨ s d¯´ ung, nˆen (p ∨ r) ⇒(q ∨ s) l`a d¯´ ung.
13.
Suy luˆa
.
n 1: Luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng:
A
1
: H`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t l`a mˆ o
.
t h`ınh b`ınh h`anh c´o
p ⇔q, p
q
mˆo
.
t g´oc vuˆ ong
26
A
2
: ABCD l`a h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t
———————————————————
A
3
: ABCD l`a h`ınh b`ınh h` anh c´o mˆo
.
t g´oc vuˆ ong
Suy luˆa
.
n 2: Luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng:
A
4
: H`ınh b`ınh h`anh c´o mˆo
.
t g´oc vuˆ ong th`ı c´ o c´ac
ca
.
nh d¯ˆo
´
i b˘ a
`
ng nhau v`a c´ac g´oc d¯ˆe
`
u vuˆong
p ⇒q, p
q
A
3
: ABCD l`a h`ınh b`ınh h` anh c´o mˆo
.
t g´oc vuˆ ong
———————————————————
A
5
: AD = BC, AB = CD,
ˆ
A =
ˆ
B =
ˆ
C =
ˆ
D = 1v
Suy luˆa
.
n 3: Luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng:
A
6
: Nˆe
´
u hai tam gi´ac vuˆ ong c´o hai c˘a
.
p ca
.
nh g´oc
vuˆong b˘a
`
ng nhau t` u
.
ng d¯ˆoi mˆo
.
t th`ı ch´ ung
p ⇒q, p
q
b˘a
`
ng nhau
A
7
:
ˆ
A =
ˆ
B = 1v, BC = AD, AB = AB (AB chung)
———————————————————
A
8
: ´ABC = ´BAD
Suy luˆa
.
n 4: Luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng:
A
9
: Hai tam gi´ac vuˆ ong b˘ a
`
ng nhau th`ı hai ca
.
nh
huyˆe
`
n tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng b˘a
`
ng nhau
p ⇒q, p
q
A
8
: ´ABC = ´BAD
———————————————————
A
10
: AC = BD
Suy luˆa
.
n 5: Luˆa
.
n ch´ u
.
ng:
A
2
⇒A
3
A
3
⇒A
5
p ⇒p
1
, p
1
⇒p
2
, p
2
⇒p
3
, p
3
⇒q
p ⇒q
A
5
⇒A
8
A
8
⇒A
10
———————————————————
A
2
⇒A
10
14. (Ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng pha’ n th´ı du
.
) T´ıch cu’ a hai sˆo
´
vˆo tı’ khˆong nhˆa
´
t thiˆe
´
t l`a
mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı’. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n,

2 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı ’ nhu
.
ng

2.

2 l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
15. (Ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng pha’ n th´ı du
.
) n
2
− n + 41 khˆong luˆon luˆon l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n, 41
2
−41 + 41 = 41
2
l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
.
16. (Ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng) V´o
.
i n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen, ta viˆe
´
t n = 3q +r
v´ o
.
i r = 0, 1, 2 v`a n
3
= 3(9q
3
+ 9q
2
r + 3qr
2
) + r
3
. Do d¯´o nˆe
´
u n
3
chia hˆe
´
t cho 3
th`ı r
3
= 0 hay r = 0 t´ u
.
c l`a n chia hˆe
´
t cho 3.
Gia’ su
.

3

3 l`a sˆo
´
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, ngh˜ıa l`a ta c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t
3

3 =
a
b
v´o
.
i a, b ∈ N

v` a (a, b) = 1. Khi d¯´o a
3
= 3b
3
, nˆen a
3
chia hˆe
´
t cho 3, do d¯´o a chia hˆe
´
t cho 3 hay
27
a = 3c v´o
.
i c ∈ N. V`ı vˆa
.
y, b
3
= 9c
3
, nˆen b
3
chia hˆe
´
t cho 3, do d¯´o b chia hˆe
´
t cho
3. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i (a, b) = 1.
17. (Ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng c´ach x´et c´ ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p) Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen khˆ ong
chia hˆe
´
t cho 5. Khi d¯´o n = 5q +r v´o
.
i r = 1, 2, 3, 4 v`a n
2
= 25q
2
+ 10qr +r
2
.
– V´o
.
i r = 1 ta c´o n
2
= 5(5q
2
+ 2qr) + 1,
– V´o
.
i r = 2 ta c´o n
2
= 5(5q
2
+ 2qr) + 4,
– V´o
.
i r = 3 ta c´o ta c´o n
2
= 5(5q
2
+ 2qr + 1) + 4,
– V´o
.
i r = 4 ta c´o ta c´o n
2
= 5(5q
2
+ 2qr + 3) + 1.
Do d¯´o n
2
chia cho 5 c´ o du
.
1 ho˘a
.
c 4.
18. a) Tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c x v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c y, ta c´o x + y = 1 (sai). Phu’ d¯i
.
nh
cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay l`a:
(∃x ∈ R) (∀y ∈ R) (x +y = 1) ≡ (∀x ∈ R) (∃y ∈ R) (x +y = 1) (d¯´ ung).
b) V´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c x tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c y, ta c´o x +y = 1 (d¯´ ung). Phu’ d¯i
.
nh
cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay l`a:
(∀x ∈ R) (∃y ∈ R) (x +y = 1) ≡ (∃x ∈ R) (∀y ∈ R) (x +y = 1) (sai).
c) V´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m, ta c´o n < m (d¯´ ung). Phu’
d¯i
.
nh cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay l`a:
(∀n ∈ N) (∃m ∈ N) (n < m) ≡ (∃n ∈ N) (∀n ∈ N) (n ≥ m) (sai).
d) Tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m, ta c´o n < m (sai). Phu’
d¯i
.
nh cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay l`a:
(∃n ∈ N) (∀m ∈ N) (n < m) ≡ (∀n ∈ N) (∃m ∈ N) (n ≥ m) (d¯´ ung).
19. a) ∃x (P(x) ∧ Q(x)).
b) ∃x (P(x) ∧ Q(x)).
c) ∀x (P(x) ∨ Q(x)).
d) ∀x (P(x) ∨ Q(x)).
20. a) ∀x F(x, A).
b) ∀y F(B, y).
c) ∀x ∃y F(x, y).
d) ∃x ∀y F(x, y) ≡ ∀x ∃y F(x, y).
e) ∃x ∀y F(x, y).
f ) ∃x F(x, A) ∨ F(x, B) ≡ ∀x F(x, A) ∧ F(x, B).
g) ∃x ∃y ∀z(x = y ∧ F(C, x) ∧ F(C, y) ∧ (F(C, z) ⇒(z = x ∨ z = y))).
28
h) ∃x ∀y ∀z ((F(y, x) ∧ (F(y, z) ⇒ z = x))).
i) ∃x F(x, x) ≡ ∀x F(x, x).
j) ∃x ∃y ∀z (x = y ∧ F(x, y) ∧ (F(x, z) ⇒ z = y)).
21. Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng A ` B = A ∩ B, trong d¯´o B l`a phˆa
`
n b` u cu’ a B trong tˆa
.
p U
ch´ u
.
a A, B, C.
a) (A ∩ B) ` C = (A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C) = A ∩ (B ` C).
b) (A∪B) ` C = (A∪ B) ∩C = (A∩ C) ∪(B ∩ C) = (A` C) ∪ (B ` C).
c) A ` (B ` C) = A ∩ B ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) =
(A ` B) ∪ (A ∩ C).
d) A` B, B` C, C ` A, A∩B∩C ⊂ A∪B∪C ⇒ (A` B) ∪(B` C) ∪(C `
A) ∪ (A ∩ B ∩ C) ⊂ A ∪ B ∪ C.
∀x ∈ A ∪ B ∪ C ⇒ x ∈ A ∨ x ∈ B ∨ x ∈ C.
– x ∈ A: i) x ∈ B: + x ∈ C ⇒ x ∈ A ∩ B ∩ C,
+ x / ∈ C ⇒ x ∈ B ` C;
ii) x / ∈ B ⇒ x ∈ A ` B.
– x / ∈ A: i) x ∈ B: + x ∈ C ⇒C ` A,
+ x / ∈ C ⇒B ` C;
ii) x / ∈ B ⇒ x ∈ C ⇒C ` A.
Vˆa
.
y A ∪ B ∪ C ⊂ (A ` B) ∪ (B ` C) ∪ (C ` A) ∪ (A ∩ B ∩ C).
22. a) D
-
´ ung. (x, y) ∈ (AB) ∩(CD) ⇔ (x, y) ∈ AB∧(x, y) ∈ CD ⇔
(x ∈ A ∧ y ∈ B) ∧ (x ∈ C ∧ y ∈ D) ⇔ x ∈ A ∩ C ∧ y ∈ B ∩ D ⇔ (x, y) ∈
(A ∩ C) (B ∩ D).
b) Khˆong d¯´ ung. Ta chı ’ c´o (A B) ∪ (C D) ⊂ (A ∪ C) (B ∪ D). Bao
h` am th´ u
.
c ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i khˆong c´o. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, cho
.
n A = D = ∅ v`a B = ∅, C = ∅ th`ı
vˆe
´
tr´ ai l`a tˆa
.
p rˆo
˜
ng trong khi vˆe
´
pha’ i kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng.
23. C´ac cˆau a), b) v`a c) suy t` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa. Go
.
i p, q, r tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a c´ac mˆe
.
nh
d¯ˆe
`
x ∈ A, x ∈ B, x ∈ C. Khi d¯´o x ∈ A ⊕B ch´ınh l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
tuyˆe

n loa
.
i p ⊕q.
p q r p ∨ q p ∧ q (p ∨ q) ∧ (p ∧ q) p ⊕q
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
29
(p ⊕q) ⊕r q ⊕r p ⊕(q ⊕r) p ∧ (q ⊕r) p ∧ r (p ∧ q) ⊕(p ∧ r)
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0
Ba’ ng gi´a tri
.
chˆan l´ y o
.
’ trˆen cho c´ac kˆe
´
t qua’ cˆau d) t` u
.
cˆo
.
t 6 v`a 7, cˆau e) t` u
.
cˆo
.
t 8
v` a 10, cˆau f) t` u
.
cˆo
.
t 11 v`a 13.
24. U = A ∪ B ∪ C ∪ D = ¦a, b, c, d, e, g, h, i, n, o, p, t, u, v, x, y, z¦.
A 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
B 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
C 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
D 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
A ∪ B 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
A ∩ B 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
A ∪ D
(1)
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
B ∪ C
(2)
0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(1) ∩ (2) 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
25. [A ∪ B[ = [A ∪ (B ` A ∩ B)[ = [A[ +[B[ −[A ∩ B[.
[A∪B∪C[ = [A∪B[+[C[−[(A∪B)∩C[ = [A[+[B[−[A∩B[+[C[−([A∩C[+
[B∩C[−[(A∩C)∩(B∩C)[) = [A[+[B[+[C[−[A∩B[−[B∩C[−[A∩C[+[A∩B∩C[.
Cho A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
m
l`a m tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n cu’ a tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n U. B˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p
c´ o thˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c r˘a
`
ng:
[A
1
∪ A
2
∪ . . . ∪ A
m
[ = N
1
−N
2
+N
3
− + (−1)
n−1
N
m
,
30
trong d¯´o, N
k
=
¸
1≤i
1
<i
2
<···<i
k
≤m
[A
i
1
∩ A
i
2
∩ . . . ∩ A
i
k
[, 1 ≤ k ≤ m.
Nˆe
´
u go
.
i N = [U[, N
0
= [U ` A
1
∪A
2
∪. . . ∪ A
m
[, ta c´o cˆong th´ u
.
c sau v`a go
.
i
l` a nguyˆen l´ y b` u tr` u
.
.
N
0
= N −N
1
+N
2
−N
3
+ + (−1)
n
N
m
.
26. Go
.
i U l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac th`anh viˆen cu’ a cuˆo
.
c ho
.
p, A
i
l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac
th`anh viˆen ph´at biˆe

u vˆe
`
vˆ a
´
n d¯ˆe
`
i (1 ≤ i ≤ 3). Khi d¯´o sˆo
´
th`anh viˆen khˆ ong
ph´at biˆe

u vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
n`ao l`a N
0
= 1 trong sˆo
´
c´ac th`anh viˆen N = [U[ = 12. Ta c´o
N
1
= [A
1
[ +[A
2
[ +[A
3
[ = 8 +5 +7 = 20, N
2
= [A
1
∩A
2
[ +[A
2
∩A
3
[ +[A
1
∩A
3
[,
N
3
= [A
1
∩ A
2
∩ A
3
[ v`a N
2
≥ 3N
3
. Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c vˆe
`
nguyˆen l´ y b` u tr` u
.
, ta c´o
N
0
= N − N
1
+ N
2
− N
3
hay 1 = 12 − 20 + N
2
− N
3
hay N
3
= N
2
− 9. Do d¯´o
N
3
≥ 3N
3
− 9 hay 2N
3
≤ 9 hay N
3

9
2
= 4, 5. Vˆa
.
y nhiˆe
`
u l˘ a
´
m l`a c´o 4 ngu
.
`o
.
i
ph´at biˆe

u ca’ 3 vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
.
31
CHU
.
O
.
NG II:
´
ANH XA
.
2.1.
´
ANH XA
.
.
2.1.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa v` a th´ı du
.
:
2.1.1.1. Mo
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u:
´
Anh xa
.
l`a mˆo
.
t kh´ai niˆe
.
m cu
.
.
c k` y quan tro
.
ng trong to´an ho
.
c.
´
Anh xa
.
d` ung d¯ˆe

kha’ o s´at c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p v`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o.
´
Anh xa
.
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p v`a c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n,
x´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac con ngu
.
`o
.
i trˆen to`an thˆe
´
gi´o
.
i v`a kha’ o s´at d¯ˆo
.
tuˆo

i cu’ a mˆo
˜
i ngu
.
`o
.
i.
Ta gh´ep mˆo
˜
i con ngu
.
`o
.
i v´ o
.
i mˆo
.
t con sˆo
´
go
.
i l` a tuˆo

i cu’ a ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯´o. Mˆo
˜
i ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯ˆe
`
u
c´ o mˆo
.
t con sˆo
´
, v`ı mˆo
˜
i ngu
.
`o
.
i khˆong thˆe

c´o hai tuˆo

i nˆen mˆo
˜
i ngu
.
`o
.
i chı’ ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i
mˆo
.
t con sˆo
´
duy nhˆa
´
t. C´o thˆe

nhiˆe
`
u ngu
.
`o
.
i c´o c` ung d¯ˆo
.
tuˆo

i, ngh˜ıa l`a nhiˆe
`
u ngu
.
`o
.
i
c´ o thˆe

´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c` ung mˆo
.
t con sˆo
´
. C´o thˆe

c´o mˆo
.
t con sˆo
´
khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t
ngu
.
`o
.
i n` ao. Con sˆo
´
c`ang l´o
.
n th`ı d¯ˆo
.
tuˆo

i cu’ a con ngu
.
`o
.
i ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i con sˆo
´
d¯´o c`ang
l´ o
.
n. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, ta d¯˜a thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n mˆo
.
t “´anh xa
.
” t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m c´ac con ngu
.
`o
.
i trˆen
tr´ai d¯ˆa
´
t v`ao tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
C´ac ´anh xa
.
c`on d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung d¯ˆe

d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa c´ac cˆa
´
u tr´ uc r`o
.
i ra
.
c nhu
.
c´ac d˜ay
c´ ac xˆau.
´
Anh xa
.
c˜ ung d` ung d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n th`o
.
i gian mˆo
.
t m´ay t´ınh pha’ i mˆ a
´
t d¯ˆe

gia’ i mˆo
.
t b`ai to´an c´o quy mˆo d¯˜a cho. C´ ac h`am (´anh xa
.
) d¯ˆe
.
quy, t´ u
.
c l`a c´ ac h` am
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa qua ch´ınh n´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung xuyˆen suˆo
´
t trong tin ho
.
c.
2.1.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B. Mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f t` u
.
A v`ao B l`a
mˆo
.
t su
.
.
gh´ep d¯ˆoi mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a ∈ A v´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a B, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
f(a). Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ f(a) ∈ B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a f ta
.
i a. A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tˆa
.
p nguˆo
`
n
hay miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh v`a B go
.
i l`a tˆa
.
p d¯´ıch hay miˆe
`
n gi´a tri
.
. Mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f t` u
.
A v`ao
B c` on d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t h`am t` u
.
A v`ao B v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u bo
.
’ i
f : A −→B hay A
f
−→B hay f : x ∈ A −→f(x) ∈ B.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Go
.
i A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac b`ai thi cu’ a c´ac sinh viˆen trong mˆo
.
t l´o
.
p n` ao
d¯´o. Khi chˆa
´
m b`ai thi theo thang d¯iˆe

m 10, thˆa
`
y gi´ao chˆa
´
m thi d¯˜a thiˆe
´
t lˆa
.
p mˆo
.
t
´anh xa
.
t` u
.
A v`ao tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10¦.
2) Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Mˆo
.
t su
.
.
gh´ep d¯ˆoi mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x ∈ A v´o
.
i ch´ınh x
l` a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n A.
´
Anh xa
.
n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ´anh xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t cu’ a A v`a
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a id
A
ho˘a
.
c 1
A
.
3) C´ac h`am sˆo
´
y =

1 +x
2
, y =

x, y =
1
x + 1
x´ac d¯i
.
nh lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t c´ ac ´anh
xa
.
sau:
f : R −→R
+
, g : R
+
0
−→R
+
0
, h : R ` ¦−1¦ −→R,
trong d¯´o R
+
= ¦x ∈ R [ x > 0¦, R
+
0
= ¦x ∈ R [ x ≥ 0¦.
32
2.1.1.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B. Ta go
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p G =
¦(x, f(x)) [ x ∈ A¦ ⊂ A B l`a d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a ´anh xa
.
f.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, khi cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B, ta c´ o tˆa
.
p con G cu’ a A B c´o t´ınh
chˆa
´
t l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ A, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t c˘ a
.
p thuˆo
.
c G, c´o th`anh phˆa
`
n th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t l`a x. D
-
a’ o la
.
i, nˆe
´
u G ⊂ A B c´o t´ınh chˆa
´
t d¯´o th`ı G cho ta mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B m`a d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a f l`a G. V`ı vˆa
.
y, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c´ o thˆe

d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B v´o
.
i d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
G cu’ a n´o.
2.1.1.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Hai ´anh xa
.
f, g : A −→ B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a b˘a
`
ng nhau, k´ y
hiˆe
.
u f = g, nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ A, ta c´o f(x) = g(x).
2.1.1.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B v`a X ⊂ A. Ta go
.
i ´anh xa
.
g : X −→ B l`a thu he
.
p cu’ a f lˆen X, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a g = f[
X
, nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X,
f(x) = g(x).Khi d¯´o f go
.
i l` a mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cu’ a g lˆen A.
Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng, thu he
.
p cu’ a mˆo
˜
i ´anh xa
.
lˆen mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p nguˆo
`
n l`a duy
nhˆa
´
t, nhu
.
ng mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cu’ a mˆo
˜
i ´anh xa
.
lˆen mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ch´ u
.
a tˆa
.
p nguˆo
`
n l`a khˆong
duy nhˆa
´
t.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Hai ´anh xa
.
f : R −→ [−1, 1] : x −→sin x v`a g : [0, 2π] −→[−1, 1] :
x −→ sin x l`a hai ´anh xa
.
kh´ac nhau v`ı ch´ ung c´o c´ac tˆa
.
p nguˆo
`
n kh´ac nhau. Tuy
nhiˆen, f[
[0,2π]
= g.
2) Cho A = ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦, X = ¦1, 2, 3¦, B = ¦a, b, c¦ v`a ´anh xa
.
g : X −→B :
1 −→a, 2 −→b, 3 −→c. Khi d¯´o c´o 3 mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cu’ a g lˆen A l`a f
1
, f
2
, f
3
: A −→B
cho bo
.
’ i f
i
(1) = a, f
i
(2) = b, f
i
(3) = c (i = 1, 2, 3), f
1
(4) = a, f
2
(4) = b, f
3
(4) = c.
3) Cho c´ ac ´anh xa
.
f : R −→R
+
0
, g : R −→Z, h : R −→R x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i:
f(x) = [x[, g(x) = [x] (phˆa
`
n nguyˆen cu’ a x), h(x) = x −[x] (phˆa
`
n le’ cu’ a x).
Khi d¯´o f[
R
+
0
= id
R
+
0
, g[
Z
= id
Z
, h[
Z
= 0 (´anh xa
.
c´o mo
.
i gi´a tri
.
d¯ˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0 go
.
i l`a
´anh xa
.
0).
2.1.2. A

nh v` a ta
.
o a’ nh:
2.1.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B, x ∈ A, X ⊂ A, S ⊂ B. Khi
d¯´o ta go
.
i:
– f(x) l`a a’ nh cu’ a x bo
.
’ i f,
– f(X) = ¦f(x) ∈ B [ x ∈ X¦ l`a a’ nh cu’ a X bo
.
’ i f,
– f
−1
(S) = ¦x ∈ A [ f(x) ∈ S¦ l`a ta
.
o a’ nh cu’ a S bo
.
’ i f.
D
-
˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, v´o
.
i y ∈ B, f
−1
(¦y¦) = ¦x ∈ A [ f(x) = y¦ v`a viˆe
´
t d¯o
.
n gia’ n l`a
f
−1
(y). Khi X = A, ta go
.
i f(A) l`a a’ nh cu’ a f v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l` a Imf. R˜o r`ang khi
X = ∅ ta c´o f(∅) = ∅. T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta c´o:
X ⊂ X

⊂ A ⇒f(X) ⊂ f(X

) ⊂ f(A), S ⊂ S

⊂ B ⇒f
−1
(S) ⊂ f
−1
(S

) ⊂ A.
33
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho A = ¦a, b, c, d, e¦, B = ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦, X = ¦a, b, d¦, Y = ¦3, 4¦ v`a
f : A −→B x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(a) = 1, f(b) = 4, f(c) = 2, f(d) = 1, f(e) = 4. Khi
d¯´o ta c´o:
f(X) = ¦1, 4¦, Imf = ¦1, 2, 4¦, f
−1
(Y ) = ¦b, e¦, f
−1
(3) = ∅, f
−1
(1) = ¦a, d¦.
2) Cho ´anh xa
.
f : R −→R x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(x) = cos x. Khi d¯´o ta c´o:
f
−1
(2) = ∅, f
−1
(

3
2
) = ¦±
π
6
+ 2kπ [ k ∈ Z¦, Imf = [−1, 1].
2.1.2.2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho ´ anh xa
.
f : A −→ B, X v`a Y l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a A, S
v` a T l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a B. Khi d¯´o ta c´o:
1) X ⊂ f
−1
(f(X)).
2) f(f
−1
(S)) ⊂ S.
3) f(X ∪ Y ) = f(X) ∪ f(Y ).
4) f(X ∩ Y ) ⊂ f(X) ∩ f(Y ).
5) f
−1
(S ∪ T) = f
−1
(S) ∪ f
−1
(T).
6) f
−1
(S ∩ T) = f
−1
(S) ∩ f
−1
(T).
7) f(A ` X) ⊃ f(A) ` f(X).
8) f
−1
(B ` S) = A ` f
−1
(S).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) x ∈ X ⇒ f(x) ∈ f(X) ⇒ x ∈ f
−1
(f(X)). Do d¯´o X ⊂
f
−1
(f(X)).
2) y ∈ f(f
−1
(S)) ⇒ ∃x ∈ f
−1
(S), f(x) = y ⇒ y = f(x) ∈ S. Do d¯´o
f(f
−1
(S)) ⊂ S.
3) X, Y ⊂ X ∪ Y ⇒f(X), f(Y ) ⊂ f(X ∪ Y ) ⇒f(X) ∪ f(Y ) ⊂ f(X ∪ Y ).
y ∈ f(X ∪Y ) ⇒∃x ∈ X ∪Y, y = f(x) ⇒(y = f(x), x ∈ X) ∨(y = f(x), x ∈
Y ) ⇒y ∈ f(X) ∪ f(Y ). Do d¯´o f(X ∪ Y ) ⊂ f(X) ∪ f(Y ).
4) y ∈ f(X ∩ Y ) ⇒ ∃x ∈ X ∩ Y, y = f(x) ⇒ (y = f(x), x ∈ X) ∧ (y =
f(x), x ∈ Y ) ⇒y ∈ f(X) ∩ f(Y ). Do d¯´o f(X ∩ Y ) ⊂ f(X) ∩ f(Y ).
5) x ∈ f
−1
(S ∪ T) ⇔ f(x) ∈ S ∪ T ⇔ (f(x) ∈ S) ∨ (f(x) ∈ T) ⇔
(x ∈ f
−1
(S)) ∨ (x ∈ f
−1
(T)) ⇔ x ∈ f
−1
(S) ∪ f
−1
(T). Do d¯´o f
−1
(S ∪ T) =
f
−1
(S) ∪ f
−1
(T).
6) x ∈ f
−1
(S ∩ T) ⇔ f(x) ∈ S ∩ T ⇔ (f(x) ∈ S) ∧ (f(x) ∈ T) ⇔
(x ∈ f
−1
(S)) ∧ (x ∈ f
−1
(T)) ⇔ x ∈ f
−1
(S) ∩ f
−1
(T). Do d¯´o f
−1
(S ∩ T) =
f
−1
(S) ∩ f
−1
(T).
7) y ∈ f(A) ` f(X) ⇒(y ∈ f(A)) ∧ (y / ∈ f(X)) ⇒(∃x ∈ A, y = f(x)) ∧ x / ∈
X ⇒x ∈ A ` X, y = f(x) ⇒y ∈ f(A ` X). Do d¯´o f(A) ` f(X) ⊂ f(A ` X).
8) x ∈ f
−1
(B ` S) ⇔ f(x) ∈ B ` S ⇔ (f(x) ∈ B) ∧ (f(x) / ∈ S) ⇔ (x ∈
A) ∧ (x / ∈ f
−1
(S)) ⇔x ∈ A ` f
−1
(S). Do d¯´o f
−1
(B ` S) = A ` f
−1
(S).
Trong 1), 2), 4), 7), c´ac bao h`am ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i n´ oi chung khˆong d¯´ ung.
34
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, cho
.
n A = ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦, B = ¦1, 2, 3¦, X = ¦1, 2¦, Y = ¦3, 4¦, S =
¦1, 3¦ v`a f : A −→ B l`a ´anh xa
.
x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(1) = 1, f(2) = 2, f(3) =
1, f(4) = 1 th`ı ta c´ o:
X ⊂
=
f
−1
(f(X)), f(f
−1
(S)) ⊂
=
S,
f(X ∩ Y ) ⊂
=
f(X) ∩ f(Y ), f(A ` X) ⊃
=
f(A) ` f(X).
2.1.3. D
-
o
.
n ´anh, to`an ´anh, song ´anh:
2.1.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa:
´
Anh xa
.
f : A −→ B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i
mo
.
i x
1
, x
2
∈ A, x
1
= x
2
k´eo theo f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) (hay f(x
1
) = f(x
2
) k´eo theo
x
1
= x
2
). Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c`on go
.
i mˆ o
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh l`a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i mˆo
.
t.
2.1.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa:
´
Anh xa
.
f : A −→ B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh nˆe
´
u
f(A) = B, t´ u
.
c l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i y ∈ B, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x ∈ A sao cho f(x) = y. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c`on
go
.
i to`an ´anh f : A −→B l` a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
t` u
.
A lˆen B.
2.1.3.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa:
´
Anh xa
.
f : A −→ B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh hay mˆo
.
t
´anh xa
.
mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i mˆ o
.
t t` u
.
A lˆen B nˆe
´
u n´o v` u
.
a l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh v` u
.
a l`a to`an ´anh, t´ u
.
c l`a
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i y ∈ B, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t x ∈ A sao cho f(x) = y.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p v`a B ⊂ A.
´
Anh xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t id
A
l`a mˆo
.
t
song ´anh v`a “ph´ep bao h`am” B −→A : x −→x l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
2)
´
Anh xa
.
n ∈ Z −→−n ∈ Z l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh, ´anh xa
.
n ∈ Z −→ 2n ∈ Z l`a
mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh nhu
.
ng khˆong pha’ i l` a to`an ´anh v`a ´anh xa
.
n ∈ Z −→n
2
∈ Z khˆong
pha’ i l` a d¯o
.
n ´anh v`a c˜ ung khˆong pha’ i l` a to`an ´anh.
3)
´
Anh xa
.
f : R −→ R : x −→ x
3
l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh nhu
.
ng ´anh xa
.
g : Q −→
R : x −→x
3
l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh v`a khˆong pha’ i l` a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh.
4)
´
Anh xa
.
x ∈ R −→ sin x ∈ R khˆong l` a d¯o
.
n ´anh v`a c˜ ung khˆong l`a to`an
´anh nhu
.
ng ´anh xa
.
x ∈ R −→ sin x ∈ [−1, 1] l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh v`a khˆong pha’ i l`a
mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
2.1.4. Ho
.
.
p th`anh cu’ a c´ac ´anh xa
.
:
2.1.4.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B v`a g : B −→ C. Khi d¯´o ta
c´ o ´ anh xa
.
h : A −→ C cho bo
.
’ i h(x) = g(f(x)) v`a h d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ho
.
.
p th`anh hay
t´ıch cu’ a ´anh xa
.
f v`a ´anh xa
.
g, k´ y hiˆe
.
u g ◦ f hay gf.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B. Khi d¯´o f ◦ id
A
= f v`a id
B
◦ f = f.
2) Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f, g : R −→ R cho bo
.
’ i f(x) = 3x + 2, g(x) = cos x.
Khi d¯´o g ◦ f(x) = g(f(x)) = g(3x + 2) = cos(3x + 2) v`a f ◦ g(x) = f(g(x)) =
f(cos x) = 3 cos x + 2. R˜o r`ang f ◦ g = g ◦ f.
3) Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f : R ` ¦0¦ −→ R v`a g : R −→ R
+
cho bo
.
’ i f(x) =
1
x
v`a
g(x) = x
2
+ 1. Khi d¯´o ta c´ o g ◦ f : R ` ¦0¦ −→R
+
: x −→g(f(x)) =
x
2
+ 1
x
2
.
35
2.1.4.2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho ba ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B, g : B −→ C, h : C −→ D.
Khi d¯´o ta c´ o (h ◦ g) ◦ f = h ◦ (g ◦ f).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ A, ta c´ o
((h ◦ g) ◦ f)(x) = h ◦ g(f(x)) = h(g(f(x))) = h(g ◦ f(x)) = (h ◦ (g ◦ f))(x).
Do d¯´o (h ◦ g) ◦ f = h ◦ (g ◦ f).
T` u
.
d¯´o ta n´oi ph´ep ho
.
.
p th`anh ´anh xa
.
c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p.
2.1.4.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
. Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B v`a g : B −→C. Khi d¯´o:
1) Nˆe
´
u f v`a g l`a c´ac d¯o
.
n ´anh th`ı g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
2) Nˆe
´
u f v`a g l`a c´ac to`an ´anh th`ı g ◦ f l`a to`an ´anh.
3) Nˆe
´
u f v`a g l`a c´ac song ´anh th`ı g ◦ f l`a song ´anh.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) ∀x, x

∈ A, g ◦ f(x) = g ◦ f(x

) ⇒ g(f(x)) = g(f(x

)) ⇒
f(x) = f(x

) (do g l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh) ⇒ x = x

(do f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh). Vˆa
.
y g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n
´anh.
2) g ◦ f(A) = ¦g ◦ f(x) [ x ∈ A¦ = ¦g(f(x)) [ f(x) ∈ f(A)¦ =
= ¦g(f(x)) [ f(x) ∈ B¦ (do f l`a to`an ´anh)= g(B) = C (do g l`a to`an ´anh).
Vˆa
.
y g ◦ f l`a to`an ´anh.
3) Suy t` u
.
1) v`a 2).
2.1.4.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho f : A −→ B v`a g : B −→ A l`a hai ´anh xa
.
sao cho
g ◦ f = id
A
v`a f ◦ g = id
B
. Khi d¯´o ta n´oi g l`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a f.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f, g : R −→ R x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(x) = 2x + 5 v`a
g(x) =
x −5
2
. V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ R ta c´o:
g ◦ f(x) = g(f(x)) = g(2x + 5) =
(2x + 5) −5
2
= x = id
R
(x).
f ◦ g(x) = f(g(x)) = f(
x −5
2
) = 2(
x −5
2
) + 5 = x = id
R
(x).
Vˆa
.
y g l`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a f v`a f c˜ ung l`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a g.
2) Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f : R −→ R
+
v`a g : R
+
−→ R x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(x) = a
x
v` a g(x) = log
a
x, o
.
’ d¯ˆay a ∈ R, a > 0, a = 1. V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ R ta c´o:
g ◦ f(x) = g(f(x)) = g(a
x
) = log
a
(a
x
) = x = id
R
(x).
f ◦ g(x) = f(g(x)) = f(log
a
x) = a
log
a
x
= x = id
R
+.
Vˆa
.
y g l`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a f v`a f c˜ ung l`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a g.
2.1.4.5. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
:
´
Anh xa
.
f : A −→ B c´o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c khi v`a chı’ khi f l`a
mˆo
.
t song ´anh.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ f c´ o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c l`a g : B −→ A. T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta c´ o
g ◦ f = id
A
v`a f ◦ g = id
B
. Khi d¯´o v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, x

∈ A,
f(x) = f(x

) ⇒g(f(x)) = g(f(x

)) ⇒x = x

.
36
Vˆa
.
y f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh. Ngo`ai ra, v´o
.
i mo
.
i y ∈ B, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x = g(y) ∈ A sao cho
f(x) = f(g(y)) = y. Vˆa
.
y f l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh. Do d¯´o f l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh.
D
-
a’ o la
.
i, gia’ su
.
’ f l`a mˆ o
.
t song ´anh. Quy t˘a
´
c cho tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng mˆo
˜
i y ∈ B v´o
.
i
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f
−1
(y) x´ac d¯i
.
nh ´anh xa
.
g : B −→ A v`a dˆe
˜
d`ang c´ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
g ◦ f = id
A
v`a f ◦ g = id
B
. Do d¯´o g l`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a f.
2.1.4.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Nˆe
´
u g, g

: B −→A l`a hai ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a f th`ı g = g

.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Do g ◦ f = id
A
v`a f ◦ g

= id
B
nˆen ta c´o
g = g ◦ id
B
= g ◦ (f ◦ g

) = (g ◦ f) ◦ g

= id
A
◦ g

= g

.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u:
´
Anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a ´anh xa
.
f thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l` a f
−1
.
Dˆe
˜
d` ang thˆa
´
y r˘a
`
ng: (f
−1
)
−1
= f, (g ◦ f)
−1
= f
−1
◦ g
−1
.
2.1.4.7. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho A, B l`a hai tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n c´o c` ung ba’ n sˆo
´
v`a ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B. Khi d¯´o c´ac d¯iˆe
`
u sau tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
1) f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
2) f l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh.
3) f l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) ⇒ 2) v`ı [A[ = [B[ (gia’ thiˆe
´
t) v`a [A[ = [f(A)[ (do f l`a d¯o
.
n
´anh), nˆen [f(A)[ = [B[. Do d¯´o f(A) = B hay f l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh.
2) ⇒ 3) V`ı f l`a to`an ´anh nˆen nˆe
´
u f khˆong l`a song ´anh th`ı f khˆong l`a d¯o
.
n
´anh. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hai phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A c´o chung a’ nh. V`ı vˆa
.
y, [B[ = [f(A)[ < [A[.
D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i gia’ thiˆe
´
t.
3) ⇒1) Hiˆe

n nhiˆen.
2.1.5. Ho
.
nh˜ u
.
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p:
2.1.5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho I l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p t` uy ´ y kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng v`a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f : I −→A. Khi d¯´o, v´ o
.
i mˆo
˜
i α ∈ I ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u f(α) bo
.
’ i x
α
v`a n´oi c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x
α
v´ o
.
i α ∈ I th`anh lˆa
.
p mˆo
.
t ho
.
nh˜ u
.
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯´anh sˆo
´
bo
.
’ i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p I,
k´ y hiˆe
.
u (x
α
)
α∈I
, c`on tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p I go
.
i l`a tˆa
.
p chı’ sˆo
´
. Nˆe
´
u c´ac x
α
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
th`ı ta go
.
i (x
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯´anh sˆo
´
bo
.
’ i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p I. Nˆe
´
u c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.

cu’ a A l`a nh˜ u
.
ng tˆa
.
p con cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p U th`ı ta go
.
i (x
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
nh˜ u
.
ng
tˆ a
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p U.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho ´anh xa
.
f : N −→R : n −→a
n
= f(n). Khi d¯´o ta c´o ho
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c
(a
n
)
n∈N
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯´anh sˆo
´
bo
.
’ i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v`a ta thu
.
`o
.
ng go
.
i l`a d˜ay sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c (a
n
)
n∈N
.
2) Cho ´anh xa
.
g : N −→{(N) : n −→J
n
= ¦0, 1, . . . , n¦. Khi d¯´o ta c´o d˜ay
nh˜ u
.
ng tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N:
J
0
⊂ J
1
⊂ ⊂ J
n
⊂ .
2.1.5.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho (A
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Ta go
.
i
37
– Ho
.
.
p cu’ a ho
.
(A
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, k´ y hiˆe
.
u ∪
α∈I
A
α
, x´ ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i

α∈I
A
α
= ¦ x [ ∃α ∈ I, x ∈ A
α
¦.
– Giao cu’ a ho
.
(A
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, k´ y hiˆe
.
u ∩
α∈I
A
α
, x´ ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i

α∈I
A
α
= ¦ x [ ∀α ∈ I, x ∈ A
α
¦.
– T´ıch Descartes cu’ a ho
.
(A
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
¸
α∈I
A
α
, x´ac d¯i
.
nh
bo
.
’ i
¸
α∈I
A
α
= ¦ (x
α
)
α∈I
[ ∀α ∈ I, x
α
∈ A
α
¦.
Nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i α ∈ I, A
α
= A th`ı
¸
α∈I
A
α
go
.
i l`a l˜ uy th` u
.
a Descartes bˆa
.
c I cu’ a A v`a
k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A
I
.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) X´et ho
.
tˆa
.
p con (J
n
)
n∈N
cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N, trong d¯´o J
n
= ¦0, 1, . . . , n¦.
Khi d¯´o ∪
n∈N
J
n
= N v`a ∩
n∈N
J
n
= ¦0¦.
2) L˜ uy th` u
.
a Descartes R
N
l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d˜ay sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c.
2.2. GIA

I T
´
ICH T
ˆ
O

HO
.
.
P.
2.2.1. Nh˜ u
.
ng nguyˆen l´ y d¯ˆe
´
m co
.
ba’ n:
2.2.1.1. Quy t˘a
´
c cˆ o
.
ng: Gia’ su
.
’ c´o hai cˆ ong viˆe
.
c. Viˆe
.
c th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t c´o thˆe

l`am
b˘ a
`
ng n
1
c´ach, viˆe
.
c th´ u
.
hai c´o thˆe

l`am b˘a
`
ng n
2
c´ach v`a nˆe
´
u hai viˆe
.
c n`ay khˆong
thˆe

l` am d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i th`ı s˜e c´ o n
1
+n
2
c´ach l`am mˆo
.
t trong hai viˆe
.
c d¯´o.
Quy t˘a
´
c cˆo
.
ng c´o thˆe

mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cho tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c´ o nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n hai cˆong viˆe
.
c.
Gia’ su
.
’ c´ac viˆe
.
c T
1
, T
2
, . . . , T
m
c´o thˆe

l`am tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng b˘a
`
ng n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
m
c´ach
v` a khˆong c´o hai viˆe
.
c n`ao c´o thˆe

l`am d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i. Khi d¯´o sˆo
´
c´ach l`am mˆo
.
t trong
m viˆe
.
c d¯´o l`a n
1
+n
2
+ +n
m
.
Nguyˆen l´ y cˆo
.
ng c´o thˆe

ph´at biˆe

u du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ngˆon ng˜ u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p nhu
.
sau: Nˆe
´
u
A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n d¯ˆoi mˆo
.
t r`o
.
i nhau, khi d¯´o sˆo
´
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a ho
.
.
p
c´ ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ay l`a
[A
1
∪ A
2
∪ . . . ∪ A
n
[ = [A
1
[ +[A
2
[ + +[A
n
[.
Th´ı du
.
: Mˆo
.
t sinh viˆen c´o thˆe

cho
.
n b`ai thu
.
.
c h`anh m´ay t´ınh t` u
.
mˆo
.
t trong ba
danh s´ach tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng c´ o 24, 16 v`a 20 b`ai. C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ach cho
.
n b`ai thu
.
.
c h`anh?
C´o 24 c´ ach cho
.
n b`ai thu
.
.
c h`anh t` u
.
danh s´ach th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t, 16 c´ ach t` u
.
danh s´ach
th´ u
.
hai v`a 20 c´ ach t` u
.
danh s´ach th´ u
.
ba. V`ı vˆa
.
y c´o 24 + 16 + 20 = 60 c´ach cho
.
n
b` ai thu
.
.
c h`anh.
38
2.2.1.2. Quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan: Gia’ su
.
’ mˆo
.
t nhiˆe
.
m vu
.
n`ao d¯´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c t´ach l`am hai viˆe
.
c.
Viˆe
.
c th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t c´ o thˆe

l`am b˘a
`
ng n
1
c´ach, viˆe
.
c th´ u
.
hai c´o thˆe

l`am b˘a
`
ng n
2
c´ach
sau khi viˆe
.
c th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`am, khi d¯´o s˜e c´ o n
1
.n
2
c´ach thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nhiˆe
.
m vu
.
n` ay.
Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆo
.
t nhiˆe
.
m vu
.
n`ao
d¯´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thi h`anh b˘a
`
ng c´ach thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac viˆe
.
c T
1
, T
2
, . . . , T
m
v`a nˆe
´
u viˆe
.
c T
i
c´o
thˆe

l` am b˘a
`
ng n
i
c´ach sau khi c´ac viˆe
.
c T
1
, T
2
, . . . , T
i−1
d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`am. Khi d¯´o c´o
n
1
.n
2
. . . . .n
m
c´ach thi h`anh nhiˆe
.
m vu
.
d¯˜a cho.
Nguyˆen l´ y nhˆan c´o thˆe

ph´at biˆe

u du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ngˆon ng˜ u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p nhu
.
sau:
Nˆe
´
u A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n, khi d¯´o sˆo
´
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a t´ıch Descartes
A
1
A
2
A
n
l`a
[A
1
A
2
A
n
[ = [A
1
[.[A
2
[ . . . [A
n
[.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c´o thˆe

ghi nh˜an cho nh˜ u
.
ng chiˆe
´
c ghˆe
´
trong mˆ o
.
t gia’ ng
d¯u
.
`o
.
ng b˘a
`
ng mˆ o
.
t ch˜ u
.
c´ai (trong ba’ ng ch˜ u
.
c´ai tiˆe
´
ng Anh) v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen
du
.
o
.
ng khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´ a 100. B˘a
`
ng c´ach nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, nhiˆe
`
u nhˆa
´
t c´ o bao nhiˆeu chiˆe
´
c
ghˆe
´
c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ghi nh˜an kh´ ac nhau.
Thu’ tu
.
c ghi nh˜an cho mˆo
.
t chiˆe
´
c ghˆe
´
gˆo
`
m hai viˆe
.
c, g´an mˆo
.
t trong 26 ch˜ u
.
c´ ai v` a sau d¯´o g´an mˆo
.
t trong 100 sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. Quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan chı ’ r˘a
`
ng c´o
26.100 = 2600 c´ach kh´ac nhau d¯ˆe

g´an nh˜an cho mˆo
.
t chiˆe
´
c ghˆe
´
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nhiˆe
`
u
nhˆa
´
t ta c´ o thˆe

g´an nh˜an cho 2600 chiˆe
´
c ghˆe
´
.
2) C´o bao nhiˆeu xˆau nhi
.
phˆan d¯ˆo
.
d`ai n?
Mˆo
˜
i mˆo
.
t trong n bit cu’ a xˆau nhi
.
phˆan c´o thˆe

cho
.
n b˘a
`
ng hai c´ach v`ı mˆ o
˜
i bit
ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng 0 ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng 1. Bo
.
’ i vˆa
.
y, theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan cho thˆa
´
y c´o tˆo

ng cˆo
.
ng 2
n
xˆ au nhi
.
phˆan kh´ ac nhau d¯ˆ o
.
d`ai n.
Cho X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Khi d¯´o c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
1-1 v´o
.
i c´ ac xˆau nhi
.
phˆan d¯ˆo
.
d`ai n (xem 1.2.3.5). V`ı vˆa
.
y tˆa
.
p l˜ uy th` u
.
a {(X) c´o
ba’ n sˆo
´
l`a 2
n
.
3) C´o thˆe

ta
.
o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c bao nhiˆeu ´anh xa
.
t` u
.
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A c´o m phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ v`ao
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
Theo d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa, mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen A c´o gi´a tri
.
trˆen B l`a mˆo
.
t ph´ep
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n`ao d¯´o cu’ a B. R˜o r`ang sau khi
d¯˜a cho
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c a’ nh cu’ a i −1 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u, d¯ˆe

cho
.
n a’ nh cu’ a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ th´ u
.
i cu’ a A
ta c´ o n c´ach. V`ı vˆa
.
y theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan, ta c´o n.n. . . . n = n
m
´anh xa
.
x´ac d¯i
.
nh
trˆen A nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
trˆen B.
4) C´o bao nhiˆeu d¯o
.
n ´anh x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A c´o m phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ v`a nhˆa
.
n
gi´ a tri
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
Nˆe
´
u m > n th`ı v´o
.
i mo
.
i ´anh xa
.
, ´ıt nhˆa
´
t c´o hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A c´o c` ung mˆo
.
t
a’ nh, d¯iˆe
`
u d¯´o c´o ngh˜ıa l`a khˆong c´o d¯o
.
n ´anh t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n B. Bˆay gi`o
.
gia’ su
.
’ m ≤ n
v` a go
.
i c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A l`a a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
. R˜o r`ang c´o n c´ach cho
.
n a’ nh cho phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ a
1
. V`ı ´anh xa
.
l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh nˆen a’ nh cu’ a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
2
pha’ i kh´ac a’ nh cu’ a a
1
nˆen
39
chı’ c´o n − 1 c´ach cho
.
n a’ nh cho phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
2
. N´oi chung, d¯ˆe

cho
.
n a’ nh cu’ a a
k
, ta
c´ o n −k + 1 c´ ach. Theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan, ta c´o
n(n −1) . . . (n −m+ 1) =
n!
(n −m)!
d¯o
.
n ´ anh t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B.
2.2.2. Chı’nh ho
.
.
p v`a ho´ an vi
.
:
2.2.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Mˆo
˜
i c´ ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p c´o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t chı’nh ho
.
.
p (khˆong l˘a
.
p) chˆa
.
p k cu’ a
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a X.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u sˆo
´
chı’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l`a A
k
n
. Khi d¯´o ta c´o
A
k
n
= n(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −k + 1) =
n!
(n −k)!
.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen cu’ a chı ’nh ho
.
.
p c´o thˆe

cho
.
n b˘a
`
ng n c´ach, v`ı tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
X c´ o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ , phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ th´ u
.
hai cu’ a chı ’nh ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n t` u
.
n−1 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c`on
la
.
i cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X, t´ u
.
c l`a ta c´o n − 1 c´ach cho
.
n phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ n`ay. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´ o
n − 2 c´ach cho
.
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ th´ u
.
ba v`a c´ u
.
nhu
.
thˆe
´
ta c´ o n − k + 1 c´ ach cho
.
n phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ th´ u
.
k. Theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c n(n −1)(n − 2) . . . (n −k + 1) chı’nh ho
.
.
p
chˆa
.
p k cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, sˆo
´
chı’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ch´ınh l`a sˆo
´
d¯o
.
n ´anh t` u
.
tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ v`ao tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
Th´ı du
.
: 1) C´o bao nhiˆeu sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´ o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau m`a khˆ ong xuˆ a
´
t
hiˆe
.
n ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
0?
Mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a mˆo
.
t chı ’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p 4 cu’ a 9 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
¦1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9¦. Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´ o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau lˆa
´
y t` u
.
9 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
d¯˜a cho b˘a
`
ng A
4
9
=
9!
5!
= 3024.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ c´o t´am vˆa
.
n d¯ˆo
.
ng viˆen cha
.
y thi. Ngu
.
`o
.
i th˘a
´
ng s˜e nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c huy
chu
.
o
.
ng v`ang, ngu
.
`o
.
i vˆe
`
d¯´ıch th´ u
.
hai nhˆa
.
n huy chu
.
o
.
ng ba
.
c, ngu
.
`o
.
i vˆe
`
d¯´ıch th´ u
.
ba nhˆa
.
n huy chu
.
o
.
ng d¯ˆo
`
ng. C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ ach trao c´ac huy chu
.
o
.
ng n`ay, nˆe
´
u tˆa
´
t
ca’ c´ ac kˆe
´
t cu
.
c cu’ a cuˆo
.
c thi d¯ˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

xa’ y ra?
Sˆo
´
c´ach trao huy chu
.
o
.
ng ch´ınh l`a sˆo
´
chı’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p 3 cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p 8 phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ . V`ı vˆa
.
y c´o A
3
8
= 6.7.8 = 336 c´ach trao huy chu
.
o
.
ng.
2.2.2.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Mˆo
˜
i c´ ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p c´o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t ho´an vi
.
cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a X. Theo d¯i
.
nh
ngh˜ıa trˆen, mˆo
˜
i ho´an vi
.
cu’ a X l`a mˆo
.
t chı ’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p n cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Ngo`ai
ra, mˆo
˜
i ho´an vi
.
cu’ a X ch´ınh l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh t` u
.
X lˆen X.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u sˆo
´
c´ac ho´an vi
.
cu’ a X l`a P
n
v`a ta c´o P
n
= n!.
40
Th´ı du
.
: 1) C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p chˆo
˜
ngˆo
`
i cho 5 em ho
.
c sinh trˆen mˆo
.
t ghˆe
´
d` ai?
Mˆo
˜
i c´ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p chˆo
˜
ngˆo
`
i cho 5 em ho
.
c sinh l`a mˆo
.
t ho´an vi
.
cu’ a 5 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
c´ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p chˆo
˜
ngˆo
`
i l`a 5! = 120.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ r˘a
`
ng c´o mˆ o
.
t du kh´ach d¯i
.
nh d¯i du li
.
ch ta
.
i 8 th`anh phˆ o
´
. Anh ta
b˘ a
´
t d¯ˆa
`
u cuˆo
.
c h`anh tr`ınh cu’ a m`ınh ta
.
i mˆ o
.
t th`anh phˆo
´
n`ao d¯´o, nhu
.
ng c´o thˆe

d¯ˆe
´
n
7 th` anh phˆo
´
kia theo bˆa
´
t k` y th´ u
.
tu
.
.
n`ao m`a anh ta muˆo
´
n. Ho’ i anh ta c´o thˆe

d¯i
qua tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac th`anh phˆo
´
n`ay theo bao nhiˆeu lˆo
.
tr`ınh kh´ac nhau?
Sˆo
´
lˆo
.
tr`ınh c´o thˆe

gi˜ u
.
a c´ac th`anh phˆo
´
b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
ho´an vi
.
cu’ a 7 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ , v`ı
th`anh phˆo
´
d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh, nhu
.
ng 7 th`anh phˆo
´
c`on la
.
i c´ o thˆe

c´o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tu` y ´ y. Do d¯´o c´ o 7! = 5040 c´ach d¯ˆe

ngu
.
`o
.
i b´an h`ang cho
.
n h`anh tr`ınh cu’ a m`ınh.
2.2.3. Tˆo

ho
.
.
p:
2.2.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆ o
.
t tˆo

ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p l` a mˆo
.
t c´ach cho
.
n
khˆong c´ o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯˜a cho. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, mˆo
˜
i tˆo

ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k
ch´ınh l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ban d¯ˆa
`
u.
Ta c´o thˆe

x´ac d¯i
.
nh sˆo
´
tˆo

ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . D
-
ˆe

l`am d¯iˆe
`
u
d¯´o, ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng c´ac chı ’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ o thˆe

nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng
c´ ach tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t lˆa
.
p c´ac tˆo

ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k, rˆo
`
i s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
cho c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ thuˆ o
.
c c´ac
tˆ o

ho
.
.
p d¯´o. Do d¯´o nˆe
´
u go
.
i C
k
n
l`a sˆo
´
c´ac tˆo

ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p k t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ th`ı
ta c´ o A
k
n
= C
k
n
.k! hay
(1) C
k
n
=
n!
k!(n −k)!
.
Sˆ o
´
C
k
n
ch´ınh l`a sˆo
´
c´ac tˆa
.
p con k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ v`a l`a sˆo
´
c´ac xˆau nhi
.
phˆan d¯ˆo
.
d`ai n c´o d¯´ ung k bit 1. Sˆo
´
C
k
n
c`on d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
sˆo
´
nhi
.
th´ u
.
c, so
.
’ d˜ı c´o
tˆen nhu
.
vˆa
.
y l`a v`ı n´ o xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n trong khai triˆe

n nhi
.
th´ u
.
c:
(a +b)
n
=
n
¸
k=0
C
k
n
a
k
b
n−k
.
T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa, ta c´o C
n
n
= 1 v`a C
0
n
= 1 (v`ı chı’ c´o mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con gˆo
`
m n phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ v`a chı ’ c´o mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p con c´o 0 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ , t´ u
.
c l`a tˆa
.
p ∅). V´o
.
i
quy u
.
´o
.
c 0! = 1 th`ı cˆong th´ u
.
c (1) d¯´ ung cho ca’ tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p k = 0 v`a k = n.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) T`ım sˆo
´
giao d¯iˆe

m tˆo
´
i d¯a cu’ a a) 12 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng phˆan biˆe
.
t, b) 6
d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on phˆan biˆe
.
t, c) 12 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng v`a 6 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on trˆen.
Hai d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng phˆan biˆe
.
t c´ o tˆo
´
i d¯a mˆo
.
t giao d¯iˆe

m nˆen sˆo
´
giao d¯iˆe

m tˆo
´
i
d¯a cu’ a 12 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng phˆ an biˆe
.
t l`a C
2
12
=
12!
2!10!
= 66 d¯iˆe

m.
Hai d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on phˆan biˆe
.
t c´o tˆo
´
i d¯a hai giao d¯iˆe

m nˆen sˆo
´
giao d¯iˆe

m tˆo
´
i d¯a
cu’ a 6 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on phˆan biˆe
.
t l`a 2C
2
6
= 2.15 = 30 d¯iˆe

m.
41
Mˆo
.
t d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng c˘a
´
t mˆo
.
t d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on tˆo
´
i d¯a ta
.
i d¯iˆe

m nˆen sˆo
´
giao d¯iˆe

m tˆo
´
i
d¯a cu’ a 12 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng v`a 6 d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on trˆen l`a 66 + 30 + 12.6.2 = 240 d¯iˆe

m.
2) Mˆo
.
t l´o
.
p ho
.
c gˆo
`
m 20 nam v`a 11 n˜ u
.
. Ho’ i c´o bao nhiˆeu c´ach th`anh lˆa
.
p mˆo
.
t
tˆ o
´
p ca gˆo
`
m 4 nam v`a 3 n˜ u
.
sao cho anh A v`a chi
.
B (trong l´o
.
p ho
.
c d¯´o) khˆong
d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i c´ o m˘a
.
t.
Sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 4 nam l` a C
4
20
v`a sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 3 n˜ u
.
l`a C
3
11
, nˆen sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n
tˆ o
´
p ca l`a C
4
20
.C
3
11
. Sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 4 nam trong d¯´o c´o anh A l`a C
3
19
v`a sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n
3 n˜ u
.
trong d¯´o c´o chi
.
B l`a C
2
10
. V`ı vˆ a
.
y sˆo
´
c´ach th`anh lˆa
.
p tˆo
´
p ca theo yˆeu cˆa
`
u l`a
C
4
20
.C
3
11
−C
3
19
.C
2
10
= 755.820.
2.2.3.2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
(H˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Pascal): Cho n v`a k l`a c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen
du
.
o
.
ng v`a k < n. Khi d¯´o:
(2) C
k−1
n−1
+C
k
n−1
= C
k
n
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
C
k−1
n−1
+C
k
n−1
=
(n −1)!
(k −1)!(n −k)!
+
(n −1)!
k!(n −k −1)!
=
k(n −1)! + (n −k)(n −1)!
k!(n −k)!
=
(k +n −k)(n −1)!
k!(n −k)!
=
n!
k!(n −k)!
= C
k
n
.
H˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Pascal l`a co
.
so
.
’ d¯ˆe

s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p h`ınh ho
.
c c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo
´
nhi
.
th´ u
.
c
th`anh tam gi´ac, trong d¯´o h`ang th´ u
.
n cu’ a tam gi´ac gˆo
`
m c´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo
´
nhi
.
th´ u
.
c
C
k
n
(0 ≤ k ≤ n). Tam gi´ac n` ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tam gi´ac Pascal. H˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
Pascal chı’ ra r˘a
`
ng khi cˆo
.
ng hai hˆe
.
sˆo
´
nhi
.
th´ u
.
c liˆe
`
n kˆe
`
C
k−1
n−1
v`a C
k
n−1
trong tam
gi´ ac Pascal s˜e nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
nhi
.
th´ u
.
c C
k
n
cu’ a h`ang tiˆe
´
p theo o
.
’ du
.
´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo
´
C
k
n−1
.
1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
...........................
2.2.3.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
(H˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Vandermonde): Cho m, n, k l`a 3 sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen sao cho k ≤ m v`a k ≤ n. Khi d¯´o:
(3) C
k
m+n
=
k
¸
i=0
C
i
m
.C
k−i
n
.
42
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: X´et hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p r`o
.
i nhau A v`a B lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t c´ o m v`a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Khi
d¯´o sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A∪B l`a C
k
m+n
. M˘a
.
t kh´ ac, v´o
.
i mˆ o
˜
i i (0 ≤ i ≤ k),
cho
.
n k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A∪B l` a cho
.
n i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A v`a k −i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B. Theo
quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan, d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay c´ o thˆe

l`am b˘a
`
ng C
i
m
.C
k−i
n
c´ach. V`ı vˆa
.
y, sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n k
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A ∪ B l`a
k
¸
i=0
C
i
m
.C
k−i
n
v`a t` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (3).
2.2.3.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
(Cˆong th´ u
.
c nhi
.
th´ u
.
c Newton): Cho x v`a y l`a hai biˆe
´
n
v` a n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. Khi d¯´o:
(4) (x +y)
n
=
n
¸
k=0
C
k
n
x
k
y
n−k
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: C´ac sˆo
´
ha
.
ng trong khai triˆe

n cu’ a (x+y)
n
= (x+y) . . . (x+y) (n
lˆ a
`
n) s˜e c´o da
.
ng x
k
y
n−k
v´o
.
i 0 ≤ k ≤ n. D
-
ˆe

nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c sˆo
´
ha
.
ng da
.
ng x
k
y
n−k
, ta
cho
.
n x t` u
.
k tˆo

ng x+y v`a c´o C
k
n
c´ach cho
.
n nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, khi d¯´o y d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n t` u
.
n−k
tˆ o

ng c`on la
.
i. T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (4).
Trong khai triˆe

n trˆen, cho
.
n x = y = 1, ta c´o sˆo
´
c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l`a
n
¸
k=0
C
k
n
= 2
n
.
2.3. LU
.
.
C LU
.
O
.
.
NG CU

A T
ˆ
A
.
P HO
.
.
P.
2.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Ta n´ oi tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng (hay c` ung ba’ n sˆo
´
) v´o
.
i
tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p Y nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i mˆ o
.
t song ´anh t` u
.
X v`ao Y .
Gia’ su
.
’ tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay c´o ngh˜ıa l`a c´o mˆo
.
t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
mˆo
.
t-mˆo
.
t gi˜ u
.
a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A v´o
.
i c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen 1, 2, . . . , n. N´oi c´ach kh´ac,
A c´ o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nˆe
´
u v`a chı ’ nˆe
´
u n´o c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦.
Sau d¯ˆay ch´ ung ta s˜e kha’ o s´at l´o
.
p c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p vˆo ha
.
n c´o “´ıt phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nhˆa
´
t”,
d¯´o l` a c´ ac tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
2.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c nˆe
´
u n´o c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng
v´ o
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
Th´ı du
.
: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, ´anh xa
.
f : N −→Z x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i:
f(n) =

1 +k nˆe
´
u n = 2k,
1 −k nˆe
´
u n = 2k −1.
l` a mˆo
.
t song ´anh.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen ch˘a
˜
n v`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen le’ d¯ˆe
`
u
l` a c´ ac tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
43
Th´ı du
.
trˆen cho thˆa
´
y mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p vˆo ha
.
n c´o thˆe

c´o c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p
con thu
.
.
c su
.
.
cu’ a n´o.
2.3.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Mˆo
˜
i tˆa
.
p con vˆo ha
.
n cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c˜ ung l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p
d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ A = ¦a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . ¦ l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v`a B l`a mˆo
.
t
tˆ a
.
p con vˆ o ha
.
n cu’ a A. Go
.
i i
0
l`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen nho’ nhˆa
´
t sao cho a
i
0
∈ B, i
1
l`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen nho’ nhˆa
´
t sao cho a
i
1
∈ B ` ¦a
i
0
¦. Mˆo
.
t c´ ach quy na
.
p, i
n
l`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen
nho’ nhˆa
´
t sao cho a
i
n
∈ B ` ¦a
i
0
, a
i
1
, . . . , a
i
n−1
¦...
B˘a
`
ng c´ach d¯´o, c´ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B d¯u
.
o
.
.
c xˆe
´
p th`anh mˆ o
.
t d˜ay vˆo ha
.
n B =
¦a
i
0
, a
i
1
, . . . , a
i
n
, . . . ¦. N´oi c´ ach kh´ac, c´ o mˆo
.
t song ´anh N −→ B d¯˘a
.
t n tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i a
i
n
hay B l`a mˆo
.
t tˆ a
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
2.3.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Ho
.
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`a tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ A
i
(i = 1, 2, . . . , ) l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh
A = ∪
i
A
i
l`a tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. Ta liˆe
.
t kˆe c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A
i
= ¦a
i1
, a
i2
, . . . , a
in
, . . . ¦
th`anh mˆo
.
t ba’ ng:
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
. . . a
1n
. . .
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
. . . a
2n
. . .
a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
. . . a
3n
. . .
a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
. . . a
4n
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n1
a
n2
a
n3
a
n4
. . . a
nn
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rˆo
`
i d¯´anh sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
chiˆe
`
u m˜ ui tˆen trong ba’ ng trˆen
sao cho khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n`ao bi
.
d¯´anh sˆo
´
hai lˆa
`
n. B˘a
`
ng c´ach d¯´o, ta liˆe
.
t kˆe d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
tˆ a
´
t ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A, ngh˜ıa l`a A d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
2.3.5. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Tˆa
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ l`a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: V´o
.
i mˆ o
˜
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng m, k´ y hiˆe
.
u Q
m
= ¦
n
m
∈ Q [ n ∈ Z¦.
Khi d¯´o Q
m
l`a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c do c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng v´o
.
i Z. V`ı Q =


m=1
Q
m
, nˆen t` u
.
mˆe
.
nh
d¯ˆe
`
trˆen Q l`a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
2.3.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: T´ıch Descartes cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ A v`a B l`a hai tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, v´o
.
i A = ¦a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, . . . ¦,
B = ¦b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
, . . . ¦. Theo d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa A B = ¦(a
i
, b
j
) [ i, j = 1, 2, . . . ¦.
V´o
.
i mˆ o
˜
i i, x´et tˆa
.
p C
i
= ¦(a
i
, b
j
) [ j = 1, 2, . . . ¦. R˜o r`ang C
i
d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v`ı c` ung
lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng v´o
.
i B. Khi d¯´o A B =


i=1
C
i
l`a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
44
Ch´ ung ta th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n kˆe
´
t qua’ sau d¯ˆay, v`ı muˆo
´
n ch´ u
.
ng minh n´o ta cˆa
`
n mˆ o
.
t
hiˆe

u biˆe
´
t sˆau s˘a
´
c ho
.
n vˆe
`
c´ ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c.
2.3.7. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p vˆo ha
.
n khˆong d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta n´oi tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c c´o lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng continum.
2.4. NH
´
OM, V
`
ANH V
`
A TRU
.
`
O
.
NG.
Nh´om, v`anh v`a tru
.
`o
.
ng l`a c´ ac cˆa
´
u tr´ uc quan tro
.
ng v`a rˆa
´
t thu
.
`o
.
ng g˘a
.
p trong
c´ ac ho
.
c phˆa
`
n cu’ a to´an ho
.
c. O
.

d¯ˆay, ta chı’ gi´o
.
i thiˆe
.
u nh˜ u
.
ng n´et so
.
lu
.
o
.
.
c nhˆa
´
t vˆe
`
vˆ a
´
n d¯ˆe
`
n`ay.
2.4.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho G l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Mˆo
˜
i ´anh xa
.
◦ : GG −→G
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t ph´ep to´an hai ngˆoi (hay mˆo
.
t luˆa
.
t ho
.
.
p th`anh) trˆen G. A

nh cu’ a
c˘ a
.
p phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ (x, y) ∈ G G bo
.
’ i ´anh xa
.
◦ s˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x ◦ y v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l` a t´ıch hay ho
.
.
p th`anh cu’ a x v`a y.
2.4.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho G l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, trˆen d¯´o c´o ph´ep to´an hai ngˆoi ◦.
Ta n´oi G l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om nˆe
´
u thoa’ m˜an ba d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau:
(G1) Ph´ep to´an c´ o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p:
(x ◦ y) ◦ z = x ◦ (y ◦ z), ∀x, y, z ∈ G.
(G2) C´o mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ e ∈ G, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trung ho`a, v´o
.
i t´ınh chˆa
´
t
x ◦ e = e ◦ x = x, ∀x ∈ G.
(G3) V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ G, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ x

∈ G, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a x, sao
cho
x ◦ x

= x

◦ x = e.
Nˆe
´
u nh´om G thoa’ m˜an thˆem d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
(G4) Ph´ep to´an c´ o t´ınh giao ho´an:
x ◦ y = y ◦ x, ∀x, y ∈ G
th`ı G d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t nh´om aben hay nh´om giao ho´an.
2.4.3. Nhˆa
.
n x´et: Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trung ho`a cu’ a mˆo
.
t nh´om l`a duy nhˆa
´
t. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y,
nˆe
´
u e v`a e

d¯ˆe
`
u l`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ho`a cu’ a nh´om G th`ı e = e ◦ e

= e

.
V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ G, phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o x

trong (G3) l`a duy nhˆa
´
t. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y,
nˆe
´
u x

1
v`a x

2
l`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a x th`ı
x

1
= x

1
◦ e = x

1
◦ (x ◦ x

2
) = (x

1
◦ x) ◦ x

2
= e ◦ x

2
= x

2
.
45
Trong nh´om c´o luˆ a
.
t gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, t´ u
.
c l`a
x ◦ y = x ◦ z ⇒y = z,
x ◦ z = y ◦ z ⇒x = y.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, d¯ˆe

c´o luˆa
.
t gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, chı ’ cˆa
`
n nhˆan hai vˆe
´
cu’ a d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c x ◦ y = x ◦ z
v´ o
.
i nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o x

cu’ a x t` u
.
bˆen tr´ai v`a nhˆan hai vˆe
´
cu’ a d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c x ◦ z = y ◦ z
v´ o
.
i nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o z

cu’ a z t` u
.
bˆen pha’ i.
Theo th´oi quen, luˆa
.
t ho
.
.
p th`anh ◦ trong mˆo
.
t nh´om aben thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y
hiˆe
.
u theo lˆo
´
i cˆo
.
ng “+”. Ho
.
.
p th`anh cu’ a c˘a
.
p phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ (x, y) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x+y
v` a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a x v`a y. Phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ trung ho`a cu’ a nh´om d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ khˆong, k´ y hiˆe
.
u 0. Nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a x d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
−x.
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p tˆo

ng qu´at, ph´ep to´an ◦ trong nh´om thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u theo
lˆ o
´
i nhˆ an “.”. Ho
.
.
p th`anh cu’ a c˘a
.
p phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ (x, y) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x.y hay d¯o
.
n
gia’ n xy v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch cu’ a x v`a y. Phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ trung ho`a cu’ a nh´om d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l` a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
. Phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a x d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x
−1
.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) C´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
Z, Q, R lˆa
.
p th`anh nh´om aben d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng.
2) C´ac tˆa
.
p Z

= ¦±1¦, Q

= Q` ¦0¦, R

= R ` ¦0¦ l`am th`anh nh´om aben
d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan.
3) Nhu
.
ta d¯˜a biˆe
´
t, mˆo
˜
i song ´anh t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ lˆen ch´ınh n´o go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t
ho´an vi
.
trˆen n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ; ta c` on go
.
i n´ o l`a mˆo
.
t ph´ep thˆe
´
trˆen n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p
S
n
tˆ a
´
t ca’ c´ac ph´ep thˆe
´
trˆen n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l`am th`anh mˆo
.
t nh´om d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep ho
.
.
p
th`anh ´anh xa
.
. S
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a nh´om d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng trˆen n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . D
-
ˆay l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om
khˆong aben khi n > 2.
2.4.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho G v`a G

l`a c´ac nh´ om (v´o
.
i ph´ep to´an viˆe
´
t theo lˆo
´
i
nhˆan).
´
Anh xa
.
f : G −→G

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om nˆe
´
u
f(xy) = f(x)f(y), ∀x, y ∈ G.
Khi d¯´o d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om f chuyˆe

n d¯o
.
n vi
.
e cu’ a G th`anh d¯o
.
n vi
.
e

cu’ a G

, t´ u
.
c l`a
f(e) = e

. N´o c˜ ung chuyˆe

n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a x th`anh phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o
cu’ a f(x), t´ u
.
c l`a f(x
−1
) = f(x)
−1
, ∀x ∈ G.
2.4.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´ om d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l` a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n cˆa
´
u nh´om.
Mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´ om d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t to`an cˆ a
´
u
nh´om.
Mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´ om d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u
nh´om.
46
Nˆe
´
u c´o mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u nh´om gi˜ u
.
a G v`a G

th`ı ta n´oi G d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u v´o
.
i G

v`a
viˆe
´
t G

= G

.
Th´ı du
.
: 1)
´
Anh xa
.
i : Z −→ Q d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c i(x) = x l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n
cˆ a
´
u nh´om.
2) Cho G l`a mˆo
.
t nh´ om cyclic sinh bo
.
’ i a ∈ G, t´ u
.
c l`a nh´ om m`a mˆo
˜
i x ∈ G c´o
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n x = a
n
, v´o
.
i n ∈ Z. Khi d¯´o ´anh xa
.
p : Z −→G x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i p(n) = a
n
l` a mˆo
.
t to`an cˆa
´
u nh´om.
3)
´
Anh xa
.
m˜ u exp: R −→R
+
, exp(x) = e
x
l`a mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u nh´om t` u
.
nh´om
cˆ o
.
ng c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c R lˆen nh´om nhˆan c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c du
.
o
.
ng R
+
.
2.4.6. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, trˆen d¯´o c´o hai ph´ep to´an hai ngˆoi,
k´ y hiˆe
.
u theo lˆ o
´
i cˆo
.
ng v`a nhˆan. Ta n´oi R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh nˆe
´
u thoa’ m˜an c´ac d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
sau:
(R1) R l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om aben d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng.
(R2) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p:
(xy)z = x(yz), ∀x, y, z ∈ R.
(R3) Ph´ep nhˆ an phˆan phˆo
´
i hai ph´ıa d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng:
x(y +z) = xy +xz, (y +z)x = yx +zx, ∀x, y, z ∈ R.
V`anh R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a v` anh giao ho´an nˆe
´
u thoa’ m˜an:
(R4) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh giao ho´an:
xy = yx, ∀x, y ∈ R.
V`anh R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
nˆe
´
u thoa’ m˜an:
(R5) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
, t´ u
.
c l`a c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ 1 ∈ R sao cho:
1x = x1 = x, ∀x ∈ R.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) C´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
Z, Q, R l`a c´ac v` anh giao ho´an v`a c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i
c´ ac ph´ep to´an cˆo
.
ng v`a nhˆan thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen khˆong l`a
mˆo
.
t v`anh, v`ı n´o khˆong l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ A l`a mˆo
.
t nh´ om cˆo
.
ng aben. Go
.
i End(A) l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u
nh´om t` u
.
A v`ao A. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ay c` ung v´o
.
i hai ph´ep to´an sau: ∀f, g ∈ End(A),
f +g x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i (f +g)(x) = f(x) +g(x), ∀x ∈ A
fg x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i (fg)(x) = f(g(x)), ∀x ∈ A
47
lˆ a
.
p th`anh mˆo
.
t v`anh (khˆong giao ho´an), c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
. Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong cu’ a End(A)
l` a d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u 0 (0(x) = 0, ∀x ∈ A), c`on phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
l`a ´anh xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t id
A
(id
A
(x) = x, ∀x ∈ A).
2.4.7. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R v`a R

l`a c´ac v`anh.
´
Anh xa
.
f : R −→ R

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l` a mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u v`anh nˆe
´
u
f(x +y) = f(x) +f(y), f(xy) = f(x)f(y), ∀x, y ∈ R.
C´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m d¯o
.
n cˆa
´
u v`anh, to`an cˆa
´
u v`anh, d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u v` anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ngh˜ıa
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p nh´om.
2.4.8. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x trong mˆo
.
t v`anh c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a kha’
nghi
.
ch nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ x

∈ R sao cho
xx

= x

x = 1.
Dˆe
˜
ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x

c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i th`ı duy nhˆa
´
t.
N´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x
−1
.
2.4.9. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆo
.
t v`anh giao ho´an, c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
1 = 0 sao cho mo
.
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.

kh´ac 0 trong n´o d¯ˆe
`
u kha’ nghi
.
ch d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng.
V`anh Q l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng. V`anh Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen khˆong l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng, v`ı c´ ac
sˆ o
´
kh´ac ±1 d¯ˆe
`
u khˆong kha’ nghi
.
ch trong Z.
2.4.10. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Nˆe
´
u v`anh R ch´ u
.
a c´ ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ a = 0, b = 0 sao cho ab = 0
th`ı ta n´oi R c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆ ong.
2.4.11. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Mˆo
˜
i tru
.
`o
.
ng d¯ˆe
`
u l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh khˆong c´ o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ F l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng, a v`a b l`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ thuˆ o
.
c F v´o
.
i ab = 0.
Nˆe
´
u a = 0 th`ı a kha’ nghi
.
ch. Ta c´ o
b = 1b = (a
−1
a)b = a
−1
(ab) = a
−1
0 = 0.
Vˆa
.
y F khˆong c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong.
2.4.12. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t v` anh c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
. Nˆe
´
u c´o sˆo
´
du
.
o
.
ng n sao cho
1 +. . . + 1
. .. .
n
= 0 th`ı sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng nho’ nhˆa
´
t c´ o t´ınh chˆa
´
t d¯´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a d¯˘a
.
c
sˆ o
´
cu’ a v`anh R. Ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, nˆe
´
u khˆong c´o sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n n`ao nhu
.
thˆe
´
th`ı ta
n´ oi R c´o d¯˘a
.
c sˆo
´
b˘a
`
ng 0. D
-
˘a
.
c sˆo
´
cu’ a R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a Char(R).
2.4.13. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Nˆe
´
u F l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng th`ı Char(F) ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng 0 ho˘a
.
c l`a mˆ o
.
t
sˆ o
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ n = Char(F) l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
v´o
.
i phˆan t´ıch n = rs (0 <
r, s < n). Dˆe
˜
thˆa
´
y r˘a
`
ng n.1 = (r.1)(s.1) = 0. V`ı tru
.
`o
.
ng F khˆong c´ o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a
khˆong, nˆen ho˘a
.
c r.1 = 0 ho˘a
.
c s.1 = 0. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay mˆau thuˆa
˜
n v´o
.
i d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a
d¯˘a
.
c sˆo
´
.
48
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P CHU
.
O
.
NG II
1. T`ım miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh, a’ nh cu’ a miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh cu’ a c´ac ´anh xa
.
sau:
a)
´
Anh xa
.
g´an cho mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
cuˆo
´
i c` ung cu’ a n´o.
b)
´
Anh xa
.
g´an cho mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng sˆo
´
nguyˆen l´o
.
n ho
.
n tiˆe
´
p sau.
c)
´
Anh xa
.
g´an cho mˆo
˜
i xˆ au bit (d˜ay nhi
.
phˆan) sˆo
´
c´ac bit 1 trong xˆau d¯´o.
d)
´
Anh xa
.
g´an cho mˆo
˜
i xˆau bit sˆo
´
c´ac bit trong xˆau d¯´o.
2. T`ım miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh cu’ a c´ac ´anh xa
.
cho bo
.
’ i c´ ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c sau:
a) f(x) = (x + 1)

2+x
2−x
.
b) f(x) = ln
x
2
−3x+2
x+1
.
c) f(x) =

sin

x.
d) f(x) = ln(sin
π
x
).
e) f(x) =

x
sin πx
.
f ) f(x) = (x +[x[)

xsin
2
x.
3. Cho ´anh xa
.
f : R −→R x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(x) = x
2
−3x+1. H˜ay t`ım f([−1, 2]),
Imf, f
−1
(1), f
−1
(−1), f
−1
([−1, 1]). D` ung d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
d¯ˆe

minh hoa
.
.
4. Ta go
.
i h`am d¯˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con A cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p U, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a ϕ
A
,
l` a ´anh xa
.
ϕ
A
: U −→¦0, 1¦ x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i:
ϕ
A
(x) =

1, nˆe
´
u x ∈ A
0, nˆe
´
u x / ∈ A
.
X´ac d¯i
.
nh h`am d¯˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a c´ac tˆa
.
p con A ∩ B, A ∪ B, A, A ⊕ B cu’ a U, v´o
.
i
A, B l`a nh˜ u
.
ng tˆa
.
p con t` uy ´ y cu’ a U.
5. Cho mˆ o
.
t th´ı du
.
vˆe
`
mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f : N −→N l`a
a) d¯o
.
n ´anh nhu
.
ng khˆong to`an ´anh,
b) to`an ´anh nhu
.
ng khˆong d¯o
.
n ´anh,
c) v` u
.
a to`an ´anh v` u
.
a d¯o
.
n ´anh (nhu
.
ng kh´ac ´anh xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t),
d) Khˆong d¯o
.
n ´anh c˜ ung khˆong to`an ´anh.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac ´anh xa
.
sau l`a song ´anh v`a t`ım c´ac ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a ch´ ung:
a) f : R −→R cho bo
.
’ i f(x) =
e
x
−e
−x
2
.
b) f : [0, +∞) −→[1, ∞) cho bo
.
’ i f(x) =
e
x
+e
−x
2
.
c) f : R −→(−1, 1) cho bo
.
’ i f(x) =
x
1 +[x[
.
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u f : A −→A l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh v` a f ◦ f = f th`ı f l`a ´anh
xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t.
49
8. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v`a ´anh xa
.
f : N −→N x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i:
f(k) =

n −k, nˆe
´
u k < n
n +k, nˆe
´
u k ≥ n
.
f c´ o pha’ i l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh, to`an ´anh, song ´anh khˆong?
9. Cho hai ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B v`a g : B −→C. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) Nˆe
´
u g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh th`ı f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
b) Nˆe
´
u g ◦ f l`a to`an ´anh th`ı g l`a to`an ´anh.
c) Nˆe
´
u g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh v`a f l`a to`an ´anh th`ı g l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
d) Nˆe
´
u g ◦ f l`a to`an ´anh v`a g l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh th`ı f l`a to`an ´anh.
10. Cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh khi v` a chı’ khi v´o
.
i mo
.
i tˆa
.
p X v`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i g, g

: X −→
A, f ◦ g = f ◦ g

k´eo theo g = g

.
b) f l`a to`an ´anh khi v`a chı ’ khi v´o
.
i mo
.
i tˆa
.
p Y v`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i h, h

: B −→
Y, h ◦ f = h

◦ f k´eo theo h = h

.
c) f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh khi v`a chı’ khi v´o
.
i mo
.
i X, Y ⊂ A, f(X∩Y ) = f(X) ∩f(Y ).
11. Cho c´ ac ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B, g : B −→ C, h : C −→ A. Khi d¯´o ta c´ o ba
´anh xa
.
h ◦ g ◦ f : A −→A, g ◦ f ◦ h : C −→C, f ◦ h ◦ g : B −→B. Ch´ u
.
ng minh
r˘ a
`
ng:
a) Nˆe
´
u hai trong ba ´anh xa
.
trˆen l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh v`a ´anh xa
.
c`on la
.
i l`a to`an ´anh
th`ı f, g, h d¯ˆe
`
u l`a song ´anh.
b) Nˆe
´
u hai trong ba ´anh xa
.
trˆen l`a to`an ´anh v`a ´anh xa
.
c`on la
.
i l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh
th`ı f, g, h d¯ˆe
`
u l`a song ´anh.
12. T`ım


n=1
A
n
v`a


n=1
A
n
khi
a) A
n
= ¦x ∈ R [ −
1
n
≤ x <
1
n
¦.
b) A
n
= ¦x ∈ R [
1
n
≤ x <
2
n
¦.
c) A
n
= ¦x ∈ R [ (1 +
1
n
)
n
≤ x ≤ 3¦.
d) A
n
= ¦x ∈ R [ n ≤ x ≤ n + 1¦.
13. Gia’ su
.
’ (A
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p
t` uy ´ y. Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
a) B ∩ ( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) = ∪
α∈I
(B ∩ A
α
).
b) B ∪ ( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) = ∩
α∈I
(B ∪ A
α
).
c) A ` ( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) = ∩
α∈I
(A ` A
α
).
d) A ` ( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) = ∪
α∈I
(A ` A
α
).
14. Cho ´anh xa
.
f : A −→B, (A
α
)
α∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a A, (B
β
)
β∈J
l`a
mˆo
.
t ho
.
c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a B. Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
50
a) f( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) = ∪
α∈I
f(A
α
).
b) f( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) ⊂ ∩
α∈I
f(A
α
).
c) f
−1
( ∪
β∈J
B
β
) = ∪
β∈J
f
−1
(B
β
).
d) f
−1
( ∩
β∈J
B
β
) = ∩
β∈J
f
−1
(B
β
).
15. V´o
.
i 6 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ta c´o thˆe

ghi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c bao nhiˆeu sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen thoa’
m˜an mˆo
.
t v`a chı ’ mˆo
.
t d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n trong c´ac d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau d¯ˆay:
a) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
.
b) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau.
c) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau v` a nho’ ho
.
n 2003.
d) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau v` a l`a sˆo
´
ch˘a
˜
n.
e) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau v` a chia hˆe
´
t cho 5.
16. Cˆo dˆau v`a ch´ u rˆe

m`o
.
i 4 ngu
.
`o
.
i ba
.
n d¯´ u
.
ng th`anh mˆo
.
t h`ang d¯ˆe

chu
.
p a’ nh c` ung
v´ o
.
i m`ınh. C´ o bao nhiˆeu c´ach xˆe
´
p h`ang nˆe
´
u:
a) Cˆo dˆau d¯´ u
.
ng ca
.
nh ch´ u rˆe

?
b) Cˆo dˆau khˆong d¯´ u
.
ng ca
.
nh ch´ u rˆe

?
c) Cˆo dˆau d¯´ u
.
ng bˆen tr´ai ch´ u rˆe

?
17. Mˆo
.
t tˆo

bˆo
.
mˆon cu’ a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng d¯a
.
i ho
.
c c´ o 16 gia’ ng viˆen.
a) C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ ach cho
.
n mˆo
.
t hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen cu’ a tˆo

.
b) C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ach cho
.
n mˆ o
.
t hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen cu’ a tˆo

sao cho
mˆo
˜
i th`anh viˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c phˆan cˆong o
.
’ mˆo
.
t vi
.
tr´ı d¯˜a d¯i
.
nh.
c) Trong 16 gia’ ng viˆen c´o 7 n˜ u
.
v`a 9 nam. C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ach cho
.
n mˆo
.
t hˆo
.
i
d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen cu’ a tˆo

nˆe
´
u trong hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng c´o ´ıt nhˆ a
´
t mˆo
.
t n˜ u
.
v`a ´ıt nhˆa
´
t
mˆo
.
t nam.
18. a) C´o bao nhiˆeu xˆau nhi
.
phˆan c´o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai b˘a
`
ng 10 v`a c´o 5 sˆo
´
0 liˆe
`
n nhau
ho˘a
.
c 5 sˆo
´
1 liˆe
`
n nhau.
b) C´o bao nhiˆeu xˆ au nhi
.
phˆan c´ o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai b˘a
`
ng 8 v` a c´o 3 sˆo
´
0 liˆe
`
n nhau ho˘a
.
c
4 sˆo
´
1 liˆe
`
n nhau.
19. Cho mˆo
.
t lu
.
´o
.
i gˆo
`
m c´ ac ˆo vuˆ ong. C´ac n´ ut d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯´anh sˆo
´
t` u
.
0 d¯ˆe
´
n n theo
chiˆe
`
u t` u
.
tr´ai sang pha’ i v`a t` u
.
0 d¯ˆe
´
n k theo chiˆe
`
u t` u
.
du
.
´o
.
i lˆen trˆen. Ho’ i c´o bao
nhiˆeu d¯u
.
`o
.
ng d¯i kh´ac nhau t` u
.
n´ ut (0, 0) d¯ˆe
´
n n´ ut (n, k) nˆe
´
u chı’ cho ph´ep d¯i trˆen
ca
.
nh c´ac ˆo vuˆ ong theo chiˆe
`
u sang pha’ i ho˘a
.
c lˆen trˆen?
20. C´o thˆe

v˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c bao nhiˆeu tam gi´ac t` u
.
n d¯iˆe

m trˆen mˆo
.
t m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng, trong
d¯´o c´o m d¯iˆe

m c` ung n˘a
`
m trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng d v`a ngo`ai ra mo
.
i bˆo
.
ba d¯iˆe

m khˆong
c` ung n˘a
`
m trˆen d th`ı khˆ ong th˘a

ng h`ang.
21. a) C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ach lˆa
´
y ra k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trong n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ xˆe
´
p trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng
th˘a

ng sao cho khˆong c´ o hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ kˆe
`
nhau c` ung d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lˆa
´
y ra.
51
b) Giˆo
´
ng nhu
.
trˆen, nhu
.
ng v´o
.
i n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ xˆe
´
p trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on.
22. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
n
¸
k=0
(−1)
k
C
k
n
= 0.
23. H˜ay ch´ u
.
ng minh h˘a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Vandermonde:
C
k
m+n
=
k
¸
i=0
C
i
m
.C
k−i
n
b˘ a
`
ng c´ach khai triˆe

n nhi
.
th´ u
.
c (x + 1)
m+n
.
24. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
k
¸
i=0
C
i
n+i
= C
k
n+k+1
,
trong d¯´o n v`a k l`a c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng.
25. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng th`ı
C
2
2n
= 2C
2
n
+n
2
.
26. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. H˜ay ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng cˆong cu
.
tˆo

ho
.
.
p
r˘ a
`
ng:
n
¸
k=1
kC
k
n
= n.2
n−1
.
27. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. H˜ay ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng cˆong cu
.
tˆo

ho
.
.
p
r˘ a
`
ng:
n
¸
k=1
k(C
k
n
)
2
= nC
n−1
2n−1
.
28. Cho k v`a n l`a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. C´o bao nhiˆeu c´ach cho
.
n k t`o
.
giˆa
´
y ba
.
c
t` u
.
mˆo
.
t k´et d¯u
.
.
ng tiˆe
`
n gˆo
`
m nh˜ u
.
ng t`o
.
thuˆ o
.
c n loa
.
i tiˆe
`
n? Gia’ su
.
’ th´ u
.
tu
.
.
m`a c´ac t`o
.
tiˆe
`
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n ra l`a khˆong quan tro
.
ng, c´ac t`o
.
tiˆe
`
n c` ung loa
.
i l`a khˆong phˆan biˆe
.
t
v` a mˆo
˜
i loa
.
i c´ o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t k t`o
.
.
29. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 17
c´ o bao nhiˆeu nghiˆe
.
m nguyˆen khˆ ong ˆam?
52
30. C´o bao nhiˆeu xˆau kh´ac nhau c´o thˆe

lˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai trong t` u
.
MISSISSIPPI, v´ o
.
i yˆeu cˆa
`
u pha’ i d` ung tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai.
31. a) B˘a
`
ng c´ ach x´et h`am m˜ u exp: R −→R
+
, exp(x) = e
x
v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ R, h˜ay
ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng tˆa
.
p sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c R v`a tˆa
.
p sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c du
.
o
.
ng R
+
c´o c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng.
b) B˘a
`
ng c´ach x´et h`am f : (0, 1) −→R
+
cho bo
.
’ i cˆ ong th´ u
.
c:
f(x) =

x nˆe
´
u 0 < x ≤
1
2
,
1
4(1 −x)
nˆe
´
u
1
2
< x < 1.
H˜ay ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng khoa’ ng d¯o
.
n vi
.
mo
.
’ (0, 1) c´o c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p R
+
c´ ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c du
.
o
.
ng. V`a v`ı vˆa
.
y R, R
+
v`a (0, 1) c´o c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng.
32. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
33. Trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, x´et ph´ep to´an ∗ x´ac d¯i
.
nh nhu
.
sau:
∀a, b ∈ Q, a ∗ b = a +b +ab.
a) Q c` ung ph´ep to´an ∗ c´o pha’ i l` a mˆo
.
t nh´om khˆong? Ta
.
i sao?
b) Ch´ u
.
ng minh Q` ¦−1¦ c` ung ph´ep to´an ∗ ta
.
o th`anh mˆo
.
t nh´om.
34. Ch´ u
.
ng minh tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p G = ¦(a, b) [ a, b ∈ R, b = 0¦ c` ung ph´ep to´an k´ y hiˆe
.
u
nhˆan
∀(a, b), (a

, b

), (a, b)(a

, b

) = (ab

+a

, bb

)
l` a mˆo
.
t nh´om.
35. Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p G = [0, 1) = ¦x ∈ R [ 0 ≤ x < 1¦. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ph´ep to´an ⊕
trˆen G nhu
.
sau:
∀x, y ∈ G, x ⊕y = x +y −[x +y] (phˆa
`
n le’ cu’ a x +y).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh (G, ⊕) l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om abel.
36. Cho G = R

R (v´o
.
i R l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a R

= R ` ¦0¦) v`a ∗ l`a
ph´ep to´an trˆen G x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i:
(x, y) ∗ (x

, y

) = (xx

, xy

+
y
x

).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng (G, ∗) l` a mˆ o
.
t nh´om.
37. Cho Q l`a nh´om c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ´anh xa
.
f : Q −→Q l`a d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´ om khi v`a chı ’ khi tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
a ∈ Q sao
cho f(x) = ax, ∀x ∈ Q.
53
38. Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
1. Trˆen R, x´et ph´ep to´an ∗:
x ∗ y = x +y −xy.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u R

= ¦x ∈ R [ ∃y ∈ R, x ∗ y = y ∗ x = 0¦. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) (R

, ∗) l`a mˆ o
.
t nh´om.
b) R


= U(R), v´o
.
i U(R) l`a nh´ om c´ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ kha’ nghi
.
ch cu’ a v`anh R.
39. Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh, Z l`a v`anh c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen, trˆen tˆa
.
p ZR ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
2 ph´ep to´an cˆo
.
ng v`a nhˆ an nhu
.
sau:
(m, x) + (n, y) = (m+n, x +y) , (m, x)(n, y) = (mn, my +nx +xy) .
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng Z R v´ o
.
i 2 ph´ep to´an n`ay l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
. T`ım c´ac
u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong cu’ a v`anh Z R v´o
.
i R = Z.
40. Cho S l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh v`a η l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh t` u
.
S lˆen R.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng S v´o
.
i 2 ph´ep to´an:
a +b = η
−1
(η(a) +η(b)) , ab = η
−1
(η(a)η(b)) , ∀a, b ∈ S
l` a mˆ o
.
t v`anh v`a η l`a mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u v`anh. D` ung d¯iˆe
`
u n` ay d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
mˆo
.
t v`anh bˆa
´
t k` y c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
1 c˜ ung c`on l`a mˆ o
.
t v`anh d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i 2 ph´ep to´an a ⊕b =
a +b −1 , a ∗ b = a +b −ab.
41. a) Cho p l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
. K´ y hiˆe
.
u
Q(

p) = ¦a +b

p [ a, b ∈ Q¦,
trong d¯´o Q l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng c´ac sˆ o
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng Q(

p) l`a mˆ o
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng.
b) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng tru
.
`o
.
ng Q(

3) khˆong d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u v´o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng Q(

5).
Mˆo
.
t v`anh R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t v`anh Boole nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i a ∈ R, a
2
= a.
42. Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh Boole. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) R c´o d¯˘a
.
c sˆo
´
2.
b) R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh giao ho´an.
c) Nˆe
´
u R khˆong c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a 0 th`ı ho˘a
.
c R = ¦0¦ ho˘a
.
c R chı’ c´o hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
54
TRA

L
`
O
.
I V
`
A HU
.
´
O
.
NG D
ˆ
A
˜
N GIA

I B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
CHU
.
O
.
NG II
1. a) Miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh l`a tˆa
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v`a a’ nh cu’ a n´o l`a tˆa
.
p ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8, 9¦.
b) Miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh l`a tˆa
.
p Z
+
c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng v`a a’ nh cu’ a n´o l`a tˆa
.
p
¦n ∈ Z
+
[n ≥ 2¦.
c), d) Miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh l`a tˆa
.
p c´ac xˆau bit v`a a’ nh cu’ a n´o l`a tˆa
.
p N.
2. a)
´
Anh xa
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh khi
2+x
2−x
> 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi −2 ≤ x < 2.
b)
´
Anh xa
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh khi
x
2
−3x+2
x+1
> 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi −1 < x < 1 hay
x > 2.
c)
´
Anh xa
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh khi x ≥ 0 v`a sin

x ≥ 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi 4k
2
π
2
≤ x ≤
(2k + 1)
2
π
2
v´o
.
i k ∈ N.
d)
´
Anh xa
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh khi sin
π
x
> 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi 2kπ <
π
x
< (2k +1)π v´o
.
i
k ∈ Z. Nˆe
´
u k = 0 th`ı 0 <
1
x
< 1 nˆen x > 1. Nˆe
´
u k > 0 th`ı 2k <
1
x
< 2k + 1.
Do d¯´o
1
2k+1
< x <
1
2k
v´o
.
i k = 1, 2, . . . . Nˆe
´
u k < 0 th`ı
1
2k+1
< x <
1
2k
v´o
.
i
k = −1, −2, . . . .
e)
´
Anh xa
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh khi x ≥ 0 v`a sin πx = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi k < x < k + 1
v´ o
.
i k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
f )
´
Anh xa
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh khi xsin
2
x > 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi x ≥ 0.
3. f([−1, 2]) = [−
5
4
, 5].
Imf = f(R) = [−
5
4
, +∞).
f
−1
(1) = ¦x ∈ R [ x
2
−3x + 1 = 1¦ = ¦0, 3¦.
f
−1
(−1) = ¦x ∈ R [ x
2
−3x + 1 = −1¦ = ¦1, 2¦.
f
−1
([−1, 1]) = ¦x ∈ R [ −1 ≤ x
2
−3x + 1 ≤ 1¦ = [0, 1] ∪ [2, 3].
4. ϕ
A∩B
(x) = ϕ
A
(x)ϕ
B
(x) = min(ϕ
A
(x), ϕ
B
(x)).
ϕ
A∪B
(x) = ϕ
A
(x) +ϕ
B
(x) −ϕ
A
(x)ϕ
B
(x) = max(ϕ
A
(x), ϕ
B
(x)).
ϕ
A
(x) = 1 −ϕ
A
(x).
ϕ
A⊕B
(x) = ϕ
A
(x) +ϕ
B
(x) −2ϕ
A
(x)ϕ
B
(x) = [ ϕ
A
(x) −ϕ
B
(x) [.
5. a) f(n) = 3n,
b) f(n) = [
n
2
] (h`am phˆa
`
n nguyˆen),
c) f(n) =

n, nˆe
´
u n = 3k
n + 1, nˆe
´
u n = 3k + 1
n −1, nˆe
´
u n = 3k + 2
.
d) f(n) = k, trong d¯´ o k ∈ ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9¦ l`a ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
cuˆo
´
i c` ung cu’ a
sˆ o
´
n.
55
6. a) y =
e
x
−e
−x
2
⇔ e
2x
−2ye
x
−1 = 0 ⇔ e
x
= y +

y
2
+ 1 ⇔ x = ln(y +

y
2
+ 1) (v`ı e
x
> 0 nˆen khˆ ong cho
.
n e
x
= y−

y
2
+ 1). Do d¯´o f l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh
v` a ´ anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a n´o l`a f
−1
: R −→R cho bo
.
’ i f
−1
(x) = ln(x +

x
2
+ 1).
b) y =
e
x
+e
−x
2
⇔ e
2x
− 2ye
x
+ 1 = 0 ⇔ e
x
= y +

y
2
−1 ⇔ x =
ln(y +

y
2
−1) (v`ı x ≥ 0 nˆen khˆong cho
.
n e
x
= y −

y
2
−1). Do d¯´o f l`a
mˆo
.
t song ´anh v`a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a n´o l`a f
−1
: [1, ∞) −→ [0, +∞) cho bo
.
’ i
f
−1
(x) = ln(x +

x
2
−1).
c)

y =
x
1+x
x ≥ 0

x =
y
1−y
y ≥ 0, y = 1
v`a

y =
x
1−x
x ≤ 0

x =
y
1+y
y ≤ 0, y = −1
.
Do d¯´o f l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh v` a ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a n´o l`a f
−1
: (−1, 1) −→R cho
bo
.
’ i f
−1
(x) =
x
1−|x|
.
7. ∀a ∈ A, ∃a

∈ A sao cho f(a

) = a (v`ı f l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh). Khi d¯´o f(a) =
f(f(a

)) = f ◦ f(a

) = f(a

) = a, t´ u
.
c l`a f l`a ´anh xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t.
8. Nˆe
´
u n = 0 th`ı f l`a ´anh xa
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t id
N
.
Nˆe
´
u n > 0 th`ı f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh, nhu
.
ng khˆong l`a to`an ´anh. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i
k
1
, k
2
∈ N, k
1
< k
2
; nˆe
´
u k
1
< k
2
< n th`ı f(k
1
) = n − k
1
= n − k
2
= f(k
2
);
nˆe
´
u k
1
< n ≤ k
2
th`ı f(k
1
) = n − k
1
= n + k
2
= f(k
2
); nˆe
´
u n ≤ k
1
< k
2
th`ı
f(k
1
) = n +k
1
= n +k
2
= f(k
2
). Ngo`ai ra, k ∈ N sao cho f(k) = 0.
9. a) ∀a, a

∈ A, f(a) = f(a

) ⇒ g ◦ f(a) = g(f(a)) = g(f(a

)) = g ◦ f(a

) ⇒
a = a

(v`ı g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh). Vˆa
.
y f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
b) Ta c´o f(A) ⊂ B, g(B) ⊂ C v`a g ◦ f l`a to`an ´anh nˆen C = g ◦ f(A) =
g(f(A)) ⊂ g(B) ⊂ C. Do d¯´o g(B) = C hay g l`a to`an ´anh.
c) V`ı g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh nˆen theo a) f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh. Ngo`ai ra theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t f
l` a to`an ´anh nˆen f l`a song ´ anh, do d¯´o f c´o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c f
−1
c˜ ung l`a song ´anh.
Do g = g ◦ id
B
= g ◦ (f ◦ f
−1
) = (g ◦ f) ◦ f
−1
nˆen g l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh (ho
.
.
p th`anh
cu’ a 2 d¯o
.
n ´anh).
d) V`ı g ◦ f l`a to`an ´anh nˆen theo b) g l`a to`an ´anh. Ngo`ai ra theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t g
l` a d¯o
.
n ´anh nˆen g l`a song ´anh, do d¯´o g c´o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c g
−1
c˜ ung l`a song ´anh.
Do f = id
B
◦ f = (g
−1
◦ g) ◦ f = g
−1
◦ (g ◦ f) nˆen f l`a to`an ´anh (ho
.
.
p th`anh
cu’ a 2 to`an ´anh)
10. a) (⇒) ∀X v`a ∀g, g

: X −→ A, sao cho f ◦ g = f ◦ g

, ta c´o ∀x ∈ X,
f ◦ g(x) = f ◦ g

(x) hay f(g(x)) = f(g

(x)). Do f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh nˆen g(x) = g

(x)
hay g = g

.
(⇐) ∀a
1
, a
2
∈ A, f(a
1
) = f(a
2
). Lˆa
´
y X l`a tˆa
.
p kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng, g, g

: X −→ A
x´ ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i g(x) = a
1
v`a g

(x) = a
2
, ∀x ∈ X. Ta c´ o, f ◦ g(x) = f(g(x)) =
f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) = f(g

(x)) = f ◦ g

(x), ∀x ∈ X, t´ u
.
c l`a f ◦ g = f ◦ g

. Theo gia’
thiˆe
´
t, ta c´o g = g

hay a
1
= a
2
. Do d¯´o f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
56
b) (⇒) ∀Y v`a ∀h, h

: B −→Y , sao cho h◦f = h

◦f, ta c´o ∀b ∈ B, ∃a ∈ A,
b = f(a) (do f l`a to`an ´anh) v`a h(b) = h(f(a)) = h◦f(a) = h

◦f(a) = h

(f(a)) =
h

(b), t´ u
.
c l`a h = h

.
(⇐) Gia’ su
.
’ f khˆong l`a to`an ´anh. Khi d¯´o B ` f(A) = ∅. Lˆa
´
y Y = ¦y
1
, y
2
¦
v` a h, h

: B −→Y cho bo
.
’ i:
h(b) = y
1
, h

(b) =

y
1
, nˆe
´
u b ∈ f(A)
y
2
, nˆe
´
u b ∈ B ` f(A)
, ∀b ∈ B.
Ta c´o h ◦ f = h

◦ f, nhu
.
ng h = h

.
c) (⇒) Ta d¯˜a c´o: ∀X, Y ⊂ A, f(X ∩ Y ) ⊂ f(X) ∩ f(Y ).
∀y ∈ f(X) ∩ f(Y ) ⇒ (∃x ∈ X, y = f(x)) ∧ (∃x

∈ Y, y = f(x

) ⇒ ∃x ∈
X ∧ ∃x

∈ Y, y = f(x) = f(x

) ⇒ x = x

∈ X ∩ Y, y = f(x) ⇒ y ∈ f(X ∩ Y ).
Do d¯´o f(X) ∩ f(Y ) ⊂ f(X ∩ Y ). Vˆa
.
y f(X ∩ Y ) = f(X) ∩ f(Y ). (⇐) Cho
f(a
1
) = f(a
2
), ∀a
1
, a
2
∈ A. Khi d¯´o
f(¦a
1
¦ ∩ ¦a
2
¦) = f(¦a
1
¦) ∩ f(¦a
2
¦) = ¦f(a
1
)¦ ∩ ¦f(a
2

= ¦f(a
1
)¦ = ∅,
nˆen ¦a
1
¦ ∩ ¦a
2
¦ = ∅ hay a
1
= a
2
. Vˆa
.
y f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
11. a) Khˆong mˆa
´
t t´ınh chˆa
´
t tˆo

ng qu´at, ta c´ o thˆe

xem h ◦ g ◦ f, g ◦ f ◦ h l`a d¯o
.
n
´anh v`a f ◦ h ◦ g l`a to`an ´anh. Khi d¯´o theo c´ac cˆ au a) v`a b) cu’ a B`ai 9,
h ◦ g ◦ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh ⇒ f l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
f ◦ h ◦ g l`a to`an ´anh ⇒ f l`a to`an ´anh.
Vˆa
.
y f l`a song ´anh, nˆen c´o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c f
−1
c˜ ung l`a song ´anh. T` u
.
d¯´o
h ◦ g = (h ◦ g) ◦ (f ◦ f
−1
) = (h ◦ g ◦ f) ◦ (f
−1
) l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
h ◦ g = (f
−1
◦ f) ◦ (h ◦ g) = f
−1
◦ (f ◦ h ◦ g) l`a to`an ´anh.
Vˆa
.
y h ◦ g l`a song ´anh.
g ◦ f ◦ h l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh ⇒ h l`a d¯o
.
n ´anh.
h ◦ g l`a to`an ´anh ⇒ h l`a to`an ´anh.
Vˆa
.
y h l`a song ´anh, nˆen c´o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c h
−1
c˜ ung l`a song ´anh.
g = (h
−1
◦ h) ◦ g = h
−1
◦ (h ◦ g). Vˆa
.
y g l`a song ´anh.
b) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
cˆau a).
12. a) Ta c´o A
1
⊃ A
2
⊃ A
3
⊃ . V`ı vˆ a
.
y


n=1
A
n
= A
1
= [−1, 1).
Ta c´o −
1
n
≤ 0 <
1
n
, ∀n ∈ Z
+
, t´ u
.
c l`a ¦0¦ ⊂


n=1
A
n
. M˘a
.
t kh´ ac,
∀x ∈


n=1
A
n
⇒ −
1
n
≤ x <
1
n
, ∀n ∈ Z
+
⇒ x = 0 (v`ı lim
n→∞
(−
1
n
) = lim
n→∞
1
n
= 0),
t´ u
.
c l`a


n=1
A
n
⊂ ¦0¦.
57
Do d¯´o


n=1
A
n
= ¦0¦.
b) V`ı A
1
∩ A
2
= ∅ nˆen


n=1
A
n
= ∅.
V`ı 0 <
1
n
<
2
n
≤ 2, ∀n ∈ Z
+
, nˆen A
n
⊂ (0, 2), ∀n ∈ Z
+
. Do d¯´o


n=1
A
n

(0, 2).
∀x ∈ (0, 2): + Nˆe
´
u 1 ≤ x < 2 th`ı x ∈ A
1
, do d¯´o x ∈


n=1
A
n
.
+ Nˆe
´
u 0 < x < 1, go
.
i n l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen nho’ nhˆa
´
t, khˆ ong nho’ ho
.
n
1
x
. Khi d¯´o,
1
x
≤ n <
1
x
+ 1 (<
1
x
+
1
x
=
2
x
), t´ u
.
c l`a
1
n
≤ x <
2
n
hay x ∈ A
n
, do d¯´o
x ∈


n=1
A
n
.
T` u
.
2 d¯iˆe
`
u trˆen, ta c´o (0, 2) ⊂


n=1
A
n
. Vˆa
.
y


n=1
A
n
= (0, 2).
c) V`ı d˜ay ¦(1 +
1
n
)
n
¦ l`a d˜ ay t˘ang, nˆen A
1
⊃ A
2
⊃ A
3
⊃ . V`ı vˆa
.
y


n=1
A
n
= A
1
= [2, 3].
V`ı (1 +
1
n
)
n
< e < 3, ∀n ∈ Z
+
nˆen [e, 3] ⊂ A
n
, ∀n ∈ Z
+
hay [e, 3] ⊂


n=1
A
n
.
M˘a
.
t kh´ ac,
∀x ∈


n=1
A
n
⇒ (1 +
1
n
)
n
≤ x ≤ 3, ∀n ∈ Z
+
⇒ e ≤ x ≤ 3 (v`ı
lim
n→∞
(1 +
1
n
)
n
= e), t´ u
.
c l`a


n=1
A
n
⊂ [e, 3].
Do d¯´o,


n=1
A
n
= [e, 3].
d) V`ı A
1
∩ A
3
= ∅ nˆen


n=1
A
n
= ∅.
R˜o r`ang A
n
⊂ [1, +∞), ∀n ∈ Z
+
, nˆen


n=1
A
n
⊂ [1, +∞). M˘a
.
t kh´ ac,
∀x ∈ [1, +∞) ⇒ n ≤ x < n + 1, v´o
.
i n = [x] (phˆa
`
n nguyˆen cu’ a x) ⇒ x ∈
A
n
⇒ x ∈


n=1
A
n
, t´ u
.
c l`a [1, +∞) ⊂


n=1
A
n
.
Do d¯´o,


n=1
A
n
= [1, +∞).
13. a) x ∈ B ∩ ( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) ⇔ x ∈ B ∧ x ∈ ∪
α∈I
A
α
⇔ x ∈ B ∧ (∃α ∈ I, x ∈
A
α
) ⇔ ∃α ∈ I, x ∈ B ∧ x ∈ A
α
⇔ x ∈ ∪
α∈I
(B ∩ A
α
).
b) x ∈ B ∪ ( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) ⇔ x ∈ B ∨ x ∈ ∩
α∈I
A
α
⇔ x ∈ B ∨ (∀α ∈ I, x ∈
A
α
) ⇔ ∀α ∈ I, x ∈ B ∨ x ∈ A
α
⇔ x ∈ ∩
α∈I
(B ∪ A
α
).
c) x ∈ A ` ( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) ⇔ x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ ∪
α∈I
A
α
⇔ x ∈ A ∧ ∃α ∈ I, x ∈ A
α

x ∈ A ∧ (∀α ∈ I, x / ∈ A
α
) ⇔ ∀α ∈ I, x ∈ A ∧ x / ∈ A
α
⇔ ∀α ∈ I, x ∈ A ` A
α

x ∈ ∩
α∈I
(A ` A
α
).
58
d) x ∈ A ` ( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) ⇔ x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ ∩
α∈I
A
α
⇔ x ∈ A ∧ ∀α ∈ I, x ∈ A
α

x ∈ A ∧ (∃α ∈ I, x / ∈ A
α
) ⇔ ∃α ∈ I, x ∈ A ∧ x / ∈ A
α
⇔ ∃α ∈ I, x ∈ A ` A
α

x ∈ ∪
α∈I
(A ` A
α
).
14. a) A
α
⊂ ∪
α

∈I
A
α
, ∀α ∈ I ⇒ f(A
α
) ⊂ f( ∪
α

∈I
A
α
), ∀α ∈ I ⇒ ∪
α∈I
f(A
α
) ⊂
f( ∪
α∈I
A
α
). M˘a
.
t kh´ ac,
y ∈ f( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) ⇒ ∃x ∈ ∪
α∈I
A
α
, y = f(x) ⇒ ∃α ∈ I, ∃x ∈ A
α
, y = f(x) ⇒
∃α ∈ I, y ∈ f(A
α
) ⇒ y ∈ ∪
α∈I
f(A
α
). Vˆa
.
y f( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) ⊂ ∪
α∈I
f(A
α
).
Do d¯´o f( ∪
α∈I
A
α
) = ∪
α∈I
f(A
α
).
b) y ∈ f( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) ⇒ ∃x ∈ ∩
α∈I
A
α
, y = f(x) ⇒ ∀α ∈ I, ∃x ∈ A
α
, y =
f(x) ⇒ ∀α ∈ I, y ∈ f(A
α
) ⇒ y ∈ ∩
α∈I
f(A
α
). Vˆa
.
y f( ∩
α∈I
A
α
) ⊂ ∩
α∈I
f(A
α
).
c) x ∈ f
−1
( ∪
β∈J
B
β
) ⇔ f(x) ∈ ∪
β∈J
B
β
⇔ ∃β ∈ J, f(x) ∈ B
β
⇔ ∃β ∈
J, x ∈ f
−1
(B
β
) ⇔ x ∈ ∪
β∈J
f
−1
(B
β
).
d) x ∈ f
−1
( ∩
β∈J
B
β
) ⇔ f(x) ∈ ∩
β∈J
B
β
⇔ ∀β ∈ J, f(x) ∈ B
β
⇔ ∀β ∈
J, x ∈ f
−1
(B
β
) ⇔ x ∈ ∩
β∈J
f
−1
(B
β
).
15. a) Sˆo
´
c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
trong 6 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
d¯˜a cho b˘a
`
ng:
6
4
= 1296.
b) Sˆo
´
c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau lˆa
´
y trong 6 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
d¯˜a cho b˘a
`
ng:
A
4
6
=
6!
2!
= 3.4.5.6 = 360.
c) Mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c´o da
.
ng abcd, trong d¯´o a, b, c, d l`a 4 ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
phˆan biˆe
.
t v`a
1 ≤ a, b, c, d ≤ 6. V`ı abcd < 2003 nˆen ta pha’ i c´o:
a = 1, b = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, c = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, d = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Vˆa
.
y c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen pha’ i t`ım b˘a
`
ng: A
3
5
=
5!
2!
= 3.4.5 = 60.
d) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen theo yˆeu cˆ a
`
u c´ o da
.
ng abcd, trong d¯´o c´ ac ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
a, b, c, d l`a
phˆan biˆe
.
t, 1 ≤ a, b, c, d ≤ 6 v`a abcd ˙: 2. V`ı abcd ˙: 2 nˆen d = 2, 4, 6. Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen pha’ i t`ım b˘a
`
ng: 3 A
3
5
= 180.
e) Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen theo yˆeu cˆa
`
u c´ o da
.
ng abcd, trong d¯´o c´ac ch˜ u
.
sˆo
´
a, b, c, d l`a
phˆan biˆe
.
t, 1 ≤ a, b, c, d ≤ 6 v`a abcd ˙: 5. V`ı abcd ˙: 5 nˆen d = 5. Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen pha’ i t`ım b˘a
`
ng: A
3
5
= 60.
16. a) Xem cˆo dˆau v`a ch´ u rˆe

nhu
.
l`a mˆo
.
t th`ı mˆo
.
t c´ach xˆe
´
p h`ang m`a cˆo dˆau d¯´ u
.
ng
ca
.
nh ch´ u rˆe

(khˆong kˆe

bˆen tr´ai hay bˆen pha’ i) l`a mˆo
.
t ho´an vi
.
cu’ a 5 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Do
d¯´o sˆ o
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a:
2 5! = 2.2.3.4.5 = 240.
59
b) Sˆo
´
tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac c´ach xˆe
´
p h`ang l` a 6!. Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
c´ac c´ach xˆe
´
p h`ang m`a cˆo dˆau
khˆong d¯´ u
.
ng ca
.
nh ch´ u rˆe

l`a
6! − 240 = 480.
c) Sˆo
´
c´ac c´ach xˆe
´
p h`ang m`a cˆo dˆau d¯´ u
.
ng bˆen tr´ai ngay ca
.
nh ch´ u rˆe

l`a 5!.
Sˆ o
´
c´ ac xˆe
´
p h`ang m`a cˆo dˆau d¯´ u
.
ng bˆen tr´ai khˆong d¯´ u
.
ng ca
.
nh ch´ u rˆe

l`a
480
2
. Do
d¯´o sˆ o
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a:
5! +
480
2
= 120 + 240 = 360.
17. a) Mˆo
.
t c´ach cho
.
n mˆo
.
t hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen cu’ a tˆo

l`a mˆo
.
t tˆo

ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p
5 cu’ a 16 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a C
5
16
=
16!
5!11!
= 4368.
b) Mˆo
.
t c´ ach cho
.
n mˆo
.
t hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen cu’ a tˆo

sao cho mˆo
˜
i th`anh
viˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c phˆan cˆong o
.
’ mˆo
.
t vi
.
tr´ı d¯˜a d¯i
.
nh l`a mˆo
.
t chı’nh ho
.
.
p chˆa
.
p 5 cu’ a 16 phˆ a
`
n
tu
.
’ . Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a A
5
16
= 16.15.14.13.12 = 524160.
c) Sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen to`an n˜ u
.
l`a C
5
7
= 21. Sˆo
´
c´ach
cho
.
n hˆ o
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m 5 th`anh viˆen to`an nam l`a C
5
9
= 126. Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n hˆ o
.
i
d¯ˆo
`
ng c´o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t n˜ u
.
v`a ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t nam l`a 4368 −(21 + 126) = 4221.
18. a) Go
.
i A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac xˆau nhi
.
phˆan c´o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai b˘a
`
ng 10 v` a c´o 5 sˆo
´
0 liˆe
`
n
nhau v` a B l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac xˆ au nhi
.
phˆan c´o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai b˘a
`
ng 10 v`a c´o 5 sˆo
´
1 liˆe
`
n nhau.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng 0 0 0 0 0 X X X X X l`a 2
5
.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng 1 0 0 0 0 0 X X X X l`a 2
4
.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X 1 0 0 0 0 0 X X X l`a 2
4
.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X X 1 0 0 0 0 0 X X l`a 2
4
.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X X X 1 0 0 0 0 0 X l`a 2
4
.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X X X X 1 0 0 0 0 0 l`a 2
4
.
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A l`a 2
5
+ 5.2
4
= 112.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
sˆo
´
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B l`a 112.
C´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A ∩ B l`a
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 .
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a
[A ∪ B[ = [A[ +[B[ −[A ∩ B[ = 112 + 112 −2 = 222.
b) Go
.
i A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac xˆau nhi
.
phˆan c´ o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai b˘a
`
ng 8 v`a c´ o 3 sˆo
´
0 liˆe
`
n
nhau v`a B l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac xˆau nhi
.
phˆan c´o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai b˘a
`
ng 8 v` a c´o 4 sˆo
´
1 liˆe
`
n nhau.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng 0 0 0 X X X X X l`a 2
5
= 32.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng 1 0 0 0 X X X X l`a 2
4
= 16.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X 1 0 0 0 X X X l`a 2
4
= 16.
60
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X X 1 0 0 0 X X l`a 2
4
= 16.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X X X 1 0 0 0 X l`a 2
4
−2 = 14.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A da
.
ng X X X X 1 0 0 0 l`a 2
4
−3 = 13.
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A l`a 32 + 16 + 16 + 16 + 14 + 13 = 107.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B da
.
ng 1 1 1 1 X X X X l`a 2
4
= 16.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B da
.
ng 0 1 1 1 1 X X X l`a 2
3
= 8.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B da
.
ng X 0 1 1 1 1 X X l`a 2
3
= 8.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B da
.
ng X X 0 1 1 1 1 X l`a 2
3
= 8.
Sˆo
´
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B da
.
ng X X X 0 1 1 1 1 l`a 2
3
= 8.
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A l`a 16 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 48.
C´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A ∩ B l`a
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 , 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 , 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 ,
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 , 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 , 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 , 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 .
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a
[A ∪ B[ = [A[ +[B[ −[A ∩ B[ = 107 + 48 −8 = 147.
19. Mˆo
˜
i d¯u
.
`o
.
ng d¯i t` u
.
n´ ut (0, 0) d¯ˆe
´
n n´ ut (n, k) d¯i qua n+k ca
.
nh ˆo vuˆ ong, trong
d¯´o c´o n ca
.
nh sang pha’ i v`a k ca
.
nh lˆen trˆen. Nˆe
´
u ta xem d¯i trˆen ca
.
nh ˆo vuˆong
sang pha’ i ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i 1 v`a lˆen trˆen ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i 0 th`ı mˆo
˜
i d¯u
.
`o
.
ng d¯i nhu
.
thˆe
´
ch´ınh l`a
mˆo
.
t xˆau nhi
.
phˆan d¯ˆo
.
d`ai n + k c´o n sˆo
´
1 v`a k sˆo
´
0, t´ u
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con n phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p n +k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a C
n
n+k
.
20. Nˆe
´
u m = n th`ı khˆ ong v˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tam gi´ac n`ao.
Nˆe
´
u m < n th`ı ta c´ o c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau:
a) n = 2: khˆong v˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tam gi´ac n`ao.
b) n ≥ 3 v`a m = 2: v˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c C
3
n
tam gi´ac.
c) m ≥ 3: v˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c C
3
n
−C
3
m
tam gi´ac.
21. a) Lˆa
´
y ra k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ , c` on la
.
i n − k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . n − k phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n`ay lˆa
.
p th`anh
n−k+1 khoa’ ng (kˆe

ca’ hai khoa’ ng vˆo ha
.
n o
.
’ hai d¯ˆa
`
u) m`a trong d¯´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
lˆ a
´
y ra (khˆong kˆe
`
nhau) tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i khoa’ ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n trong sˆo
´
c´ac khoa’ ng
n` ay. Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a C
k
n−k+1
.
b) Cˆo
´
d¯i
.
nh phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x trong sˆo
´
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on. C´ o hai tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p:
+ Nˆe
´
u x d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n th`ı hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ hai bˆen n´o khˆong c`on d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n v`a b`ai
to´an tro
.
’ vˆe
`
Cˆau a) v´o
.
i n v`a k thay b˘a
`
ng n −3 v`a k −1. Do d¯´o sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım trong
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay l`a C
k−1
(n−3)−(k−1)+1
= C
k−1
n−k−1
.
+ Nˆe
´
u x khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n th`ı b`ai to´an tro
.
’ vˆe
`
Cˆau a) v´o
.
i n thay b˘a
`
ng n−1.
Do d¯´o sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay l`a C
k
n−1−k+1
= C
k
n−k
.
Vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a C
k−1
n−k−1
+C
k
n−k
.
61
22. T` u
.
khai triˆe

n nhi
.
th´ u
.
c
(x +y)
n
=
n
¸
k=0
C
k
n
x
k
y
n−k
thay x = −1 v`a y = 1, ta c´ o
n
¸
k=0
(−1)
k
C
k
n
= 0.
23. Hˆe
.
sˆo
´
cu’ a x
k
trong khai triˆe

n nhi
.
th´ u
.
c (x + 1)
m+n
l`a C
k
m+n
. M˘a
.
t kh´ ac
(x + 1)
m+n
= (x + 1)
m
.(x + 1)
n
v` a hˆe
.
sˆo
´
cu’ a x
k
trong (x + 1)
m
.(x + 1)
n
l`a
¸
i+j=k
C
i
m
.C
j
n
. Do d¯´o ta c´ o C
k
m+n
=
k
¸
i=0
C
i
m
.C
k−i
n
.
24. a) C´ach 1: Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c b˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p theo k. Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta
c´ o C
0
n
= C
0
n+1
= 1, t´ u
.
c l`a d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c d¯´ ung khi k = 1. Gia’ su
.
’ d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c d¯´ ung
d¯ˆe
´
n k. Ta c´ o
k+1
¸
i=0
C
i
n+i
=
k
¸
i=0
C
i
n+i
+C
k+1
n+k+1
= C
k
n+k+1
+C
k+1
n+k+1
= C
k+1
n+k+2
,
t´ u
.
c l`a d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n k + 1.
b) C´ach 2: C
k
n+k+1
l`a sˆo
´
c´ac xˆau nhi
.
phˆan d¯ˆo
.
d`ai n+k+1 c´ o k sˆo
´
0 v`a n+1
sˆ o
´
1. Gia’ su
.
’ bit th´ u
.
j +1 l` a bit cuˆo
´
i c` ung mang gi´a tri
.
1 sao cho n ≤ j ≤ n +k.
Mˆ o
.
t khi x´ac d¯i
.
nh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c vi
.
tr´ı cu’ a sˆo
´
1 cuˆo
´
i c` ung, ta s˜e quyˆe
´
t d¯i
.
nh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
.
c d¯˘a
.
t
c´ ac sˆ o
´
0 trong j bit tru
.
´o
.
c bit c´ o sˆo
´
1 cuˆ o
´
i c` ung. Trong xˆau n`ay c´o n sˆo
´
1 v`a j −n
sˆ o
´
0. Theo quy t˘a
´
c cˆ o
.
ng ta suy ra
n+k
¸
j=n
C
j−n
j
=
k
¸
i=0
C
i
n+i
c´ach thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯iˆe
`
u d¯´o.
25. Thay m = n v`a k = 2 trong h˘ a
`
ng d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Vandermonde, ta c´o:
C
2
2n
= C
2
n+n
=
2
¸
i=0
C
i
n
.C
2−i
n
= C
0
n
.C
2
n
+C
1
n
.C
1
n
+C
2
n
.C
0
n
= 2C
2
n
+n
2
.
26. B`ai to´an tro
.
’ th`anh t`ım sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng trong d¯´o c´o 1 chu’ ti
.
ch hˆo
.
i
d¯ˆo
`
ng t` u
.
1 nh´om gˆo
`
m n ngu
.
`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng hai c´ach. Ta c´ o thˆe

cho
.
n d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen l`a chu’ ti
.
ch
hˆ o
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng b˘a
`
ng n c´ach kh´ac nhau. Khi d¯´o c´o thˆe

cho
.
n c´ ac th`anh viˆen cu’ a hˆo
.
i
d¯ˆo
`
ng b˘a
`
ng 2
n−1
c´ach. Theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan c´o n.2
n−1
c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng c´ o 1 chu’
ti
.
ch hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng. Trong khi d¯´o sˆo
´
c´ac c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m k ngu
.
`o
.
i (1 ≤ k ≤ n)
62
l` a C
k
n
. Khi ta cho
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng k th`anh viˆen, ta c´ o k c´ach cho
.
n chu’ ti
.
ch. Theo
quy t˘a
´
c cˆ o
.
ng c´o
n
¸
k=1
kC
k
n
c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng c´o 1 chu’ ti
.
ch hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng. Kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p la
.
i
ta c´ o d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh.
27. B`ai to´an tro
.
’ th`anh t`ım sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng c´o n uy’ viˆen t` u
.
nh´om n gi´ao
su
.
to´an ho
.
c v`a n gi´ao su
.
tin ho
.
c sao cho chu’ ti
.
ch l`a gi´ao su
.
to´an ho
.
c b˘a
`
ng hai
c´ ach. Ta c´o thˆe

cho
.
n d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen l`a chu’ ti
.
ch b˘a
`
ng n c´ach kh´ac nhau t` u
.
nh´om n gi´ao
su
.
to´an ho
.
c. Khi d¯´o c´o thˆe

cho
.
n c´ac uy’ viˆen cu’ a hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng b˘a
`
ng C
n−1
2n−1
. Theo
quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan c´o n.C
n−1
2n−1
c´ ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng theo yˆeu cˆa
`
u. Trong khi d¯´o sˆo
´
c´ac
c´ ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng gˆo
`
m k gi´ao su
.
to´an ho
.
c v`a n − k gi´ao su
.
tin ho
.
c v´o
.
i 1 chu’
ti
.
ch trong sˆo
´
k gi´ao su
.
to´an ho
.
c l`a k.C
k
n
.C
n−k
n
(= k(C
k
n
)
2
). Theo quy t˘a
´
c cˆo
.
ng
c´ o
n
¸
k=1
k(C
k
n
)
2
c´ach cho
.
n hˆo
.
i d¯ˆo
`
ng nhu
.
yˆeu cˆa
`
u. Kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p la
.
i ta c´o d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c cˆa
`
n
ch´ u
.
ng minh.
28. Mˆo
˜
i c´ach cho
.
n k d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng t` u
.
mˆo
.
t hˆo
.
p d¯u
.
.
ng c´ac d¯ˆo
´
i tu
.
o
.
.
ng thuˆo
.
c n loa
.
i
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t tˆo

ho
.
.
p l˘a
.
p chˆa
.
p k t` u
.
tˆa
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
Mˆo
˜
i tˆo

ho
.
.
p l˘a
.
p chˆa
.
p k t` u
.
tˆa
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t d˜ay
n − 1 thanh d¯´ u
.
ng v`a k ngˆoi sao. Ta d` ung n − 1 thanh d¯ˆe

phˆan c´ ach c´ac ng˘an.
Ng˘an th´ u
.
i ch´ u
.
a thˆem mˆo
.
t ngˆoi sao mˆo
˜
i lˆa
`
n khi phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ th´ u
.
i cu’ a tˆa
.
p xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n
trong tˆo

ho
.
.
p. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, mˆo
.
t tˆo

ho
.
.
p l˘a
.
p chˆa
.
p 6 cu’ a tˆa
.
p 4 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u
thi
.
b˘ a
`
ng 3 thanh d¯´ u
.
ng v`a 6 ngˆoi sao:
∗ ∗ [ ∗ [ [ ∗ ∗ ∗
biˆe

u thi
.
tˆo

ho
.
.
p ch´ u
.
a d¯´ ung 2 phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t, 1 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i th´ u
.
hai, khˆong
c´ o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i th´ u
.
ba v`a 3 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i th´ u
.
tu
.
.
Nhu
.
ta d¯˜a thˆa
´
y mˆo
˜
i d˜ ay n −1 thanh v`a k ngˆoi sao ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t tˆo

ho
.
.
p l˘a
.
p
chˆa
.
p k cu’ a tˆa
.
p n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ . O
.

d¯ˆay c´o thˆe

xem nhu
.
l`a mˆo
.
t xˆau nhi
.
phˆan d¯ˆo
.
d`ai
n +k −1 trong d¯´o c´o k sˆo
´
1. Sˆo
´
c´ac xˆau nhu
.
vˆa
.
y b˘a
`
ng C
k
n+k−1
.
29. Ta nhˆ a
.
n thˆa
´
y r˘a
`
ng mˆ o
˜
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t c´ ach cho
.
n
17 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ t` u
.
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p c´o 4 loa
.
i, sao cho c´o x
1
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i 1, x
2
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i 2,
x
3
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i 3 v`a x
4
phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ loa
.
i 4 d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n. V`ı vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
nghiˆe
.
m b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
tˆo

ho
.
.
p l˘ a
.
p chˆa
.
p 17 t` u
.
tˆa
.
p c´o 4 phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ . Do d¯´o sˆo
´
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a C
17
4+17−1
=
20!
17!.3!
=
18.19.20
6
= 1140.
30. V`ı mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
ch˜ u
.
c´ai cu’ a t` u
.
MISSISSIPPI l`a nhu
.
nhau nˆen cˆau tra’ l`o
.
i
khˆong pha’ i l` a sˆo
´
ho´an vi
.
cu’ a 11 ch˜ u
.
c´ai d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. T` u
.
n`ay ch´ u
.
a 4 ch˜ u
.
S, 4 ch˜ u
.
I, 2
ch˜ u
.
P v`a 1 ch˜ u
.
M. D
-
ˆe

x´ac d¯i
.
nh sˆo
´
xˆau kh´ ac nhau c´o thˆe

ta
.
o ra d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, ta nhˆa
.
n
thˆa
´
y c´o C
4
11
c´ach cho
.
n 4 chˆ o
˜
cho 4 ch˜ u
.
S, c` on la
.
i 7 chˆo
˜
trˆo
´
ng. C´o C
4
7
c´ach cho
.
n
63
4 chˆo
˜
cho 4 ch˜ u
.
I, c`on la
.
i 3 chˆo
˜
trˆo
´
ng. C´o thˆe

d¯˘a
.
t ch˜ u
.
P b˘a
`
ng C
2
3
c´ach v`a C
1
1
c´ ach d¯˘a
.
t ch˜ u
.
M v`ao xˆ au. Theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan, sˆo
´
c´ac xˆau kh´ac nhau c´o thˆe

ta
.
o
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`a:
C
4
11
.C
4
7
.C
2
3
.C
1
1
=
11!.7!.3!.1!
4!.7!.4!.3!.2!.1!.1!.0!
=
11!
4!.4!.2!.1!
= 3465.
B˘a
`
ng c´ach l´ y luˆa
.
n tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen, ta c´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯iˆe
`
u sau:
Sˆo
´
ho´an vi
.
cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trong d¯´o c´ o n
1
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nhu
.
nhau thuˆo
.
c loa
.
i 1, n
2
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nhu
.
nhau thuˆo
.
c loa
.
i 2, ... v`a n
k
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nhu
.
nhau thuˆo
.
c loa
.
i k, b˘ a
`
ng
n!
n
1
! n
2
! . . . n
k
!
.
31. a) exp l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh v`ı n´o c´o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c l`a log: R
+
−→ R x´ac d¯i
.
nh
bo
.
’ i log(x) = ln x. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra R v`a R
+
c` ung lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng.
b) f l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh v`ı n´o c´ o ´anh xa
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c l`a g : R
+
−→ (0, 1) x´ ac d¯i
.
nh
bo
.
’ i g(x) =

x nˆe
´
u 0 < x ≤
1
2
,
4x −1
4x
nˆe
´
u x >
1
2
.
. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra R
+
v`a (0, 1) c` ung lu
.
.
c
lu
.
o
.
.
ng.
32. Mˆo
˜
i d¯a th´ u
.
c c´o bˆa
.
c ≤ n hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng 1-1 v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t bˆo
.
n + 1-th´ u
.
tu
.
.
c´ac th`anh phˆa
`
n h˜ u
.
u tı’. Do d¯´o tˆa
.
p Q
n
[x] c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c c´ o bˆa
.
c ≤ n hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p Q
n+1
, d¯ˆay l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. Vˆa
.
y tˆa
.
p Q[x] c´ ac d¯a
th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ l`a d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v`ı
Q[x] =


n=0
Q
n
[x] =


n=0
Q
n+1
v` a ho
.
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c´ac tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
33. ∀a, b, c ∈ Q, (a ∗ b) ∗ c = (a +b +ab) ∗ c = a +b +ab +c +ac +bc +abc =
a +b +c +bc +ab +ac +abc = a ∗ (b +c +bc) = a ∗ (b ∗ c), hay ph´ep to´an ∗
c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p. ∀a ∈ Q, a ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ a = a hay 0 l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
cu’ a Q d¯ˆo
´
i
v´ o
.
i ph´ep to´an ∗. Do d¯´o Q v´o
.
i ph´ep to´an ∗ l`a mˆo
.
t vi
.
nh´om, nhu
.
ng khˆong pha’ i
l` a mˆo
.
t nh´om, v`ı phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ a = −1 khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o.
T` u
.
a +b +ab + 1 = (a + 1)(b + 1), ta c´ o ∀a, b ∈ Q` ¦−1¦, a ∗ b = −1 hay
a ∗ b ∈ Q ` ¦−1¦. Do d¯´o Q ` ¦−1¦ l`a mˆo
.
t vi
.
nh´om v´o
.
i ph´ep to´an ∗. Ngo`ai ra,
∀a ∈ Q` ¦−1¦, a c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o l`a −
a
1+a
∈ Q` ¦−1¦. Vˆa
.
y Q ` ¦−1¦ l`a
mˆo
.
t nh´om v´o
.
i ph´ep to´an ∗.
34. ∀(a, b), (a

, b

), (a

, b

) ∈ G,
((a, b)(a

, b

))(a

, b

) = (ab

+a

, bb

)(a

, b

) = (ab

b

+a

b

+a

, bb

b

)
= (a, b)(a

b

+a

, b

b

) = (a, b)((a

, b

)(a

, b

))
64
hay ph´ep to´an nhˆan c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p. ∀(a, b) ∈ G, (a, b)(0, 1) = (0, 1)(a, b) =
(a, b) hay (0, 1) l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
cu’ a G. ∀(a, b) ∈ G, (a, b)(−
a
b
,
1
b
) =
(−
a
b
,
1
b
)(a, b) = (0, 1) hay (a, b) c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o l`a (−
a
b
,
1
b
). Vˆa
.
y G
l` a mˆo
.
t nh´om.
35. Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta c´o ∀x ∈ R, ∀n ∈ Z, [x +n] = [x] +n.
∀x, y ∈ G, (x ⊕y) = x +y −[x +y] = y +x −[y +x] = y ⊕x.
∀x, y, z ∈ G, (x⊕y) ⊕z = x⊕y +z −[x⊕y +z] = x+y −[x+y] +z −[x+
y +z −[x+y]] = x+y +z −[x+y] −[x+y +z] +[x+y] = x+y +z −[x+y +z] =
x+y +z −[y +z] −[x+y +z] +[y +z] = x+y +z −[y +z] −[x+y +z −[y +z]] =
x +y ⊕z −[x +y ⊕z] = x ⊕(y ⊕z).
∀x ∈ G, [x] = 0 nˆen x ⊕0 = x + 0 −[x + 0] = x.
∀x ∈ G, nˆe
´
u x = 0 th`ı 0 ⊕0 = 0, nˆe
´
u x = 0 th`ı 1 −x ∈ G v`a x⊕(1 −x) = 0.
Vˆa
.
y (G, ⊕) l`a mˆ o
.
t nh´om aben.
36. ∀(x, y), (x

, y

), (x

, y

) ∈ G,
((x, y)∗(x

, y

))∗(x

, y

) = (xx

, xy

+
y
x

)∗(x

, y

) = (xx

x

, xx

y

+
xy

x

+
y
x

x

)
= (x(x

x

), x(x

y

+
y

x

) +
y
x

x

) = (x, y) ∗ (x

x

, x

y

+
y

x

) = (x, y) ∗ ((x

, y

) ∗
(x

, y

)).
∀(x, y) ∈ G, (x, y) ∗ (1, 0) = (x, y) = (0, 1) ∗ (x, y).
∀(x, y) ∈ G, (x, y) ∗ (
1
x
, −y) = (1, 0) = (
1
x
, −y) ∗ (x, y).
Vˆa
.
y G l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om.
37. Nˆe
´
u f : Q −→ Q x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i f(x) = ax v´o
.
i a ∈ Q th`ı f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u
nh´om. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, ∀x, y ∈ Q, f(x +y) = a(x +y) = ax +ay = f(x) +f(y).
D
-
a’ o la
.
i, nˆe
´
u f : Q −→ Q l`a mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om th`ı d¯˘a
.
t a = f(1), ta c´o
a = f(1) = f(n.
1
n
) = nf(
1
n
) hay f(
1
n
) =
a
n
v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n. Khi d¯´o
∀x ∈ Q, x =
m
n
, m ∈ Z, n l`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, ta c´o f(x) = f(
m
n
) = f(m.
1
n
) =
mf(
1
n
) = m.
a
n
= a.
m
n
= ax. R˜o r`ang a duy nhˆa
´
t sao cho f(x) = ax, ∀x ∈ Q.
38. a) R˜o r`ang 0 ∈ R

, ph´ep to´an ∗ c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, 0 l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
(do
x ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ x = x) v`a mo
.
i x ∈ R

d¯ˆe
`
u kha’ nghi
.
ch (do d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a R

). Do
d¯´o, R

l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om.
b) V´o
.
i x ∈ U(R), (1−x)∗(1−x
−1
) = (1−x
−1
)∗(1−x) = 0, nˆen ta c´ o ´anh
xa
.
f : U(R) −→R

cho bo
.
’ i f(x) = 1 −x. R˜o r`ang f l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh. Ngo`ai ra,
f(x)∗f(y) = (1−x)∗(1−y) = (1−x)+(1−y)−(1−x)(1−y) = 1−xy = f(xy).
Do d¯´o f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u nh´om.
39. Dˆe
˜
d`ang c´ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c Z R v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om aben. Ph´ep nhˆan trˆen
Z R c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p v`a phˆan phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y,
∀(m, x), (n, y), (p, z) ∈ Z R,
65
((m, x)(n, y))(p, z) = (mn, my +nx +xy)(p, z)
= (mnp, mnz +pmy +pnx +pxy +myz +nxz +xyz)
= (mnp, mnz +mpy +myz +npx +nxz +pxy +xyz)
= (m, x)(np, nz +py +yz)
= (m, x)((n, y)(p, z)),
(m, x)((n, y) + (p, z)) = (m, x)(n +p, y +z)
= (mn +mp, my +mz +nx +px +xy +xz)
= (mn, my +nx +xy) + (mp, mz +px +xz)
= (m, x)(n, y) + (m, x)(p, z).
Ngo`ai ra ZR c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
l`a (1, 0). Do d¯´o ZR l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
.
C´ac u
.
´o
.
c khˆong cu’ a Z Z l`a ¦(n, −n) [ n ∈ Z ` ¦0¦¦.
40. V`ı R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong l`a 0
R
nˆen ∀a, b, c ∈ S,
∗a +b = η
−1
(η(a) +η(b)) = η
−1
(η(b) +η(a)) = b +a
∗(a +b) +c = η
−1
(η(a +b) +η(c))
= η
−1
(η(η
−1
(η(a) +η(b))) +η(c)) = η
−1
(η(a) +η(b) +η(c))
= η
−1
(η(a) +η(η
−1
(η(b) +η(c)))) = η
−1
(η(a) +η(b +c))
a + (b +c)
∗v´o
.
i 0
S
= η
−1
(0
R
), a + 0
S
= η
−1
(η(a) +η(0
S
))
= η
−1
(η(a) + 0
R
) = η
−1
(η(a)) = a
∗v´o
.
i −a = η
−1
(−η(a)), a + (−a) = η
−1
(η(a) +η(η
−1
(−η(a))))
= η
−1
(η(a) + (−η(a))) = η
−1
(0
R
) = 0
S
∗(ab)c = η
−1
(η(ab)η(c)) = η
−1
(η(η
−1
(η(a)η(b)))η(c))
= η
−1
(η(a)η(b)η(c)) = η
−1
(η(a)η(η
−1
(η(b)η(c)))
= η
−1
(η(a)η(bc)) = a(bc)
∗a(b +c) = η
−1
(η(a)η(b +c)) = η
−1
(η(a)η(η
−1
(η(b) +η(c))))
= η
−1
(η(a)(η(b) +η(c))) = η
−1
(η(a)η(b) +η(a)η(c))
= η
−1
(η(η
−1
(η(a)η(b))) +η(η
−1
(η(a)η(c)))
= η
−1
(η(ab) +η(ac)) = ab +ac
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
(b +c)a = ba +ca
.
66
Vˆa
.
y S l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh. Do η l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh v`a η(a + b) = η(a) + η(b), η(ab) =
η(a)η(b) nˆen η l`a mˆo
.
t d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u.
Bˆay gi`o
.
, nˆe
´
u R l`a v`anh c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
1 th`ı v´ o
.
i song ´anh η : R −→ R cho bo
.
’ i
η(a) = 1 −a (khi d¯´o η
−1
(a) = 1 −a), R c˜ ung l`a v` anh v´o
.
i hai ph´ep to´an
a ⊕b = η
−1
(η(a) +η(b)) = 1 −(1 −a + 1 −b) = a +b −1
ab = η
−1
(η(a)η(b)) = 1 −((1 −a)(1 −b)) = a +b −ab.
41. a) Ta c´o Q(

p) l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a tru
.
`o
.
ng R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a c´o
ch´ u
.
a sˆo
´
nguyˆen 1 (v`ı 1 = 1 + 0

p). ∀a, b, a

, b

∈ Q,
(a +b

p) −(a

+b


p) = (a −a

) + (b −b

)

p,
(a +b

p)(a

+b


p) = (aa

+pbb

) + (ab

+ba

)

p.
Ngo`ai ra, v´o
.
i a + b

p ∈ Q(

p) v`a kh´ ac 0 (a v`a b khˆong d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘ a
`
ng 0), ta
c´ o a
2
− pb
2
= 0,
a
a
2
−pb
2
+
−b
a
2
−pb
2
∈ Q(

p) v`a (a + b

p)(
a
a
2
−pb
2
+
−b
a
2
−pb
2
) = 1.
Do d¯´o Q(

p) l`a mˆ o
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng.
b) Gia’ su
.
’ tˆo
`
n ta
.
i d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u tru
.
`o
.
ng f : Q(

3) −→Q(

5). Khi d¯´o f(1) = 0
v` a do f(1) = f(1.1) = f(1)f(1) nˆen f(1) = 1. T` u
.
d¯´o f(3) = f(1 + 1 + 1) =
f(1) +f(1) +f(1) = 3. Gia’ su
.
’ f(

3) = a +b

5 (v´o
.
i a, b ∈ Q). Ta c´o
3 = f(3) = f(

3.

3) = f(

3)
2
= (a +b

5)
2
hay a
2
+ 5b
2
+ 2ab

5 = 3 hay 2ab

5 = 3 −a
2
−5b
2
.
– Nˆe
´
u a = b = 0 th`ı 0 = 3: vˆo l´ y.
– Nˆe
´
u a = 0 v`a b = 0 th`ı b =

3
5
: vˆo l´ y.
– Nˆe
´
u b = 0 v`a a = 0 th`ı a =

3: vˆo l´ y.
– Nˆe
´
u a = 0 v`a b = 0 th`ı

5 =
3−a
2
−5b
2
2ab
: vˆo l´ y v`ı vˆe
´
pha’ i l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’
nhu
.
ng vˆe
´
tr´ai l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
vˆo tı’.
42. a) V´o
.
i mo
.
i a ∈ R, 2a = a + a = (a + a)
2
= a
2
+ 2a
2
+ a
2
= 4a
2
= 4a, do
d¯´o 2a = 0 . Vˆa
.
y R c´o d¯˘a
.
c sˆo
´
2. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra a = −a, ∀a ∈ R.
b) V´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ R, a +b = (a +b)
2
= a
2
+ab +ba +b
2
= a +ab +ba +b,
do d¯´o ab +ba = 0 hay ab = −ba = ba. Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh giao ho´an.
c) V´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ R, ab(a +b) = a
2
b +ab
2
= ab +ab = 2ab = 0, do d¯´o ho˘a
.
c
ab = 0 ho˘a
.
c a +b = 0. Nˆe
´
u ab = 0 th`ı a = 0 ho˘a
.
c b = 0. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay
v` anh R chı’ c´o mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ 0. Nˆe
´
u ab = 0 (t´ u
.
c l`a a = 0 v`a b = 0) th`ı a +b = 0
hay b = −a = a. Khi d¯´o R chı’ c´o hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ .
67
CHU
.
O
.
NG III:
QUAN H
ˆ
E
.
3.1. QUAN H
ˆ
E
.
V
`
A C
´
AC T
´
INH CH
ˆ
A
´
T CU

A N
´
O.
3.1.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa v` a th´ı du
.
:
3.1.1.1. Mo
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u: C´ac mˆ o
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a nh˜ u
.
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p xuˆa
´
t
hiˆe
.
n trong nhiˆe
`
u bˆo
´
i ca’ nh. Thu
.
`o
.
ng ng`ay ta vˆa
˜
n g˘a
.
p c´ac mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
n`ay, ch˘a

ng
ha
.
n mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
c v´o
.
i sˆo
´
d¯iˆe
.
n thoa
.
i cu’ a n´o, mˆ o
´
i quan hˆe
.
cu’ a
mˆo
.
t gi´ao viˆen v´ o
.
i lu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯´o, mˆ o
´
i quan hˆe
.
cu’ a mˆo
.
t ngu
.
`o
.
i v´ o
.
i ngu
.
`o
.
i
thˆan cu’ a anh ta ... Trong to´an ho
.
c, ta nghiˆen c´ u
.
u c´ac mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
nhu
.
mˆo
´
i quan
hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng v`a mˆo
.
t u
.
´o
.
c sˆo
´
cu’ a n´o, mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen kh´ac d¯ˆo
`
ng du
.
v´o
.
i n´o theo mˆod¯ulˆo n, mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c kh´ac l´o
.
n ho
.
n n´o ... C´ac mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a nh˜ u
.
ng
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n b˘a
`
ng c´ ach d` ung mˆo
.
t cˆ a
´
u tr´ uc d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l` a quan hˆe
.
. C´ ach tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p nhˆa
´
t d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a
hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p l` a d` ung c´ac c˘ a
.
p ta
.
o bo
.
’ i hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c´o quan hˆe
.
. V`ı l´ y do d¯´o, tˆa
.
p
c´ ac c˘a
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi.
3.1.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B. Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi t` u
.
A
d¯ˆe
´
n B l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con R cu’ a t´ıch Descartes A B. Ta n´oi phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a ∈ A c´o
quan hˆe
.
R v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ b ∈ B nˆe
´
u (a, b) ∈ R v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a aRb
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sinh viˆen cu’ a D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
v`a B l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac
mˆon ho
.
c. Cho R l`a quan hˆe
.
bao gˆo
`
m c´ac c˘a
.
p (a, b) trong d¯´o a l`a sinh viˆen ho
.
c
mˆon b. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n, ba
.
n An v`a ba
.
n T` ung l`a sinh viˆen cu’ a D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Huˆe
´
d¯ˆe
`
u ho
.
c
mˆon Nhˆa
.
p mˆon d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
c´o m˜a sˆo
´
l`a NMDSO, th`ı c´ac c˘ a
.
p (An, NMDSO) v`a (T` ung,
NMDSO) thuˆ o
.
c R. Nˆe
´
u An c`on ho
.
c mˆon Gia’ i t´ıch 1 c´o m˜a sˆo
´
l`a GTICH1 th`ı
c˘ a
.
p (An, GTICH1) c˜ ung thuˆo
.
c R. Tuy nhiˆen nˆe
´
u T` ung khˆong ho
.
c mˆon GTICH1
th`ı c˘ a
.
p (T` ung, GTICH1) khˆ ong thuˆo
.
c R.
2) Cho A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac quˆa
.
n, huyˆe
.
n v`a B l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac tı’nh th`anh cu’ a
Viˆe
.
t Nam. Ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa quan hˆe
.
R b˘a
`
ng c´ach chı ’ r˜o r˘a
`
ng (a, b) thuˆo
.
c R nˆe
´
u
quˆa
.
n hay huyˆe
.
n a thuˆ o
.
c tı’nh hay th`anh phˆo
´
b. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n, (Ph´ u Lˆo
.
c, Th` u
.
a
Thiˆen Huˆe
´
), (Ba D
-
`ınh, H`a Nˆo
.
i), (Ph´ u Quˆo
´
c, Kiˆen Giang), (Nam D
-
`an, Nghˆe
.
An),
(Tˆan B`ınh, TP. Hˆo
`
Ch´ı Minh) v`a (Buˆon D
-
ˆon, Daklak) d¯ˆe
`
u thuˆo
.
c R.
3.1.1.3.
´
Anh xa
.
nhu
.
mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
: H˜ay nh´o
.
la
.
i r˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f t` u
.
tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p A d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B g´an cho mˆ o
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A mˆo
.
t phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a B.
D
-
ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a f l`a tˆa
.
p c´ ac c˘a
.
p (a, b) sao cho b = f(a). V`ı d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a f l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p
con cu’ a A B, nˆen n´o l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n B.
Ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, nˆe
´
u R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n B sao cho mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A l`a
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen cu’ a d¯´ ung mˆo
.
t c˘ a
.
p cu’ a R, th`ı c´o thˆe

d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t ´anh
68
xa
.
v´ o
.
i R l`a d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a n´o. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c l`am b˘a
`
ng c´ach g´an cho mˆo
˜
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.

a ∈ A mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ duy nhˆ a
´
t b ∈ B sao cho (a, b) ∈ R.
Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
c˜ ung c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d` ung d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac mˆ o
´
i quan hˆe
.
mˆo
.
t-
nhiˆe
`
u gi˜ u
.
a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a B, trong d¯´o mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A
c´ o thˆe

c´o quan hˆe
.
v´o
.
i ho
.
n mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a B. Trong khi d¯´o, mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trong d¯´o mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a A c´o quan hˆe
.
v´o
.
i d¯´ ung mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ cu’ a B.
3.1.1.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n A. N´oi mˆo
.
t c´ ach kh´ ac, mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a
A A.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Quan hˆe
.
“nho’ ho
.
n ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng” (≤) l`a mˆ o
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R
c´ ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c.
2) Quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t” ([) l`a mˆ o
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
3) Quan hˆe
.
“vuˆong g´oc” (⊥) l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
trong m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng.
4) V´o
.
i n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, R = ¦(x, y) ∈ ZZ [ x−y chia hˆe
´
t cho n¦
l` a mˆ o
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen Z, go
.
i l`a quan hˆe
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng du
.
mˆod¯ulˆo n. Khi xRy, ta viˆe
´
t x ≡ y
(modn).
5) Quan hˆe
.
“c` ung tuˆo

i” l`a mˆ o
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac con ngu
.
`o
.
i cu’ a tr´ai
d¯ˆa
´
t.
3.1.2. C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a quan hˆe
.
:
3.1.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
nˆe
´
u aRa v´o
.
i mo
.
i a ∈ A.
3.1.2.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng
nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ A, aRb k´eo theo bRa.
3.1.2.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i
x´ u
.
ng nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ A, aRb v`a bRa k´eo theo a = b.
3.1.2.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u
nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b, c ∈ A, aRb v`a bRc k´eo theo aRc.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Quan hˆe
.
“b˘a
`
ng nhau” (=) trˆen mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p X tu` y ´ y c´o 4 t´ınh chˆa
´
t:
pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
2) Quan hˆe
.
≤ trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X, v´o
.
i X l`a tˆa
.
p con tu` y ´ y cu’ a R, c´o 3 t´ınh chˆa
´
t:
pha’ n xa
.
, pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
3) Quan hˆe
.
“d¯ˆo
`
ng du
.
modn” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´o 3 t´ınh chˆa
´
t: pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i
x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
4) Quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng c´ o 3 t´ınh chˆa
´
t:
pha’ n xa
.
, pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u. Tuy nhiˆen, nˆe
´
u x´et trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z th`ı quan
hˆe
.
n` ay chı ’ c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
69
5) Quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am” (⊂) trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p X tu` y ´ y c´o 3 t´ınh chˆa
´
t pha’ n xa
.
, pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
6) Quan hˆe
.
“d¯ˆo
`
ng da
.
ng” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac tam gi´ac c´o 3 t´ınh chˆ a
´
t: pha’ n
xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
7) Quan hˆe
.
“nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

chı’ c´o t´ınh chˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i
x´ u
.
ng.
3.1.3. Tˆo

ho
.
.
p c´ac quan hˆe
.
:
V`ı c´ac quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n B l`a c´ ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a AB, nˆen hai quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n
B c˜ ung c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tˆo

ho
.
.
p nhu
.
hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n, v´o
.
i R
1
v`a R
2
l`a hai quan
hˆe
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n B th`ı ta c´o nh˜ u
.
ng quan hˆe
.
R
1
∩R
2
, R
1
∪R
2
, R
1
`R
2
, R
1
, R
1
⊕R
2
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n B.
3.1.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B v`a
S l` a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p C. Ho
.
.
p th`anh cu’ a R v`a S l`a mˆo
.
t
quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
A d¯ˆe
´
n C, k´ y hiˆe
.
u S ◦ R, x´ ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i
S ◦ R = ¦(a, c) ∈ A C [ ∃b ∈ B, (a, b) ∈ R v`a (b, c) ∈ S¦.
D
-
˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, khi R l`a d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a ´anh xa
.
f v`a S l`a d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a ´anh xa
.
g th`ı S ◦ R
l` a d¯ˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a ´anh xa
.
g ◦ f.
Th´ı du
.
: Cho R l`a quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
¦1, 2, 3¦ d¯ˆe
´
n ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦ x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i R =
¦(1, 1), (1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 4)¦ v`a S l`a quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
¦1, 2, 3, 4¦ d¯ˆe
´
n ¦0, 1, 2¦ x´ac
d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i S = ¦(1, 0), (2, 0), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1)¦. Khi d¯´o ho
.
.
p th`anh cu’ a R v`a S l`a:
S ◦ R = ¦(1, 0), (1, 1), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 0), (3, 1)¦.
3.1.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A. L˜ uy th` u
.
a R
n
,
v´ o
.
i n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa b˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p nhu
.
sau:
R
1
= R v`a R
n+1
= R
n
◦ R.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, (a, b) ∈ R
n
khi v`a chı’ khi tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n−1
∈ A sao cho
(a, x
1
), (x
1
, x
2
), . . . , (x
n−1
, b) ∈ R.
3.1.3.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A c´o t´ınh chˆa
´
t b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u khi v`a chı ’
khi R
n
⊂ R v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N

.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ R
n
⊂ R v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N

. Khi d¯´o R
2
⊂ R v`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i
a, b, c ∈ A, (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R th`ı theo d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a ho
.
.
p th`anh (a, c) ∈ R
2
,
do d¯´o (a, c) ∈ R, t´ u
.
c l`a R c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
Gia’ su
.
’ R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u. V´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N

, nˆe
´
u (a, b) ∈ R
n
th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n−1
∈ A sao cho (a, x
1
), (x
1
, x
2
), . . . , (x
n−1
, b) ∈ R, v`ı R c´o t´ınh
chˆa
´
t b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u nˆen (a, b) ∈ R. Do d¯´o R
n
⊂ R v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N

.
70
3.2. QUAN H
ˆ
E
.
TU
.
O
.
NG D
-
U
.
O
.
NG V
`
A QUAN H
ˆ
E
.
TH
´
U
.
TU
.
.
.
3.2.1. Quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng:
3.2.1.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng nˆe
´
u n´o c´ o c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Quan hˆe
.
“d¯ˆo
`
ng du
.
modn” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
2) Quan hˆe
.
“d¯ˆo
`
ng da
.
ng” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac tam gi´ac l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
3) Quan hˆe
.
“c` ung phu
.
o
.
ng” (song song ho˘a
.
c tr` ung nhau) trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac
d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
4) R = ¦(m, n) ∈ Z Z [ m−n ch˘a
˜
n¦ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
3.2.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a
a ∈ A. Tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p
¦x ∈ A [ xRa ¦
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng cu’ a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a a ho˘a
.
c [a] ho˘a
.
c C(a).
3.2.1.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a
a, b ∈ A. Khi d¯´o ta c´o:
1) a = ∅.
2) a = b khi v`a chı ’ khi aRb.
3) a = b ho˘a
.
c a ∩ b = ∅.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) V`ı R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
nˆen aRa hay a ∈ a. Do d¯´o a = ∅.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ a = b. Khi d¯´o a ∈ b, nˆen aRb.
Gia’ su
.
’ aRb. Khi d¯´o v´o
.
i x ∈ a, ta c´o xRa v`a do aRb nˆen xRb hay x ∈ b.
Vˆa
.
y a ⊂ b. D
-
a’ o la
.
i, v´o
.
i x ∈ b, ta c´o xRb v`a do bRa (c´o t` u
.
aRb) nˆen xRa hay
x ∈ a. Vˆa
.
y b ⊂ a. T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o a = b.
3) Gia’ su
.
’ a ∩ b = ∅. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x ∈ a ∩ b, ngh˜ıa l`a xRa v`a xRb. T` u
.
d¯´o
ta c´ o aRx v`a xRb, nˆen c´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c aRb v`a theo trˆen ta c´ o a = b.
3.2.1.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A.
Khi d¯´o A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c chia th`anh c´ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng, r`o
.
i nhau d¯ˆoi mˆo
.
t.
Tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng d¯´o go
.
i l`a tˆa
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a A theo quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng R v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A/R. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y,
A/R = ¦a [ a ∈ A¦.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) X´et quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng “c` ung phu
.
o
.
ng” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p D tˆa
´
t ca’
c´ ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng trong m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng. Khi d¯´o v´o
.
i d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng a ∈ D, l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng a l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m a v`a c´ ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng trong D song song v´ o
.
i a. Trong
71
to´an ho
.
c, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta coi mˆo
˜
i l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng n´oi trˆen l`a mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng trˆen m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng. V`ı vˆa
.
y c´o thˆe

coi tˆ a
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng l`a tˆa
.
p c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng.
2) Cho X = ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦. Trˆen {(X), x´et quan hˆe
.
R nhu
.
sau:
∀A, B ∈ {(X), A R B ⇔ [A[ = [B[.
Dˆe
˜
d`ang c´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen {(X). C´ ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng theo quan hˆe
.
R l`a:
C
0
= ¦∅¦ (tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X khˆong c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ n`ao),
C
1
= ¦¦1¦, ¦2¦, ¦3¦, ¦4¦¦ (c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X c´o 1 phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ ),
C
2
= ¦¦1, 2¦, ¦1, 3¦, ¦1, 4¦, ¦2, 3¦, ¦2, 4¦, ¦3, 4¦¦(c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X c´o 2 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ),
C
3
= ¦¦1, 2, 3¦, ¦1, 2, 4¦, ¦1, 3, 4¦, ¦2, 3, 4¦¦ (c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X c´o 3 phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ ),
C
4
= ¦X¦ (tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X c´o 4 phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ ).
Tˆa
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a X theo quan hˆe
.
R l`a {(X)/R = ¦C
0
, C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
¦.
3) X´et quan hˆe
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng du
.
mˆod¯ulˆo n trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen. V´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i
x ∈ Z, nˆe
´
u x = qn + r, trong d¯´o 0 ≤ r < n th`ı x ≡ r (modn) hay x ∈ r. Do d¯´o
c´ ac l´ o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng theo quan hˆe
.
n`ay l`a:
0 = ¦qn [ q ∈ Z¦,
1 = ¦qn + 1 [ q ∈ Z¦,
2 = ¦qn + 2 [ q ∈ Z¦,
. . . . . .
n −1 = ¦qn + (n −1) [ q ∈ Z¦.
Tˆa
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a Z theo quan hˆe
.
d¯ˆo
`
ng du
.
mˆod¯ulˆo n l`a Z/ ≡(modn) v`a
thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a Z
n
. Mˆo
˜
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a Z
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen
mˆod¯ulˆo n.
3.2.1.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆo
.
t phˆan hoa
.
ch cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
(A
i
)
i∈I
c´ac
tˆ a
.
p con cu’ a A sao cho
A
i
= ∅ (∀i ∈ I), A
i
∩ A
j
= ∅ (∀i, j ∈ I, i = j), ∪
i∈I
A
i
= A.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, khi c´o mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A th`ı ho
.
gˆo
`
m tˆa
´
t
ca’ c´ ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng theo quan hˆe
.
n`ay ta
.
o th`anh mˆo
.
t phˆan hoa
.
ch cu’ a tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p A.
3.2.1.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Mˆo
˜
i phˆan hoa
.
ch cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A x´ac d¯i
.
nh mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen A.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ (A
i
)
i∈I
l`a mˆo
.
t phˆan hoa
.
ch cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A. X´et quan hˆe
.
R trˆen A nhu
.
sau:
∀a, b ∈ A, a R b ⇔ ∃i ∈ I, a, b ∈ A
i
.
72
T` u
.
c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a phˆ an hoa
.
ch, dˆe
˜
d`ang c´ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng v`a mˆo
˜
i l´ o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p con A
i
n`ao d¯´o.
3.2.2. Quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
:
3.2.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
nˆe
´
u n´o c´ o c´ac t´ınh chˆ a
´
t pha’ n xa
.
, pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta thu
.
`o
.
ng k´ y hiˆe
.
u mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i k´ y hiˆe
.
u ≤.
Nˆe
´
u trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A c´ o mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ th`ı ta n´oi A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
.
V´o
.
i hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a, b ∈ A (trong d¯´o A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤), nˆe
´
u ta c´o a ≤ b th`ı ta c` on viˆe
´
t b ≥ a.
Khi c´ o quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ trˆen A, ta c´ o thˆe

x´ac d¯i
.
nh quan hˆe
.
< nhu
.
sau:
∀a, b ∈ A, a < b ⇔ a ≤ b v`a a = b.
Nˆe
´
u c´o a < b, ta c` on viˆe
´
t b > a.
Ta c´ o thˆe

mˆo ta’ viˆe
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n A (v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤) b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t biˆe

u d¯ˆo
`
go
.
i l` a biˆe

u d¯ˆo
`
Hasse. D
-
´o l`a biˆe

u d¯ˆo
`
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.

cu’ a A bo
.
’ i c´ ac dˆa
´
u chˆa
´
m v`a nˆe
´
u c´o a ≤ b (a, b ∈ A) th`ı nˆo
´
i a v´o
.
i b bo
.
’ i mˆ o
.
t d¯oa
.
n
th˘a

ng t` u
.
du
.
´o
.
i lˆen trˆen.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng trˆen c´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
N, Z, Q, R l`a quan
hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
.
2) Quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
.
3) Quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X l`a
mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
.
3.2.2.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
(bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤). V´o
.
i
hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a, b ∈ A, nˆe
´
u ta c´o a ≤ b ho˘a
.
c b ≤ a th`ı ta n´oi a v`a b so s´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
v´ o
.
i nhau, c`on nˆe
´
u ta khˆong c´o ca’ a ≤ b lˆa
˜
n b ≤ a th`ı ta n´oi a v`a b khˆong so s´anh
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i nhau.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n
nˆe
´
u hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ bˆa
´
t k` y a, b ∈ A luˆon c´o thˆe

so s´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i nhau. Khi d¯´o ta
c˜ ung go
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, t´ u
.
c l`a nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a, b ∈ A khˆong
so s´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i nhau th`ı ta go
.
i A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n v`a
quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen l`a
mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n.
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen kh´ ac khˆong v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
“chia hˆe
´
t”
l` a mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n, v`ı ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, ta khˆong c´o 2[3 v`a c˜ ung
khˆong c´o 3[2.
73
3) Quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am” trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) c´ ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X, trong
d¯´o [X[ > 1, l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bˆo
.
phˆa
.
n, v`ı ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, v´o
.
i x, y ∈ X, x = y,
ta c´ o hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ¦x¦ v`a ¦y¦ cu’ a {(X) khˆ ong so s´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i nhau.
V´o
.
i X = ∅ ho˘a
.
c X = ¦x¦, ta dˆe
˜
nhˆa
.
n thˆa
´
y {(X) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an
phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
⊂.
4) Cho A l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a n l`a mˆo
.
t
sˆ o
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. Trˆen A
n
, ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi T nhu
.
sau:
∀a = (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
), b = (b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
) ∈ A
n
, a T b ⇔ ho˘a
.
c a = b
ho˘a
.
c tˆo
`
n ta
.
i i (1 ≤ i ≤ n) sao cho a
1
= b
1
, . . . , a
i−1
= b
i−1
, a
i
< b
i
.
Khi d¯´o A
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
T. Quan hˆe
.
n`ay d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t` u
.
d¯iˆe

n.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, x´et A = ¦., a, b, c, . . . , x, y, z¦, trong d¯´o . k´ y hiˆe
.
u cho khoa’ ng
tr˘a
´
ng (khˆong c´o ch˜ u
.
c´ai). R˜o r`ang A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
liˆe
.
t kˆe o
.
’ trˆen. Go
.
i n l`a sˆo
´
ch˜ u
.
c´ai nhiˆe
`
u nhˆa
´
t trong sˆo
´
c´ac t` u
.
tiˆe
´
ng Anh. Mˆo
.
t
t` u
.
tiˆe
´
ng Anh bˆa
´
t k` y c´o k ch˜ u
.
c´ai (k ≤ n) th`ı d¯u
.
o
.
.
c xem nhu
.
mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a
A
n
, trong d¯´o k ch˜ u
.
c´ai d¯ˆa
`
u l` a c´ac ch˜ u
.
c´ai cu’ a t` u
.
d¯´o (theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t` u
.
tr´ai sang
pha’ i) v`a n−k th`anh phˆa
`
n c`on la
.
i l`a .. Khi d¯´o quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
T trˆen A
n
s˜e cho
ta c´ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p c´ac t` u
.
tiˆe
´
ng Anh theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong t` u
.
d¯iˆe

n. V`ı l´ y do d¯´o T
go
.
i l` a quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t` u
.
d¯iˆe

n.
3.2.2.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a X
l` a mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A. Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a ∈ X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t
(t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X ta c´o x ≤ a (t.u
.
. x ≥ a).
Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i l`a duy nhˆa
´
t. Thˆa
.
t vˆ a
.
y,
nˆe
´
u a v`a b l`a hai phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ l´ o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X th`ı theo d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta
c´ o a ≤ b v`a b ≤ a; theo t´ınh chˆa
´
t pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng cu’ a ≤, ta c´ o a = b.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v´ o
.
i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng. Khi
d¯´o N c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t l`a 0 v`a khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t.
X´et tˆa
.
p con X = ¦10, 15, 1, 4, 9, 22, 11¦ cu’ a N. Khi d¯´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a
X l` a 1 v`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t l`a 22.
2) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen kh´ac khˆ ong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan
hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t”. Khi d¯´o 1 l`a phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t (v`ı 1 [ a, ∀a ∈ N

) v`a khˆ ong c´o
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t.
X´et X = ¦2, 3, 6, 8, 12, 24¦ ⊂ N

. Khi d¯´o X c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t l`a 24 v`a
khˆong c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t.
3) Cho X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) gˆo
`
m c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
s˘ a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am”. Khi d¯´o {(X) c´ o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t l`a ∅ v`a
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t l`a X.
74
3.2.2.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a X l`a
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A. Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c ∈ A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t ch˘a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a X nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X ta c´ o x ≤ c (t.u
.
. x ≥ c). Nˆe
´
u X c´o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t
mˆo
.
t ch˘a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) th`ı ta n´oi X l`a tˆa
.
p con bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. bi
.
ch˘a
.
n
du
.
´o
.
i).
Mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con X cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A c´o thˆe

khˆong c´o ch˘a
.
n trˆen
(t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i), c˜ ung c´ o thˆe

c´o mˆo
.
t hay nhiˆe
`
u ch˘a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i).
V´o
.
i X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A v`a a ∈ X. Phˆ a
`
n tu
.

a l` a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X khi v`a chı ’ khi a l`a mˆo
.
t ch˘a
.
n trˆen
(t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a X.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng v`a
X = ¦6, 8, 4, 9, 45, 10, 7, 12¦ ⊂ N. Khi d¯´o c´ ac sˆo
´
0, 1, 2, 3 l`a c´ac ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a
X v` a c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen x ≥ 45 l`a c´ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a X.
2) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q

0
c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ khˆong ˆam v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ thˆong
thu
.
`o
.
ng v`a X = ¦
1
n
[ n ∈ N

¦ ⊂ Q

0
. Khi d¯´o 0 l`a ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a X m`a
khˆong l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a X v`a c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ x ≥ 1 l`a c´ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a X
m`a 1 l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a X.
3) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t” v`a X =
¦2, 4, 6, 8, 12¦ ⊂ N

. Khi d¯´o c´ac sˆo
´
1, 2 l`a c´ac ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a X v`a c´ ac sˆo
´
x ∈ N

sao cho x l`a bˆo
.
i chung cu’ a 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, l`a c´ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a X.
3.2.2.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a X l`a
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A. Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t) cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
c´ ac ch˘ a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆa
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. cˆa
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a X
trong A, k´ y hiˆe
.
u sup
A
X (t.u
.
. inf
A
X).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a ∈ A l`a cˆa
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. cˆa
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a tˆa
.
p con X cu’ a A
khi v`a chı ’ khi a l`a mˆo
.
t ch˘ a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a A v`a a ≤ c (t.u
.
. a ≥ c)
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i ch˘a
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) c cu’ a X.
Cˆa
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. cˆ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a mˆo
˜
i tˆa
.
p con X cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i l` a duy nhˆ a
´
t. Ngo`ai ra, cˆa
.
n trˆen (t.u
.
. cˆ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a X l`a thuˆo
.
c X
khi v`a chı ’ khi n´o l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng v`a
X = ¦x ∈ R [ 1 < x < 2¦ = (1, 2) ⊂ R v`a X

= ¦(1 +
1
n
)
n
[ n ∈ N

¦ ⊂ R. Khi
d¯´o tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a X l`a [2, +∞) v`a cu’ a X

l`a [e, +∞), tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a X l`a (−∞, 1] v`a cu’ a X

l`a (−∞, 2]. Do d¯´o sup
R
X = 2, sup
R
X

=
e, inf
R
X = 1, inf
R
X

= 2 (∈ X

).
2) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t” v`a X =
¦2, 3, 6, 8¦. Khi d¯´o tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a X l`a c´ ac bˆo
.
i chung trong N

75
cu’ a 2, 3, 6, 8 v`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac ch˘ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a X l`a c´ac u
.
´o
.
c chung trong N

cu’ a 2,
3, 6, 8. Do d¯´o sup
N

X = BCNN(2, 3, 6, 8) = 24 v`a inf
N

X = UCLN(2, 3, 6, 8) = 1.
3) X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am” v`a A =
¦A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
¦ ⊂ {(X). Khi d¯´o sup
P(X)
A =
n

i=1
A
i
v`a inf
P(X)
A =
n

i=1
A
i
.
3.2.2.6. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a X l`a
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A. Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ m ∈ X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
.
tˆ o
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X ta c´o:
m ≤ x ⇒ x = m (t.u
.
. x ≤ m ⇒ x = m),
t´ u
.
c l`a khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i phˆ a
`
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x n`ao cu’ a X sao cho x > m (t.u
.
. x < m).
R˜o r`ang r˘a
`
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) m cu’ a A sao cho m ∈ X c˜ ung
l` a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X. Tuy nhiˆen, nˆe
´
u m l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i
(t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X th`ı chu
.
a ch˘a
´
c m l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a A.
Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´o thˆe

khˆong c´o v` a nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n
ta
.
i, c´o thˆe

c´o ho
.
n 1.
3.2.2.7. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a X l`a
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A. Khi d¯´o:
1) Nˆe
´
u X c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) l`a a th`ı a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i
(t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a X.
2) Nˆe
´
u X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ th`ı phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ a ∈ X l`a
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X khi v`a chı ’ khi a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
.
tˆ o
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) Gia’ su
.
’ a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X. Khi d¯´o
ta c´ o x ≤ a (t.u
.
. x ≥ a) v´ o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X v`a nˆe
´
u a ≤ x (t.u
.
. a ≥ x) th`ı do t´ınh
chˆa
´
t pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng ta c´o x = a. Vˆa
.
y a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X.
Nˆe
´
u a

l`a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) t` uy ´ y cu’ a X th`ı do a l`a phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t) cu’ a X ta c´ o a

≤ a (t.u
.
. a

≥ a) v`a do a

l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.

tˆ o
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X nˆen a

= a.
2) (⇒) C´o t` u
.
1).
(⇐) Gia’ su
.
’ a ∈ X l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X. Khi d¯´o do X
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n nˆen v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X, ta c´o x ≤ a ho˘a
.
c a ≤ x. Nˆe
´
u
a ≤ x (t.u
.
. a ≥ x) th`ı do a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i (t.u
.
. tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u) cu’ a X ta c´o x = a.
Vˆa
.
y x ≤ a (t.u
.
. x ≥ a) v´ o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ X hay x l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t (t.u
.
. nho’ nhˆa
´
t)
cu’ a X.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t” c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u duy nhˆa
´
t l`a
1, d¯´o c˜ ung l`a phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a N

, khˆ ong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i.
Tˆa
.
p con X = N

` ¦1¦ cu’ a N

c´o c´ ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u l`a c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
v` a X khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i.
76
Tˆa
.
p con X

= ¦2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 19, 24¦ cu’ a N

c´o c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u l`a 2, 3,
19 v` a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i l` a 9, 19, 24.
2) Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X = ¦x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
¦. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p / = {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦ v´o
.
i
quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am”. Khi d¯´ o / c´o c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p con 1 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ :
¦x
1
¦, ¦x
2
¦, . . . , ¦x
n
¦ v`a c´ o c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p con n − 1 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ :
¦x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
¦, ¦x
1
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
¦, . . . , ¦x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n−1
¦.
3.2.2.8. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤. Ta n´oi
A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
n`ay nˆe
´
u mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A d¯ˆe
`
u
c´ o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t.
3.2.2.9. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
n`ao
d¯´o th`ı n´ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
d¯´o.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ A l` a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤. Khi
d¯´o v´o
.
i hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ bˆa
´
t k` y a, b ∈ A, tˆa
.
p con X = ¦a, b¦ cu’ a A c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’
nhˆa
´
t. Nˆe
´
u a l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a X th`ı a ≤ b v`a nˆe
´
u b l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t
cu’ a X th`ı b ≤ a. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, a v`a b so s´anh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i nhau hay A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng.
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
“chia hˆe
´
t”.
3) C´ac tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z, Q, R khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong
thu
.
`o
.
ng.
3.2.2.10. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t d`an nˆe
´
u
v´ o
.
i hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ bˆa
´
t k` y a, b ∈ A, tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ¦a, b¦ luˆon c´o cˆa
.
n trˆen v`a cˆ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i.
Cˆ a
.
n trˆen v`a cˆa
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a ¦a, b¦ lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a a ∨ b v`a a ∧ b.
3.2.2.11. T´ınh chˆa
´
t: Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t d`an. Khi d¯´o v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b, c ∈ A, ta c´ o:
1) Luˆa
.
t l˜ uy d¯˘a

ng: a ∨ a = a, a ∧ a = a.
2) Luˆa
.
t giao ho´an: a ∨ b = b ∨ a, a ∧ b = b ∧ a.
3) Luˆa
.
t kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p: (a ∨ b) ∨ c = a ∨ (b ∨ c), (a ∧ b) ∧ c = a ∧ (b ∧ c).
4) Luˆa
.
t hˆa
´
p thu
.
: a ∨ (a ∧ b) = a, a ∧ (a ∨ b) = a.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: C´o ngay t` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a cˆa
.
n trˆen v`a cˆa
.
n du
.
´o
.
i.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
chia hˆe
´
t l`a mˆo
.
t d`an v`ı v´ o
.
i mo
.
i m, n ∈ N

,
ta c´ o m∨ n l`a BCNN(m, n) v`a m∧ n l`a UCLN(m, n).
2) Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
“bao h`am” l`a mˆo
.
t d`an v`ı v´ o
.
i mo
.
i A, B ∈
{(X), ta c´ o A ∨ B l`a A ∪ B v`a A ∧ B l`a A ∩ B.
Ta th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
sau, thu
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a Bˆo

d¯ˆe
`
Zorn, vˆe
`
su
.
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i trong mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng
v´ o
.
i h`ang loa
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
kh´ac trong l´ y thuyˆe
´
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p, trong sˆo
´
n`ay c´o Tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
cho
.
n, D
-
i
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
Zermelo, Nguyˆen l´ y s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t, ...
77
3.2.2.12. Bˆo

d¯ˆe
`
Zorn: Nˆe
´
u tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
quy na
.
p
ngh˜ıa l`a mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n cu’ a n´o d¯ˆe
`
u c´o ch˘a
.
n trˆen th`ı X
c´ o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P CHU
.
O
.
NG III
1. C´o bao nhiˆeu quan hˆe
.
kh´ac nhau t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´o m phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´o
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ?
2. X´ac d¯i
.
nh xem quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac con ngu
.
`o
.
i trˆen tr´ai d¯ˆa
´
t c´o l`a pha’ n
xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u khˆong, v´o
.
i (a, b) ∈ R nˆe
´
u v`a chı ’ nˆe
´
u:
a) a cao ho
.
n b ?
b) a v`a b sinh c` ung ng`ay ?
c) a v`a b c` ung tˆen ?
d) a v`a b c´o c` ung mˆo
.
t ˆong ?
3. C˜ ung ho’ i nhu
.
trˆen, v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen v`a x R y
nˆe
´
u v`a chı ’ nˆe
´
u:
a) x = y.
b) xy ≥ 1.
c) x = y + 1 hay x = y −1.
d) x +y l`a sˆo
´
ch˘a
˜
n.
e) x l`a bˆo
.
i sˆo
´
cu’ a y.
f ) x v`a y d¯ˆe
`
u ˆam ho˘a
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u khˆong ˆam.
g) x = y
2
.
h) x ≥ y
2
.
4. Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a pha’ n pha’ n xa
.
nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i
a ∈ A, (a, a) / ∈ R v`a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ A, (a, b) ∈ R
k´eo theo (b, a) / ∈ R.
a) C´ac quan hˆe
.
n`ao trong B`ai 2 v`a 3 l`a pha’ n pha’ n xa
.
.
b) C´ac quan hˆe
.
n`ao trong B`ai 2 v`a 3 l`a bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
5. Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p B. Quan hˆe
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
B
d¯ˆe
´
n A, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l` a R
−1
, l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ¦(b, a) [ (a, b) ∈ R¦. Quan hˆe
.
b` u R l`a
tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p ¦(a, b) [ (a, b) / ∈ R¦. T`ım R
−1
v`a R cu’ a R sau:
a) R = ¦(a, b) [ a < b¦ trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen.
b) R = ¦(a, b) [ b chia hˆe
´
t cho a¦ trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng.
c) R l`a quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac tı ’nh cu’ a Viˆe
.
t Nam gˆo
`
m c´ ac c˘ a
.
p (a, b),
trong d¯´o tı’nh a gi´ap gi´o
.
i v´ o
.
i tı’nh b.
6. Gia’ su
.
’ R v`a S l`a hai quan hˆe
.
c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A. X´ac d¯i
.
nh xem
c´ ac quan hˆe
.
R∪ S, R∩S, R⊕S, R` S v`a S ◦ R c´o t´ınh chˆa
´
t pha’ n xa
.
hay pha’ n
pha’ n xa
.
.
78
7. Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) R l`a pha’ n xa
.
nˆe
´
u v`a chı’ nˆe
´
u R
−1
l`a pha’ n xa
.
.
b) R l`a pha’ n xa
.
nˆe
´
u v`a chı ’ nˆe
´
u R l`a pha’ n pha’ n xa
.
.
c) R l`a pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng nˆe
´
u v`a chı’ nˆe
´
u R∩R
−1
l`a tˆa
.
p con cu’ a quan hˆe
.
d¯u
.
`o
.
ng
ch´eo ∆ = ¦(a, a) [ a ∈ A¦.
8. Cho R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A v`a n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. Ch´ u
.
ng
minh r˘a
`
ng
a) Nˆe
´
u R l`a pha’ n xa
.
th`ı R
n
l`a pha’ n xa
.
.
b) Nˆe
´
u R l`a d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng th`ı R
n
l`a d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
c) Nˆe
´
u R l`a pha’ n xa
.
v` a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u th`ı R
n
= R.
9. C´o bao nhiˆeu quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gˆo
`
m n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l`a
a) Pha’ n xa
.
?
b) D
-
ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng?
c) Bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng?
d) Pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng?
e) Pha’ n xa
.
v`a d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng?
10. C´ac quan hˆe
.
n`ao trong sˆo
´
c´ac quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ¦0, 1, 2, 3¦ cho du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay l`a
quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng?
a) ¦(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)¦.
b) ¦(0, 0), (0, 2), (2, 0), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 2), (3, 3)¦.
c) ¦(0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)¦.
d) ¦(0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 3), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3)¦.
e) ¦(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (1, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 0), (2, 2), (3, 3)¦.
11. C˜ ung ho’ i nhu
.
trˆen d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i c´ac quan hˆe
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac ´anh xa
.
t` u
.
Z d¯ˆe
´
n
Z d¯u
.
o
.
.
c cho du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay:
a) ¦(f, g) [ f(1) = g(1)¦.
b) ¦(f, g) [ f(0) = g(0) ho˘a
.
c f(1) = g(1)¦.
c) ¦(f, g) [ f(x) −g(x) = 1, ∀x ∈ Z¦.
d) ¦(f, g) [ ∃C ∈ Z, f(x) −g(x) = C v`a ∀x ∈ Z¦.
e) ¦(f, g) [ f(0) = g(1) v`a f(1) = g(0)¦.
12. Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng, f l`a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
c´o A l`a miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh
cu’ a n´o v` a R = ¦(x, y) ∈ AA [ f(x) = f(y)¦. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng R l`a mˆo
.
t quan
hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen A v`a x´ac d¯i
.
nh c´ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng cu’ a R.
13. Cho A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng v`a R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen A.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
f c´o A l`a miˆe
`
n x´ac d¯i
.
nh sao cho (x, y) ∈ R
khi v`a chı ’ khi f(x) = f(y).
14. T`ım quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng nho’ nhˆa
´
t trˆen tˆa
.
p ¦a, b, c, d, e¦ ch´ u
.
a quan hˆe
.
¦(a, b), (a, c), (d, e)¦.
79
15. X´ac d¯i
.
nh sˆo
´
c´ac quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng kh´ac nhau trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p 3 phˆa
`
n tu
.

b˘ a
`
ng c´ach liˆe
.
t kˆe ra c´ac quan hˆe
.
d¯´o.
16. C´o bao nhiˆeu quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng kh´ac nhau cho trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p 5 phˆa
`
n tu
.

c´ o d¯´ ung 3 l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng kh´ac nhau?
17. Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a quan hˆe
.
v`ong quanh nˆe
´
u xRy
v` a yRz k´eo theo zRx. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng quan hˆe
.
R l`a pha’ n xa
.
v`a v`ong quanh
khi v`a chı ’ khi R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
18. Cho L
0
l`a mˆo
.
t d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng cˆo
´
d¯i
.
nh trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng R
2
. Mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
R
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p L tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng R
2
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh nhu
.
sau:
∀L
1
, L
2
∈ L, L
1
RL
2
⇔ L
1
∩ L
0
= ∅ ∧ L
2
∩ L
0
= ∅.
X´ac d¯i
.
nh xem R c´o l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng hay khˆong?
19. Cho M l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng v`a a ∈ M. Trˆen X = P(M) ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi nhu
.
sau:
R = ¦(A, B) ∈ X
2
[ A = B hay a ∈ A ∩ B¦.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen X. H˜ay chı ’ ra tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
thu
.
o
.
ng.
20. Go
.
i X l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i ´ anh xa
.
t` u
.
R v`ao R. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ quan hˆe
.
R sau l`a quan
hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen X:
a) ∀x, y ∈ X, xRy ⇔ ∃C > 0, x(t) = y(t), ∀t ∈ R, [t[ < C.
b) ∀x, y ∈ X, xRy ⇔ lim
t→0
x(t) −y(t)
t
n
= 0, trong d¯´o n ∈ N cho tru
.
´o
.
c.
21. X´et quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi R trˆen N
2
nhu
.
sau:
∀(m
1
, n
1
), (m
2
, n
2
) ∈ N
2
, (m
1
, n
1
)R(m
2
, n
2
) ⇔m
1
+n
2
= m
2
+n
1
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen N
2
. H˜ay chı’ ra tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
thu
.
o
.
ng.
22. Trˆen Z N

(N

= N ` ¦0¦), x´et quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi sau:
∀(z
1
, n
1
), (z
2
, n
2
) ∈ Z N

, (z
1
, n
1
)R(z
2
, n
2
) ⇔ z
1
n
2
= z
2
n
1
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen Z N

. H˜ay chı ’ ra tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng.
23. Trong m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng c´o hˆe
.
toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
vuˆong g´oc, hai d¯iˆe

m P
1
(x
1
, y
1
), P
2
(x
2
, y
2
)
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a quan hˆe
.
v´o
.
i nhau bo
.
’ i R nˆe
´
u v`a chı’ nˆe
´
u x
1
y
1
= x
2
y
2
. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng
R l` a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng v`a t`ım c´ ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
80
Bˆay gi`o
.
nˆe
´
u d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
P
1
S P
2
⇔ x
1
y
1
= x
2
y
2
∧ x
1
x
2
≥ 0
th`ı S c`on l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng n˜ u
.
a khˆong ?
24. Trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c, x´et quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi R sau:
∀x, y ∈ R, x R y ⇔ x
3
−y
3
= x −y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng. T`ım c´ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng
v` a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng.
25. X´et quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c nhu
.
sau:
∀a, b ∈ R, a R b ⇔ a
3
≤ b
3
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng R s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R.
Nˆe
´
u x´et quan hˆe
.
S trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R nhu
.
sau th`ı S c´o l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
khˆong?
∀a, b ∈ R, a S b ⇔ a
2
≤ b
2
.
26. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N

v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
“chia hˆe
´
t ” v`a X = ¦2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10¦.
H˜ay t`ım c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t, nho’ nhˆa
´
t, ch˘a
.
n trˆen, ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i, cˆa
.
n trˆen, cˆa
.
n
du
.
´o
.
i, tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i, tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u cu’ a X. V˜e biˆe

u d¯ˆo
`
Hasse minh hoa
.
tˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
X.
27. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p {(X) v´ o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
“bao h`am”, trong d¯´o X = ¦1, 2, 3, 4, 5¦.
H˜ay t`ım c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t, nho’ nhˆa
´
t, ch˘a
.
n trˆen, ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i, cˆa
.
n trˆen, cˆa
.
n
du
.
´o
.
i, tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i, tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u cu’ a {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦ v`a A = ¦¦1, 2¦, ¦2, 3¦, ¦3, 4¦, ¦1, 2, 4¦¦.
28. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng v`a X =
¦
m
n
[ m, n ∈ N, 0 < m < n¦. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng X khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t
v` a nho’ nhˆa
´
t. H˜ay t`ım cˆa
.
n trˆen v`a cˆ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a X.
29. Tˆa
.
p A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ nˆe
´
u mo
.
i tˆa
.
p
con kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a A bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen d¯ˆe
`
u c´o cˆa
.
n trˆen.
a) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng s˘ a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t l`a s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ .
b) Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng N v` a R s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng,
nhu
.
ng Q s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
khˆong d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ bo
.
’ i ≤.
30. Cho X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c´ac tˆa
.
p con
A ⊂ X v`a B ⊂ X sao cho A ∩ B = ∅, A ∪ B = X, A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t (theo
quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trong X), c` on B khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t.
81
31. Cho E l`a tˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
R. Ta n´oi tˆa
.
p con F ⊂ E l`a
mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con tu
.
.
do cu’ a tˆa
.
p E nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ F, a = b k´eo theo (a, b) / ∈ R v`a
(b, a) / ∈ R. Go
.
i o l`a tˆa
.
p tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tˆa
.
p con tu
.
.
do cu’ a E. Trˆen o ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
quan hˆe
.
≤ nhu
.
sau:
∀X, Y ∈ o, X ≤ Y ⇔ ∀x ∈ X, ∃y ∈ Y, (x, y) ∈ R.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) Quan hˆe
.
≤ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p o.
b) V´o
.
i X, Y ∈ o, nˆe
´
u X ⊂ Y th`ı X ≤ Y .
c) Tˆa
.
p o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ khi v`a chı ’ khi tˆa
.
p E
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
R.
32. Mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
L d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t d`an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ nˆe
´
u mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ ac
rˆ o
˜
ng cu’ a L d¯ˆe
`
u c´o cˆ a
.
n trˆen v`a cˆa
.
n du
.
´o
.
i. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
a) Mˆo
.
t d`an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ L ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t v`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t.
b) Tˆa
.
p {(X) gˆo
`
m tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
bao h`am l`a mˆo
.
t
d` an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ .
c) Tˆa
.
p Z
+
c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
l`a quan hˆe
.
chia hˆe
´
t
khˆong pha’ i l` a mˆo
.
t d`an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ .
33. Cho X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p t` uy ´ y, o l`a tˆa
.
p tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen X.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng tˆa
.
p o v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
l`a quan hˆe
.
bao h`am l`a mˆo
.
t d`an d¯ˆa
`
y
d¯u’ .
34. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
L l`a mˆo
.
t d`an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ khi v`a chı’ khi
thoa’ m˜an mˆo
.
t trong c´ac d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau d¯ˆay:
a) Tˆa
.
p L ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t v`a mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a L d¯ˆe
`
u c´ o
cˆ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i.
b) Tˆa
.
p L ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t v`a mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a L d¯ˆe
`
u c´o
cˆ a
.
n trˆen.
82
TRA

L
`
O
.
I V
`
A HU
.
´
O
.
NG D
ˆ
A
˜
N GIA

I B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
CHU
.
O
.
NG III
1. Mˆo
˜
i quan hˆe
.
t` u
.
tˆa
.
p A c´o m phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆe
´
n tˆa
.
p B c´o n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con
cu’ a A B. Do d¯´o sˆo
´
quan hˆe
.
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a 2
mn
.
2. a) R khˆong c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
, khˆong c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, khˆong c´o t´ınh pha’ n
d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
b), c) R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
, c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, khˆong c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng,
c´ o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
d) R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng, khˆong c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u (phˆan biˆe
.
t ˆong nˆo
.
i,
ˆong ngoa
.
i).
3. a) R chı’ c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
b) R chı’ c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
c) R chı’ c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
d) R chı’ c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
e) R chı’ c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
f ) R chı’ c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
g) R chı’ c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
h) R chı’ c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
4. a) C´ac quan hˆe
.
R trong Cˆau a) cu’ a B`ai 2, Cˆau a) v`a Cˆau c) cu’ a B`ai 3 l`a
pha’ n pha’ n xa
.
.
b) T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta thˆa
´
y mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
l`a bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng th`ı n´o l`a pha’ n pha’ n
xa
.
. Do d¯´o chı’ c´o quan hˆe
.
R trong Cˆau a) cu’ a B`ai 2 l`a bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
5. a) R
−1
= ¦(a, b) [ a > b¦ v`a R = ¦(a, b) [ a ≥ b¦.
b) R
−1
= ¦(a, b) [ a chia hˆe
´
t cho b¦ v`a
R = ¦(a, b) [ b khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho a¦.
c) V`ı R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng nˆen R
−1
= R. Ngo`ai ra, R gˆo
`
m c´ ac c˘ a
.
p (a, b),
trong d¯´o tı’nh a khˆong gi´ap gi´o
.
i v´ o
.
i tı’nh b.
6. V`ı ∀a ∈ A, (a, a) ∈ R ∧ (a, a) ∈ S nˆen R ∪ S, R ∩ S, S ◦ R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
v` a R⊕S, R` S c´o t´ınh pha’ n pha’ n xa
.
.
7. a) V`ı (a, a) ∈ R ⇔ (a, a) ∈ R
−1
.
b) V`ı (a, a) ∈ R ⇔ (a, a) / ∈ R.
c) V`ı R l`a pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng ⇔ (∀a, b ∈ A, (a, b) ∈ R ∧ (b, a) ∈ R ⇒ a =
b) ⇔ (∀a, b ∈ A, (a, b) ∈ R∩ R
−1
⇒a = b) ⇔ R∩ R
−1
⊂ ∆.
8. a) ∀a ∈ A, (a, a) ∈ R nˆen (a, a) ∈ R
n
.
b) (a, b) ∈ R
n
⇒ ∃b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n−1
∈ A, (a, b
1
) ∈ R, (b
1
, b
2
) ∈ R, . . . ,
(b
n−2
, b
n−1
) ∈ R, (b
n−1
, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, b
n−1
) ∈ R, (b
n−1
, b
n−2
) ∈ R. . . , (b
2
, b
1
) ∈
R, (b
1
, a) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R.
83
c) R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u nˆen R
n
⊂ R. R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
nˆen v´o
.
i (a, b) ∈ R, ta
c´ o (a, b
1
), (b
1
, b
2
), . . . , (b
n−1
, b) ∈ R, trong d¯´o b
1
= b
2
= = b
n−1
= a, do d¯´o
(a, b) ∈ R. Vˆa
.
y R ⊂ R
n
.
9. Gia’ su
.
’ A = ¦a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
¦. Khi d¯´o mˆo
˜
i quan hˆe
.
R trˆen A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t ba’ ng (ma trˆa
.
n) 0 −1 gˆo
`
m n d`ong v` a n cˆo
.
t, trong d¯´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong i cˆo
.
t
j l`a 1 nˆe
´
u (a
i
, a
j
) ∈ R v`a l`a 0 nˆe
´
u (a
i
, a
j
) / ∈ R.
a) R l`a pha’ n xa
.
khi v`a chı’ khi c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo d¯ˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 1. V`ı
vˆ a
.
y sˆo
´
quan hˆe
.
pha’ n xa
.
trˆen A b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 0 ho˘a
.
c 1 cho n
2
− n phˆa
`
n tu
.

ngo`ai d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo, t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng 2
n(n−1)
.
b) Rl`a d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng khi v`a chı ’ khi phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong i, cˆo
.
t j b˘a
`
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong j, cˆo
.
t
i, ∀i, j = 1, . . . , n. V`ı vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
quan hˆe
.
d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng trˆen A b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 0 ho˘a
.
c 1
cho c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tam gi´ac du
.
´o
.
i, kˆe

ca’ trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo (1+2+ +n =
n(n+1)
2
),
t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng 2
n(n+1)
2
.
c) R l`a bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng khi v` a chı ’ khi c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo d¯ˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng
0 v`a c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong i cˆo
.
t j, phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong j cˆo
.
t i ho˘a
.
c c` ung b˘a
`
ng 0, ho˘a
.
c mˆo
.
t
b˘ a
`
ng 0, mˆo
.
t b˘a
`
ng 1, ∀i, j = 1, . . . , n, i = j. V`ı vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
quan hˆe
.
bˆa
´
t d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng
trˆen A b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n (0, 0), (1, 0) ho˘a
.
c (0, 1) cho 1 + 2 + (n −1) =
n(n−1)
2
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ (du
.
´o
.
i d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo), t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng 3
n(n−1)
2
.
d) R l`a pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng khi v`a chı ’ khi c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong i cˆo
.
t j, phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong
j cˆ o
.
t i ho˘a
.
c c` ung b˘a
`
ng 0, ho˘a
.
c mˆo
.
t b˘a
`
ng 0, mˆo
.
t b˘a
`
ng 1, ∀i, j = 1, . . . , n, i = j.
V`ı vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
quan hˆe
.
pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng trˆen A b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 0 ho˘a
.
c 1 cho n phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo v`a sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n (0, 0), (1, 0) ho˘a
.
c (0, 1) cho 1+2+(n−1) =
n(n−1)
2
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ (du
.
´o
.
i d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo), t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng 2
n
.3
n(n−1)
2
.
e) R l`a pha’ n xa
.
v`a d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng khi v`a chı ’ khi c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo d¯ˆe
`
u
b˘ a
`
ng 1 v`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong i, cˆo
.
t j b˘a
`
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d`ong j, cˆo
.
t i, ∀i, j = 1, . . . , n i = j.
V`ı vˆa
.
y sˆo
´
quan hˆe
.
pha’ n xa
.
v`a d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng trˆen A b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
c´ach cho
.
n 0 ho˘a
.
c 1 cho
1 + 2 + n =
n(n−1)
2
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ (du
.
´o
.
i d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo), t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng 2
n(n−1)
2
.
10. a) Quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
b) Khˆong pha’ n xa
.
v`a khˆong b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
c) Quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
d) Khˆong b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
e) Khˆong d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a khˆ ong b˘ a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
11. a) Quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
b) Khˆong b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
c) Khˆong pha’ n xa
.
, khˆ ong d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a khˆong b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
d) Quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
e) Khˆong pha’ n xa
.
v`a khˆong b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
12. ∀x ∈ A, f(x) = f(x), ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀x, y ∈ A, f(x) = f(y)
k´eo theo f(y) = f(x), ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀x, y, z ∈ A, f(x) = f(y)
84
v` a f(y) = f(z) k´eo theo f(x) = f(z), ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u. Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t
quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng. Mˆo
˜
i l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng cu’ a R l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con f
−1
(b) cu’ a
A v´ o
.
i mˆ o
˜
i b ∈ f(A).
13. Gia’ su
.
’ R c´o c´ ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen A l`a x
i
v´o
.
i (x
i
)
i∈I
l`a ho
.
c´ac phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ d¯a
.
i biˆe

u. Go
.
i B = ¦x
i
[ i ∈ I¦. X´et ´anh xa
.
f : A −→ B cho bo
.
’ i f(x) = x
i
nˆe
´
u x ∈ x
i
th`ı f l`a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
cˆa
`
n t`ım.
14. ¦(a, a), (b, b), (c, c), (d, d), (e, e), (a, b), (b, a), (a, c), (c, a),
(d, e), (e, d), (b, c), (c, b)¦.
15. C´o 5 quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p A = ¦a, b, c¦:
¦(a, a), (b, b), (c, c)¦,
¦(a, a), (b, b), (c, c), (a, b), (b, a)¦,
¦(a, a), (b, b), (c, c), (b, c), (c, b)¦,
¦(a, a), (b, b), (c, c), (a, c), (c, a)¦,
¦(a, a), (b, b), (c, c), (a, b), (b, a), (b, c), (c, b), (a, c), (c, a)¦.
16. Go
.
i X = ¦x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
, x
5
¦, k´ y hiˆe
.
u X
ij
= ¦x
i
, x
j
¦ v´o
.
i 1 ≤ i < j ≤ 5 v`a
X
ijk
= ¦x
i
, x
j
, x
k
¦ v´o
.
i 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ 5.
C´o 25 quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen tˆa
.
p X c´o d¯´ ung 3 l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng kh´ac
nhau:
1) X
2
123
∪ ¦(x
4
, x
4
), (x
5
, x
5
)¦ 2) X
2
124
∪ ¦(x
3
, x
3
), (x
5
, x
5

3) X
2
125
∪ ¦(x
3
, x
3
), (x
4
, x
4
)¦ 4) X
2
134
∪ ¦(x
2
, x
2
), (x
5
, x
5

5) X
2
135
∪ ¦(x
2
, x
2
), (x
4
, x
4
)¦ 6) X
2
145
∪ ¦(x
2
, x
2
), (x
3
, x
3

7) X
2
234
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1
), (x
5
, x
5
)¦ 8) X
2
235
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1
), (x
4
, x
4

9) X
2
245
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1
), (x
3
, x
3
)¦ 10) X
2
345
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1
), (x
2
, x
2

11) X
2
12
∪ X
2
34
∪ ¦(x
5
, x
5
)¦ 12) X
2
13
∪ X
2
24
∪ ¦(x
5
, x
5

13) X
2
14
∪ X
2
23
∪ ¦(x
5
, x
5
)¦ 14) X
2
12
∪ X
2
35
∪ ¦(x
4
, x
4

15) X
2
13
∪ X
2
25
∪ ¦(x
4
, x
4
)¦ 16) X
2
15
∪ X
2
23
∪ ¦(x
4
, x
4

17) X
2
12
∪ X
2
45
∪ ¦(x
3
, x
3
)¦ 18) X
2
14
∪ X
2
25
∪ ¦(x
3
, x
3

19) X
2
15
∪ X
2
24
∪ ¦(x
3
, x
3
)¦ 20) X
2
13
∪ X
2
45
∪ ¦(x
2
, x
2

21) X
2
14
∪ X
2
35
∪ ¦(x
2
, x
2
)¦ 22) X
2
15
∪ X
2
34
∪ ¦(x
2
, x
2

23) X
2
23
∪ X
2
45
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1
)¦ 24) X
2
24
∪ X
2
35
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1

25) X
2
25
∪ X
2
34
∪ ¦(x
1
, x
1
)¦.
17. (⇒) Ta d¯˜a c´o R l`a pha’ n xa
.
. ∀x, y ∈ X, xRy ⇒ xRy ∧ yRy ⇒ yRx
(do t´ınh v` ong quanh), t´ u
.
c l`a R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀x, y, z ∈ X, xRy ∧ yRz ⇒
zRx ⇒ xRz, t´ u
.
c l`a R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u. Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
(⇐) R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng nˆen R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀x, y, z ∈
X, xRy ∧ yRz ⇒ xRz ⇒ zRx, t´ u
.
c l`a R c´o t´ınh v`ong quanh.
18. R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u, nhu
.
ng R khˆong c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. Do d¯´o R
khˆong l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng. Tuy nhiˆen, nˆe
´
u L l`a tˆa
.
p c´ac d¯u
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
trong m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng R
2
c˘a
´
t L
0
th`ı R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen L.
85
19. T` u
.
A = A, ta c´o (A, A) ∈ R hay R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀A, B ∈ X, (A, B) ∈
R ⇒ A = B ∨ a ∈ A ∩ B ⇒ B = A ∨ a ∈ B ∩ A ⇒ (B, A) ∈ R, t´ u
.
c l`a R
c´ o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀A, B, C ∈ X, (A, B) ∈ R ∧ (B, C) ∈ R ⇒ (A = B ∨ a ∈
A∩B) ∧(B = C∨a ∈ B∩C) ⇒ (A = B∧B = C) ∨(A = B∧a ∈ B∩C) ∨(a ∈
A ∩ B ∧ B = C) ∨ (a ∈ A ∩ B ∧ a ∈ B ∩ C) ⇒ A = C ∨ A ∩ C ⇒ (A, C) ∈ R,
t´ u
.
c l`a R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u. Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
V´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i A ∈ X, nˆe
´
u a / ∈ A th`ı (A, B) ∈ R ⇔ A = B ngh˜ıa l`a l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng [A] = ¦A¦ v`a nˆe
´
u a ∈ A th`ı (A, B) ∈ R ⇔ a ∈ B ngh˜ıa l`a l´ o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng [A] = ¦B ∈ X [ a ∈ B¦. Do d¯´o tˆa
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a X theo R l`a
X/R = ¦¦A¦ [ A ⊂ M, a / ∈ A¦ ∪ ¦¦A ∈ X [ a ∈ A¦¦.
20. a) ∀x ∈ X, x(t) = x(t), ∀t ∈ R, ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀x, y ∈
X, xRy ⇒ ∃C > 0, x(t) = y(t), ∀t ∈ R, [t[ < C ⇒ ∃C > 0, y(t) = x(t), ∀t ∈
R, [t[ < C ⇒ yRx, ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀x, y, z ∈ X, xRy ∧ yRz ⇒
∃C
1
, C
2
> 0, (x(t) = y(t), ∀t ∈ R, [t[ < C
1
) ∧ (y(t) = z(t), ∀t ∈ R, [t[ < C
2
) ⇒
∃C = min(C
1
, C
2
), x(t) = z(t), ∀t ∈ R, [t[ < C, ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u. Vˆa
.
y
R l`a quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
b) ∀x ∈ X, lim
t→0
x(t) −x(t)
t
n
= 0 hay xRx, ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀x, y ∈
X, xRy ⇒ lim
t→0
x(t) −y(t)
t
n
= 0 ⇒ lim
t→0
y(t) −x(t)
t
n
= 0 ⇒ yRx, ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o
t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀x, y, z ∈ X, xRy∧yRz ⇒ lim
t→0
x(t) −y(t)
t
n
= 0∧lim
t→0
y(t) −z(t)
t
n
=
0 ⇒ lim
t→0
x(t) −z(t)
t
n
= lim
t→0
x(t) −y(t)
t
n
+ lim
t→0
y(t) −z(t)
t
n
= 0 ⇒ xRz, ngh˜ıa l`a R
c´ o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u. Vˆa
.
y R l`a quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
21. R˜o r`ang R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀(m
1
, n
1
), (m
2
, n
2
) ∈ N
2
, (m
1
, n
1
)R(m
2
, n
2
) ⇒
m
1
+ n
2
= m
2
+ n
1
⇒ m
2
+ n
1
= m
1
+ n
2
⇒ (m
2
, n
2
)R(m
1
, n
1
), ngh˜ıa
l` a R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀(m
1
, n
1
), (m
2
, n
2
), (m
3
, n
3
) ∈ N
2
, (m
1
, n
1
)R(m
2
, n
2
) ∧
(m
2
, n
2
)R(m
3
, n
3
) ⇒ m
1
+n
2
= m
2
+n
1
∧ m
2
+n
3
= m
3
+n
2
⇒ m
1
+n
2
+
m
2
+n
3
= m
2
+ n
1
+ m
3
+ n
2
⇒ m
1
+ n
3
= m
3
+ n
1
⇒ (m
1
, n
1
)R(m
3
, n
3
),
ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u. Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
∀(m, n) ∈ N
2
, l´ o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng
(m, n) = ¦(m

, n

) ∈ N
2
[ m

−n

= m
1
−n
1
¦
v` a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng l`a N
2
/R = ¦(m, n) [ (m, n) ∈ N
2
¦ v`a l`a tˆa
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng 1-1 v´o
.
i
tˆ a
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen Z. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, x´et ´anh xa
.
f : N
2
/R −→Z cho bo
.
’ i f((m, n)) =
m−n. f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh v`ı v´o
.
i (m, n), (m

, n

) ∈ N
2
, f((m, n)) = f((m

, n

)) ⇒
m−n = m

−n

⇒ m+n

= m

+n ⇒ (m, n)R(m

, n

) ⇒ (m, n) = (m

, n

).
86
f l` a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh v`ı v´o
.
i z ∈ Z, nˆe
´
u z ≥ 0 th`ı f((z, 0)) = z v`a nˆe
´
u z < 0 th`ı
f((0, −z)) = z.
22. R˜o r`ang R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. ∀(z
1
, n
1
), (z
2
, n
2
) ∈ ZN

, (z
1
, n
1
)R(z
2
, n
2
) ⇒
z
1
n
2
= z
2
n
1
⇒ z
2
n
1
= z
1
n
2
⇒ (z
2
, n
2
)R(z
1
, n
1
), ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
∀(z
1
, n
1
), (z
2
, n
2
), (z
3
, n
3
) ∈ Z N

, (z
1
, n
1
)R(z
2
, n
2
) ∧ (z
2
, n
2
)R(z
3
, n
3
) ⇒
z
1
n
2
= z
2
n
1
∧ z
2
n
3
= z
3
n
2
⇒ z
1
n
2
z
2
n
3
= z
2
n
1
z
3
n
2
⇒ z
1
z
2
n
3
= z
2
z
3
n
1
; nˆe
´
u
z
2
= 0 th`ı z
1
n
3
= z
3
n
1
, nˆe
´
u z
2
= 0 th`ı z
1
n
2
= 0 (⇒ z
1
= 0) v` a z
3
n
2
= 0 (⇒
z
3
= 0) nˆen z
1
n
3
= z
3
n
1
= 0 hay (z
1
, n
1
)R(z
3
, n
3
), ngh˜ıa l`a R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
∀(z, n) ∈ Z N

, l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng
(z, n) = ¦(z

, n

) ∈ Z N

[
z

n

=
z
n
¦
v` a tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng l`a (Z N

)/R = ¦(z, n) [ (z, n) ∈ Z N

¦ v`a l`a tˆa
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng 1-1 v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ Q. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, x´et ´anh xa
.
f : (ZN

)/R −→Q cho
bo
.
’ i f((z, n)) =
z
n
. f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh v`ı v´ o
.
i (z, n), (z

, n

) ∈ Z N

, f((z, n)) =
f((z

, n

)) ⇒
z
n
=
z

n

⇒ zn

= z

n ⇒ (z, n)R(z

, n

) ⇒ (z, n) = (z

, n

). f
l` a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh v`ı v´ o
.
i q ∈ Q, ∃z ∈ Z, n ∈ N

, q =
z
n
= f((z, n)).
23. Dˆe
˜
d`ang c´ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c R c´ o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
, d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng v`a b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u, ngh˜ıa l`a R l`a
mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng. V´o
.
i d¯iˆe

m P(a, b) trong m˘a
.
t ph˘ a

ng, l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng
P(a, b) = ¦P

(x, y) [ xy = c¦ (v´o
.
i c = ab). Nˆe
´
u c = 0 th`ı P(a, b) ch´ınh l`a hai
tru
.
c toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
x = 0 v`a y = 0. Nˆe
´
u c = 0 th`ı P(a, b) ch´ınh l`a hyperbol c´o phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh xy = c. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng l`a tˆa
.
p
¦¦P(x, y) [ xy = c¦ [ c ∈ R¦.
Quan hˆe
.
S khˆong l`a quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng v`ı n´o khˆ ong c´ o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, (1, 0)S(0, 1) v`a (0, 1)S(−1, 0) nhu
.
ng (1, 0) khˆ ong c´o quan hˆe
.
S v´o
.
i
(−1, 0)
24. ∀x, y, z ∈ R, x
3
− x
3
= x − x = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a xRx hay R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
;
x
3
− y
3
= x − y ⇒ y
3
− x
3
= y − x t´ u
.
c l`a xRy ⇒ yRx hay R c´o t´ınh d¯ˆo
´
i
x´ u
.
ng; x
3
−y
3
= x −y v`a y
3
−z
3
= y −z ⇒ x
3
−z
3
= (x
3
−y
3
) + (y
3
−z
3
) =
(x − y) + (y − z) = x − z, t´ u
.
c l`a xRy v`a yRz ⇒ xRz hay R c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
∀a ∈ R, a = ¦x ∈ R [ x
3
−a
3
= x −a¦
= ¦x ∈ R [ (x −a)(x
2
+ax +a
2
−1) = 0¦.
– Nˆe
´
u a < −
2

3
hay a >
2

3
th`ı a = ¦a¦;
87
– Nˆe
´
u a = −
2

3
hay a =
1

3
th`ı a = ¦−
2

3
,
1

3
¦;
– Nˆe
´
u a =
2

3
hay a = −
1

3
th`ı a = ¦
2

3
, −
1

3
¦;
– Nˆe
´
u −
2

3
< a <
2

3
v`a a = ±
1

3
, th`ı
a = ¦a,
−a −

4 −3a
2
2
,
−a +

4 −3a
2
2
¦.
25. ∀a, b, c ∈ R, ta c´ o a
3
≤ a
3
hay R c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
; nˆe
´
u aRb v`a bRa t´ u
.
c l`a
a
3
≤ b
3
v`a b
3
≤ a
3
hay a
3
= b
3
th`ı ta c´o a = b, do d¯´o R c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng;
nˆe
´
u aRb v`a bRc t´ u
.
c l`a a
3
≤ b
3
v`a b
3
≤ c
3
th`ı ta c´ o a
3
≤ c
3
hay aRc, do d¯´o R
c´ o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u. Ngo`ai ra, ∀a, b ∈ R ta luˆ on c´o a ≤ b ho˘a
.
c b ≤ a t´ u
.
c l` a a
3
≤ b
3
ho˘a
.
c b
3
≤ a
3
. Vˆa
.
y R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n trˆen R.
S khˆong l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen R v`ı n´ o khˆong c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, 1S(−1), (−1)S1 nhu
.
ng 1 = −1.
26. Khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t c˜ ung nhu
.
nho’ nhˆa
´
t trong X. Ch˘ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a X
trong N

l`a 1, ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a X trong N

l`a c´ ac bˆo
.
i chung cu’ a 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, do
d¯´o cˆ a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i v`a cˆa
.
n trˆen cu’ a X trong N

lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t l`a 1 v`a BCNN(2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10)
= 2520. C´ac tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u cu’ a X l`a 2,3,5,7 v` a c´ac tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i cu’ a X l`a 7,8,9,10.
27. Khˆong c´ o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t c˜ ung nhu
.
nho’ nhˆa
´
t trong {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦.
Ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦ l`a ∅ v`a ch˘a
.
n trˆen duy nhˆa
´
t cu’ a {(X) `
¦∅, X¦ l`a X, d¯ˆay lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t l`a cˆa
.
n du
.
´o
.
i v`a cˆa
.
n trˆen cu’ a {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦ trong
{(X). C´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i tiˆe

u cu’ a {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦ l`a c´ ac tˆa
.
p con 1 phˆa
`
n tu
.

¦1¦, ¦2¦, ¦3¦, ¦4¦, ¦5¦ v`a c´ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ tˆo
´
i d¯a
.
i cu’ a {(X) ` ¦∅, X¦ l`a c´ac tˆa
.
p con
4 phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦, ¦1, 2, 3, 5¦, ¦1, 2, 4, 5¦, ¦1, 3, 4, 5¦, ¦2, 3, 4, 5¦.
Khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t c˜ ung nhu
.
nho’ nhˆa
´
t trong A. Ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i duy
nhˆa
´
t cu’ a A trong {(X) l`a ∅ v`a d¯ˆay c˜ ung l`a cˆa
.
n trˆen cu’ a A.
28. T` u
.
d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n b` ai to´an ta suy ra r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u
m
n
∈ X th`ı 0 <
m
n
< 1. Gia’ su
.

m v` a n (0 < m < n) l`a c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen tu` y ´ y. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m

v` a n

(0 < m

< n

) sao cho 0 <
m

n

<
m
n
(ch˘a

ng ha
.
n m

= m, n

> n), ngh˜ıa l`a
trong tˆa
.
p X khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ay khˆong ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n
nhˆa
´
t v`ı v´o
.
i m v`a n tu` y ´ y (0 < m < n) v`a v´o
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen q > 0 tu` y ´ y, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen p sao cho p < n + q − m v`a p >
mq
n
(v`ı
mq
n
< q < n +q −m). T` u
.
d¯´o
suy ra mn +mq < mn +np v`a m+p < n +q hay
m
n
<
m+p
n +q
< 1.
88
V´o
.
i > 0 tu` y ´ y v`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m > 0, ta t`ım d¯u
.
o
.
.
c sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n > m sao
cho n >
m

. Khi d¯´o
m
n
< v`a t` u
.
bˆa
´
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
m
n
> 0, ta suy ra inf X = 0.
V´o
.
i > 0 tu` y ´ y v`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen p > 0, ta t`ım d¯u
.
o
.
.
c sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m sao cho
m >
p(1 −)

. Suy ra
m
p +m
> 1 − , ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i n = p + m ta c´ o
m
n
> 1 − .
T` u
.
d¯´o v`a t` u
.
bˆa
´
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
m
n
< 1 ta suy ra supX = 1.
29. a) Gia’ su
.
’ A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i ≤ v`a B l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con t` uy ´ y kh´ac
rˆ o
˜
ng cu’ a A c´o ch˘a
.
n trˆen. Khi d¯´o tˆa
.
p C gˆo
`
m c´ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a B l`a tˆa
.
p con kh´ac
rˆ o
˜
ng cu’ a A. V`ı vˆ a
.
y, C c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t c v`a c ch´ınh l`a cˆa
.
n trˆen cu’ a B. Do
d¯´o A d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ bo
.
’ i ≤.
b) N l`a tˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤ thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng, nˆen theo Cˆau
a) N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
n`ay.
Theo nguyˆen l´ y vˆe
`
cˆa
.
n cu’ a tˆa
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c R, mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a R
bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen th`ı c´ o cˆ a
.
n trˆen. Do d¯´o R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤.
X´et tˆa
.
p B = ¦q ∈ Q [ 0 < q <

2¦ th`ı B = ∅ v`a c´ o ch˘ a
.
n trˆen trong Q. Nˆe
´
u
B c´ o cˆ a
.
n trˆen l` a c th`ı s˜e dˆ a
˜
n d¯ˆe
´
n vˆo l´ y v`ı gi˜ u
.
a

2 v`a c c´o vˆ o sˆo
´
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ (t´ınh
chˆa
´
t tr` u mˆa
.
t cu’ a Q trong R).
30. Nˆe
´
u X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t th`ı chı ’ cˆa
`
n lˆa
´
y A = X, B = ∅. Nˆe
´
u X khˆong
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t th`ı trong X tˆo
`
n ta
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng m`a khˆong c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.

nho’ nhˆa
´
t. Go
.
i B l`a ho
.
.
p cu’ a tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac tˆa
.
p con cu’ a X khˆong ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’
nhˆa
´
t. Khi d¯´o A = X ` B l` a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t v`a A, B thoa’ yˆeu cˆ a
`
u
d¯˘a
.
t ra.
31. a) ∀X ∈ o, X ≤ X v`ı ∀x ∈ X, (x, x) ∈ R, t´ u
.
c l`a ≤ c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
. Nˆe
´
u
X ≤ Y v`a Y ≤ X th`ı ∀x ∈ X, ∃y ∈ Y sao cho (x, y) ∈ R v`a v´o
.
i y n`ay, ∃x

∈ X
sao cho (y, x

) ∈ R, d¯iˆe
`
u n` ay k´eo theo (x, x

) ∈ R. V`ı X l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con tu
.
.
do
nˆen x = x

. Khi d¯´o, (x, y) ∈ R v`a (y, x) ∈ R, suy ra x = y, do d¯´o X = Y , ngh˜ıa
l` a ≤ c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. ∀X, Y, Z ∈ o, X ≤ Y ∧ Y ≤ Z, ∀x ∈ X, ∃y ∈
Y, (x, y) ∈ R∧∃z ∈ Z, (y, z) ∈ R, d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay k´eo theo (x, z) ∈ R, ngh˜ıa l`a X ≤ Z,
do d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u. V`ı vˆa
.
y ≤ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen o.
b) V´o
.
i X, Y ∈ o v`a X ⊂ Y th`ı X ≤ Y , v`ı ∀x ∈ X, ∃y = x ∈ Y sao cho
(x, x) ∈ R.
c) Gia’ su
.
’ E d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i R. Khi d¯´o v´o
.
i mˆ o
˜
i X, Y ∈ o,
∀x ∈ X v`a ∀y ∈ Y th`ı (x, y) ∈ R ho˘a
.
c (y, x) ∈ R hay X ≤ Y ho˘a
.
c Y ≤ X, t´ u
.
c
l` a o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n bo
.
’ i ≤.
D
-
a’ o la
.
i, gia’ su
.
’ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆ a
`
n bo
.
’ i ≤. Khi d¯´o v´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i
x, y ∈ E, ¦x¦, ¦y¦ l`a nh˜ u
.
ng tˆa
.
p con tu
.
.
do nˆen l`a nh˜ u
.
ng phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a o. Do d¯´o
nˆe
´
u ¦x¦ ≤ ¦y¦ th`ı (x, y) ∈ R c`on nˆe
´
u ¦y¦ ≤ ¦x¦ th`ı (y, x) ∈ R.
32. a) Phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a d`an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ L ch´ınh l`a inf L v`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t
cu’ a L l`a supL
89
b) ∀T ⊂ {(X) th`ı sup T ch´ınh l`a ∪
Y ∈T
Y v`a inf T ch´ınh l`a ∩
Y ∈T
Y .
c) Theo Cˆ au a) Z
+
khˆong pha’ i l`a mˆo
.
t d`an d¯ˆa
`
y d¯u’ v`ı khˆ ong ch´ u
.
a phˆa
`
n tu
.

l´ o
.
n nhˆa
´
t.
33. ∀1 ⊂ o, inf 1 ch´ınh l`a giao cu’ a c´ ac quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng thuˆ o
.
c 1 v`a
sup1 ch´ınh l`a quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng nho’ nhˆa
´
t trˆen X ch´ u
.
a c´ac quan hˆe
.
thuˆ o
.
c
1.
34. a) ∀A ⊂ L, A = ∅, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c ∈ L l`a mˆo
.
t ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a A, ch˘a

ng ha
.
n phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ l´ o
.
n nh´at cu’ a L. Go
.
i B l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a A th`ı B = ∅ v`a ta c´o
d = inf B (tˆo
`
n ta
.
i theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t). Khi d¯´o nˆe
´
u a ∈ A th`ı a ≤ y, ∀y ∈ B, do d¯´o
a ≤ d. M˘a
.
t kh´ ac, nˆe
´
u u l`a mˆo
.
t ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a A th`ı u ∈ B, do d¯´o u ≥ d. V`ı vˆa
.
y
d = sup A.
b) Ch´ u
.
ng minh tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
Cˆau a).
90
CHU
.
O
.
NG IV:
S
ˆ
O
´
TU
.
.
NHI
ˆ
EN V
`
A S
ˆ
O
´
NGUY
ˆ
EN
4.1. S
ˆ
O
´
TU
.
.
NHI
ˆ
EN.
Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen l`a mˆo
.
t th`anh tu
.
.
u to´an ho
.
c lˆau d¯`o
.
i nhˆ a
´
t cu’ a lo`ai ngu
.
`o
.
i. Ng`ay
nay, sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c su
.
’ du
.
ng o
.
’ mo
.
i no
.
i, mo
.
i l´ uc cu’ a d¯`o
.
i sˆo
´
ng x˜a hˆo
.
i: trong
giao di
.
ch, mua b´ an, thu
.
t´ın, d¯iˆe
.
n thoa
.
i, ... Kh´o c´o thˆe

h`ınh dung mˆo
.
t x˜a hˆo
.
i
khˆong c´o sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen! Ta d` ung c´ ac sˆo
´
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ... t´ınh to´an (cˆo
.
ng, tr` u
.
, nhˆan,
chia) trˆen c´ac sˆo
´
d¯´o mˆo
.
t c´ach ”tu
.
.
nhiˆen” trong mo
.
i hoa
.
t d¯ˆo
.
ng cu’ a m`ınh, song ´ıt
khi ta tu
.
.
ho’ i con ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯˜a biˆe
´
t d¯ˆe
´
n sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen t` u
.
bao gi`o
.
v`a b˘a
`
ng c´ach n`ao?
Khˆ ong ai c´o thˆe

n´oi d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯´ıch x´ac lo`ai ngu
.
`o
.
i biˆe
´
t d¯ˆe
´
n c´ ac con sˆo
´
t` u
.
khi n`ao.
Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta t`ım d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t v˘ an ba’ n cˆ o

kh˘a
´
c trˆen d¯´a c´ach d¯ˆay khoa’ ng 6000 n˘am,
trˆen d¯´o c´o c´ac con sˆo
´
biˆe

u thi
.
b˘a
`
ng c´ac dˆa
´
u chˆa
´
m v`a ga
.
ch. M˜ai d¯ˆe
´
n thˆe
´
ky’ XI,
con sˆo
´
khˆong (0) m´o
.
i ra d¯`o
.
i v` a t` u
.
d¯´o con ngu
.
`o
.
i b˘ a
´
t d¯ˆa
`
u ngh˜ı ra hˆe
.
thˆa
.
p phˆan
d¯ˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac con sˆo
´
.
Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen ra d¯`o
.
i l`a do nhu cˆa
`
u nhˆa
.
n biˆe
´
t vˆe
`
sˆo
´
lu
.
o
.
.
ng cu’ a su
.
.
vˆa
.
t. Nhu cˆa
`
u
d¯´o xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n ngay ca’ trong mˆo
.
t x˜a hˆo
.
i d¯o
.
n so
.
nhˆa
´
t. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta cˆ a
`
n
biˆe
´
t sˆo
´
lu
.
o
.
.
ng cu’ a d¯`an th´ u d¯ˆe

tˆo

ch´ u
.
c mˆo
.
t cuˆo
.
c d¯i s˘an, cˆa
`
n biˆe
´
t sˆo
´
lu
.
o
.
.
ng cu’ a
bˆen d¯i
.
ch d¯ˆe

tˆo

ch´ u
.
c cuˆo
.
c chiˆe
´
n d¯ˆa
´
u, ... v`a khi x˜a hˆ o
.
i c`ang ph´ at triˆe

n th`ı nhu
cˆa
`
u d¯´o ng`ay c`ang t˘ang.
Sau d¯ˆay, ta t`ım c´ ach xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen. D
-
ˆa
`
u tiˆen ta chˆa
´
p
nhˆa
.
n c´o mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N m`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o thoa’ m˜an mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
t´ınh chˆa
´
t m`a
ta go
.
i l` a hˆe
.
tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
Peano. Sau d¯´o, ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa c´ac ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ph´ep nhˆan c´ac
sˆ o
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, rˆo
`
i d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen N v`a d¯u
.
a ra c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t c` ung
mˆo
´
i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a ch´ ung. Trˆen co
.
so
.
’ c´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, vˆe
`
sau
ta s˜e xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen, tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
4.1.1. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v`a hˆe
.
tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
Peano:
4.1.1.1. Mo
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u: Ta biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t kh´ai niˆe
.
m m´o
.
i bao gi`o
.
c˜ ung d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i
.
nh
ngh˜ıa thˆong qua nh˜ u
.
ng kh´ai niˆe
.
m tru
.
´o
.
c d¯´o. C˜ ung vˆa
.
y, mˆo
.
t mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng
minh nh`o
.
nh˜ u
.
ng mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯˜a biˆe
´
t tru
.
´o
.
c d¯´o. V`ı vˆa
.
y, d¯ˆe

xˆay du
.
.
ng mˆo
.
t l´ y thuyˆe
´
t
to´an ho
.
c m`a khˆong bi
.
ro
.
i v` ao v`ong luˆa

n quˆa

n, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta thu
.
`o
.
ng xuˆa
´
t ph´at t` u
.
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
kh´ai niˆe
.
m d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen khˆong d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa, go
.
i l`a c´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m nguyˆen thuy’
v` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n, khˆong ch´ u
.
ng minh go
.
i l` a c´ac tiˆen
d¯ˆe
`
. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap xˆay du
.
.
ng nhu
.
vˆa
.
y go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
. L˜e tu
.
.
nhiˆen,
sˆ o
´
c´ ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m nguyˆen thuy’ v`a sˆo
´
c´ac tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
ngh˜ıa l`a sˆo
´
nh˜ u
.
ng d¯iˆe
`
u cˆa
`
n th` u
.
a
nhˆa
.
n, nˆen ´ıt nhˆa
´
t m`a vˆa
˜
n d¯u’ suy ra tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac kˆe
´
t qua’ kh´ac. D
-
ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
th` u
.
a nhˆ a
.
n thu
.
`o
.
ng l`a nh˜ u
.
ng mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯o
.
n gia’ n, “hiˆe

n nhiˆen”. Mˆo
.
t
trong nh˜ u
.
ng ngu
.
`o
.
i d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen xˆay du
.
.
ng mˆo
.
t l´ y thuyˆe
´
t to´an ho
.
c theo phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
l`a nh`a to´an ho
.
c Euclide (khoa’ ng 300 n˘am tru
.
´o
.
c cˆong nguyˆen). Cuˆo
´
n
91
s´ ach “Nh˜ u
.
ng nguyˆen l´ y” cu’ a ˆong, trong ho
.
n 20 thˆe
´
ky’ qua vˆa
˜
n l`a mˆo
.
t mˆa
˜
u mu
.
.
c
vˆe
`
viˆe
.
c xˆay du
.
.
ng mˆo
.
t l´ y thuyˆe
´
t to´an ho
.
c (h`ınh ho
.
c) b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
.
Ta d¯˜a quen thuˆo
.
c v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, N = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . ¦. Tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p N c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ “d¯ˆa
`
u tiˆen” l`a 0 v`a ´anh xa
.
“liˆe
`
n sau”:
σ : N −→N : 0 →1 →2 →3 →4 →
nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, ta thˆa
´
y tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c sinh bo
.
’ i 0 v`a ´anh xa
.
σ. Sau d¯ˆay l`a c´ach
mˆo ta’ tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N mˆo
.
t c´ ach to´an ho
.
c t` u
.
mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c nˆeu ra bo
.
’ i Peano
(1858-1932) v`ao n˘am 1899.
4.1.1.2. Hˆe
.
tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
Peano: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N m`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
c´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thoa’ m˜an:
P1. 0 ∈ N.
P2. C´o mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
σ : N −→N go
.
i l`a ´anh xa
.
liˆe
`
n sau v`a σ(n) go
.
i l`a sˆo
´
liˆe
`
n
sau cu’ a n ∈ N.
P3. 0 khˆong l`a sˆo
´
liˆe
`
n sau cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n`ao, ngh˜ıa l`a 0 / ∈ σ(N).
P4. σ l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh, ngh˜ıa l`a mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen l`a sˆo
´
liˆe
`
n sau cu’ a khˆong
qu´a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
P5. Mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con U cu’ a N c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t:
a) 0 ∈ U,
b) v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N, n ∈ U ⇒σ(n) ∈ U,
d¯ˆe
`
u tr` ung v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N.
4.1.1.3. Ch´ u ´ y: 1) Tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
P1 cho thˆa
´
y N = ∅ v`ı c´o 0 ∈ N.
2) Theo tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
P2, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
liˆe
`
n sau cu’ a 0 v`a sˆo
´
d¯´o l`a duy nhˆ a
´
t, k´ y
hiˆe
.
u 1 = σ(0). La
.
i theo tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
P2, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t sˆo
´
liˆe
`
n sau cu’ a 1, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
2 = σ(1). Tiˆe
´
p tu
.
c nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t h`ınh a’ nh cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen
l` a N = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . ¦.
3) Tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
P5 c`on go
.
i l`a nguyˆen l´ y cu’ a ph´ep ch´ u
.
ng minh quy na
.
p. Thˆ a
.
y
vˆ a
.
y, ta x´et mˆ o
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
P(n) v`a go
.
i U = ¦n ∈ N [ P(n)¦. Nˆe
´
u P(0) d¯´ ung
ta c´ o 0 ∈ U. Cho P(n) d¯´ ung ngh˜ıa l` a n ∈ U, nˆe
´
u ta ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c P(σ(n))
d¯´ ung, ngh˜ıa l`a σ(n) ∈ U th`ı U nghiˆe
.
m d¯´ ung ca’ hai t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
P5.
Vˆa
.
y U = N, ngh˜ıa l`a P(n) d¯´ ung v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N.
4.1.2. Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v` a ph´ep nhˆan trˆen N:
4.1.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng:
a) m + 0 = m v´o
.
i mo
.
i m ∈ N,
b) m+σ(n) = σ(m+n) v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n ∈ N v`a m +n d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh.
2) Ph´ep nhˆan:
a) m0 = 0 v´o
.
i mo
.
i m ∈ N.
b) mσ(n) = mn +m v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n ∈ N v`a mn d¯˜a d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh.
92
4.1.2.2. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen N.
2) σ(n) = n + 1, v´ o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N v`a 1 = σ(0).
3) N v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong v`a v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
,
ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N, ta c´ o
n + 0 = 0 +n = n, n1 = 1n = n.
4) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n, p ∈ N,
ta c´ o
(m +n) +p = m+ (n +p), (mn)p = m(np).
5) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan c´ o t´ınh giao ho´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n ∈ N,
ta c´ o
m+n = n +m, mn = nm.
6) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh phˆan phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n, p ∈
N, ta c´ o
m(n +p) = mn +mp, (n +p)m = nm +pm.
7) m +n = 0 ⇒ m = n = 0.
8) mn = 0 ⇒ m = 0 ho˘a
.
c n = 0.
9) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n, p ∈ N, ta c´ o
m+p = n +p ⇒ m = n.
10) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n, p ∈ N, p = 0, ta c´o
mp = np ⇒ m = n.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
1) V´o
.
i m ∈ N, go
.
i U = ¦n ∈ N [ m + n ∈ N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh¦ v`a U

= ¦n ∈
N [ mn ∈ N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh¦. R˜o r`ang 0 ∈ U v`a 0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U, ngh˜ıa
l` a m +n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh. Khi d¯´o m + σ(n) = σ(m+ n) ∈ N d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh hay
σ(n) ∈ U. Vˆa
.
y U = N. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U

, ngh˜ıa l`a mn d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh. Khi d¯´o
mn+m d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh hay mσ(n) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh t´ u
.
c l`a σ(n) ∈ U

. Vˆa
.
y U

= N.
2) n + 1 = n +σ(0) = σ(n + 0) = σ(n), v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N.
3) Go
.
i U = ¦n ∈ N [ n + 0 = 0 + n = n¦. Ta c´o 0 + 0 = 0 hay 0 ∈ U. Gia’
su
.
’ n ∈ U hay n + 0 = 0 +n = n. Khi d¯´o 0 +σ(n) = σ(0 +n) = σ(n) = σ(n) + 0
hay σ(n) ∈ U. Vˆa
.
y U = N.
Go
.
i U

= ¦n ∈ N [ nσ(0) = σ(0)n = n¦. Ta c´o 0σ(0) = 0.0 + 0 = 0 = σ(0)0
hay 0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U

hay nσ(0) = σ(0)n = n. Khi d¯´o σ(n)σ(0) =
σ(n)0+σ(n) = 0+σ(n) = σ(n) = σ(n+0) = n+σ(0) = σ(0)n+σ(0) = σ(0)σ(n)
hay σ(n) ∈ U

Vˆa
.
y U

= N.
93
4) V´o
.
i m, n ∈ N, go
.
i U = ¦p ∈ N [ (m + n) + p = m + (n + p)¦. Ta c´ o
(m+n) + 0 = m+n = m+(n + 0) hay 0 ∈ U. Gia’ su
.
’ p ∈ U hay (m+n) +p =
m + (n + p). Khi d¯´o (m + n) + σ(p) = σ((m + n) + p) = σ(m + (n + p)) =
m+σ(n +p) = m+ (n +σ(p)) hay σ(p) ∈ U. Vˆa
.
y U = N.
T´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p cu’ a ph´ep nhˆan d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh trong 6).
5) Go
.
i U = ¦n ∈ N [ n+1 = 1 +n¦. Ta c´ o 0 +1 = 1 +0 = 1 hay 0 ∈ U. Gia’
su
.
’ n ∈ U hay n+1 = 1 +n. Khi d¯´o σ(n) +1 = σ(σ(n)) = σ(n+1) = σ(1 +n) =
1 +σ(n) hay σ(n) ∈ U. Vˆa
.
y U = N.
Go
.
i U

= ¦n ∈ N [ 0n = 0¦. Ta c´o 0.0 = 0 hay 0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U

hay
0n = 0. Khi d¯´o 0σ(n) = 0n + 0 = 0 + 0 = 0 hay σ(n) ∈ U

. Vˆa
.
y U

= N.
V´o
.
i m ∈ N, go
.
i U

= ¦n [ m +n = n +m¦. Ta c´ o m + 0 = 0 +m = m hay
0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U

hay m +n = n +m. Khi d¯´o m +σ(n) = m + (n + 1) =
(m+n) +1 = (n+m) +1 = n+(m+1) = n+(1+m) = (n+1) +m = σ(n) +m
hay σ(n) ∈ U

. Vˆa
.
y U

= N.
V´o
.
i m ∈ N, go
.
i U

= ¦n ∈ N [ (m + 1)n = mn + n¦. Ta c´ o (m + 1)0 =
0 = m0 + 0 hay 0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U

hay (m + 1)n = mn + n. Khi d¯´o
(m+1)σ(n) = (m+1)n+(m+1) = (mn+n) +(m+1) = (mn+m) +(n+1) =
mσ(n) +σ(n) hay σ(n) ∈ U

. Vˆa
.
y U

= N.
V´o
.
i m ∈ N, go
.
i U

= ¦n ∈ N [ mn = nm¦. Ta c´o m0 = 0 = 0m hay
0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ U

hay mn = nm. Khi d¯´o mσ(n) = mn +m = nm+m =
(n + 1)m = σ(n)m hay σ(n) ∈ U

. Vˆa
.
y U

= N
6) V´o
.
i n, p ∈ N, go
.
i U = ¦m ∈ N [ m(n +p) = mn +mp¦. Ta c´ o 0(n +p) =
0 = 0n + 0p hay 0 ∈ U. Gia’ su
.
’ m ∈ U hay m(n + p) = mn + mp. Khi d¯´o
σ(m)(n +p) = (m + 1)(n + p) = m(n + p) + (n + p) = (mn + mp) + (n + p) =
(nm +n) + (pm +p) = nσ(m) + pσ(m) = σ(m)n +σ(m)p hay σ(m) ∈ U. Vˆa
.
y
U = N. D
-
˘a

ng th´ u
.
c th´ u
.
hai c´o t` u
.
t´ınh giao ho´an cu’ a ph´ep nhˆan.
Go
.
i U

= ¦p ∈ N [ (mn)p = m(np)¦. Ta c´o (mn)0 = 0 = m0 = m(n0) hay
0 ∈ U

. Gia’ su
.
’ p ∈ U

hay (mn)p = m(np). Khi d¯´o (mn)σ(p) = (mn)p +mn =
m(np) +mn = m(np +n) = m(nσ(p)) hay σ(p) ∈ U

. Vˆa
.
y U

= N.
7) Gia’ su
.
’ n = 0. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i k ∈ N sao cho σ(k) = n. Khi d¯´o 0 =
m +n = m +σ(k) = σ(m+ k). D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay tr´ai v´o
.
i tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
3. Vˆa
.
y n = 0. T` u
.
d¯´o
suy ra m = 0.
8) Gia’ su
.
’ n = 0. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i k ∈ N sao cho σ(k) = n v`a 0 = mn =
mσ(k) = mk +m, nˆen m = 0.
9) V´o
.
i m, n ∈ N, go
.
i U = ¦p ∈ N [ m + p = n + p ⇒ m = n¦. Ta c´o
m + 0 = n + 0 ⇒m = n hay 0 ∈ U. Gia’ su
.
’ p ∈ U hay m+p = n +p ⇒m = n.
Khi d¯´o m+ σ(p) = n +σ(p) ⇒ σ(m +p) = σ(n + p) ⇒ m +p = n +p (do σ l`a
d¯o
.
n ´anh) ⇒m = n hay σ(p) ∈ U. Vˆa
.
y U = N.
10) V´o
.
i m, n ∈ N, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x ∈ N sao cho m = n + x ho˘a
.
c n = m + x. Khi
d¯´o mp = np + xp ho˘a
.
c np = mp + xp. T` u
.
mp = np suy ra xp = 0 v`a do p = 0,
ta c´ o x = 0. Vˆa
.
y m = n.
94
4.1.3. Quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen N:
4.1.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho m v`a n l`a hai sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen. Ta n´oi
+ m nho’ ho
.
n n ho˘a
.
c n l´o
.
n ho
.
n m, k´ y hiˆe
.
u m < n ho˘a
.
c n > m nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
x ∈ N, x = 0 sao cho n = m+x.
+ m nho’ ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng n ho˘a
.
c n l´o
.
n ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng m, k´ y hiˆe
.
u m ≤ n ho˘a
.
c
n ≥ m nˆe
´
u ho˘a
.
c m = n ho˘ a
.
c m < n. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y,
m ≤ n ⇔ ∃x ∈ N, n = m+x.
4.1.3.2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Quan hˆe
.
≤ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen N.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta c´o ngay quan hˆe
.
≤ c´o t´ınh chˆa
´
t pha’ n xa
.
. Bˆay
gi` o
.
nˆe
´
u m ≤ n v`a n ≤ m th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x, y ∈ N sao cho n = m +x v`a m = n +y.
Khi d¯´o m = m + x + y. D` ung luˆa
.
t gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ta c´o x + y = 0. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra
x = y = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a m = n. Do d¯´o quan hˆe
.
≤ c´o t´ınh chˆa
´
t pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng. Quan
hˆe
.
≤ c`on c´ o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u m ≤ n v`a n ≤ p th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x, y ∈ N
sao cho n = m + x v`a p = n +y. Khi d¯´o p = m + (x + y) v´o
.
i x +y ∈ N, t´ u
.
c l`a
m ≤ p. V`ı vˆa
.
y quan hˆe
.
≤ l` a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
.
4.1.3.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
(Luˆ a
.
t tam phˆan): V´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n ∈ N, c´o mˆo
.
t v`a chı ’ mˆo
.
t
trong ba tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau xa’ y ra:
m < n, m = n, m > n.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t, dˆe
˜
d`ang c´ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c nhiˆe
`
u nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t trong ba tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p trˆen xa’ y ra. Bˆay gi`o
.
ta ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p theo n l`a v´o
.
i mˆ o
˜
i m ∈ N
c´ o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t trong ba tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p trˆen xa’ y ra. V´o
.
i n = 0, ta c´o m > 0 ho˘a
.
c
m = 0 v´o
.
i mo
.
i m ∈ N. Gia’ su
.
’ v´o
.
i n ∈ N ta c´o ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t trong ba tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p m < n, m = n, m > n xa’ y ra v´ o
.
i mo
.
i m ∈ N. Nˆe
´
u m < n hay m = n th`ı
m < σ(n). Nˆe
´
u m > n th`ı m = σ(n) ho˘a
.
c m > σ(n).
4.1.3.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: V´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n, k ∈ N, ta c´ o:
1) m < n ⇒ m+k < n +k.
2) m < n v`a k = 0 ⇒ mk < nk.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Nˆe
´
u m < n th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x ∈ N, x = 0, n = m + x. Khi d¯´o
n + k = (m + k) + x hay m + k < n + k v´o
.
i mo
.
i k ∈ N. Nˆe
´
u k = 0 th`ı
nk = mk +xk v´o
.
i xk = 0 hay mk < nk.
4.1.3.5. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tˆo
´
t bo
.
’ i quan hˆe
.
≤.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Cho A ⊂ N, A = ∅. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh A c´o sˆo
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t. Go
.
i
A
1
= ¦n ∈ N [ n ≤ x, ∀x ∈ A¦.
95
R˜o r`ang A
1
⊂ N v`a c´o c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t:
a) 0 ∈ A
1
(v`ı 0 ≤ x, ∀x ∈ N).
b) A
1
= N. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, v`ı A = ∅ nˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i n ∈ A. Khi d¯´o n + 1 / ∈ A
1
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, A
1
thoa’ m˜an d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t cu’ a nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, nhu
.
ng
A
1
= N, nˆen n´o khˆ ong thoa’ m˜an d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n th´ u
.
hai. N´oi c´ach kh´ac, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
m ∈ A
1
sao cho m+ 1 / ∈ A
1
.
Do m ∈ A
1
nˆen m ≤ x, ∀x ∈ A. M˘a
.
t kh´ac, m ∈ A v`ı nˆe
´
u ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i ta c´ o
m < x, ∀x ∈ A, khi d¯´o m + 1 ≤ x, ∀x ∈ A hay m+ 1 ∈ A
1
. Mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i gia’
thiˆe
´
t vˆe
`
m. Vˆa
.
y m l`a sˆo
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a A.
4.1.3.6. Ch´ u ´ y: Nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p c´ o thˆe

ph´at biˆe

u la
.
i nhu
.
sau. Cho n
0
l`a
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v` a P(n) l`a mˆo
.
t h`am mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
v´o
.
i n ∈ N. Khi d¯´o nˆe
´
u P(n) c´o
t´ınh chˆa
´
t P(n
0
) d¯´ ung v`a nˆe
´
u P(k) d¯´ ung v´o
.
i k ≥ n
0
k´eo theo P(k + 1) d¯´ ung th`ı
P(n) d¯´ ung v´ o
.
i mo
.
i n ≥ n
0
. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, chı ’ cˆa
`
n ´ap du
.
ng tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
vˆe
`
quy na
.
p v`ao
tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p
U = ¦n ∈ N [ 0 ≤ n < n
0
¦ ∪ ¦n ∈ N [ n ≥ n
0
, P(n)¦.
4.1.4. Ph´ep tr` u
.
:
4.1.4.1. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: V´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m, n, nˆe
´
u m ≤ n th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t
sˆ o
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen x sao cho m+x = n.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Kˆe
´
t qua’ c´o ngay t` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a quan hˆe
.
≤ v`a luˆa
.
t gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c
cu’ a ph´ep cˆo
.
ng.
4.1.4.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen x thoa’ m˜an d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c m +x = n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l` a hiˆe
.
u cu’ a n v`a m v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x = n −m (d¯o
.
c l`a n tr` u
.
m).
Quy t˘a
´
c t`ım hiˆe
.
u n −m go
.
i l` a ph´ep tr` u
.
.
Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen cho thˆa
´
y ph´ep tr` u
.
n−m thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c khi v`a chı ’ khi m ≤ n.
4.1.4.3. T´ınh chˆa
´
t: V´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m, n, p m`a p ≤ n, ta c´ o:
m(n −p) = mn −mp, (n −p)m = nm−pm.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Theo d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a ph´ep tr` u
.
ta c´ o p + (n − p) = n. Do d¯´o
m[p + (n − p)] = mn. Theo t´ınh chˆa
´
t phˆan phˆ o
´
i cu’ a ph´ep nhˆan d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep
cˆ o
.
ng, ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mp +m(n −p) = mn. Do d¯´o m(n −p) l`a hiˆe
.
u cu’ a mn v`a mp, t´ u
.
c
l` a m(n −p) = mn −mp.
D
-
˘a

ng th´ u
.
c th´ u
.
hai c´o t` u
.
t´ınh giao ho´an cu’ a ph´ep nhˆan.
4.2. S
ˆ
O
´
NGUY
ˆ
EN.
Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen ra d¯`o
.
i do nh˜ u
.
ng yˆeu cˆ a
`
u cu’ a thu
.
.
c tiˆe
˜
n d¯`o
.
i sˆo
´
ng v`a sa’ n xuˆa
´
t.
Nhu
.
ng sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen khˆong d¯u’ d¯´ap ´ u
.
ng nh˜ u
.
ng yˆeu cˆa
`
u cu’ a x˜a hˆo
.
i lo`ai ngu
.
`o
.
i ng`ay
c` ang ph´at triˆe

n. Phˆ an sˆo
´
(du
.
o
.
ng) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c con ngu
.
`o
.
i biˆe
´
t rˆa
´
t s´o
.
m do yˆeu cˆ a
`
u vˆe
`
96
d¯o d¯a
.
c v`a phˆan chia. Trong mˆ o
.
t di ca’ o Ai Cˆa
.
p, c´o t` u
.
1550 n˘am tru
.
´o
.
c Cˆong
nguyˆen, d¯˜a thˆa
´
y c´o nh˜ u
.
ng kha’ o c´ u
.
u tı’ mı ’ vˆe
`
phˆan sˆo
´
.
Sˆo
´
ˆam d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯ˆe
`
cˆa
.
p trong c´ac cˆong tr`ınh cu’ a c´ac nh`a To´an ho
.
c
ˆ
A
´
n D
-
ˆo
.
v`ao
d¯ˆa
`
u th`o
.
i k` y Trung cˆo

v`a chı’ d¯ˆe
´
n thˆe
´
ky’ th´ u
.
16 sau Cˆong nguyˆen ngu
.
`o
.
i ta m´o
.
i
hˆe
´
t nghi ng`o
.
vˆe
`
gi´a tri
.
thu
.
.
c su
.
.
cu’ a n´o. D
-
iˆe
`
u d¯´o ch´ u
.
ng to’ sˆo
´
ˆam ra d¯`o
.
i khˆong
pha’ i do yˆeu cˆa
`
u b´ u
.
c b´ach cu’ a cuˆo
.
c sˆo
´
ng, m˘a
.
c d` u r˘a
`
ng nh˜ u
.
ng ´ y ngh˜ıa thu
.
.
c tiˆe
˜
n
cu’ a sˆo
´
ˆam l`a d¯iˆe
`
u khˆ ong phu’ nhˆa
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. Khi minh hoa
.
cho sˆo
´
ˆam ta thu
.
`o
.
ng
nˆeu c´ac v´ı du
.
vˆe
`
nh˜ u
.
ng d¯a
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng c´o hai chiˆe
`
u, nhu
.
: nhiˆe
.
t d¯ˆo
.
trˆen 0
0
v`a du
.
´o
.
i
0
0
, d¯ˆo
.
cao v`a d¯ˆo
.
sˆau, chuyˆe

n d¯ˆo
.
ng vˆe
`
hai chiˆe
`
u ngu
.
o
.
.
c nhau, ... Tuy nhiˆen, trong
tˆ a
´
t ca’ c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d¯´o, ta d¯ˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ınh x´ac m`a khˆ ong cˆa
`
n
d` ung d¯ˆe
´
n sˆo
´
ˆam. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta vˆa
˜
n d` ung song song hai thuˆa
.
t ng˜ u
.
: nhiˆe
.
t
d¯ˆo
.
−10
0
v`a 10
0
du
.
´o
.
i 0
0
, hay d¯ˆo
.
sˆau −1490m v`a 1490m du
.
´o
.
i mu
.
.
c nu
.
´o
.
c biˆe

n, ...
Li
.
ch su
.
’ d¯˜a ghi nhˆa
.
n r˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
ˆam d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯ˆe
`
cˆa
.
p d¯ˆe
´
n tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t trong c´ac cˆong
tr`ınh to´an ho
.
c thuˆa
`
n tu´ y, nhu
.
trong vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh hay trong c´ ac biˆe

u
th´ u
.
c d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
. V`ı vˆa
.
y, ta h˜ay t`ım hiˆe

u nguyˆen nhˆan to´an ho
.
c cu’ a su
.
.
ra d¯`o
.
i c´ ac sˆo
´
ˆam.
Ta biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, ph´ep tr` u
.
khˆong pha’ i luˆ on luˆon
thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, hiˆe
.
u n−m chı’ tˆo
`
n ta
.
i khi n ≥ m. M˘a
.
t kh´ac, hiˆe
.
u n−m ch´ınh l`a
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m+ x = n. Vˆa
.
y viˆe
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ph´ep tr` u
.
c´o thˆe

ph´at biˆe

u du
.
´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t h`ınh th´ u
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng kh´ac l`a su
.
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh n´oi trˆen, v`a ta c´o kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n sau: trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen, phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh m + x = n c´o nghiˆe
.
m khi v`a chı ’ khi n ≥ m v`a khi d¯´o nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o l`a
x = n −m.
T` u
.
d¯´o, xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n mˆ o
.
t yˆeu cˆa
`
u l`a mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen d¯ˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
m`a trong d¯´o ph´ep tr` u
.
luˆon luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, t´ u
.
c l`a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m +x = n luˆon luˆon c´o nghiˆe
.
m.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, viˆe
.
c xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯˘a
.
t ra nhu
.
mˆo
.
t yˆeu cˆa
`
u
nˆ o
.
i ta
.
i cu’ a to´an ho
.
c.
4.2.1. Xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen:
4.2.1.1. Mo
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u: Sau d¯ˆ ay ta s˜e xˆ ay du
.
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen c` ung v´o
.
i
ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan trˆen n´ o t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N c´ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v´o
.
i hai ph´ep to´an
d¯˜a c´ o trˆen N. V´o
.
i c´ach cˆa
´
u ta
.
o n`ay, c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t quen thuˆo
.
c cu’ a ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a
ph´ep nhˆan trˆen Z d¯u
.
o
.
.
c suy t` u
.
c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t d¯˜a c´o trˆen N.
Yˆeu cˆa
`
u mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng N d¯ˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
, trong d¯´o ph´ep tr` u
.
luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, c˜ ung c´ o ngh˜ıa l`a ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´ o ph´ep to´an ngu
.
o
.
.
c, hay mo
.
i sˆo
´
d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i.
D
-
´o ch´ınh l`a b`ai to´an d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng ho´a trong d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
.
Nhu
.
ta d¯˜a biˆe
´
t
Z = ¦. . . , −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ¦
97
v` a v´o
.
i hai sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m, n, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t x ∈ Z sao cho m + x = n, ta k´ y
hiˆe
.
u x = n −m. Bˆay gi`o
.
x´et ´anh xa
.
D : NN −→Z cho bo
.
’ i D(n, m) = n −m.
Khi d¯´o
D(n
1
, m
1
) = D(n
2
, m
2
) ⇔ n
1
+m
2
= n
2
+m
1
.
V´o
.
i ch´ u ´ y n`ay, ta t`ım c´ach xˆ ay du
.
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z.
4.2.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N N, x´et quan hˆe
.
hai ngˆoi R:
∀(n
1
, m
1
), (n
2
, m
2
) ∈ N N, (n
1
, m
1
) R (n
2
, m
2
) ⇔ n
1
+m
2
= n
2
+m
1
.
Khi d¯´o quan hˆe
.
R l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng trˆen N N.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a NN theo quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng Rnhu
.
trˆen, (NN)/R,
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l` a Z v`a mˆo
˜
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a Z (ch´ınh l`a mˆo
˜
i l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng theo
quan hˆe
.
R) go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen.
X´et ´anh xa
.
D : N N −→ Z x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i D(n, m) = (n, m). D
-
ˆay l`a mˆo
.
t
to`an ´anh v`a thu
.
`o
.
ng go
.
i l` a ph´ep chiˆe
´
u tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
4.2.2. Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v` a ph´ep nhˆan trˆen Z:
4.2.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x = D(n, m), y = D(p, q) ∈ Z.
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng: x +y = D(n +p, m +q).
2) Ph´ep nhˆan: xy = D(np +mq, nq +mp).
4.2.2.2. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen Z.
2) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh giao ho´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Z, ta
c´ o
x +y = y +x, xy = yx.
3) Ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan c´ o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z, ta
c´ o
(x +y) +z = x + (y +z), (xy)z = x(yz).
4) Z v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong v`a v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
,
ngh˜ıa l`a tˆo
`
n ta
.
i 0

, 1

∈ Z sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Z, ta c´ o
x + 0

= 0

+x = x, x1

= 1

x = x.
5) Mo
.
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a Z d¯ˆe
`
u c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆo
´
i, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Z tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
(−x) ∈ Z sao cho
x + (−x) = (−x) +x = 0

.
6) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh phˆ an phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈
Z, ta c´ o
x(y +z) = xy +xz, (y +z)x = yx +zx.
98
7) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z, ta c´ o
x +z = y +z ⇒ x = y.
8) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z, z = 0

ta c´o
xz = yz ⇒ x = y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
1) Gia’ su
.
’ x = D(n, m) = D(n

, m

), y = D(p, q) = D(p

, q

). Khi d¯´o
n +m

= n

+m, p +q

= p

+q. Ta c´o
(n+p)+(m

+q

) = (n

+p

)+(m+q) ⇒ D(n+p, m+q) = D(n

+p

, m

+q

).
np +m

p = n

p +mp, n

q +mq = nq +m

q, n

p +n

q

= n

p

+n

q, m

p

+
m

q = m

p + m

q

⇒ (np + m

p) + (n

q + mq) + (n

p + n

q

) + (m

p

+m

q) =
(n

p+mp) +(nq +m

q) +(n

p

+n

q) +(m

p+m

q

) ⇒ np+mq +n

q

+m

p

=
n

p

+m

q

+nq +mp ⇒ D(np +mq, nq +mp) = D(n

p

+m

q

, n

q

+m

p

).
Trong c´ac phˆ a
`
n c`on la
.
i, cho tu` y ´ y x = D(n, m), y = D(p, q), z = D(r, s) ∈ Z.
2) x +y = D(n +p, m+q) = D(p +n, q +m) = D(p, q) +D(n, m) = y +x.
xy = D(np +mq, nq +mp) = D(pn +qm, pm +qn) = yx.
3) (x + y) + z = D(n + p, m + q) + D(r, s) = D(n + p + r, m + q + s) =
D(n, m) +D(p +r, q +s) = x + (y +z).
(xy)z = D(np + mq, nq + mp)D(r, s) = D(npr + mqr + nqs + mps, nps +
mqs + nqr + mpr) = D(npr + nqs + mps + mqr, nps + nqr + mpr + mqs) =
D(n, m)D(pr +qs, ps +qr) = x(yz).
4) D
-
˘a
.
t 0

= D(0, 0) v`a 1

= D(1, 0). Khi d¯´o 0

= D(n, n) v`a 1

= D(n+1, n)
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N. ta c´ o
x + 0

= D(n, m) +D(0, 0) = D(n + 0, m + 0) = D(n, m) = x.
x1

= D(n, m)D(1, 0) = D(n1 +m0, n0 +m1) = D(n, m) = x.
5) D
-
˘a
.
t −x = D(m, n). Khi d¯´o
x + (−x) = D(n, m) +D(m, n) = D(n +m, m +n) = 0

.
6) x(y + z) = D(n, m)D(p + r, q + s) = D(n(p + r) + m(q + s), n(q + s) +
m(p+r)) = D((np+mq) +(nr +ms), (nq +mp) +(ns+mr)) = D(np+mq, nq +
mp) +D(nr +ms, ns +mr) = xy +xz.
7) x + z = y + z ⇒ D(n + r, m + s) = D(p + r, q + s) ⇒ n + r + q + s =
m+s +p +r ⇒n +q = m+p ⇒D(n, m) = D(p, q) ⇒x = y.
8) xz = yz ⇒D(nr +ms, ns +mr) = D(pr +qs, ps +qr)
⇒nr +ms +ps +qr = ns +mr +pr +qs
⇒(n +q)r + (m+p)s = (n +q)s + (m +p)r.
Gia’ su
.
’ n + q > m + p, ngh˜ıa l`a tˆo
`
n ta
.
i t ∈ N, t = 0 sao cho n + q = m + p + t.
Khi d¯´o
(m+p)r +tr + (m+p)s = (m +p)s +ts + (m+p)r ⇒tr = ts ⇒r = s.
D
-
i`eu n`ay mˆau thuˆa

n v´ o
.
i z = D(r, s) = 0

. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
n + q < m + p c˜ ung dˆa
˜
n
d¯ˆe
´
n mˆau thuˆa

n. Vˆa
.
y n +q = m+p hay x = y.
99
4.2.2.3. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen c` ung v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a nhˆan trong
(4.2.2.1) ta
.
o th`anh mˆo
.
t v`anh giao ho´an c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
v`a khˆong c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a 0.
4.2.2.4. Quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a N v`a Z: X´et ´anh xa
.
f : N −→Z : n →f(n) = D(n, 0).
Khi d¯´o ´anh xa
.
f c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t sau:
1) f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i n
1
, n
2
∈ N, f(n
1
) = f(n
2
), ta c´o D(n
1
, 0) = D(n
2
, 0) hay
n
1
+ 0 = 0 +n
2
hay n
1
= n
2
.
2) f ba’ o to`an ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n
1
, n
2
∈ N,
f(n
1
+n
2
) = f(n
1
) +f(n
2
), f(n
1
.n
2
) = f(n
1
).f(n
2
).
Thˆa
.
t vˆ a
.
y, ta c´ o f(n
1
+n
2
) = D(n
1
+n
2
, 0) = D(n
1
, 0) +D(n
2
, 0) = f(n
1
) +
f(n
2
), f(n
1
.n
2
) = D(n
1
.n
2
, 0) = D(n
1
, 0)D(n
2
, 0) = f(n
1
).f(n
2
).
T` u
.
c´ac t´ınh chˆ a
´
t trˆen cu’ a ´anh xa
.
f, ta c´ o thˆe

d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n
v´ o
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen D(n, 0):
n = D(n, 0)
v` a do d¯´o N l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con thu
.
.
c su
.
.
cu’ a Z. T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o:
0

= D(0, 0) = 0, 1

= D(1, 0) = 1.
4.2.3. Ph´ep tr` u
.
trˆen Z:
4.2.3.1. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh a +x = b v´o
.
i a, b ∈ Z luˆon c´o nghiˆe
.
m trong
Z v` a nghiˆe
.
m d¯´o l`a duy nhˆa
´
t.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: D
-
˘a
.
t x = −a +b v´o
.
i −a l`a sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a a, ta c´ o
a +x = a + (−a +b) = (a + (−a)) +b = 0 +b = b.
Vˆa
.
y −a +b l`a mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh.
Ngo`ai ra, nˆe
´
u x
0
∈ Z l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh trˆen, ta c´o a + x
0
= b.
Khi d¯´o −a + (a +x
0
) = −a +b hay x
0
= −a +b.
Vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh l`a duy nhˆa
´
t.
4.2.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh a +x = b go
.
i l`a hiˆe
.
u cu’ a b v`a
a, k´ y hiˆe
.
u b −a (d¯o
.
c l`a b tr` u
.
a).
Theo mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen, ta c´o hiˆe
.
u b −a luˆon tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`a ch´ınh l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a b v´o
.
i
sˆ o
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a a : b −a = b + (−a).
Vˆa
.
y b tr` u
.
a l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a b v´o
.
i sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a a v`a ph´ep tr` u
.
trˆen Z luˆon luˆon thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
100
4.2.3.3. T´ınh chˆa
´
t: V´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen x, y, z, ta c´o:
x(y −z) = xy −xz, (y −z)x = yx −zx.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Do xy = x[(y−z)+z] = x(y−z)+xz nˆen ta c´o x(y−z) = xy−xz.
4.2.3.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen ho˘a
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen ho˘a
.
c l`a sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Cho x = D(n, m) ∈ Z. Khi d¯´o
– Nˆe
´
u n ≥ m th`ı x = D(n, m) = D(n −m, 0) (v`ı n + 0 = (n −m) +m) nˆen
x d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t v´o
.
i n −m ∈ N.
– Nˆe
´
u n < m th`ı x = D(n, m) = D(0, m−n) = −D(m−n, 0) (v`ı n+(m−n) =
0 +m) nˆen x d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t v´o
.
i sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a m−n ∈ N.
4.2.3.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: C´ ac sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen trong hˆe
.
thˆa
.
p phˆan d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , c`on phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a x ∈ N k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a −x, do d¯´o theo mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen
tˆ a
´
t ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a Z l` a 0, −0, 1, −1, 2, −2, 3, −3, . . . . Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng 0 l`a phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ khˆong d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, d¯´o l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ duy nhˆa
´
t c´ o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i b˘ a
`
ng ch´ınh n´o.
Vˆa
.
y ta c´o:
Z = ¦. . . , −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ¦.
C´ ac sˆo
´
1, 2, 3, . . . go
.
i l`a c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, c´ac sˆo
´
−1, −2, −3, . . . go
.
i l`a c´ ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen ˆam, d¯o
.
c l`a tr` u
.
1, tr` u
.
2, tr` u
.
3, . . . hay ˆam mˆo
.
t, ˆam hai, ˆam ba, . . . .
Gi´a tri
.
tuyˆe
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a sˆ o
´
nguyˆen x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a [x[, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh nhu
.
sau:
[x[ = x nˆe
´
u x l`a mˆo
.
t sˆ o
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen;
[x[ = −x nˆe
´
u x l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen ˆam.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, gi´a tri
.
tuyˆe
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen luˆon luˆon l`a mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen
v` a hai sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i nhau c´ o gi´a tri
.
tuyˆe
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i b˘ a
`
ng nhau.
4.2.4. Quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen Z:
4.2.4.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen x v`a y. Ta n´oi x nho’ ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng
y ho˘a
.
c y l´o
.
n ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x ≤ y ho˘a
.
c y ≥ x nˆe
´
u y −x ∈ N.
Khi x ≤ y v`a x = y ta n´ oi x nho’ ho
.
n y ho˘a
.
c y l´o
.
n ho
.
n x v`a viˆe
´
t x < y ho˘a
.
c
y > x.
Nˆe
´
u x, y ∈ N ta c´o y −x ∈ N khi v`a chı ’ khi x ≤ y (trˆen N). Do d¯´o quan hˆe
.
≤ d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa trˆen ph` u ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen N.
4.2.4.2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Quan hˆe
.
≤ x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Do x − x = 0 ∈ N nˆen x ≤ x v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Z, do d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh
pha’ n xa
.
.
V´o
.
i x, y ∈ Z m`a x ≤ y v`a y ≤ x, ta c´ o y −x ∈ N v`a x − y ∈ N. M˘a
.
t kh´ ac,
(x −y) + (y − x) = 0 nˆen ta c´o x − y = y − x = 0 hay x = y. Do d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh
pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
101
V´o
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z m`a x ≤ y v`a y ≤ z, ta c´o y − x ∈ N v`a z − y ∈ N. Khi d¯´o
z −x = (z −y) + (y −x) ∈ N hay x ≤ z. Do d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
V´o
.
i x, y ∈ Z, x −y v`a y −x l`a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen d¯ˆo
´
i nhau nˆen ho˘a
.
c x −y ∈ N
t´ u
.
c l`a y ≤ x ho˘a
.
c x −y ∈ N t´ u
.
c l`a x ≤ y.
T` u
.
c´ac d¯iˆe
`
u trˆen suy ra quan hˆe
.
≤ s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z.
4.2.4.3. T´ınh chˆa
´
t: V´o
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z, ta c´ o:
1) Nˆe
´
u x ≤ y th`ı x +z ≤ y +z.
2) Nˆe
´
u x ≤ y v`a z ≥ 0 th`ı xz ≤ yz. Nˆe
´
u x ≤ y v`a z ≤ 0 th`ı xz ≥ yz.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) Do (y +z) −(x +z) = y −x ∈ N nˆen x +z ≤ y +z.
2) Do y −x ∈ N v`a z ∈ N nˆen yz −xz = (y −x)z ∈ N hay xz ≤ yz.
Do y − x ∈ N v`a −z ∈ N nˆen xz − yz = (x − y)z = (y − x)(−z) ∈ N hay
xz ≥ yz.
4.2.5. Sˆo
´
nguyˆen mˆ od¯ulˆo:
4.2.5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. Khi d¯´o quan hˆe
.
≡ (mod
n) trˆen Z
∀x, y ∈ Z, x ≡ y (mod n) ⇔x −y ˙: n
l` a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng. C´ac l´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng theo quan hˆe
.
n`ay l`a
0 = ¦kn [ k ∈ Z¦, 1 = ¦kn + 1 [ k ∈ Z¦, . . . , n −1 = ¦kn + (n −1) [ k ∈ Z¦
v` a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng Z/ ≡ (mod n) k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a Z
n
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y,
Z
n
= ¦0, 1, . . . , n −1¦
v` a mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen mˆod¯ulˆo n.
Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an trˆen Z
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa nhu
.
sau:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng: x +y = x +y.
2) Ph´ep nhˆan: xy = xy.
4.2.5.2. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen Z
n
.
2) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh giao ho´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Z
n
,
x +y = y +x, x y = y x.
3) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z
n
,
(x +y) +z = x + (y +z), (x y) z = x (y z).
4) Z
n
v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong v` a v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n
vi
.
, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Z
n
,
x + 0 = 0 +x = x, x 1 = 1 x = x.
102
5) Mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a Z
n
d¯ˆe
`
u c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆo
´
i, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Z
n
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
n −x ∈ Z
n
,
x +n −x = n −x +x = 0.
6) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh phˆ an phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈
Z
n
,
x(y +z) = x y +x z, (y +z)x = y x +z x.
7) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Z
n
,
x +z = y +z ⇒ x = y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: C´o ngay t` u
.
c´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen.
4.2.5.3. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z
n
c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen mˆod¯ulˆo n c` ung v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a
nhˆan trong (4.2.5.1) ta
.
o th` anh mˆo
.
t v` anh giao ho´an c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
v´o
.
i Char(Z
n
) = n.
Ngo`ai ra, Z
n
l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng khi v` a chı ’ khi n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: T` u
.
c´ac t´ınh chˆ a
´
t 1) - 6) cu’ a (4.2.5.2), ta c´o Z
n
l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh giao
ho´an c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
. V´o
.
i k ∈ Z, k.1 = k = 0 khi v`a chı ’ khi k l`a mˆo
.
t bˆo
.
i cu’ a n. Do
d¯´o Char(Z
n
) = n.
Nˆe
´
u n l`a mˆo
.
t ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
th`ı n = k.l v´o
.
i 1 < k, l < n, do d¯´o k.l = n = 0, v´o
.
i
k, l l`a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ kh´ac khˆong trong Z
n
, t´ u
.
c l`a Z
n
c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong. V`ı vˆ a
.
y
Z
n
khˆong l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng.
Gia’ su
.
’ n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
. Mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ kh´ac khˆong trong Z
n
d¯ˆe
`
c´o da
.
ng
q v´ o
.
i 1 < q < n. Khi d¯´o q v`a n nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau, v`ı vˆa
.
y tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c´ ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen k v`a l sao cho kn +lq = 1. T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o
l.q = 1 −kn = 1
D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay c´o ngh˜ıa l`a q kha’ nghi
.
ch v`a q
−1
= l.
Th´ı du
.
: Ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan trˆen Z
6
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thˆe

hiˆe
.
n qua ba’ ng cˆo
.
ng v`a ba’ ng
nhˆan sau d¯ˆay:
+ 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 1 2 3 4 5
1 1 2 3 4 5 0
2 2 3 4 5 0 1
3 3 4 5 0 1 2
4 4 5 0 1 2 3
5 5 0 1 2 3 4
. 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5
2 0 2 4 0 2 4
3 0 3 0 3 0 3
4 0 4 2 0 4 2
5 0 5 4 3 2 1
103
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P CHU
.
O
.
NG IV
1. D` ung quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
3 + 3.5 + 3.5
2
+ + 3.5
n
=
3(5
n+1
−1)
4
,
v´ o
.
i n l`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
2. D` ung quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
2 −2.7 + 2.7
2
− + 2(−7)
n
=
1 −(−7)
n+1
4
,
v´ o
.
i n l`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen.
3. T`ım cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh tˆo

ng
1
1.2
+
1
2.3
+ +
1
n(n + 1)
b˘a
`
ng c´ach quan s´at c´ac
gi´ a tri
.
cu’ a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c n`ay v´ o
.
i c´ ac gi´a tri
.
nho’ cu’ a n. D` ung quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh cˆong th´ u
.
c d¯´o.
4. B˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c h˜ay ch´ u
.
ng minh bˆa
´
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Bernoulli: “Nˆe
´
u
a > −1 th`ı 1 +na ≤ (1 +a)
n
, v´ o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n ”.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p r˘a
`
ng
1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + +n(n + 1)(n + 2) =
n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
4
,
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1
2
−2
2
+ 3
2
− + (−1)
n−1
n
2
=
(−1)
n−1
n(n + 1)
2
,
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n.
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1 +
1
4
+
1
9
+ +
1
n
2
< 2 −
1
n
,
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen n l´o
.
n ho
.
n 1.
8. Mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
s : N −→X d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a x´ac d¯i
.
nh t` u
.
a ∈ X v`a f : X −→X b˘a
`
ng
“d¯ˆe
.
quy d¯o
.
n” nˆe
´
u s(0) = a v`a s(σ(n)) = f(s(n)), ∀n ∈ N.
104
1) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u t : N −→X thoa’ m˜an t(0) = a v`a t(σ(n)) = f(t(n))
th`ı t = s.
2) Cho f ∈ X
X
(o
.
’ d¯ˆay X
X
l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac ´anh xa
.
t` u
.
X v`ao X). Ch´ u
.
ng to’
r˘ a
`
ng E : N −→X
X
v´o
.
i E(n) = f
n
c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t d¯ˆe
.
quy d¯o
.
n.
9. H˜ay t`ım tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X ch´ u
.
a sˆo
´
0 v`a ´anh xa
.
σ : X −→ X sao cho thoa’ m˜an 2
trong 3 tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
P3, P4, P5 m`a khˆ ong thoa’ m˜an tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
c`on la
.
i.
10. H˜ay xˆay du
.
.
ng ´anh xa
.
τ : N −→ N kh´ac ´anh xa
.
σ trong P2 m`a thoa’ m˜an
c´ ac tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
Peano.
11. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng khˆong c´ o sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n`ao n˘a
`
m gi˜ u
.
a n v`a n + 1.
12. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
1) Mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen d¯ˆe
`
u c´o
sˆ o
´
l´ o
.
n nhˆa
´
t.
2) Mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆ o
˜
ng bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen d¯ˆe
`
u c´o
sˆ o
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t.
13. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i mo
.
i c˘a
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen a, b, b = 0, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t c˘a
.
p
sˆ o
´
nguyˆen q, r thoa’ m˜an:
a = bq +r, 0 ≤ r < [b[.
14. X´et tru
.
`o
.
ng Z
13
c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen mˆod¯ulˆo 13. H˜ay lˆa
.
p ba’ ng nhˆan cu’ a Z
13
.
Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng Z

13
= Z
13
` ¦0¦ l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om cyclic.
15. K´ y hiˆe
.
u U
n
l`a nh´om nhˆan c´ ac phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ kha’ nghi
.
ch cu’ a v`anh Z
n
c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen mˆod¯ulˆo n.
1) Lˆa
.
p ba’ ng nhˆan cu’ a U
18
v`a ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng U
18
l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om cyclic.
2) U
16
c´o l`a nh´om cyclic khˆ ong? V`ı sao?
16. T`ım c´ac d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om t` u
.
1) Z
12
d¯ˆe
´
n Z
12
;
2) Z
12
d¯ˆe
´
n Z
24
.
3) Z
9
d¯ˆe
´
n Z
13
.
105
TRA

L
`
O
.
I V
`
A HU
.
´
O
.
NG D
ˆ
A
˜
N GIA

I B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
CHU
.
O
.
NG IV
1. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 0 v`ı 3 =
3(5 −1)
4
. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n, t´ u
.
c
l` a ta c´o 3 + 3.5 + 3.5
2
+ + 3.5
n
=
3(5
n+1
−1)
4
. Khi d¯´o
3 + 3.5 + 3.5
2
+ + 3.5
n
+ 3.5
n+1
=
3(5
n+1
−1)
4
+ 3.5
n+1
=
15.5
n+1
−3
4
=
3(5
n+2
−1)
4
,
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i n ∈ N.
2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 0 v`ı 2 =
1 −(−7)
1
4
. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n, t´ u
.
c
l` a ta c´o 2 −2.7 + 2.7
2
− + 2(−7)
n
=
1 −(−7)
n+1
4
. Khi d¯´o
2 −2.7 + 2.7
2
− + 2(−7)
n
+ 2(−7)
n+1
=
1 −(−7)
n+1
4
+ 2(−7)
n+1
=
1 + 7(−7)
n+1
4
=
1 −(−7)
n+2
4
,
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i n ∈ N.
3. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
:
1
1.2
+
1
2.3
+ +
1
n(n + 1)
= 1 −
1
n + 1
.
Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 1 v`ı
1
1.2
= 1 −
1
1 + 1
. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n,
t´ u
.
c l`a ta c´o
1
1.2
+
1
2.3
+ +
1
n(n + 1)
= 1 −
1
n + 1
. Khi d¯´o
1
1.2
+
1
2.3
+ +
1
n(n + 1)
+
1
(n + 1)(n + 2)
= 1 −
1
n + 1
+
1
(n + 1)(n + 2)
= 1 −
n + 2 −1
(n + 1)(n + 2)
= 1 −
1
n + 2
,
106
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n.
4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 0 v`ı (1 +a)
0
= 1 + 0.a. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n,
t´ u
.
c l`a ta c´o (1 +a)
n
≥ 1 +na. Khi d¯´o
(1 +a)
n+1
= (1 +a)
n
(1 +a) ≥ (1 +na)(1 +a) = 1 +na +a +na
2
≥ 1 + (n + 1)a,
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i n ∈ N.
5. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 1 v`ı 1.2.3 =
1.2.3.4
4
. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n, t´ u
.
c
l` a ta c´o 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + +n(n + 1)(n + 2) =
n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
4
. Khi d¯´o
1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + +n(n + 1)(n + 2) + (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
=
n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
4
+ (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
=
n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) + 4n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
4
=
(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)(n + 4)
4
,
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n.
6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 1 v`ı 1
2
=
(−1)
0
1(1 + 1)
2
. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n
n, t´ u
.
c l`a ta c´ o 1
2
−2
2
+ 3
2
− + (−1)
n−1
n
2
=
(−1)
n−1
n(n + 1)
2
. Khi d¯´o
1
2
−2
2
+ 3
2
− + (−1)
n−1
n
2
+ (−1)
n
(n + 1)
2
=
(−1)
n−1
n(n + 1)
2
+ (−1)
n
(n + 1)
2
=
−(−1)
n
n(n + 1) + 2(−1)
n
(n + 1)
2
2
=
(−1)
n
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
,
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n.
107
7. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 2 v`ı 1 +
1
4
=
5
4
<
6
4
= 2 −
1
2
. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung
d¯ˆe
´
n n, t´ u
.
c l`a ta c´ o 1 +
1
4
+
1
9
+ +
1
n
2
< 2 −
1
n
. Khi d¯´o
1 +
1
4
+
1
9
+ +
1
n
2
+
1
(n + 1)
2
< 2 −
1
n
+
1
(n + 1)
2
< 2 −
1
n
+
1
n(n + 1)
= 2 −
n + 1 −1
n(n + 1)
< 2 −
1
n + 1
,
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n > 1.
8. 1) Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 0 v`ı t(0) = s(0) = a. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n
n, t´ u
.
c l`a ta c´ o t(n) = s(n). Khi d¯´o
t(n + 1) = t(σ(n)) = f(t(n)) = f(s(n)) = s(σ(n)) = s(n + 1),
t´ u
.
c l`a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n+1. Vˆa
.
y theo nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p, mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung v´o
.
i
mo
.
i n ∈ N.
2) Ta c´o f
0
= id
X
, f
n+1
= f
n
◦ f v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N. X´et ´anh xa
.
F : X
X
−→X
X
: g →g ◦ f.
Khi d¯´o E : N −→ X
X
cho bo
.
’ i E(n) = f
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh b˘a
`
ng d¯ˆe
.
quy d¯o
.
n bo
.
’ i
id
X
v`a F. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y,
E(0) = id
X
v`a E(σ(n)) = E(n + 1) = f
n+1
= f
n
◦ f = F(f
n
) = F(E(n)).
9. 1) X = N v`a σ : X −→X cho bo
.
’ i σ(n) = n+2 thoa’ m˜an P3, P4 v`a khˆong
thoa’ m˜an P5 (lˆa
´
y U = ¦0, 2, . . . , 2n, . . . ¦).
2) X = ¦0, 1¦ v`a σ : X −→ X cho bo
.
’ i σ(0) = σ(1) = 1 thoa’ m˜an P3, P5
v` a khˆong thoa’ m˜an P4.
3) X = ¦0¦ v`a σ : X −→ X cho bo
.
’ i σ(0) = 0 thoa’ m˜an P4, P5 v`a khˆong
thoa’ m˜an P3.
10. Cho γ l`a mˆo
.
t song ´anh t` u
.
N lˆen N sao cho γ(0) = 0; ch˘a

ng ha
.
n,
γ(n) =

0 nˆe
´
u n = 0,
2 nˆe
´
u n = 1,
1 nˆe
´
u n = 2
n nˆe
´
u n > 2.
108
D
-
˘a
.
t τ = γ
−1
◦ σ ◦ γ. Khi d¯´o ta c´o:
P3. 0 / ∈ τ(N).
P4. γ l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
P5. Cho V thoa’ m˜an:
a) 0 ∈ V .
b) V´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N, n ∈ V ⇒τ(n) ∈ V .
D
-
˘a
.
t U = γ(V ) th`ı ta c´ o:
a’) 0 = γ(0) ∈ γ(V ) = U.
b’) V´o
.
i mo
.
i p ∈ N,
p ∈ U ⇒γ
−1
(p) ∈ V ⇒γ
−1
(σ(p)) = τ(γ
−1
(p)) ∈ V ⇒σ(p) ∈ γ(V ) = U.
Vˆa
.
y U = N hay V = N. Do d¯´o N v`a τ thoa’ m˜an hˆe
.
tiˆen d¯ˆe
`
Peano.
11. Gia’ su
.
’ tˆo
`
n ta
.
i m ∈ N sao cho n < m < n + 1. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i t ∈ N, t = 0
sao cho m = n +t, t` u
.
d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c n < n +t < n + 1 hay 0 < t < 1. Go
.
i
A = ¦x ∈ N [ 0 < x < 1¦,
ta c´ o A ⊂ N, A = ∅. Do d¯´o A c´o sˆo
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t, gia’ su
.
’ l`a a. Khi d¯´o 0 < a
2
< a < 1,
nˆen a
2
∈ A v`a a
2
< a. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i t´ınh nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a a.
12. 1) Cho A ⊂ Z, A = ∅ v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen. Ta c´o hai tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p:
+ A∩ N = ∅: Khi d¯´o tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p A ∩ N l`a tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a N v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n
trˆen, do d¯´o n´o c´o sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t v`a d¯ˆay c˜ ung l`a sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a A (v`ı c´ ac sˆo
´
trong
A ` (A ∩ N) (nˆe
´
u c´o) gˆo
`
m c´ ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen ˆam).
+ A ∩ N = ∅: Khi d¯´o A ∩ N chı’ gˆo
`
m c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen ˆam. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
A

= ¦[x[ [ x ∈ A¦.
Khi d¯´o A

l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a N nˆen c´ o sˆo
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t. Gia’ su
.
’ [a[ (a ∈ A)
l` a sˆ o
´
nho’ cu’ a A

. Do d¯´o v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ A, [a[ ≤ [x[ hay −a ≤ −x hay x ≤ a. Vˆa
.
y
a l` a sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a A.
2) Cho B ⊂ Z, B = ∅ v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i. Khi d¯´o tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
A = −B = ¦−x [ x ∈ B¦
l` a mˆ o
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a Z v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen. Do d¯´o A c´o sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t v`a d¯ˆay
ch´ınh l`a sˆo
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t cu’ a B.
13. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p:
A = ¦bx [ x ∈ Z, bx ≤ a¦ (tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac bˆo
.
i cu’ a b khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´ a a).
109
V`ı −[b[[a[ l`a mˆo
.
t bˆo
.
i cu’ a b v`a −[b[[a[ ≤ a nˆen −[b[[a[ ∈ A, do d¯´o A = ∅.
Ngo`ai ra A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a Z bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen bo
.
’ i a, nˆen trong A c´o sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t,
gia’ su
.
’ d¯´o l`a bq, q ∈ Z.
V`ı [b[ ≥ 1 nˆen bq +[b[ > bq, do d¯´o bq +[b[ / ∈ A. Nhu
.
ng bq +[b[ c˜ ung l`a mˆ o
.
t
bˆ o
.
i cu’ a b nˆen ta c´ o
bq ≤ a < bq +[b[ hay 0 ≤ a −bq < [b[.
D
-
˘a
.
t r = a −bq ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c r ∈ Z, a = bq +r, 0 ≤ r < [b[.
Gia’ su
.
’ c´o hai c˘a
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen q, r v`a q
1
, r
1
thoa’ m˜an a = bq + r, a =
bq
1
+ r
1
, 0 ≤ r, r
1
< [b[. Khi d¯´o ta c´ o b(q − q
1
) = r
1
− r v`a [r
1
− r[ < [b[, nˆen
[b[[q −q
1
[ < [b[ v`a do [b[ > 0 ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c [q −q
1
[ < 1. Do d¯´o [q −q
1
[ = 0 hay q = q
1
v` a k´eo theo r
1
= r.
14. Ba’ ng nhˆan cu’ a Z
13
:
. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 3 5 7 9 11
3 0 3 6 9 12 2 5 8 11 1 4 7 10
4 0 4 8 12 3 7 11 2 6 10 1 5 9
5 0 5 10 2 7 12 4 9 1 6 11 3 8
6 0 6 12 5 11 4 10 3 9 2 8 1 7
7 0 7 1 8 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6
8 0 8 3 11 6 1 9 4 12 7 2 10 5
9 0 9 5 1 10 6 2 11 7 3 12 8 4
10 0 10 7 4 1 11 8 5 2 12 9 6 3
11 0 11 9 7 5 3 1 12 10 8 6 4 2
12 0 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2
1
= 2, 2
2
= 4, 2
3
= 8, 2
4
= 3, 2
5
= 6, 2
6
= 12,
2
7
= 11, 2
8
= 9, 2
9
= 5, 2
10
= 10, 2
11
= 7, 2
12
= 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, Z

13
l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om cyclic v´o
.
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ sinh l` a 2.
110
15. 1) Ba’ ng nhˆan cu’ a U
18
= ¦1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17¦:
. 1 5 7 11 13 17
1 1 5 7 11 13 17
5 5 7 17 1 11 13
7 7 17 13 5 1 11
11 11 1 5 13 17 7
13 13 11 1 17 7 5
17 17 13 11 7 5 1
5
1
= 5, 5
2
= 7, 5
3
= 17, 5
4
= 13, 5
5
= 11, 5
6
= 1.
Vˆa
.
y U
18
l`a mˆo
.
t nh´om cyclic sinh bo
.
’ i 5.
2) U
16
= ¦1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15¦.
3
2
= 9, 3
4
= 1.
5
2
= 9, 5
4
= 1.
7
2
= 1.
9
2
= 1.
11
2
= 9, 11
4
= 1.
13
2
= 9, 13
4
= 1.
15
2
= 1.
Vˆa
.
y U
16
khˆong l`a nh´om cyclic.
16. 1) Z
n
l`a nh´om cˆo
.
ng cyclic cˆ a
´
p n sinh bo
.
’ i 1. Mˆo
˜
i d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om f : Z
n
−→
Z
n
cho mˆo
.
t gi´a tri
.
x´ac d¯i
.
nh a = f(1) ∈ Z
n
. D
-
a’ o la
.
i, v´ o
.
i mˆo
˜
i a ∈ Z
n
, ´anh xa
.
f : Z
n
−→ Z
n
cho bo
.
’ i f(k) = ka l`a mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om. Do d¯´o c´o 8 d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u
nh´om Z
12
−→Z
12
thoa’ m˜an:
f(1) = i, 0 ≤ i ≤ 11.
2) Mˆo
˜
i d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u f : Z
m
−→ Z
n
x´ac d¯i
.
nh gi´a tri
.
a = f(1) ∈ Z
n
v`a do
ma = mf(1) = f(m1) = f(m) = f(0) = 0 nˆen ta c´o cˆa
´
p cu’ a a trong Z
n
l`a mˆo
.
t
u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a m. D
-
a’ o la
.
i, phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ a ∈ Z
n
c´o cˆ a
´
p l` a mˆo
.
t u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a m th`ı ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng f : Z
m
−→Z
n
: k →ka l`a mˆo
.
t ´anh xa
.
v`a khi d¯´o f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om.
T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra c´ o 12 d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´om, t` u
.
Z
12
d¯ˆe
´
n Z
24
, d¯´o l`a c´ac ´anh xa
.
f : Z
12
−→Z
24
sao cho:
f(1) = 0, f(1) = 2, f(1) = 4, f(1) = 6, f(1) = 8, f(1) = 10, f(1) =
12, f(1) = 14, f(1) = 16, f(1) = 18, f(1) = 20, f(1) = 22.
3) Do 9 v`a 13 nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau nˆen chı’ c´o mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
`
ng cˆa
´
u nh´ om t` u
.
Z
9
d¯ˆe
´
n Z
13
l`a ´anh xa
.
khˆong.
111
CHU
.
O
.
NG V:
S
ˆ
O
´
H
˜
U
.
U TI

, S
ˆ
O
´
THU
.
.
C V
`
A S
ˆ
O
´
PH
´
U
.
C
5.1. S
ˆ
O
´
H
˜
U
.
U TI

.
5.1.1. Xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’ t` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen:
5.1.1.1. Mo
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u: Sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ du
.
o
.
ng ra d¯`o
.
i kh´ a s´o
.
m (khoa’ ng 1550 n˘am tru
.
´o
.
c
Cˆ ong nguyˆen) do c´ac yˆeu cˆa
`
u b´ u
.
c b´ach cu’ a d¯`o
.
i sˆo
´
ng sa’ n xuˆ a
´
t. Dˆe
˜
h`ınh dung
r˘ a
`
ng c` ung v´o
.
i su
.
.
ra d¯`o
.
i cu’ a chˆe
´
d¯ˆo
.
tu
.
h˜ u
.
u l`a nh˜ u
.
ng nhu cˆa
`
u vˆe
`
d¯o d¯a
.
c v`a phˆan
chia, v`a sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen khˆong c`on d¯u’ d¯´ap ´ u
.
ng nh˜ u
.
ng yˆeu cˆa
`
u m´o
.
i cu’ a x˜a hˆo
.
i n˜ u
.
a.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, trong ph´ep d¯o d¯a
.
c, d` u ta c´ o cho
.
n d¯o
.
n vi
.
d¯o thˆe
´
n`ao d¯i n˜ u
.
a vˆ a
˜
n
thu
.
`o
.
ng g˘a
.
p nh˜ u
.
ng d¯a
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng khˆong b˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
nguyˆen lˆa
`
n cu’ a d¯o
.
n vi
.
(khˆong d¯o
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c). Ho
.
n n˜ u
.
a, d¯ˆe

d¯´ap ´ u
.
ng c´ac yˆeu cˆa
`
u d¯a da
.
ng cu’ a cuˆo
.
c sˆo
´
ng, ta thu
.
`o
.
ng
pha’ i d¯u
.
a ra nhiˆe
`
u d¯o
.
n vi
.
d¯o kh´ac nhau. Nhu
.
d¯o d¯ˆo
.
d`ai, ngo`ai d¯o
.
n vi
.
m´et c`on
c´ o d¯ˆeximet, xentimet, milimet, ..., d¯o khˆo
´
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng ngo`ai d¯o
.
n vi
.
cˆan (kilˆogam) c`on
c´ o la
.
ng, yˆe
´
n, ta
.
, tˆa
´
n, ... Viˆe
.
c d¯ˆo

i d¯o
.
n vi
.
d¯o c˜ ung d¯`oi ho’ i pha’ i c´o nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
m´o
.
i
(c´ac phˆ an sˆo
´
).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, phˆan t´ıch trˆen mˆo
.
t nhu cˆa
`
u d¯o
.
n gia’ n v` a cˆo

xu
.
a nhˆa
´
t cu’ a x˜a hˆo
.
i
lo`ai ngu
.
`o
.
i, ta d¯˜a thˆa
´
y su
.
.
cˆa
`
n thiˆe
´
t cu’ a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
M˘a
.
t kh´ac, su
.
.
ra d¯`o
.
i cu’ a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ c˜ ung l`a do yˆeu cˆa
`
u nˆ o
.
i ta
.
i cu’ a bˆo
.
mˆon
to´an ho
.
c.
Ta d¯˜a mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen d¯ˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen, trong d¯´o
ph´ep tr` u
.
luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, hay n´oi c´ach kh´ac ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´ o ph´ep to´an ngu
.
o
.
.
c.
Tuy nhiˆen, trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen c˜ ung nhu
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen c`on c´o
ph´ep nhˆ an. Su
.
.
mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng N th`anh Z chu
.
a ba’ o d¯a’ m cho ph´ep nhˆ an c´ o ph´ep to´an
ngu
.
o
.
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a ph´ep chia cho mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
kh´ac 0 khˆong pha’ i luˆ on thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Trˆen quan d¯iˆe

m cu’ a l´ y thuyˆe
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
ta thˆa
´
y trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Z
c´ ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen mo
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
a +x = b, a, b ∈ Z
luˆon c´ o nghiˆe
.
m, nhu
.
ng c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
ax = b, a, b ∈ Z, a = 0
khˆong pha’ i bao gi`o
.
c˜ ung c´ o nghiˆe
.
m.
Do d¯´o xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n mˆ o
.
t yˆeu cˆa
`
u cu’ a nˆo
.
i ta
.
i to´an ho
.
c l`a mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen Z d¯ˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
m´o
.
i trong d¯´o ph´ep chia cho mˆo
.
t sˆ o
´
kh´ac 0
luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c, hay c˜ ung vˆa
.
y, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ax = b (a = 0) luˆon c´o nghiˆe
.
m.
112
5.1.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Quan hˆe
.
R nhu
.
sau trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ZZ

(v´o
.
i Z

= Z`¦0¦)
l` a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng:
∀(a, b), (c, d) ∈ Z Z

, (a, b) R (c, d) ⇔ ad = bc.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u Q = (ZZ

)/R, ngh˜ıa l`a Q l`a tˆa
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a ZZ

theo quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng R. Mˆo
˜
i phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a Q (ch´ınh l`a mˆo
˜
i l´ o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng theo quan
hˆe
.
R) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
X´et ´anh xa
.
q : Z Z

−→ Q cho bo
.
’ i q(a, b) = (a, b). Khi d¯´o q l`a mˆo
.
t to`an
´anh v`a thu
.
`o
.
ng go
.
i l`a ph´ep chiˆe
´
u ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
5.1.2. Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v` a ph´ep nhˆan trˆen Q:
5.1.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x = q(a, b), y = q(c, d) ∈ Q.
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng: x +y = q(ad +bc, bd).
2) Ph´ep nhˆan: xy = q(ac, bd)
5.1.2.2. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen Q.
2) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh giao ho´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Q,
x +y = y +x, xy = yx.
3) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Q,
(x +y) +z = x + (y +z), (xy)z = x(yz).
4) Q v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong v`a v´ o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
,
ngh˜ıa l`a tˆo
`
n ta
.
i 0

, 1

∈ Q sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Q,
x + 0

= 0

+x = x, x1

= 1

x = x.
5) Mo
.
i sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Q, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i (−x) ∈ Q,
x + (−x) = (−x) +x = 0

.
6) Mo
.
i sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ kh´ac 0

d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Q, x =
0

, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x
−1
∈ Q,
xx
−1
= x
−1
x = 1

.
7) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh phˆ an phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈
Q,
x(y +z) = xy +xz, (y +z)x = yx +zx.
113
8) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Q,
x +z = y +z ⇒ x = y.
9) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Q, z = 0

,
xz = yz ⇒ x = y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
1) Gia’ su
.
’ x = q(a, b) = q(a

, b

), y = q(c, d) = q(c

d

). Khi d¯´o ab

=
ba

, cd

= dc

. Ta c´ o
adb

d

= bda

d

, bcb

d

= bdb

c

⇒adb

d

+bcb

d

= bda

d

+bdb

c

⇒q(ad +bc, bd) = q(a

d

+b

c

, b

d

).
acb

d

= ab

cd

= ba

dc

= bda

c

⇒q(ac, bd) = q(a

c

, b

d

).
Trong c´ac phˆa
`
n c`on la
.
i, cho tu` y ´ y x = q(a, b), y = q(c, d), z = q(e, f).
2) x +y = q(ad +bc, bd) = q(cb +da, db) = y +x.
xy = q(ac, bd) = q(ca, db) = yx.
3) (x +y) +z = q(ad +bc, bd) +q(e, f) = q(adf +bcf +bde, bdf) = q(a, b) +
q(cf +de, df) = x + (y +z).
(xy)z = q(ac, bd)q(e, f) = q(ace, bdf) = q(a, b)q(ce, df) = x(yz).
4) D
-
˘a
.
t 0

= q(0, 1) v`a 1

= q(1, 1). Khi d¯´o 0

= q(0, 1) = q(0, n) v`a 1

=
q(1, 1) = q(n, n) v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ Z

. Ta c´ o
x + 0

= q(a, b) +q(0, 1) = q(a.1 +b.0, b.1) = q(a, b) = x.
x1

= q(a, b)q(1, 1) = q(a.1, b.1) = x.
5) D
-
˘a
.
t −x = q(−a, b). Khi d¯´o
x + (−x) = q(a, b) +q(−a, b) = q(a.b +b(−a), b.b) = q(0, bb) = 0

.
6) Do x = 0

hay q(a, b) = q(0, 1) nˆen a = 0. D
-
˘a
.
t x
−1
= q(b, a). Ta c´o
xx
−1
= q(a, b)q(b, a) = q(ab, ba) = 1

.
7) x(y+z) = q(a, b)q(cf+de, df) = q(acf+ade, bdf) = q(b(acf+ade), b(bdf))
= q(acbf +bdae, bdbf) = q(ac, bd) +q(ae, bf) = xy +xz.
8) x + z = y + z ⇒ q(af + be, bf) = q(cf + de, df) ⇒ afdf + bedf =
bfcf +bfde ⇒afdf = bfcf ⇒ad = bc ⇒q(a, b) = q(c, d) ⇒x = y.
9) Do z = 0

nˆen e = 0. Ta c´o
xz = yz ⇒ q(ae, bf) = q(ce, df) ⇒ aedf = bfce ⇒ ad = bc ⇒ q(a, b) =
q(c, d) ⇒x = y.
5.1.2.3. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan trong (5.1.2.1) ta
.
o
th`anh mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng v`a Char(Q) = 0.
5.1.3. Ph´ep tr` u
.
, ph´ep chia v`a phˆan sˆ o
´
trong Q:
5.1.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x, y ∈ Q, ta go
.
i hiˆe
.
u cu’ a x v`a y, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x − y l`a
tˆo

ng cu’ a x v`a sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a y:
x −y = x + (−y).
114
Ph´ep to´an t`ım hiˆe
.
u cu’ a hai sˆo
´
go
.
i l` a ph´ep tr` u
.
.
V`ı mo
.
i sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i nˆen ph´ep tr` u
.
x−y luˆon luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
Nˆe
´
u x = q(a, b), y = q(c, d) th`ı −y = q(−c, d), do d¯´o
x −y = x + (−y) = q(a, b) +q(−c, d) = q(ad −bc, bd).
5.1.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x, y ∈ Q, y = 0

, ta go
.
i thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a x v`a y, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
x : y hay
x
y
l`a t´ıch cu’ a x v` a nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a y:
x : y =
x
y
= xy
−1
.
Ph´ep to´an t`ım thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a hai sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ go
.
i l` a ph´ep chia.
V`ı mo
.
i sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ y = 0

d¯ˆe
`
u c´o nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o, nˆen ph´ep chia mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ x cho
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ y = 0

luˆon luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c. Nˆe
´
u x = q(a, b), y = q(c, d) = 0

th`ı y
−1
= q(d, c) do d¯´o
x : y = xy
−1
= q(a, b)q(d, c) = q(ad, bc).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y yˆeu cˆ a
`
u xˆay du
.
.
ng mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
trong d¯´o ph´ep chia cho mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
kh´ac khˆong luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯˜a ho`an th`anh. Vˆa
´
n d¯ˆe
`
c`on la
.
i l`a ta h˜ay ch´ u
.
ng
to’ c´ o thˆe

coi Q nhu
.
l`a mˆo
.
t mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cu’ a Z v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ach ghi sˆo
´
nguyˆen d¯ˆe

k´ y
hiˆe
.
u c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ sao cho viˆe
.
c thu
.
.
c h`anh t´ınh to´an trˆen d¯´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thuˆa
.
n tiˆe
.
n.
5.1.3.3. Quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a Z v`a Q: X´et ´anh xa
.
f : Z −→Q : a →f(a) = q(a, 1).
Khi d¯´o ´anh xa
.
f c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t sau:
1) f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i a
1
, a
2
∈ Z, f(a
1
) = f(a
2
), ta c´o q(a
1
, 1) = q(a
2
, 1) hay
a
1
.1 = 1.a
2
hay a
1
= a
2
.
2) f ba’ o to`an c´ ac ph´ep to´an.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i a
1
, a
2
∈ Z, ta c´o
f(a
1
) + f(a
2
) = q(a
1
, 1) + q(a
2
, 1) = q(a
1
.1 + 1.a
2
, 1.1) = q(a
1
+ a
2
, 1) =
f(a
1
+a
2
).
f(a
1
)f(a
2
) = q(a
1
, 1)q(a
2
, 1) = q(a
1
.a
2
, 1.1) = q(a
1
a
2
, 1) = f(a
1
a
2
).
C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t trˆen cho biˆe
´
t ´anh xa
.
f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n cˆa
´
u v`anh v`a t` u
.
d¯´o ta
c´ o thˆe

d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen a v´o
.
i a’ nh f(a) = q(a, 1), thay cho c´ ach viˆe
´
t
x = q(a, 1) ta viˆe
´
t x = a v`a mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen a ∈ Z c˜ ung l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’. Nhu
.
vˆ a
.
y 0

= q(0, 0) = 0, 1

= q(1, 0). B˘a
`
ng c´ach d¯´o Z l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a Q v`a c´ac
ph´ep to´an cu’ a Q thu he
.
p trˆen Z tr` ung v´o
.
i c´ac ph´ep to´an trˆen Z.
115
5.1.3.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x = q(a, b) ∈ Q. Khi d¯´o ta c´o
x = q(a, b) = q(a, 1)a(1, b) = q(a, 1)q(b, 1)
−1
v` a theo c´ach d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t o
.
’ trˆen th`ı ta c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t x = ab
−1
hay x =
a
b
.
Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n x =
a
b
v´o
.
i a, b ∈ Z, b = 0 go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t phˆan sˆo
´
, a go
.
i l`a tu
.
’ sˆo
´
v`a b
go
.
i l` a mˆa
˜
u sˆo
´
cu’ a phˆan sˆo
´
d¯´o.
5.1.3.5. Ch´ u ´ y: Cho x =
a
b
, y =
c
d
. Khi d¯´o ta c´o:
1)
a
b
=
c
d
⇔ ad = bc.
2) −x =
−a
b
=
a
−b
.
3) x
−1
=
b
a
(v´o
.
i x = 0).
4)
a
b
+
c
d
=
ad +bc
bd
.
5)
a
b
.
c
d
=
ac
bd
.
6)
a
b

c
d
=
ad −bc
bd
.
7)
a
b
:
c
d
=
ad
bc
.
5.1.4. Quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen Q:
5.1.4.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x =
a
b
∈ Q, a, b ∈ Z, b = 0. Ta n´oi x l´o
.
n ho
.
n ho˘a
.
c
b˘ a
`
ng 0 v`a viˆe
´
t x ≥ 0 nˆe
´
u ab ≥ 0.
5.1.4.2. Ch´ u ´ y: Trong d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa trˆen, ta d¯˜a x´ ac d¯i
.
nh kh´ai niˆe
.
m x ≥ 0 nh`o
.
kh´ai niˆe
.
m l´o
.
n ho
.
n ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng 0 trong Z thˆong qua phˆ an sˆo
´
d¯a
.
i biˆe

u cu’ a x. Nhu
.
ng
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’ x c´o thˆe

d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯a
.
i biˆe

u bo
.
’ i c´ ac phˆan sˆo
´
kh´ac nhau, nˆen ta cˆa
`
n
ch´ u
.
ng to’ d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa trˆen khˆong phu
.
thuˆ o
.
c v`ao phˆan sˆo
´
d¯a
.
i biˆe

u cu’ a sˆo
´
x. Thˆ a
.
t
vˆ a
.
y, gia’ su
.
’ x =
a
b
=
c
d
(a, b, c, d ∈ Z, b = 0, d = 0). Khi d¯´o ta c´o ad = bc v`a
nhˆ an hai vˆe
´
v´o
.
i bd ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c abd
2
= cdb
2
. V`ı b
2
> 0 v`a d
2
> 0 nˆen ab ≥ 0 khi v`a
chı’ khi cd ≥ 0.
Nˆe
´
u x = a ∈ Z th`ı c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t x =
a
1
v`a a.1 ≥ 0 trong Z khi v`a chı ’ khi
a ≥ 0. Vˆa
.
y khi x l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen th`ı kh´ai niˆe
.
m x ≥ 0 trong Q v`a trong Z ph` u
ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i nhau.
5.1.4.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x v`a y l`a hai sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’. Ta n´oi x nho’ ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng
y ho˘a
.
c y l´o
.
n ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x ≤ y ho˘a
.
c y ≥ x, nˆe
´
u y −x ≥ 0.
Nˆe
´
u x ≤ y v`a x = y th`ı ta n´ oi x nho’ ho
.
n y ho˘a
.
c y l´o
.
n ho
.
n x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x < y
ho˘a
.
c y > x.
116
Sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ l´o
.
n ho
.
n 0 go
.
i l`a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ du
.
o
.
ng v`a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ nho’ ho
.
n 0 go
.
i l`a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ ˆam.
5.1.4.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Quan hˆe
.
≤ s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ Q, ta c´o x−x = 0 =
0
1
v`a 0.1 = 0 ≥ 0, nˆen x−x ≥ 0
hay x ≤ x. Do d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh pha’ n xa
.
.
V´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Q m`a x ≤ y v`a y ≤ x, ta c´o y −x =
a
b
≥ 0 v`a x −y =
−a
b

0, a, b ∈ Z, b = 0. Khi d¯´o ab ≥ 0 v`a (−a)b = −ab ≥ 0 v`a do ab l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen
nˆen ab = 0, d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay k´eo theo a = 0 (v`ı b = 0) t´ u
.
c l`a y − x = 0 hay x = y. Do
d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
V´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ Q m`a x ≤ y v`a y ≤ z, ta c´o y−x =
a
b
, z−y =
c
d
, a, b, c, d ∈
Z, b = 0, d = 0, ab ≥ 0, cd ≥ 0. Khi d¯´o
z −x = (z −y) + (y −x) =
c
d
+
a
b
=
cb +da
db
v´ o
.
i (cb + da)db = cdb
2
+ abd
2
≥ 0, d¯iˆe
`
u n` ay k´eo theo x ≤ z. Do d¯´o ≤ c´o t´ınh
b˘ a
´
c cˆa
`
u.
V´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Q, gia’ su
.
’ y − x =
a
b
, a, b ∈ Z, b = 0. Khi d¯´o ta luˆon c´ o
ab ≥ 0 ho˘a
.
c ab ≤ 0, t´ u
.
c l`a y − x ≥ 0 ho˘a
.
c x − y ≥ 0, d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay k´eo theo x ≤ y
ho˘a
.
c y ≤ x.
Vˆa
.
y quan hˆe
.
≤ s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q.
5.1.4.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Gia’ su
.
’ ≤ l`a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng F. Khi d¯´o
F d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤ nˆe
´
u c´ac d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau d¯ˆay
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thoa’ m˜an:
(1) Nˆe
´
u x ≤ y th`ı x +z ≤ y +z, v´ o
.
i mo
.
i z ∈ F;
(2) Nˆe
´
u x ≤ y v`a 0 ≤ z th`ı xz ≤ yz.
5.1.4.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Tru
.
`o
.
ng Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i quan
hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) Do x ≤ y nˆen (y+z)−(x+z) = y−x ≥ 0, do d¯´o x+z ≤ y+z.
2) Do x ≤ y v`a z ≥ 0 nˆen y−x =
a
b
, z =
c
d
, a, b, c, d ∈ Z, b = 0, d = 0, ab ≥
0, cd ≥ 0, d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay k´eo theo yz −xz = (y −x)z =
ac
bd
≥ 0 v`ı acbd = (ab)(cd) ≥ 0.
Do d¯´o xz ≤ yz.
5.1.5. T´ınh tr` u mˆ a
.
t v` a t´ınh s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
Archim`ede cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q:
5.1.5.1. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: V´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Q, x < y, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i z ∈ Q sao cho x < z < y.
117
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: T` u
.
gia’ thiˆe
´
t x < y suy ra x +x < x +y v`a x + y < y + y, nˆen
ta c´ o 2x < x +y < 2y hay
x < z < y, v´o
.
i z =
x +y
2
.
5.1.5.2. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Gi˜ u
.
a hai sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ phˆan biˆe
.
t bˆa
´
t k` y, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i vˆo sˆo
´
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’
kh´ac.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: V´o
.
i x, y ∈ Q, x = y, ta c´o x < y ho˘a
.
c y < x. Gia’ su
.
’ x < y.
Theo mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i z ∈ Q sao cho x < z < y. La
.
i ´ap du
.
ng mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen,
tˆ o
`
n ta
.
i z
1
, z
2
∈ Q sao cho x < z
1
< z < z
2
< y. L´ y luˆa
.
n trˆen c´o thˆe

l˘a
.
p la
.
i mˆo
.
t
sˆ o
´
lˆ a
`
n tu` y ´ y. Vˆa
.
y gi˜ u
.
a x v` a y c´o vˆ o sˆo
´
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
5.1.5.3. Ch´ u ´ y: T´ınh chˆ a
´
t trˆen thˆe

hiˆe
.
n su
.
.
kh´ac biˆe
.
t c˘an ba’ n gi˜ u
.
a t´ınh s˘a
´
p
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nguyˆen v`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
Trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen, gi˜ u
.
a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen n v`a n+1 khˆong c´ o sˆo
´
nguyˆen
n` ao kh´ ac v`a t` u
.
d¯´o c´o thˆe

suy ra gi˜ u
.
a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen phˆan biˆe
.
t chı’ c´o h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n sˆo
´
nguyˆen kh´ac ch´ ung. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta n´oi tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
nguyˆen s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
r`o
.
i ra
.
c.
C`on trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’, gi˜ u
.
a hai sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ phˆan biˆe
.
t bˆa
´
t k` y bao
gi` o
.
c˜ ung c´o vˆo sˆo
´
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta n´oi tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
tr` u
mˆa
.
t.
5.1.5.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: V´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ Q, nˆe
´
u x > 0 th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n sao
cho nx > y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Nˆe
´
u y ≤ 0 th`ı ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n d¯˘a
.
t n = 1 v`ı 1.x = x > y.
Nˆe
´
u y > 0 th`ı ta c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t x =
a
b
, y =
c
d
, trong d¯´o a, b, c, d l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. D
-
˘a
.
t n = b(c + 1) th`ı n ∈ N v`a ta c´o
nx = a(c + 1) ≥ c + 1 > c ≥
c
d
= y.
T´ınh chˆa
´
t ph´at biˆe

u trong mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen go
.
i l`a t´ınh chˆa
´
t Archim`ede. Vˆa
.
y
quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q c´o t´ınh chˆ a
´
t Archim`ede.
5.2. S
ˆ
O
´
THU
.
.
C.
5.2.1. Xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a hai ph´ep to´an trˆen R:
5.2.1.1. Yˆeu cˆ a
`
u mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u
tı’, m˘a
.
c d` u tr` u mˆa
.
t, vˆa
˜
n chu
.
a d¯´ap ´ u
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c´ac yˆeu cˆ a
`
u cu’ a hoa
.
t d¯ˆo
.
ng thu
.
.
c
tiˆe
˜
n. T` u
.
xa xu
.
a ngu
.
`o
.
i ta d¯˜a thˆa
´
y c´o nh˜ u
.
ng d¯oa
.
n th˘a

ng khˆong c´o sˆo
´
d¯o h˜ u
.
u tı’.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, nˆe
´
u ta d¯o d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`ınh vuˆ ong m`a ca
.
nh b˘a
`
ng 1 d¯o
.
n vi
.
d` ai th`ı d¯ˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a d¯u
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo d¯´o c´o b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng b˘a
`
ng 2.
118
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u chı ’ d` ung c´ ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, ta chu
.
a d¯´ap ´ u
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c´ac yˆeu cˆ a
`
u cu’ a
thu
.
.
c tiˆe
˜
n. V`ı vˆ a
.
y xuˆa
´
t hiˆe
.
n yˆeu cˆa
`
u mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng ho
.
n n˜ u
.
a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
Vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng diˆe
.
n to´an ho
.
c thuˆa
`
n tu´ y ta c˜ ung thˆa
´
y su
.
.
cˆa
`
n thiˆe
´
t pha’ i mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng
ho
.
n n˜ u
.
a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n, th´ı du
.
trˆen c´o thˆe

diˆe
˜
n d¯a
.
t mˆo
.
t c´ ach thuˆa
`
n tu´ y
to´an ho
.
c l`a: phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
= 2 khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı’.
O
.

Phˆa
`
n 5.1 ta d¯˜a thˆa
´
y trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q mo
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh bˆa
.
c nhˆa
´
t ax+b = 0
d¯ˆe
`
u c´o nghiˆe
.
m. Nhu
.
ng mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh bˆa
.
c hai tro
.
’ lˆen, n´oi chung, khˆong c´o
nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı’.
Mˆo
.
t yˆeu cˆa
`
u tu
.
.
nhiˆen d¯˘a
.
t ra theo su
.
.
ph´at triˆe

n lˆogic cu’ a to´an ho
.
c l`a: mo
.

rˆ o
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ d¯ˆe

c´o mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
m´o
.
i ch´ u
.
a Q sao cho mo
.
i d¯a
th´ u
.
c trˆen Q d¯ˆe
`
u c´o nghiˆe
.
m trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n` ay v`a trong to´an ho
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n` ay
go
.
i l` a tru
.
`o
.
ng c´ac sˆo
´
d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
. Song vˆa
˜
n c`on c´o nh˜ u
.
ng d¯a
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng khˆong thˆe

biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n b˘a
`
ng nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a bˆa
´
t k` y mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c n`ao trˆen Q. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n d¯ˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a
d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on c´o d¯u
.
`o
.
ng k´ınh b˘a
`
ng d¯o
.
n vi
.
d`ai (cu
.
thˆe

l`a sˆo
´
π) khˆ ong thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a mˆ o
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c trˆen Q. Sˆo
´
e quen thuˆ o
.
c c˜ ung vˆa
.
y, e khˆong
l` a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a bˆa
´
t k` y d¯a th´ u
.
c n`ao v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’. Thu
.
.
c ra, d¯ˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac sˆo
´
m´o
.
i n`ay, ta thu
.
`o
.
ng lˆa
´
y c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ xˆa
´
p xı ’ thay cho ch´ ung. C´o d¯iˆe
`
u l`a mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
m´o
.
i d¯´o c´o vˆo sˆo
´
sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ xˆ a
´
p xı ’ v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t d¯ˆo
.
ch´ınh x´ac tu` y ´ y. Ta s˜e su
.
’ du
.
ng d˜ay
sˆ o
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ xˆa
´
p xı ’ d¯´o d¯ˆe

x´ac d¯i
.
nh tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo
´
m´o
.
i.
5.2.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X gˆo
`
m tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac d˜ay Cauchy (d˜ay co
.
ba’ n)
trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q. V`ı tˆo

ng v`a t´ıch cu’ a hai d˜ ay Cauchy l` a mˆo
.
t d˜ay Cauchy nˆen trˆen
X c´ o hai ph´ep to´an: V´o
.
i (x
n
)
n∈N
, (y
n
)
n∈N
∈ X,
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng: (x
n
)
n∈N
+ (y
n
)
n∈N
= (x
n
+y
n
)
n∈N
.
2) Ph´ep nhˆan: (x
n
)
n∈N
(y
n
)
n∈N
= (x
n
y
n
)
n∈N
.
5.2.1.3. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh giao ho´an.
2) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p.
3) X v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong, d¯´o l`a d˜ay (0)
n∈N
v`a v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆ an
c´ o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
, d¯´o l`a d˜ ay (1)
n∈N
.
4) Mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a X d¯ˆe
`
u c´o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ d¯ˆo
´
i; cu
.
thˆe

d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a (x
n
)
n∈N
l`a
(−x
n
)
n∈N
.
5) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh phˆ an phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Kˆe
´
t qua’ c´o ngay t` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa.
5.2.1.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Quan hˆe
.
R trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p X:
∀(x
n
)
n∈N
, (y
n
)
n∈N
∈ X, (x
n
)
n∈N
R (y
n
)
n∈N
⇔ lim
n→+∞
(x
n
−y
n
) = 0
l` a mˆo
.
t quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng.
119
L´o
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng cu’ a (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ X l`a
(a
n
)
n∈N
= ¦(x
n
)
n∈N
∈ X [ lim
n→+∞
(x
n
−a
n
) = 0¦.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p thu
.
o
.
ng X/R k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a R. Mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a R (ch´ınh l`a mˆo
˜
i l´o
.
p
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng theo quan hˆe
.
R) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c.
´
Anh xa
.
r : X −→ R cho bo
.
’ i r((x
n
)
n∈N
) = (x
n
)
n∈N
l`a mˆo
.
t to`an ´anh v`a
thu
.
`o
.
ng go
.
i l` a ph´ep chiˆe
´
u ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
5.2.1.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
), y = r((y
n
)
n∈N
).
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng: x +y = r((x
n
+y
n
)
n∈N
).
2) Ph´ep nhˆan: xy = r((x
n
y
n
)
n∈N
).
5.2.1.6. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen R.
2) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh giao ho´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ R,
x +y = y +x, xy = yx.
3) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ R,
(x +y) +z = x + (y +z), (xy)z = x(yz).
4) R v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong v`a v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
,
ngh˜ıa l`a tˆo
`
n ta
.
i 0

, 1

∈ R, sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ R,
x + 0

= 0

+x = x, x1

= 1

x = x.
5) Mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ R, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i −x ∈ R,
x + (−x) = (−x) +x = 0

.
6) Mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c kh´ac khˆong d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈
R, x = 0

, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i x
−1
∈ R,
xx
−1
= x
−1
x = 1

.
7) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh phˆ an phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈
R,
x(y +z) = xy +xz, (y +z)x = yx +zx.
8) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ R,
x +z = y +z ⇒ x = y.
120
9) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y, z ∈ R z = 0

,
xz = yz ⇒ x = y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) Gia’ su
.
’ x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
) = r((x

n
)
n∈N
), y = r((y
n
)
n∈N
) =
r((y

n
)
n∈N
). Khi d¯´o lim
n→+∞
(x
n
− x

n
) = 0 v`a lim
n→+∞
(y
n
− y

n
) = 0, nˆen ta c´o
lim
n→+∞
((x
n
+ y
n
) − (x

n
+ y

n
)) = 0 hay r((x
n
+ y
n
)
n∈N
) = r((x

n
+ y

n
)
n∈N
).
lim
n→+∞
((x
n
y
n
) − (x

n
y

n
)) = lim
n→+∞
((x
n
− x

n
)y
n
+ x

n
(y
n
− y

n
)) = 0 (v`ı d˜ay
(y
n
)
n∈N
v`a d˜ay (x

n
)
n∈N
l`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n do ch´ ung l`a d˜ay Cauchy v`a lim
n→+∞
(x
n
−x

n
) =
lim
n→+∞
(y
n
−y

n
) = 0) hay r((x
n
y
n
)
n∈N
) = r((x

n
y

n
)
n∈N
).
C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t 2), 3), 7), 8) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c suy t` u
.
(5.2.1.3).
4) R v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´ o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong l` a 0

= r((0)
n∈N
) v`a v´ o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan
c´ o phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
l`a 1

= r((1)
n∈N
).
5) Sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
) l`a −x = r((−x
n
)
n∈N
).
6) Gia’ su
.
’ x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
) = 0

. Khi d¯´o d˜ay Cauchy (x
n
)
n∈N
khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n l`a khˆong. Theo t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a d˜ay Cauchy, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i a ∈ Q, a > 0 v` a n
1
∈ N
sao cho [x
n
[ > a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
1
. Ta x´et d˜ay (y
n
)
n∈N
trˆen Q x´ac d¯i
.
nh nhu
.
sau:
y
n
=

0 nˆe
´
u n ≤ n
1
1
x
n
nˆe
´
u n > n
1
.
Khi d¯´o (y
n
)
n∈N
l`a d˜ay Cauchy. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i ∈ Q, > 0, v`ı (x
n
)
n∈N
l`a
d˜ ay Cauchy nˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i n
2
∈ N sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n > n
2
, ta c´ o
[x
m
−x
n
[ < a
2
.
T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n > n
0
= max(n
1
, n
2
), ta c´ o
[y
m
−y
n
[ = [
1
x
m

1
x
n
[ =
[x
m
−x
n
[
[x
m
x
n
[
<
1
a
2
.a
2
=
ngh˜ıa l`a (y
n
)
n∈N
l`a d˜ay Cauchy trˆen Q.
D
-
˘a
.
t z
n
= y
n
x
n
, ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c (z
n
)
n∈N
∈ X v`a
z
n
=

0 nˆe
´
u n ≤ n
1
1 nˆe
´
u n > n
1
v` a do d¯´o
r((x
n
)
n∈N
)r((y
n
)
n∈N
) = r((z
n
)
n∈N
) = r((1)
n∈N
)
ngh˜ıa l`a x
−1
= r((y
n
)
n∈N
) l`a nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a x.
121
9) Do z = 0

nˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i z
−1
∈ R sao cho zz
−1
= z
−1
z = 1

. Khi d¯´o
xz = yz ⇒(xz)z
−1
= (yz)z
−1
⇒x(zz
−1
) = y(zz
−1
) ⇒x = y.
5.2.1.7. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan trong (5.2.1.5) ta
.
o
th`anh mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng v`a Char(R) = 0.
5.2.2. Ph´ep tr` u
.
v`a ph´ep chia trong R:
5.2.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x, y ∈ R, ta go
.
i hiˆe
.
u cu’ a x v`a y, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x − y l`a
tˆo

ng cu’ a x v`a sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a y:
x −y = x + (−y).
Ph´ep to´an t`ım hiˆe
.
u cu’ a hai sˆo
´
go
.
i l` a ph´ep tr` u
.
.
V`ı mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i nˆen ph´ep tr` u
.
x −y luˆon luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
5.2.2.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x, y ∈ R, y = 0

, ta go
.
i thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a x v`a y, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
x : y hay
x
y
l`a t´ıch cu’ a x v` a nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o cu’ a y:
x : y =
x
y
= xy
−1
.
Ph´ep to´an t`ım thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a hai sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c go
.
i l` a ph´ep chia.
V`ı mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c y = 0

d¯ˆe
`
u c´o nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o, nˆen ph´ep chia mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c x cho
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c y = 0

luˆon luˆ on thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c.
5.2.2.3. Quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a Q v`a R: X´et ´anh xa
.
f : Q −→R : a →f(a) = r((a)
n∈N
).
Khi d¯´o ´anh xa
.
f c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t sau:
1) f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, a

∈ Q, f(a) = f(a

), ta c´o r((a)
n∈N
) = r((a

)
n∈N
) hay
lim
n→+∞
(a −a

) = 0 hay a = a

.
2) f ba’ o to`an c´ ac ph´ep to´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, a

∈ Q,
f(a +a

) = f(a) +f(a

), f(aa

) = f(a)f(a

).
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, a

∈ Q, ta c´ o
f(a) +f(a

) = r((a)
n∈N
) +r((a

)
n∈N
) = r((a +a

)
n∈N
) = f(a +a

).
f(a)f(a

) = r((a)
n∈N
)r((a

)
n∈N
) = r((aa

)
n∈N
) = f(aa

).
C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t trˆen cho biˆe
´
t ´anh xa
.
f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n cˆ a
´
u tru
.
`o
.
ng v`a t` u
.
d¯´o ta
c´ o thˆe

d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ a v´o
.
i a’ nh f(a) = r((a)
n∈N
), thay cho c´ach viˆe
´
t
122
x = r((a)
n∈N
) ta viˆe
´
t x = a v`a mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’ a c˜ ung l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
0

= r((0)
n∈N
) = 0 v`a 1

= r((1)
n∈N
) = 1. B˘a
`
ng c´ach d¯´o Q l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a
R v` a ta c`on n´oi Q l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng con cu’ a tru
.
`o
.
ng R.
5.2.3. Quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trˆen R:
5.2.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
), y = r((y
n
)
n∈N
) ∈ R. Ta n´oi x nho’
ho
.
n y ho˘a
.
c y l´o
.
n ho
.
n x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x < y ho˘a
.
c y > x nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i a ∈ Q, a > 0 v`a
n
0
∈ N sao cho y
n
−x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
.
Ta n´oi x nho’ ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng y ho˘a
.
c y l´o
.
n ho
.
n hay b˘a
`
ng x, k´ y hiˆe
.
u x ≤ y
ho˘a
.
c y ≥ x nˆe
´
u ho˘a
.
c x = y ho˘a
.
c x < y.
5.2.3.2. Ch´ u ´ y: Cho (x
n
)
n∈N
v`a (y
n
)
n∈N
l`a hai d˜ay Cauchy trˆen Qv`a lim
n→+∞
y
n
=
0. Khi d¯´o nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i n
1
∈ N v`a a ∈ Q, a > 0 sao cho x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
1
th`ı c˜ ung tˆo
`
n ta
.
i n
0
∈ N v`a b ∈ Q, b > 0 sao cho x
n
+y
n
> b v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v`ı lim
n→+∞
y
n
= 0, nˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i n
2
∈ N sao cho [y
n
[ <
a
2
v´o
.
i mo
.
i
n > n
2
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
= max(n
1
, n
2
) ta c´ o d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i x
n
> a v`a
[y
n
[ <
a
2
. T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o
x
n
+y
n
> a +y
n
> a −[y
n
[ > a −
a
2
=
a
2
(= b).
T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o thˆe

suy ra quan hˆe
.
< d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa o
.
’ trˆen khˆong phu
.
thuˆ o
.
c v`ao c´ach cho
.
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯a
.
i biˆe

u. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, gia’ su
.
’ x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
) =
r((x

n
)
n∈N
), y = r((y
n
)
n∈N
) = r((y

n
)
n∈N
). Khi d¯´o ta c´o
y

n
−x

n
= (y
n
−x
n
) + (y

n
−y
n
) + (x
n
−x

n
)
v´ o
.
i lim
n→+∞
(y

n
− y
n
) = lim
n→+∞
(x
n
− x

n
) = 0. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nˆe
´
u c´o a ∈ Q, a > 0 v`a
n
0
∈ N sao cho y
n
−x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
th`ı c˜ ung c´o b ∈ Q, b > 0 v`a n
1
∈ N
sao cho y

n
−x

n
> b v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
1
.
5.2.3.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Quan hˆe
.
≤ s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
to`an phˆa
`
n tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: T´ınh pha’ n xa
.
cu’ a ≤ l`a hiˆe

n nhiˆen.
V´o
.
i r((x
n
)
n∈N
), r((y
n
)
n∈N
) ∈ R m`a r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((y
n
)
n∈N
) v`a r((y
n
)
n∈N
)
≤ r((x
n
)
n∈N
), gia’ su
.
’ r((x
n
)
n∈N
) = r((y
n
)
n∈N
), tˆo
`
n ta
.
i a, b ∈ Q, a > 0, b > 0 v`a
k, l ∈ N sao cho y
n
− x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > k v`a x
n
− y
n
> b v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > l. Khi
d¯´o v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
= max(k, l) ta c´o d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i y
n
−x
n
> a v`a x
n
−y
n
> b, do
d¯´o 0 > a +b > 0, d¯´o l`a d¯iˆe
`
u vˆo l´ y. Vˆa
.
y quan hˆe
.
≤ c´o t´ınh pha’ n d¯ˆo
´
i x´ u
.
ng.
V´o
.
i r((x
n
)
n∈N
), r((y
n
)
n∈N
), r((z
n
)
n∈N
) ∈ R m`a r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((y
n
)
n∈N
)
v` a r((y
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((z
n
)
n∈N
), ta c´ o c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau xa’ y ra:
123
– ho˘a
.
c lim
n→+∞
(y
n
−x
n
) = 0 v` a lim
n→+∞
(z
n
−y
n
) = 0, khi d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c lim
n→+∞
(z
n

x
n
) = lim
n→+∞
(z
n
−y
n
+y
n
−x
n
) = 0, nˆen r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((z
n
)
n∈N
).
– ho˘a
.
c c´o a ∈ Q, a > 0 v` a k ∈ N sao cho y
n
− x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > k
v` a lim
n→+∞
(z
n
− y
n
) = 0, khi d¯´o c´o c ∈ Q, c > 0 v`a n
0
∈ N sao cho ta c´ o
z
n
−x
n
= z
n
−y
n
+y
n
−x
n
> c v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
, nˆen r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((z
n
)
n∈N
).
– ho˘a
.
c lim
n→+∞
(y
n
−x
n
) = 0 v`a c´o b ∈ Q, b > 0 v`a k ∈ N sao cho z
n
−y
n
> b
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i n > k, khi d¯´o c˜ ung nhu
.
tru
.
`o
.
ng trˆen ta c´o r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((z
n
)
n∈N
).
– ho˘a
.
c c´o a, b ∈ Q, a > 0, b > 0 v`a k, l ∈ N sao cho y
n
− x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i
n > k v`a z
n
− y
n
> b v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > l, khi d¯´o v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
= max(k, l) ta c´o
z
n
−x
n
= z
n
−y
n
+y
n
−x
n
> a +b, nˆen r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((z
n
)
n∈N
). Vˆa
.
y quan hˆe
.
≤ c´ o t´ınh b˘a
´
c cˆ a
`
u.
V´o
.
i r((x
n
)
n∈N
), r((y
n
)
n∈N
) ∈ R, nˆe
´
u ta c´o lim
n→+∞
(y
n
− x
n
) = 0 th`ı ta
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c r((x
n
)
n∈N
) = r((y
n
)
n∈N
) v`a nˆe
´
u (y
n
− x
n
) khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l`a 0 th`ı c´o
a ∈ Q, a > 0 v`a n
0
∈ N sao cho ta c´o
– ho˘a
.
c y
n
−x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
, l´ uc d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((y
n
)
n∈N
),
– ho˘a
.
c x
n
−y
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
, l´ uc d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c r((y
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((x
n
)
n∈N
).
Vˆa
.
y quan hˆe
.
≤ l`a to`an phˆ a
`
n.
5.2.3.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Tru
.
`o
.
ng R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
≤.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Kˆe
´
t qua’ c´o t` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa cu’ a quan hˆe
.
≤.
5.2.3.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c x go
.
i l`a du
.
o
.
ng (t.u
.
. ˆam, khˆong ˆam, khˆong
du
.
o
.
ng) nˆe
´
u x > 0 (t.u
.
. x < 0, x ≥ 0, x ≤ 0).
Gi´a tri
.
tuyˆe
.
t d¯ˆo
´
i cu’ a x, v´o
.
i x l`a sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ ho˘a
.
c sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c, k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a [x[, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
x´ ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i:
[x[ =

x nˆe
´
u x ≥ 0
−x nˆe
´
u x < 0
.
5.2.3.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Nˆe
´
u x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ∈ R th`ı [x[ = r(([x
n
[)
n∈N
).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Ta x´et c´ ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau:
1) x = 0: Khi d¯´o lim
n→+∞
x
n
= 0, do d¯´o lim
n→+∞
[x
n
[ = 0, ngh˜ıa l`a r(([x
n
[)
n∈N
) =
0.
2) x > 0: Khi d¯´o c´o a ∈ Q, a > 0 v` a n
0
∈ N sao cho x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i
n > n
0
, do d¯´o x
n
− [x
n
[ = 0 v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
hay lim
n→+∞
(x
n
− [x
n
[) = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a
r(([x
n
[)
n∈N
) = x = [x[.
3) x < 0: Khi d¯´o c´ o a ∈ Q, a > 0 v`a n
0
∈ N sao cho x
n
< −a v´o
.
i mo
.
i
n > n
0
, do d¯´o x
n
+ [x
n
[ = 0 v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
hay lim
n→+∞
(x
n
+ [x
n
[) = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a
r(([x
n
[)
n∈N
) = r((−x
n
)
n∈N
) = −x = [x[.
124
5.2.4. T´ınh tr` u mˆ a
.
t cu’ a Q trong R v`a t´ınh chˆa
´
t Archim`ede cu’ a R:
5.2.4.1. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y: R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
Archim`ede, ngh˜ıa l` a v´o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ R,
nˆe
´
u x > 0 th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m sao cho mx > y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
), y = r((y
n
)
n∈N
). V`ı x > 0 nˆen c´o
a ∈ Q, a > 0 v`a n
0
∈ N sao cho x
n
> a v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
, t` u
.
d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
) ≥ r((a)
n∈N
) = a. Ngo`ai ra, do (y
n
)
n∈N
l`a d˜ay Cauchy trˆen Q
nˆen n´o bi
.
ch˘a
.
n, ngh˜ıa l` a c´o b ∈ Q sao cho y
n
< b v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N, t` u
.
d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
y = r((y
n
)
n∈N
) ≤ r((b)
n∈N
) = b. V`ı a, b ∈ Q, a > 0 v` a Q d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
Archim`ede nˆen c´o m ∈ N sao cho ma > b. Vˆa
.
y ta c´o mx ≥ ma > b ≥ y.
5.2.4.2. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y: Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p Q tr` u mˆa
.
t trong R, ngh˜ıa l`a v´ o
.
i mo
.
i x, y ∈ R, x < y,
tˆ o
`
n ta
.
i z ∈ Q sao cho x < z < y.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Ta c´o y −x > 0. V`ı R d¯u
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
Archim`ede nˆen c´o m ∈ N
sao cho 1 < m(y −x) = my −mx, do d¯´o mx +1 < my. C˜ ung v`ı l´ y do d¯´o nˆen c´ o
n ∈ N sao cho [my[ < n. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
A = ¦u ∈ Z [ u < my¦.
Ta c´o A l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a Z v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen. Vˆa
.
y A c´o sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t
p, p < my. Khi d¯´o ta c´ o mx < p, v`ı nˆe
´
u khˆong th`ı pha’ i xa’ y ra p ≤ mx, do d¯´o
p +1 ≤ mx+1 < my nˆen p +1 ∈ A, mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i p l`a sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a A. Vˆa
.
y
ta c´ o p ∈ Z m`a
mx < p < my,
t` u
.
d¯´o suy ra x < z =
p
m
< y.
5.2.4.3. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y: Mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a mˆo
.
t d˜ay Cauchy trˆen Q.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Cho x = r((x
n
)
n∈N
∈ R. Ta s˜e ch´ u
.
ng minh lim
m→+∞
x
m
= x. V´o
.
i
∈ R, > 0, do Q tr` u mˆa
.
t trong R, ta c´o µ ∈ Q sao cho 0 < µ < . V`ı (x
n
)
n∈N
l`a
d˜ ay Cauchy trˆen Q nˆen c´ o n
0
∈ N sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n > n
0
ta c´o [x
m
−x
n
[ < µ.
V´o
.
i m ∈ N, m > n
0
, ta c´ o:
[x
m
−x[ = [x
m
−r((x
n
)
n∈N
)[ = r(([x
m
−x
n
[)
n∈N
) ≤ r((µ)
n∈N
) = µ < .
Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng trong ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯i
.
nh l´ y n`ay, ta d¯˜a lˆa
´
y d˜ay Cauchy hˆo
.
i tu
.
vˆe
`
sˆ o
´
thu
.
.
c x ch´ınh l`a d˜ay Cauchy x´ac d¯i
.
nh x. Ho
.
n n˜ u
.
a ta d¯˜a biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i d˜ay
Cauchy trˆen Q d¯ˆe
`
u x´ac d¯i
.
nh mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c, do d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c:
5.2.4.4. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Mo
.
i d˜ ay Cauchy trˆen Q d¯ˆe
`
u hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong R.
5.2.4.5. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y: Mo
.
i d˜ ay Cauchy trˆen R d¯ˆe
`
u l`a d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
125
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Cho (α
n
)
n∈N
l`a mˆo
.
t d˜ay Cauchy trˆen R. Do t´ınh tr` u mˆa
.
t cu’ a
Q trong R nˆen v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N tˆo
`
n ta
.
i y
n
∈ Q sao cho α
n
< y
n
< α
n
+
1
n + 1
.
Khi d¯´o d˜ay (y
n
)
n∈N
l`a d˜ay Cauchy trˆen Q. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i µ ∈ Q, µ > 0, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
n
1
∈ N sao cho [α
n
− α
m
[ <
µ
3
v´o
.
i mo
.
i n, m > n
1
v`a tˆo
`
n ta
.
i n
2
∈ N sao cho
1
n + 1
<
µ
3
v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
2
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y v´o
.
i mo
.
i n, m > n
0
= max(n
1
, n
2
) ta c´ o:
[y
n
−y
m
[ ≤ [y
n
−α
n
[ +[α
n
−α
m
[ +[α
m
−y
m
[ <
1
n + 1
+
µ
3
+
1
m + 1
< µ.
Theo hˆe
.
qua’ trˆen, d˜ay (y
n
)
n∈N
hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong R v`a gia’ su
.
’ lim
n→+∞
y
n
= r((y
n
)
n∈N
) =
x.
Bˆay gi`o
.
ta x´et d˜ ay (y
n
− α
n
)
n∈N
trong R. V´o
.
i mo
.
i ∈ R, > 0, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
n
0
∈ N sao cho ta c´o
1
n + 1
< v´o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
. T` u
.
d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
y
n
−α
n
<
1
n + 1
<
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i n > n
0
. D
-
iˆe
`
u d¯´o ch´ u
.
ng to’ lim
n→+∞
(y
n
−α
n
) = 0. Do d¯´o d˜ay (α
n
)
n∈N
hˆo
.
i
tu
.
v` a lim
n→+∞
α
n
= lim
n→+∞
y
n
= x.
5.3. S
ˆ
O
´
PH
´
U
.
C.
5.3.1. Xˆay du
.
.
ng tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p C c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c v`a hai ph´ep to´an trˆen C:
5.3.1.1. Mo
.
’ d¯ˆa
`
u: Trong phˆa
`
n tru
.
´o
.
c, ta d¯˜a nhˆa
.
n thˆa
´
y r˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
2
− 2 = 0 khˆong c´ o nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı ’. D
-
´o ch´ınh l`a d¯iˆe

m kho
.
’ i d¯ˆa
`
u cho viˆe
.
c xˆay
du
.
.
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p R c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c nhu
.
l`a mˆo
.
t “bˆo

sung” cu’ a tˆa
.
p Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’,
nh˘a
`
m t`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d¯´o.
C´o mˆo
.
t t`ınh tra
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
+ 1 = 0 khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m
thu
.
.
c, bo
.
’ i v`ı b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng mo
.
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u khˆ ong ˆam. D
-
ˆe

tho´at ra kho’ i t`ınh
tra
.
ng n`ay, ta cˆa
`
n “mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng” R b˘a
`
ng c´ach xˆay du
.
.
ng thˆem c´ac “sˆo
´
m´o
.
i”.
Ta go
.
i i l`a mˆo
.
t k´ y hiˆe
.
u h`ınh th´ u
.
c (t´ u
.
c mˆo
.
t “sˆo
´
m´o
.
i”) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh n´oi trˆen, t´ u
.
c l`a
i
2
= −1.
Ta muˆo
´
n thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c mo
.
i ph´ep to´an cˆo
.
ng, tr` u
.
, nhˆ an, chia (cho c´ac sˆo
´
kh´ac
0) sau khi d¯˜a gh´ep thˆem i v`ao R. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay dˆa
˜
n ta t´o
.
i viˆe
.
c chˆ a
´
p nhˆa
.
n c´ ac “sˆo
´
126
m´o
.
i” da
.
ng a +ib, trong d¯´o a, b ∈ R. Tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac sˆo
´
nhu
.
vˆa
.
y d¯´ong d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep
to´an n´oi trˆen. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c i
2
= −1 ta c´o:
(a +ib) ±(c +id) = (a +c) ±i(b +d),
(a +ib)(c +id) = (ac −bd) +i(ad +bc),
(a +ib)
(c +id)
=
(a +ib)(c −id)
c
2
+d
2
=
ac +bd
c
2
+d
2
+i
bc −ad
c
2
+d
2
,
v´ o
.
i c +id = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a c = 0 ho˘a
.
c d = 0.
Tuy nhiˆen vˆa
˜
n c`on cˆau ho’ i: “Vˆa
.
y i l`a c´ai g`ı?”.
D
-
ˆe

tr´anh tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p kh´o xu
.
’ n`ay ta h˜ay d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t a + ib v´o
.
i c˘ a
.
p sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c
(a, b). Nh˜ u
.
ng phˆan t´ıch o
.
’ trˆen dˆ a
˜
n t´o
.
i d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa sau d¯ˆay.
5.3.1.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Mˆ o
˜
i c˘ a
.
p sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c (a, b) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c. Tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u bo
.
’ i C:
C = ¦(a, b) [ a, b ∈ R¦.
Ta d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa c´ac ph´ep to´an cˆ o
.
ng v`a nhˆan c´ ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c nhu
.
sau:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng: (a, b) + (c, d) = (a +c, b +d).
2) Ph´ep nhˆan: (a, b)(c, d) = (ac −bd, ad +bc).
Hai sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c (a, b) v`a (c, d) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a b˘a
`
ng nhau nˆe
´
u a = c v`a b = d.
5.3.1.3. T´ınh chˆa
´
t:
1) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh giao ho´an, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u ∈ C,
z +u = u +z, zu = uz.
2) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u, v ∈ C,
(z +u) +v = z + (u +v), (zu)v = z(uv).
3) C v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong v`a v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d¯o
.
n vi
.
,
ngh˜ıa l`a tˆo
`
n ta
.
i 0

= (0, 0), 1

= (1, 0) ∈ C sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i z ∈ C,
z + 0

= 0

+z = z, z1

= 1

z = z.
4) Mo
.
i sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
d¯ˆo
´
i, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z = (a, b) ∈ C, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
−z = (−a, −b) ∈ Z,
z + (−z) = (−z) +z = 0

.
127
5) Mo
.
i sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c kh´ac 0

d¯ˆe
`
u c´o sˆo
´
nghi
.
ch d¯a’ o, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z ∈ C, z =
(a, b) = 0

, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i z
−1
= (
a
a
2
+b
2
,
−b
a
2
+b
2
) ∈ C,
zz
−1
= z
−1
z = 1

.
6) Ph´ep nhˆ an c´o t´ınh phˆ an phˆo
´
i d¯ˆo
´
i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u, v ∈
C,
z(u +v) = zu +zv, (u +v)z = uz +vz.
7) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u, v ∈ C,
z +v = u +v ⇒ z = u.
8) Ph´ep nhˆan c´o t´ınh gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u, v ∈ C, v = 0

,
zv = uv ⇒ z = u.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Kˆe
´
t qua’ dˆe
˜
d`ang c´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa.
5.3.1.4. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p C v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep nhˆan trong (5.3.1.2) ta
.
o
th`anh mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng v`a Char(C) = 0.
5.3.2. Da
.
ng d¯a
.
i sˆ o
´
cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c:
5.3.2.1. Quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a R v`a C: X´et ´anh xa
.
f : R −→C : a →f(a) = (a, 0).
Khi d¯´o ´anh xa
.
f c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t sau:
1) f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n ´anh.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ R, f(a) = f(b), ta c´o (a, 0) = (b, 0), do d¯´o a = b.
2) f ba’ o to`an c´ ac ph´ep to´an.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i mo
.
i a, b ∈ R,
f(a +b) = (a +b, 0) = (a, 0) + (b, 0) = f(a) +f(b).
f(ab) = (ab, 0) = (ab −0.0, a.0 + 0.b) = (a, 0)(b, 0) = f(a)f(b).
C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t trˆen cho biˆe
´
t ´anh xa
.
f l`a mˆo
.
t d¯o
.
n cˆa
´
u tru
.
`o
.
ng v`a t` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o
thˆe

d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c a v´o
.
i a’ nh f(a) = (a, 0), thay cho c´ ach viˆe
´
t z = (a, 0)
ta viˆe
´
t z = a v`a mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c a c˜ ung l`a mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y 0

= (0, 0) = 0 v`a
1

= (1, 0).
B˘a
`
ng c´ach d¯´o R l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con cu’ a C v`a c´ ac ph´ep to´an cu’ a C thu he
.
p trˆen
R tr` ung v´ o
.
i c´ac ph´ep to´an trˆen R. Ta c`on n´oi R l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng con cu’ a tru
.
`o
.
ng
C.
128
5.3.2.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: D
-
˘a
.
t i = (0, 1) ∈ C. Ta c´o i
2
= (0, 1)(0, 1) = (−1, 0) = −1.
Ta go
.
i i l`a d¯o
.
n vi
.
a’ o.
Mˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z = (a, b) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng:
z = (a, b) = (a, 0) + (0, 1)(b, 0) = a +ib,
trong d¯´o a, b ∈ R, go
.
i l`a da
.
ng d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c. Ta go
.
i a l`a phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c cu’ a z,
k´ y hiˆe
.
u a =Rez, c`on b l`a phˆa
`
n a’ o cu’ a z, k´ y hiˆe
.
u Imz.
Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z m`a Imz = 0 ch´ınh l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c. Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z c´o Rez = 0 d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thuˆ a
`
n a’ o.
5.3.2.3. Ch´ u ´ y: Trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x´et mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
tru
.
c toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
Descartes vuˆong g´oc
Oxy. Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z = a +ib d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng bo
.
’ i d¯iˆe

m M c´o toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
(a, b) ho˘a
.
c bo
.
’ i vecto
.
−→
OM d¯i t` u
.
d¯iˆe

m gˆo
´
c toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
O t´o
.
i d¯iˆe

m M, go
.
i l`a biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
h`ınh ho
.
c cu’ a z. Cˆo
.
ng c´ac sˆ o
´
ph´ u
.
c ch´ınh l`a cˆo
.
ng c´ac vecto
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ch´ ung.
M˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng ph´ u
.
c. C´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
trˆen tru
.
c Ox, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tru
.
c thu
.
.
c. C´ac sˆo
´
thuˆ a
`
n a’ o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n trˆen tru
.
c
Oy, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a tru
.
c a’ o.
5.3.2.4. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z = a − ib d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen ho
.
.
p cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c
z = a +ib, trong d¯´o a, b l`a c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c.
Ta dˆe
˜
d`ang kiˆe

m tra la
.
i r˘a
`
ng:
z +u = z +u, zu = z u.
5.3.3. Da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c:
5.3.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Gia’ su
.
’ z = a +ib = 0 (t´ u
.
c l`a a
2
+b
2
= 0). Ta c´o
z =

a
2
+b
2
(
a

a
2
+b
2
+i
b

a
2
+b
2
).
D
-
˘a
.
t r =

a
2
+b
2
v`a nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i g´oc ϕ x´ac d¯i
.
nh sai kh´ac 2kπ (k ∈ Z)
sao cho
cos ϕ =
a

a
2
+b
2
, sin ϕ =
b

a
2
+b
2
.
Khi d¯´o z = r(cos ϕ +i sin ϕ) v`a go
.
i l` a da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z.
5.3.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c khˆong ˆam r =

a
2
+b
2
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆod¯un cu’ a
sˆ o
´
ph´ u
.
c z = a + ib, k´ y hiˆe
.
u r = [z[, c`on g´oc ϕ d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a argument cu’ a z, k´ y
hiˆe
.
u ϕ =arg(z). Argument cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z = 0 khˆong d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa.
Th´ı du
.
: T`ım da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac cu’ a c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z = i, z

= 1 +i, z

=

3 +i.
[z[ = 1, cos ϕ = 0, sin ϕ = 1 t´ u
.
c l`a ϕ =
π
2
+ 2kπ.
129
Do d¯´o z = (cos
π
2
+i sin
π
2
).
[z

[ =

2, cos ϕ

=
1

2
, sin ϕ

=
1

2
t´ u
.
c l`a ϕ

=
π
4
+ 2k

π.
Do d¯´o z

=

2(cos
π
4
+i sin
π
4
).
[z

[ = 2, cos ϕ

=

3
2
, sin ϕ

=
1
2
t´ u
.
c l`a ϕ

=
π
6
+ 2k

π.
Do d¯´o z

= 2(cos
π
6
+i sin
π
6
).
5.3.3.3. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: 1) [zu[ = [z[[u[ v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u ∈ C.
2) arg(zu) =arg(z)+arg(u), v´o
.
i mo
.
i z, u ∈ C m`a z = 0 v`a u = 0.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) V´o
.
i z = a +ib v`a u = c +id, ta c´o
[zu[ =

(ac −bd)
2
+ (ad +bc)
2
=

a
2
c
2
+b
2
d
2
+a
2
d
2
+b
2
c
2
=

(a
2
+b
2
)(c
2
+d
2
) =

a
2
+b
2

c
2
+d
2
= [z[[u[.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ z = [z[(cos ϕ+i sin ϕ), u = [u[(cos ψ +i sin ψ) (v´o
.
i z = 0, u = 0).
Khi d¯´o
zu = [z[[u[(cos ϕcos ψ −sin ϕsin ψ) + (sin ϕcos ψ + sinψ cos ϕ))
= [z[[u[(cos(ϕ +ψ) +i sin(ϕ +ψ)).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y arg(zu) =arg(z)+arg(u).
5.3.3.4. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Nˆe
´
u z = [z[(cos ϕ +i sin ϕ) v`a n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen th`ı ta c´ o
z
n
= [z[
n
(cos nϕ +i sin nϕ).
D
-
˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, khi [z[ = 1 ta c´o cˆong th´ u
.
c Moivre:
(cos ϕ +i sin ϕ)
n
= cos nϕ +i sinnϕ.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Kˆe
´
t qua’ c´o ngay t` u
.
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
trˆen.
5.3.3.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng v`a z l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c. Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c u d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a z nˆe
´
u u
n
= z.
5.3.3.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Nˆe
´
u z = [z[(cos ϕ + i sin ϕ) = 0 v`a n l`a mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen
du
.
o
.
ng th`ı c´o d¯´ ung n c˘an bˆ a
.
c n cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z:
u
k
=
n

[z[(cos
ϕ + 2kπ
n
+i sin
ϕ + 2kπ
n
),
130
trong d¯´o k = 0, 1, . . . , n −1.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: V´o
.
i u = [u[(cos θ +i sinθ),
u
n
= z ⇔[u[
n
(cos nθ +i sinnθ) = [z[(cos ϕ +i sinϕ)

[u[
n
= [z[,
nθ = ϕ + 2kπ (k ∈ Z).

[u[ =
n

[z[ (c˘an sˆo
´
ho
.
c),
θ =
ϕ + 2kπ
n
(k ∈ Z).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, c´o d¯´ ung n c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a mˆ o
˜
i sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c z = 0, ´ u
.
ng v´ o
.
i c´ ac gi´a tri
.
k = 0, 1, . . . , n −1. C´ac c˘an n`ay lˆa
.
p nˆen n d¯ı ’nh cu’ a mˆo
.
t d¯a gi´ac d¯ˆe
`
u n ca
.
nh v´o
.
i
tˆ am ta
.
i gˆo
´
c toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) T`ım c´ac c˘an bˆa
.
c 3 cu’ a i.
Ta c´ o i = cos
π
2
+ i sin
π
2
, nˆen c´o 3 c˘an bˆa
.
c 3 cu’ a i l`a u
k
= cos(
π
2
+2kπ
3
) +
i sin(
π
2
+2kπ
3
) v´o
.
i k = 0, 1, 2. Cu
.
thˆe

l`a
u
0
= cos
π
6
+i sin
π
6
=

3
2
+
1
2
i
u
1
= cos

6
+i sin

6
= −

3
2
+
1
2
i
u
2
= cos

2
+i sin

2
= −i.
2) T`ım c´ac c˘ an bˆa
.
c 4 cu’ a 1 +i.
Ta c´o 1 +i =

2(cos
π
4
+i sin
π
4
), nˆen c´o 4 c˘an bˆa
.
c 4 cu’ a 1 +i l`a:
u
0
=
8

2(cos
π
16
+i sin
π
16
)
u
1
=
8

2(cos

16
+i sin

16
)
u
2
=
8

2(cos
17π
16
+i sin
17π
16
)
u
3
=
8

2(cos
25π
16
+i sin
25π
16
).
131
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P CHU
.
O
.
NG V
1. Cho a l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ v`a k l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen kh´ ac khˆ ong. Ch´ u
.
ng minh
r˘ a
`
ng c´o mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen duy nhˆa
´
t m sao cho
mk ≤ a < (m + 1)k.
2. Cho d˜ay sˆo
´
(x
n
) thoa’ m˜an x
1
= 1 v` a x
n+1
=
x
2
n
+ 2
2x
n
. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng (x
n
) l`a
mˆo
.
t d˜ay Cauchy h˜ u
.
u tı’ nhu
.
ng khˆong hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong Q.
3. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
1) Tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen m
n
sao cho:

m
n
2
n

2
≤ 2 <

1 +m
n
2
n

2
.
2) V´o
.
i x
n
=
m
n
2
n
v`a y
n
=
1 +m
n
2
n
, c´ ac d˜ay (x
n
) v`a (y
n
) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng d˜ ay
Cauchy khˆong hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong Q.
4. Cho hai sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c c v`a d sao cho c < d. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen m v`a
sˆ o
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng n sao cho c <

m
n

3
< d.
5. X´ac d¯i
.
nh phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c v`a phˆ a
`
n a’ o cu’ a c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c sau:
1) z =
1 +i
1 −i
,
2) u =
−1 + 2i
(1 +i)(1 −3i)
,
3) v = (1 + 2i)
6
.
6. H˜ay biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c sau du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac:
1) z = −1 −i,
2) u = 1 +i

3,
3) v = −2 + 2i.
7. T´ınh i
77
, i
99
, i
−57
, i
n
, (1 +i)
n
v´o
.
i n ∈ Z.
8. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c:
(1 +i)
8n
= 2
4n
,
(1 +i)
4n
= (−1)
n
2
2n
, (n ∈ Z).
9. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u z + z
−1
= 2 cos ϕ trong d¯´o ϕ ∈ R th`ı z
n
+ z
−n
=
2 cos nϕ, v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N.
132
10. T´ınh:
1)
(1 −i)
n
(1 −i

3)
n
,
2)
(1 +i

3)
n
(1 +i)
n+1
.
11. 1) T`ım da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ ac cu’ a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c:
1 +itgϕ
1 −itgϕ
.
2) Trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng ph´ u
.
c, t`ım tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯iˆe

m tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i
¦z =
1 +it
1 −it
[ t ∈ R¦.
12. 1) T`ım c´ac c˘ an bˆa
.
c ba cu’ a 1 −i

3,
1 +i

2
.
2) T`ım c´ac c˘ an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a 1 −i v`a 1 +i

3.
13. Go
.
i
0
,
1
, . . . ,
9
l`a c´ac c˘an bˆa
.
c 10 cu’ a d¯o
.
n vi
.
, ngh˜ıa l`a

k
= cos
2kπ
10
+i sin
2kπ
10
v` a n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng. T´ınh tˆo

ng
S =
n
0
+
n
1
+ +
n
9
.
14. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh:
(z +i)
7
+ (z −i)
7
= 0.
133
TRA

L
`
O
.
I V
`
A HU
.
´
O
.
NG D
ˆ
A
˜
N GIA

I B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
CHU
.
O
.
NG V
1. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p A = ¦n ∈ Z [ n ≤
a
k
¦ l`a mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p con kh´ac rˆo
˜
ng cu’ a Z v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n
trˆen, nˆen A c´o sˆo
´
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t l`a m (m ch´ınh l`a phˆa
`
n nguyˆen cu’ a
a
k
). Do d¯´o ta c´o:
m ≤
a
k
< m+ 1 hay mk ≤ a < (m + 1)k.
2. B˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p, ta c´o x
n
> 0. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra
x
n+1
−1 =
(x
n
−1)
2
+ 1
2x
n
> 0 hay x
n+1
> 1.
Ngo`ai ra, ta c`on c´o
x
2
n+1
−2 =
(x
2
n
−2)
2
4x
2
n
> 0.
0 < x
2
n+1
−2 =
(x
2
n
−2)
2
4x
2
n

(x
2
n
−2)
2
4
B˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p, ta c´o 0 < x
2
n
−2 < 1. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra
[x
2
n+1
−2[ ≤
(x
2
n
−2)
2
4

[x
2
n
−2[
4
≤ ≤
1
4
n
.
V`ı vˆa
.
y ta c´o d˜ay (x
2
n
) hˆo
.
i tu
.
d¯ˆe
´
n 2 v`a l`a d˜ay Cauchy, do d¯´o
∀ > 0, ∃n
0
∈ N, ∀m, n > n
0
, [x
m
−x
n
[ =
[x
2
m
−x
2
n
[
x
m
+x
n
<
2
2
.
T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra d˜ay (x
n
) l`a mˆo
.
t d˜ay Cauchy. D˜ay n`ay khˆ ong hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong Q, v`ı
nˆe
´
u lim
n→∞
x
n
= q ∈ Q th`ı ta c´ o q
2
= 2 v`a d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay dˆa
˜
n t´o
.
i vˆo l´ y.
3. 1) K´ y hiˆe
.
u M =

z ∈ N [

z
2
n

2
≤ 2
¸
. Ta c´o M = ∅ v`ı ch˘a

ng ha
.
n
0 ∈ M, M la
.
i bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen v`ı ch˘a

ng ha
.
n z < 2
n+1
v´o
.
i mo
.
i z ∈ M, do d¯´o M c´o
sˆ o
´
l´ o
.
n nhˆa
´
t m
n
v`a 1 +m
n
/ ∈ M, nˆen ta c´ o
(1)

m
n
2
n

2
≤ 2 <

1 +m
n
2
n

2
.
Gia’ su
.
’ ta c`on c´o m

n
thoa’ m˜an d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n (1). Khi d¯´o c´ac bˆa
´
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c trˆen
cho ta
m

n
< 1 +m
n
do d¯´o m

n
≤ m
n
v` a
m
n
< 1 +m

n
do d¯´o m
n
≤ m

n
.
134
T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra m
n
= m

n
.
2) Theo c´ach x´ac d¯i
.
nh x
n
, y
n
ta c´o
x
2
n
=

m
n
2
n

2
=

2m
n
2
n+1

2
≤ 2 <

2(1 +m
n
)
2
n+1

2
=

1 +m
n
2
n

2
= y
2
n
v` a
x
2
n+1
=

m
n+1
2
n+1

2
≤ 2 <

1 +m
n+1
2
n+1

2
= y
2
n+1
.
T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra
2m
n
≤ m
n+1
< 1 +m
n+1
≤ 2(1 +m
n
).
Do d¯´o ta c´ o
x
n
≤ x
n+1
< y
n+1
≤ y
n
,
hay n´oi c´ ach kh´ac (x
n
) l`a mˆ o
.
t d˜ay khˆ ong gia’ m v`a (y
n
) l`a mˆo
.
t d˜ay khˆ ong t˘ang. V`ı
vˆ a
.
y v´o
.
i mo
.
i m, n ∈ N, m ≥ n th`ı ta c´o 0 ≤ x
m
−x
n
< y
n
−x
n
=
1
2
n
v`a d¯iˆe
`
u n`ay
cho biˆe
´
t (x
n
) l`a mˆo
.
t d˜ ay Cauchy trˆen Q. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c˜ ung d¯u
.
o
.
.
c (y
n
) l`a mˆo
.
t d˜ ay
Cauchy trˆen Q. V`ı lim
n→∞
(y
n
−x
n
) = 0, cho nˆen nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t trong c´ ac d˜ay (x
n
) ho˘a
.
c
(y
n
) hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong Q th`ı d˜ay kia c˜ ung hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong Q v`a ta c´o lim
n→∞
x
n
= lim
n→∞
y
n
,
do d¯´o lim
n→∞
x
2
n
= lim
n→∞
y
2
n
. Nhu
.
ng v`ı v´o
.
i mo
.
i n ∈ N ta c´o x
2
n
≤ 2 < y
2
n
, cho nˆen
ta s˜e pha’ i c´ o lim
n→∞
x
2
n
= lim
n→∞
y
2
n
= 2. D
-
´o l`a d¯iˆe
`
u khˆong xa’ y ra d¯u
.
o
.
.
c v`ı trong Q
khˆong c´o sˆo
´
n`ao m`a b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng b˘a
`
ng 2. Vˆa
.
y (x
n
) v`a (y
n
) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng d˜ay Cauchy
m`a khˆong hˆo
.
i tu
.
trong Q.
4. – Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p 0 ≤ c < d: Theo t´ınh chˆa
´
t Archim`ede, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen p
sao cho p > d v`a hiˆe

n nhiˆen p
3
> d. C˜ ung theo t´ınh chˆa
´
t archim`ede, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n sao cho n >
3p
3
d −c
. X´et tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p M =

k ∈ N

kp
n

3
> c
¸
. Do
M = ∅ cho nˆen M c´o sˆo
´
nho’ nhˆa
´
t l`a k
0
v´o
.
i k
0
≤ n v`a ta c´o
0 ≤

(k
0
−1)p
n

3
≤ c.
M˘a
.
t kh´ ac, ta c´o

k
0
p
n

3

(k
0
−1)p
n

3
=
p
n

k
2
p
2
n
2
+
k
0
(k
0
−1)p
2
n
2
+
(k
0
−1)
2
p
2
n
2


p
n
3p
2
=
3p
3
n
< d −c.
Do d¯´o c <

k
0
p
n

3
< c +d −c = d.
– Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c < 0 < d: Cho
.
n m = 0 v`a n = 1, ta c´o bˆ a
´
t d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c cˆa
`
n
ch´ u
.
ng minh.
– Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c < d ≤ 0: Ta c´ o 0 ≤ −d < −c, theo trˆen ∃m, n ∈ Z, n > 0
sao cho −d <

m
n

3
< −c. Khi d¯´o c <

−m
n

3
< d.
135
5. 1) z =
1 +i
1 −i
=
(1 +i)
2
(1 +i)(1 −i)
=
1 + 2i +i
2
2
= i.
Do d¯´o Rez = 0 v` a imz = 1.
2) u =
−1 + 2i
(1 +i)(1 −3i)
=
−1 + 2i
1 −3i +i −3i
2
=
−1 + 2i
4 −2i
=
(−1 + 2i)(4 + 2i)
(4 −2i)(4 + 2i)
=
−4 −2i + 8i + 4i
2
16 −4i
2
=
−4 + 3i
10
.
Do d¯´o Reu = −
2
5
v`a imu =
3
10
.
3) v = (1+2i)
6
= ((1+2i)
2
)
3
= (1+4i +4i
2
)
3
= (−3+4i)
3
= −27+108i −
144i
2
+ 64i
3
= 117 + 44i.
Do d¯´o Rev = 117 v`a imv = 44.
6. 1) z = −1 −i =

2(−
1

2

1

2
i) =

2(cos

4
+i sin

4
).
2) u = 1 +i

3 = 2(
1
2
+

3
2
i) = 2(cos
π
3
+i sin
π
3
).
3) v = −2 + 2i = 2

2(−
1

2
+
1

2
i) = 2

2(cos

4
+i sin

4
).
7. i
77
= (i
2
)
38
i = (−1)
38
i = i.
i
99
= (i
2
)
49
i = (−1)
49
i = −i.
i
−57
=
1
(i
2
)
28
i
=
1
(−1)
28
i
=
1
i
= −i.
i
n
=

(i
2
)
2k
nˆe
´
u n = 4k,
(i
2
)
2k
i nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 1,
(i
2
)
2k+1
nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 2,
(i
2
)
2k+1
i nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 3.
=

1 nˆe
´
u n = 4k,
i nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 1,
−1 nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 2,
−i nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 3.
(1 +i)
n
=

((1 +i)
2
)
4k
nˆe
´
u n = 8k,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k
(1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 1,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k+1
nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 2,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k+1
(1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 3,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k+2
nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 4,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k+2
(1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 5,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k+3
nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 6,
((1 +i)
2
)
4k+3
(1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 7.
136
=

2
4k
nˆe
´
u n = 8k,
2
4k
(1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 1,
2
4k+1
i nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 2,
2
4k+1
(−1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 3,
−2
4k+2
nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 4,
−2
4k+2
(1 +i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 5,
−2
4k+3
i nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 6,
2
4k+3
(1 −i) nˆe
´
u n = 8k + 7.
8. (1 +i)8n = ((1 +i)
2
)
4n
= (2i)
4n
= 2
4n
((i)
2
)
2n
= 2
4n
(−1)
2n
= 2
4n
.
(1 +i)
4n
= ((1 +i)
2
)
2n
= (2i)
2n
= 2
2n
(i
2
)
n
= (−1)
n
2
2n
.
9. z +z
−1
= 2 cos ϕ ⇔z
2
−2z cos ϕ + 1 = 0 (∆

= cos
2
ϕ −1 = (i sin ϕ)
2
).
Do d¯´o z = cos ϕ +i sin ϕ ho˘a
.
c z = cos ϕ −−i sin ϕ. T` u
.
d¯´o ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c:

z = cos ϕ +i sin ϕ
z
−1
= cos(−ϕ) +i sin(−ϕ)
ho˘a
.
c

z = cos(−ϕ) +i sin(−ϕ)
z
−1
= cos ϕ +i sin ϕ

z
n
= cos nϕ +i sinnϕ
z
−n
= cos(−nϕ) +i sin(−nϕ)
ho˘a
.
c

z
n
= cos(−nϕ) +i sin(−nϕ)
z
−n
= cos nϕ +i sin nϕ
⇒z
n
+z
−n
= 2 cos nϕ.
10. 1) 1 −i =

2(
1

2

1

2
i) =

2(cos

4
+i sin

4
).
1 −i

3 = 2(
1
2


3
2
i) = 2(cos

3
+i sin

3
).
(1 −i)
n
(1 −i

3)
n
=

1 −i
1 −i

3

n
=

2
n
2
n

cos

4
+i sin

4
cos

3
+i sin

3

n
=
1

2
n
(cos(

4


3
) +i sin(

4


3
))
=
1

2
n
(cos
π
12
+i sin
π
2
).
2) 1 +i

3 = 2(
1
2
+

3
2
i) = 2(cos
π
3
+i sin
π
3
).
(1 +i

3)
n
= 2
n
(cos

3
+i sin

3
).
1 +i =

2(
1

2
+
1

2
i) =

2(cos
π
4
+i sin
π
4
).
137
(1 +i)
n+1
= (

2)
n+1
(cos
(n + 1)π
4
+i sin
(n + 1)π
4
).
(1 +i

3)
n
(1 +i)
n+1
=
2
n
(

2)
n+1
cos

3
+i sin

3
cos
(n + 1)π
4
+i sin
(n + 1)π
4
= (

2)
n−1
(cos(

3

(n + 1)π
4
) +i sin(

3

(n + 1)π
4
))
= (

2)
n−1
(cos
(n −3)π
12
+i sin
(n −3)π
12
).
11. 1)
1 +itgϕ
1 −itgϕ
=
1 +i
sin ϕ
cos ϕ
1 −i
sin ϕ
cos ϕ
=
cos ϕ +i sin ϕ
cos(−ϕ) +i sin(−ϕ)
= cos(ϕ −(−ϕ)) +i sin(ϕ −(−ϕ)) = cos 2ϕ +i sin 2ϕ.
2) ¦z =
1 +it
1 −it
[ t ∈ R¦ = ¦z =
1 +itgϕ
1 −itgϕ
[ −
π
2
< ϕ <
π
2
¦
= ¦z = cos 2ϕ +i sin 2ϕ [ −π < 2ϕ < π¦.
Vˆa
.
y tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p cˆ a
`
n t`ım l`a d¯u
.
`o
.
ng tr`on tˆam o
.
’ gˆo
´
c toa
.
d¯ˆo
.
O, b´an k´ınh b˘a
`
ng 1
v` a khˆong kˆe

d¯iˆe

m (−1, 0).
12. 1) z = 1 −i

3 = 2(cos

3
+i sin

3
). Do d¯´o c´ac c˘ an bˆa
.
c 3 cu’ a z l`a:
u
k
=
3

2(cos

3
+ 2kπ
3
+i sin

3
+ 2kπ
3
) (k = 0, 1, 2).
u
0
=
3

2(cos

9
+i sin

9
),
u
1
=
3

2(cos
11π
9
+i sin
11π
9
),
u
2
=
3

2(cos
17π
9
+i sin
17π
9
).
z

=
1 +i

2
=
1

2
+
1

2
i = cos
π
4
+i sin
π
4
. Do d¯´o c´ac c˘ an bˆa
.
c 3 cu’ a z l`a:
u

k
= cos
π
4
+ 2k

π
3
+i sin
π
4
+ 2k

π
3
(k = 0, 1, 2).
u

0
= cos
π
12
+i sin
π
12
=

2 +

3
2
+

2 −

3
2
i.
138
u

1
= cos

12
+i sin

12
= −
1

2
+
1

2
i,
u

2
= cos
17π
12
+i sin
17π
12
=

2(1 −

3)
4


2(1 +

3)
4
i.
2) z = 1 −i =

2(
1

2

1

2
i) =

2(cos

4
+i sin

4
). Do d¯´o c´ac c˘an bˆa
.
c
n cu’ a z l`a:
u
k
=
2n

2(cos

4
+ 2kπ
n
+i sin

4
+ 2kπ
n
) (k = 0, 1, . . . , n −1).
z

= 1 +i

3 = 2(
1
2
+

3
2
i) = 2(cos
π
3
+ i sin
π
3
). Do d¯´o c´ac c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a
z

l` a:
u

k
=
n

2(cos
π
3
+ 2kπ
n
+i sin
π
3
+ 2kπ
n
) (k = 0, 1, . . . , n −1).
13. 1 = cos 0 +i sin 0. Do d¯´o 1 c´o n c˘an bˆ a
.
c n l`a:

k
= cos
2kπ
10
+i sin
2kπ
10
(k = 0, 1, . . . , 9).
+ n l`a bˆo
.
i cu’ a 10: Khi d¯´o
n
k
= cos
2knπ
10
+i sin
2knπ
10
= 1 (k = 0, 1, . . . , 9).
V`ı vˆa
.
y
S =
n
0
+
n
1
+ +
n
9
= 10.
+ n khˆong l`a bˆo
.
i cu’ a 10: Khi d¯´o

k
= (cos

10
+i sin

10
)
k
=
k
1
(k = 0, 1, . . . , 9),
o
.
’ d¯ˆay
n
1
= cos
2nπ
10
+i sin
2nπ
10
= 1. V`ı vˆ a
.
y
S = (
0
1
)
n
+ (
1
1
)
n
+ (
2
1
)
n
+ + (
9
1
)
n
= 1 +
n
1
+ (
n
1
)
2
+ + (
n
1
)
9
=
1 −(
n
1
)
10
1 −
n
1
=
1 −(
10
1
)
n
1 −
n
1
=
1 −1
1 −
n
1
= 0.
14. (z +i)
7
+ (z −i)
7
= 0 ⇔

z +i
z −i

7
= −1. D
-
˘a
.
t u =
z +i
z −i
, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tro
.

th`anh:
u
7
= −1 = cos π +i sinπ.
139
Do d¯´o n´ o c´o c´ac nghiˆe
.
m l`a c´ac c˘ an bˆa
.
c 7 cu’ a −1:
u
k
= cos
π + 2kπ
7
+i sin
π + 2kπ
7
(k = 0, 1, . . . , 6).
D
-
˘a
.
t ϕ
k
=
π + 2kπ
7
. Ta c´o
u
k
=
z +i
z −i
⇔u
k
z −u
k
i = z +i ⇔z(u
k
−1) = i(u
k
+ 1)
⇔z =
i(u
k
+ 1)
u
k
−1
=
i(cos ϕ
k
+i sin ϕ
k
+ 1)
cos ϕ
k
+i sin ϕ
k
−1
140
CHU
.
O
.
NG VI:
D
-
A TH
´
U
.
C
6.1. D
-
A TH
´
U
.
C V
`
A H
`
AM D
-
A TH
´
U
.
C.
6.1.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho F l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng. Biˆe

u th´ u
.
c h`ınh th´ u
.
c
f(x) = a
0
+a
1
x + +a
n
x
n
,
trong d¯´o a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ F, d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c biˆe
´
n x lˆa
´
y hˆe
.
sˆo
´
trˆen F. Ta
c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t f(x) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng f(x) = a
n
x
n
+ +a
1
x +a
0
.
Nˆe
´
u a
n
= 0 th`ı ta n´oi f(x) c´o bˆa
.
c n, k´ y hiˆe
.
u deg(f(x)) = n; c`on a
n
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
sˆo
´
dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a f(x). D
-
˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, nˆe
´
u a
n
= 1 th`ı ta n´oi f(x) l` a mˆo
.
t d¯a
th´ u
.
c d¯o
.
n hˆe
.
.
Nˆe
´
u a
0
= a
1
= = a
n
= 0 th`ı f(x) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c khˆong, k´ y hiˆe
.
u 0;
ta quy u
.
´o
.
c d¯a th´ u
.
c 0 c´o bˆ a
.
c b˘a
`
ng −∞.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c biˆe
´
n x lˆa
´
y hˆe
.
sˆo
´
trˆen F d¯u
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a F[x]. Ta trang
bi
.
cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ay hai ph´ep to´an cˆo
.
ng v`a nhˆ an nhu
.
sau:
∀f(x) = a
0
+a
1
x + +a
n
x
n
, g(x) = b
0
+b
1
x + +b
m
x
m
∈ F[x],
(khˆ ong mˆa
´
t t´ınh tˆo

ng qu´at, c´o thˆe

xem n ≤ m)
f(x)+g(x) = (a
0
+b
0
)+(a
1
+b
1
)x+ +(a
n
+b
n
)x
n
+b
n+1
x
n+1
+ +b
m
x
m
,
f(x)g(x) = c
0
+c
1
x + +c
n+m
x
n+m
, trong d¯´o c
k
=
¸
i+j=k
a
i
b
j
.
6.1.2. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: F[x] c` ung v´o
.
i hai ph´ep to´an n´oi trˆen ta
.
o th`anh mˆo
.
t v`anh giao
ho´an, c´o d¯o
.
n vi
.
, khˆ ong c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong v´o
.
i d¯˘a
.
c sˆo
´
Char(F[x]) = Char(F).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng d¯ˆo
´
i v´ o
.
i c´ ac d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) v`a g(x), ta c´ o
deg(f(x)g(x)) = deg(f(x)) +deg(g(x)).
T´ınh chˆa
´
t n`ay dˆa
˜
n t´o
.
i su
.
.
kiˆe
.
n F[x] khˆ ong c´ o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong. C´ac kh˘a

ng d¯i
.
nh
c` on la
.
i cu’ a mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯ˆe
`
u dˆe
˜
kiˆe

m tra.
V`anh F[x] d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a v`anh d¯a th´ u
.
c (biˆe
´
n x). Tuy nhiˆen, v`anh d¯a th´ u
.
c
khˆong nhˆ a
´
t thiˆe
´
t d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng F m`a c´o thˆe

trˆen v` anh giao ho´an
c´ o d¯o
.
n vi
.
bˆa
´
t k` y R v`a khi d¯´o R[x] c´ o thˆe

c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong.
6.1.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa:
´
Anh xa
.
ϕ : F −→F d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a mˆo
.
t h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n
ta
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) = a
0
+a
1
x+ +a
n
x
n
∈ F[x] sao cho ϕ(c) = a
0
+a
1
c+ +a
n
c
n
.
Khi d¯´o ta c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t f(c) thay cho ϕ(c).
Theo d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa, mˆo
˜
i d¯a th´ u
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh mˆo
.
t h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c v`a mˆo
˜
i h` am d¯a
th´ u
.
c d¯u
.
o
.
.
c x´ac d¯i
.
nh bo
.
’ i ´ıt nhˆa
´
t mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c.
141
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, v´o
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
p, hai d¯a th´ u
.
c x
p
−x v`a 0 trong Z
p
[x] x´ac d¯i
.
nh
c` ung mˆo
.
t h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c - h` am d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t khˆong. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, theo d¯i
.
nh l´ y Fermat,
m
p
≡ m (mod p), v´o
.
i mo
.
i m ∈ Z (c´o thˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p theo m ∈ N
v´ o
.
i lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
sˆo
´
tˆo

ho
.
.
p C
k
p
≡ 0 (mod p), 1 ≤ k ≤ p − 1 v`a khi m < 0 kˆe
´
t
qua’ c´o t` u
.
(−m)
p
≡ (−m) (mod p)), cho nˆen c
p
= c v´o
.
i mo
.
i c ∈ Z
p
.
6.1.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho f(x) ∈ F[x] v`a c ∈ F. Khi d¯´o f(x) chia hˆe
´
t cho x −c khi
v` a chı’ khi f(c) = 0.
O
.

d¯ˆay cˆau n´oi “f(x) chia hˆe
´
t cho x − c” c´o ngh˜ıa f(x) = (x − c)g(x) v´o
.
i
g(x) ∈ F[x], k´ y hiˆe
.
u f(x)
.
.
. x −c.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) = a
0
+a
1
x + +a
n
x
n
. Ta c´ o
f(x) −f(c) =
n
¸
k=0
a
k
x
k

n
¸
k=0
a
k
c
k
=
n
¸
k=0
a
k
(x
k
−c
k
)
=
n
¸
k=0
a
k
(x −c)(x
k−1
+cx
k−2
+ +c
k−1
).
Do d¯´o nˆe
´
u f(c) = 0 th`ı f(x) = (x −c)g(x), trong d¯´o
g(x) =
n
¸
k=0
a
k
(x
k−1
+cx
k−2
+ +c
k−1
) ∈ F[x].
D
-
a’ o la
.
i, nˆe
´
u f(x) = (x−c)g(x) v´o
.
i g(x) ∈ F[x] th`ı thay x bo
.
’ i c ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c f(c) = 0.
6.1.5. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Phˆ a
`
n tu
.
’ c ∈ F d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a d¯a th´ u
.
c
f(x) ∈ F[x] nˆe
´
u f(c) = 0 v`a n´o d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i k (v´o
.
i k l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng) cu’ a f(x) nˆe
´
u f(x) chia hˆe
´
t cho (x − c)
k
, nhu
.
ng khˆong chia hˆe
´
t
cho (x −c)
k+1
trong F[x].
6.1.6. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Nˆe
´
u d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) ∈ F[x] c´o bˆa
.
c n th`ı f(x) c´o nhiˆe
`
u nhˆ a
´
t n
nghiˆe
.
m trong F.
Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng ph´at biˆe

u trˆen khˆong c`on d¯´ ung nˆe
´
u F l`a mˆo
.
t v`anh c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a
khˆong.
6.1.7. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Nˆe
´
u tru
.
`o
.
ng F l`a vˆo ha
.
n th`ı hai d¯a th´ u
.
c kh´ac nhau trong F[x]
x´ ac d¯i
.
nh hai h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c kh´ac nhau trˆen F.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ f(x), g(x) ∈ F[x] v`a f(x) = g(x). Nˆe
´
u f(x) v`a g(x)
x´ ac d¯i
.
nh c` ung mˆo
.
t h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c th`ı f(c) = g(c) v´o
.
i mo
.
i c ∈ F. M˘a
.
t kh´ac,
r(x) = f(x) − g(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 trong F[x] nˆen c´o h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n nghiˆe
.
m trong
F. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay mˆau thuˆa
˜
n v´o
.
i r(x) c´ o vˆo sˆo
´
nghiˆe
.
m trong F, do F l`a vˆo ha
.
n.
Vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u F l`a vˆo ha
.
n th`ı c´ ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m d¯a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c l`a tu
.
o
.
ng
d¯u
.
o
.
ng (tho thuˆa
.
t ng˜ u
.
chuyˆen mˆon, v` anh c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c d¯˘a

ng cˆa
´
u v´o
.
i v`anh c´ac
h` am d¯a th´ u
.
c). Khi d¯´o ta s˜e d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ph´ep quˆen d¯i su
.
.
kh´ac nhau gi˜ u
.
a c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c
v` a c´ac h`am d¯a th´ u
.
c.
142
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Cho f(x) = 1 + 4x + 2x
2
, g(x) = 2 +x + 3x
2
∈ Z
5
[x]. Ta c´ o:
f(x)g(x) = 1.2 + (1 + 4.2)x + (1.3 + 4.1 + 2.2)x
2
+ (4.3 + 2.1)x
3
+ 2.3x
4
= 2 + 4x +x
2
+ 4x
3
+x
4
.
2) Cho f(x) = x + 4x
2
+ 2x
3
, g(x) = 2 + 3x + 3x
2
∈ Z
6
[x]. Ta c´ o:
f(x)g(x) = 2x + 5x
2
+x
3
.
V`anh Z
6
[x] c´o u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a khˆong; ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, 2x v`a 3 + 3x l`a hai d¯a th´ u
.
c kh´ac
khˆong nhu
.
ng 2.(3 + 3x) = 0.
3) Trong v`anh Q[x], d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) = (x + 1)
2n
− x
2n
− 2x − 1 chia hˆe
´
t cho
2x + 1, x + 1, x. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y,
f(−
1
2
) = (−
1
2
+1)
2n
−(−
1
2
)
2n
−2(−
1
2
)−1 = 0 ⇒f(x)
.
.
. x+
1
2
⇒f(x)
.
.
. 2x+1,
f(−1) = (−1 + 1)
2n
−(−1)
2n
−2(−1) −1 = 0 ⇒f(x)
.
.
. x + 1,
f(0) = (0 + 1)
2n
−0
2n
−2.0 −1 = 0 ⇒f(x)
.
.
. x.
4) Cho d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai f(x) = 14 +x
2
∈ Z
15
[x]. Khi d¯´o c´ o 4 nghiˆe
.
m trong
Z
15
l` a 1, 14 = −1, 4, 11 = −4 (ngo`ai ra khˆong c`on nghiˆe
.
m n`ao kh´ ac).
D
-
a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai g(x) = 20 + x
2
∈ Z
21
[x] c´ o d¯´ ung 4 nghiˆe
.
m trong Z
21
l`a
1, 20, 8, 13.
6.2. THU
ˆ
A
.
T TO
´
AN CHIA.
6.2.1. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y (Ph´ep chia Euclid v´ o
.
i du
.
): Cho f(x), g(x) ∈ F[x] v´o
.
i
g(x) = 0. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i duy nhˆa
´
t c´ ac d¯a th´ u
.
c q(x), r(x) ∈ F[x] sao cho
f(x) = g(x)q(x) +r(x),
trong d¯´o deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x)). Ta n´oi f(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c bi
.
chia, g(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c
chia, q(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c thu
.
o
.
ng v`a r(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c du
.
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: 1) T´ınh duy nhˆa
´
t: Gia’ su
.

f(x) = g(x)q(x) +r(x) = g(x)q
1
(x) +r
1
(x),
trong d¯´o q(x), q
1
(x), r(x), r
1
(x) ∈ F[x] v´o
.
i deg(r(x)), deg(r
1
(x)) < deg(g(x)), t` u
.
d¯´o suy ra deg(r(x)−r
1
(x)) < deg(g(x)). Khi d¯´o r(x)−r
1
(x) = g(x)[q
1
(x)−q(x)].
Nˆe
´
u r(x) = r
1
(x) th`ı r(x) − r
1
(x) v`a q
1
(x) − q(x) l`a hai d¯a th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 trong
F[x] v` a deg(r(x) − r
1
(x)) = deg(g(x)) + deg(q
1
(x) −q(x)) ≥ deg(g(x)). D
-
iˆe
`
u vˆo
l´ y n` ay cho biˆe
´
t r(x) = r
1
(x) v`a khi d¯´o q(x) = q
1
(x).
Su
.
.
tˆ o
`
n ta
.
i: Nˆe
´
u deg(f(x)) < deg(g(x)) th`ı f(x) = g(x)q(x) +r(x), v´o
.
i q(x) = 0
v` a r(x) = f(x).
Nˆe
´
u deg(f(x)) ≥ deg(g(x)), v´ o
.
i f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + + a
n
x
n
, g(x) =
b
0
+b
1
x+ +b
m
x
m
(m ≤ n), ta lˆa
´
y h(x) =
a
n
b
m
x
n−m
v`a f
1
(x) = f(x)−g(x)h(x)
143
th`ı ta c´o f(x) = g(x)h(x) + f
1
(x), v´o
.
i deg(f
1
(x)) < deg(f(x)). Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, ta c´o
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n f
1
(x) = g(x)h
1
(x) +f
2
(x), v´o
.
i deg(f
2
(x)) < deg(f
1
(x)). Tiˆe
´
p tu
.
c nhu
.
vˆ a
.
y ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d˜ay f
1
(x), f
2
(x), . . . , f
k
(x) sao cho deg(f
k
(x)) < deg(g(x)). Khi d¯´o
f(x) = g(x)q(x) +r(x) v´o
.
i q(x) = h(x) +h
1
(x) + +h
k−1
(x) v`a r(x) = f
k
(x).
Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u r(x) = 0 th`ı f(x) = g(x)q(x) v`a ta n´oi f(x) chia hˆe
´
t cho
g(x) hay g(x) l`a mˆo
.
t u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a f(x), k´ y hiˆe
.
u f(x)
.
.
. g(x).
6.2.2. Hˆe
.
qua’ : Cho f(x) ∈ F[x] v`a c ∈ F. Khi d¯´o du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia f(x) cho
x −c l`a f(c).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Ta c´o f(x) = (x −c)q(x) +r(x), v´o
.
i deg(r(x)) < deg(x−c) = 1,
cho nˆen r(x) = r ∈ F. Thay x = c, ta c´ o r = f(c).
6.2.3. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Cho f(x), g(x) ∈ F[x] l`a hai d¯a th´ u
.
c khˆong d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng
d¯a th´ u
.
c 0. D
-
a th´ u
.
c d(x) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f(x) v`a g(x) nˆe
´
u n´o
l` a mˆo
.
t u
.
´o
.
c chung cu’ a f(x) v`a g(x) v` a mo
.
i u
.
´o
.
c chung cu’ a f(x) v` a g(x) d¯ˆe
`
u l`a u
.
´o
.
c
cu’ a d(x), k´ y hiˆe
.
u d(x) = UCLN(f(x), g(x)) hay d¯o
.
n gia’ n l`a d(x) = (f(x), g(x)).
Khi d(x) l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo
´
kh´ac khˆong th`ı f(x) v`a g(x) d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung
nhau, k´ y hiˆe
.
u (f(x), g(x)) = 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, f(x) v`a g(x) nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau khi v`a chı ’ khi f(x) v`a g(x)
khˆong c` ung chia hˆe
´
t cho d¯a th´ u
.
c n`ao c´o bˆa
.
c ≥ 1.
Nˆe
´
u d
1
(x) v`a d
2
(x) l`a hai u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f(x) v`a g(x) trong F[x]
th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i u(x), v(x) ∈ F[x] sao cho d
1
(x) = u(x)d
2
(x), d
2
(x) = v(x)d
1
(x). Khi
d¯´o d
1
(x) = u(x)v(x)d
1
(x) hay u(x)v(x) = 1. Do d¯´o u(x) = c, v(x) = d ∈ F v`a
cd = 1. T` u
.
d¯´o suy ra d
1
(x) = cd
2
(x), v´o
.
i c ∈ F, c = 0.
T` u
.
d¯i
.
nh ngh˜ıa vˆe
`
u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t cu’ a hai d¯a th´ u
.
c, ta dˆe
˜
d`ang suy ra
mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
du
.
´o
.
i d¯ˆay.
6.2.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Cho c´ ac d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x), g(x), q(x), r(x) ∈ F[x] thoa’ m˜an
f(x) = g(x)q(x) + r(x), v´o
.
i f(x) v`a g(x) khˆ ong d¯ˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng d¯a th´ u
.
c 0. Khi
d¯´o UCLN(f(x), g(x)) =UCLN(g(x), r(x)).
6.2.5. Ch´ u ´ y (Thuˆa
.
t to´an Euclid t`ım UCLN): Cho hai d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x), g(x) ∈
F[x], v´o
.
i g(x) = 0. Theo d¯i
.
nh l´ y vˆe
`
ph´ep chia v´ o
.
i du
.
, ta c´ o f(x) = g(x)q
1
(x) +
r
1
(x), v´o
.
i deg(r
1
(x)) < deg(g(x)). Nˆe
´
u r
1
(x) = 0 th`ı UCLN(f(x), g(x)) = g(x).
Nˆe
´
u r
1
(x) = 0, la
.
i su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep chia v´o
.
i du
.
, ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c d˜ay:
f(x) = g(x)q
1
(x) +r
1
(x), 0 = deg(r
1
(x)) < deg(g(x)),
g(x) = r
1
(x)q
2
(x) +r
2
(x), 0 = deg(r
2
(x)) < deg(r
1
(x)),
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
r
k−2
(x) = r
k−1
(x)q
k
(x) +r
k
(x), 0 = deg(r
k
(x)) < deg(r
k−1
(x)),
r
k−1
(x) = r
k
(x)q
k+1
(x) +c, c ∈ F.
144
Theo (6.2.4), UCLN(f(x), g(x)) =UCLN(g(x), r
1
(x)) =UCLN(r
1
(x), r
2
(x))
= =UCLN(r
k−1
(x), r
k
(x)) =UCLN(r
k
(x), c).
Nˆe
´
u c = 0 th`ı UCLN(f(x), g(x)) = r
k
(x).
Nˆe
´
u c = 0 th`ı f(x) v`a g(x) nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau.
6.2.6. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Hai d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x), g(x) ∈ F[x] nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau khi v`a
chı’ khi tˆo
`
n ta
.
i r(x), s(x) ∈ F[x] sao cho f(x)r(x) +g(x)s(x) = 1.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d¯u’ : Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i r(x), s(x) ∈ F[x] sao cho f(x)r(x) + g(x)s(x) = 1
th`ı t` u
.
d(x) l`a u
.
´o
.
c chung bˆa
´
t k` y cu’ a f(x) v`a g(x) ta suy ra d(x) l`a u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a 1,
t´ u
.
c l`a d(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c 0. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, f(x) v`a g(x) khˆong c´ o u
.
´o
.
c chung n`ao l`a
d¯a th´ u
.
c c´o bˆa
.
c ≥ 1, do d¯´o f(x) v`a g(x) nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau.
D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n: Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) v`a g(x) nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau. Ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n x´et
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ca’ hai d¯a th´ u
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u kh´ ac khˆong. Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n thuˆa
.
t to´an Euclid o
.

(6.2.5) ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c c = 0.
Ta nhˆa
.
n thˆa
´
y c t´ınh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c theo r
k−1
(x), r
k
(x), rˆo
`
i r
k
(x) t´ınh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c theo
r
k−1
(x) v`a r
k−2
(x), . . . , r
1
(x) t´ınh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c g(x) v`a f(x). Do d¯´o c t´ınh d¯u
.
o
.
.
c
theo f(x) v`a g(x) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng c = f(x)¯ r(x) + g(x)¯ s(x). V`ı c = 0 nˆen ta c´o
f(x)r(x) +g(x)s(x) = 1, v´ o
.
i r(x) = c
−1
¯ r(x), s(x) = c
−1
¯ s(x).
Th´ı du
.
: 1) H˜ay x´ac d¯i
.
nh sˆo
´
nguyˆen p d¯ˆe

du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia d¯a th´ u
.
c x
3
+px+5
cho x
2
+ 5x + 6 trong Z
7
[x] b˘a
`
ng 0.
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep chia Euclid trong Z
7
[x] d¯a th´ u
.
c x
3
+px+5 cho x
2
+5x+6,
ta nhˆ a
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
o
.
ng l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c x + 2 v`a du
.
l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c (p −6 −3)x. D
-
ˆe

cho
(p −6 −3) = 0 ta pha’ i c´ o p ≡ 2 (mod 7), hay p c´o da
.
ng 7k + 2 v´ o
.
i k ∈ Z.
2) T`ım u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f(x) = x
5
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1 v` a g(x) =
x
3
+ 2x
2
+x + 1 trong Q[x].
f(x) = g(x)q
1
(x) +r
1
(x), q
1
(x) = x
2
−2x + 4, r
1
(x) = −6x
2
−x −3,
g(x) = r
1
(x)q
2
(x) +r
2
(x), q
2
(x) = −
1
6
x −
11
36
, r
2
(x) =
7
36
x +
1
12
,
r
1
(x) = r
2
(x)q
3
(x)r
3
(x), q
3
(x) = −
216
7
x +
396
49
, r
3
(x) = −
180
49
.
Vˆa
.
y u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f(x) = x
5
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1 v`a g(x) = x
3
+
2x
2
+x + 1 l`a 1 hay (f(x), g(x)) = 1.
6.3. D
-
A TH
´
U
.
C B
ˆ
A
´
T KHA

QUY.
6.3.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa: D
-
a th´ u
.
c f(x) ∈ F[x] d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen F hay
trong F[x] nˆe
´
u n´o c´ o bˆa
.
c du
.
o
.
ng v`a nˆe
´
u n´o khˆong th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n mˆo
.
t phˆan t´ıch n`ao
c´ o da
.
ng f(x) = g(x)h(x), trong d¯´o c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c g(x), h(x) ∈ F[x] d¯ˆe
`
u c´o bˆa
.
c nho’
145
ho
.
n deg(f(x)). Mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c d¯u
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a kha’ quy trˆen F nˆe
´
u n´o khˆong bˆa
´
t kha’
quy trˆen F.
N´oi c´ach kh´ac, d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) ∈ F[x] l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen F nˆe
´
u n´ o c´o bˆa
.
c
du
.
o
.
ng v`a chı ’ chia hˆe
´
t cho c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c du
.
o
.
ng c´o da
.
ng cf(x) ∈ F[x], trong
d¯´o c ∈ F ` ¦0¦.
Th´ı du
.
: 1) Mo
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c nhˆa
´
t trong F[x] d¯ˆe
`
u bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen F.
2) Mo
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen F bˆa
.
c l´o
.
n ho
.
n 1 d¯ˆe
`
u vˆo nghiˆe
.
m trong F.
D
-
iˆe
`
u ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i khˆong d¯´ ung. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, f(x) = (x
2
+x +1)(x
2
+2x +3) ∈
R[x] vˆ o nghiˆe
.
m trong R nhu
.
ng la
.
i kha’ quy trˆen R.
3) Cho f(x) ∈ F[x] c´o deg(f(x)) = 2 ho˘a
.
c 3. Khi d¯´o nˆe
´
u f(x) kha’ quy th`ı
trong F[x] c´o phˆ an t´ıch f(x) = g(x)h(x) v`a g(x) ho˘a
.
c h(x) l`a bˆa
.
c nhˆa
´
t, do d¯´o n´o
c´ o nghiˆe
.
m. V`ı vˆ a
.
y, trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay, f(x) l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen F khi v`a chı ’
khi f(x) vˆo nghiˆe
.
m trong F.
Ch´ ung ta th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n d¯i
.
nh l´ y sau d¯ˆay, n´oi vˆe
`
t´ınh d¯´ong d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
cu’ a tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c C.
6.3.2. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y (D
-
i
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n cu’ a D
-
a
.
i sˆ o
´
ho
.
c): Mo
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c du
.
o
.
ng
v´ o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c d¯ˆe
`
u c´o nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c.
N´oi c´ ach kh´ ac, mˆ o
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c l`a bˆ a
´
t kha’ quy trˆen C khi v`a chı ’ khi
n´ o l` a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c nhˆa
´
t.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u f(x) ∈ C[x] c´o bˆa
.
c n th`ı n´o th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n phˆan t´ıch
f(x) = a
n
(x −z
1
) . . . (x −z
n
),
trong d¯´o a
n
= 0 l`a hˆe
.
sˆo
´
dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a f(x) v`a z
1
, . . . , z
n
l`a c´ac sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c n`ao d¯´o.
Cho t´o
.
i nay, mo
.
i ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯˜a biˆe
´
t cu’ a d¯i
.
nh l´ y n`ay d¯ˆe
`
u mang ba’ n s˘a
´
c
Tˆ opˆ o, H`ınh ho
.
c ho˘a
.
c Gia’ i t´ıch. Chu
.
a c´o mˆo
.
t ch´ u
.
ng minh thuˆa
`
n tu´ y d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
n`ao
cho d¯i
.
nh l´ y n`ay.
Nh˘a
´
c la
.
i r˘a
`
ng tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c ax
2
+ bx + c khˆong c´ o nghiˆe
.
m
thu
.
.
c khi v`a chı ’ khi biˆe
.
t th´ u
.
c cu’ a n´o ∆ = b
2
−4ac < 0.
Mˆo
.
t ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a d¯i
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n cu’ a d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
ho
.
c l`a kh˘a

ng d¯i
.
nh sau d¯ˆay.
6.3.3. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y: Mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen R khi v`a chı’ khi
n´ o ho˘a
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c nhˆa
´
t ho˘a
.
c l`a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai v´o
.
i biˆe
.
t th´ u
.
c ˆam.
Ho
.
n n˜ u
.
a, mo
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) ∈ R[x] d¯ˆe
`
u th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n phˆan t´ıch
f(x) = a
n
(x −x
1
)
k
1
. . . (x −x
r
)
k
r
(x
2
+b
1
x +c
1
)
l
1
. . . (x
2
+b
s
x +c
s
)
l
s
,
trong d¯´o a
n
l`a hˆe
.
sˆo
´
dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a f(x),
r
¸
i=1
k
i
+
s
¸
j=1
l
j
= n = deg(f(x)), x
1
, . . . , x
r
l` a c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a c´ ac tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c (x
2
+b
i
x + c
i
) d¯ˆe
`
u khˆong c´o
nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c.
146
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: R˜o r`ang mo
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c bˆa
.
c nhˆa
´
t ho˘a
.
c bˆa
.
c hai v´o
.
i biˆe
.
t
th´ u
.
c ˆam d¯ˆe
`
u bˆ a
´
t kha’ quy trˆen R. Kh˘a

ng d¯i
.
nh ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i d¯u
.
o
.
.
c bao h`am trong
phˆan t´ıch cˆa
`
n t`ım cho mo
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) n´oi trong d¯i
.
nh l´ y.
Go
.
i x
1
, . . . , x
r
l`a tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c cu’ a f(x) v´o
.
i bˆo
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng b˘a
`
ng
k
1
, . . . , k
r
. Ta c´o
f(x) = a
n
(x −x
1
)
k
1
. . . (x −x
r
)
k
r
P(x),
trong d¯´o P(x) l`a mˆ o
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c nhu
.
ng khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c. Gia’ su
.

z
1
l` a mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c cu’ a P(x), khi d¯´o z
1
c˜ ung l`a mˆ o
.
t nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a P(x). Thˆ a
.
t
vˆ a
.
y, P(x) c´ o da
.
ng P(x) = d
m
x
m
+ +d
1
x +d
0
, trong d¯´o d
m
, . . . , d
0
l`a c´ac sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c, t´ u
.
c l`a d
i
= d
i
. Dˆe
˜
thˆa
´
y r˘a
`
ng
0 = P(z
1
) = d
m
z
m
1
+ +d
1
z
1
+d
0
= d
m
.z
m
1
+ +d
1
.z
1
+d
0
= d
m
z
m
1
+ +d
1
z
1
+d
0
= P(z
1
).
Do d¯´o P(x) = (x − z
1
)(x − z
1
)Q(x), trong d¯´o Q(x) l`a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c. Nhˆa
.
n
x´et r˘a
`
ng
(x −z
1
)(x −z
1
) = x
2
−(z
1
+z
1
)x +z
1
z
1
= x
2
−2Re(z
1
)x +[z
1
[
2
l` a mˆo
.
t tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c nhu
.
ng khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c. Do t´ınh duy
nhˆa
´
t cu’ a ph´ep chia d¯a th´ u
.
c P(x) cho d¯a th´ u
.
c x
2
− 2Re(z
1
)x + [z
1
[
2
trong c´ac
v` anh R[x] v`a C[x], ta c´o Q(x) c˜ ung l`a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c. N´o khˆong c´ o
nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c v`ı P(x) c˜ ung vˆa
.
y. L˘a
.
p la
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng lˆa
.
p luˆa
.
n o
.
’ trˆen v´o
.
i Q(x) thay cho
P(x). Bo
.
’ i v`ı deg(Q(x)) < deg(P(x)), cho nˆen ta nhˆ a
.
n d¯u
.
o
.
.
c phˆan t´ıch cu’ a f(x)
nhu
.
n´oi trong d¯i
.
nh l´ y b˘a
`
ng c´ach quy na
.
p theo deg(P(x)).
6.3.4. Mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
: Nˆe
´
u d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c du
.
o
.
ng f(x) = a
0
+a
1
x + +a
n
x
n
∈ Z[x]
c´ o mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı’ th`ı nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı’ d¯´o c´o da
.
ng
r
s
, v´ o
.
i r[a
0
v`a s[a
n
.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh: Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) c´o mˆ o
.
t nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı’ c =
p
q
. Khi d¯´o p = rd, q = sd,
v´ o
.
i d l`a u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆ a
´
t cu’ a p v`a q v`a c =
r
s
, v´o
.
i (r, s) = 1 (t´ u
.
c l` a r v`a s
nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau). Do f(c) = 0, ta c´o a
0
s
n
+ a
1
rs
n−1
+ +a
n−1
r
n−1
s +
a
n
r
n
= 0, do d¯´o s[a
n
r
n
v`a r[a
0
s
n
. T` u
.
(s, r
n
) = 1 v`a (r, s
n
) = 1 ta suy ra r[a
0
v` a s[a
n
.
Ch´ ung ta th` u
.
a nhˆa
.
n d¯i
.
nh l´ y sau d¯ˆay, mˆo
.
t d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d¯u’ cu’ a t´ınh bˆa
´
t kha’
quy trˆen Q.
6.3.5. D
-
i
.
nh l´ y (Tiˆeu chuˆa

n bˆa
´
t kha’ quy Eisenstein): Cho d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) =
a
0
+a
1
x + +a
n
x
n
∈ Z[x] (n > 1). Khi d¯´o nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo
´
nguyˆen tˆo
´
p sao cho
p[a
0
, p[a
1
, . . . , p[a
n−1
, p [a
n
, p
2
[a
0
th`ı f(x) l`a bˆ a
´
t kha’ quy trˆen Q.
147
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P CHU
.
O
.
NG VI
1. T`ım tˆa
´
t ca’ c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c P(x) thoa’ m˜an d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n P(0) = 0 v`a
d¯ˆo
`
ng nhˆa
´
t th´ u
.
c:
P(x) =
1
2
(P(x + 1) +P(x −1)), ∀x ∈ R.
2. 1) Cho f(x) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c n v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a f

(x) l`a d¯a
.
o h`am cu’ a f(x).
Biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng f(x) c´ o n nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c
a khˆong pha’ i l` a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a f(x) th`ı
1
a −x
1
+
1
a −x
2
+ +
1
a −x
n
=
f

(a)
f(a)
.
2) Cho d¯a th´ u
.
c ϕ(x) = x
3
+x
2
−4x + 1 c´ o 3 nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c x
1
, x
2
, x
3
. T´ınh
A =
1
x
2
1
−3x
1
+ 2
+
1
x
2
2
−3x
2
+ 2
+
1
x
2
3
−3x
3
+ 2
,
B =
1
x
2
1
−2x
1
+ 1
+
1
x
2
2
−2x
2
+ 1
+
1
x
2
3
−2x
3
+ 1
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen n, d¯a th´ u
.
c
(x + 1)
2n+1
+x
n+2
chia hˆe
´
t cho d¯a th´ u
.
c x
2
+x + 1.
4. Cho k v`a n l`a hai sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, r l`a du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia Euclid k cho n.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia Euclid x
k
cho x
n
−1 l`a x
r
.
5. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng v`a ϕ l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c. T`ım du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia
Euclid (xsin ϕ + cos ϕ)
n
cho x
2
+ 1 trong C[x].
6. Trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng Q c´ac sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’, t`ım u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a
f(x) = 2x
4
−x
3
+x
2
+ 3x + 1, g(x) = 2x
3
−3x
2
+ 2x + 2
v` a sau d¯´o biˆe

u thi
.
n´o nhu
.
l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c d¯˜a cho.
7. Trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng Z
3
, t`ım u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a
f(x) = x
5
+x
3
+x
2
+x + 1, g(x) = x
3
+ 2x
2
+x + 1.
8. Cho A, B, C thuˆ o
.
c F[x], F l`a mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u A, B, C
nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau t` u
.
ng d¯ˆoi mˆ o
.
t th`ı AB+BC +CA v`a ABC nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung
nhau.
148
9. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong R[x] c´ ac d¯a th´ u
.
c A = x
4
+ 1 v` a B = x
3
−1 nguyˆen
tˆ o
´
c` ung nhau v`a t`ım mˆo
.
t c˘ a
.
p U, V ∈ R[x] thoa’ m˜an:
AU +BV = 1.
10. D` ung tiˆeu chuˆa

n Eisenstein d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac d¯a th´ u
.
c sau l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy
trong Q[x]:
1) x
4
−13x
3
+ 45x
2
−61x + 25.
2) x
4
+x
3
+x
2
+x + 1.
11. 1) D` ung tiˆeu chuˆa

n Eisenstein d¯ˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh d¯a th´ u
.
c sau l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy
trong Q[x]:
x
3
−3x + 1.
2) Trong v`anh Q[x], ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d¯a th´ u
.
c f(x) = x
3
−3n
2
x+n
3
v´o
.
i n
l` a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, l`a mˆo
.
t d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
´
t kha’ quy.
12. Cho n l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng, a v`a b l`a hai sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c kh´ac nhau. T`ım hai
d¯a th´ u
.
c U v`a V trong R[x] sao cho

U(x −a)
n
+V (x −b)
n
= 1,
deg(U) ≤ n −1, deg(V ) ≤ n −1.
13. T`ım d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n v`a d¯u’ d¯ˆe

d¯a th´ u
.
c
f(x) = x
4
+px
2
+q ∈ Q[x]
l` a bˆ a
´
t kha’ quy trˆen Q.
14. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) = (x − a
1
)(x − a
2
) . . . (x − a
n
) − 1 v´o
.
i a
i
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
nguyˆen
phˆan biˆe
.
t, i = 1, . . . , n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng f(x) l`a bˆ a
´
t kha’ quy trˆen Q.
149
TRA

L
`
O
.
I V
`
A HU
.
´
O
.
NG D
ˆ
A
˜
N GIA

I B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
CHU
.
O
.
NG VI
1. R˜o r`ang P(0) = 0P(1). Gia’ su
.
’ P(k) = kP(1) v´o
.
i 0 ≤ k ≤ n. Khi d¯´o
P(n + 1) = 2P(n) −P(n −1) = 2nP(1) −(n −1)P(1) = (n + 1)P(1). Vˆa
.
y theo
nguyˆen l´ y quy na
.
p ta c´ o P(n) = nP(1), ∀n ∈ N.
Do d¯´o d¯a th´ u
.
c P(x) −xP(1) c´ o vˆo sˆo
´
nghiˆe
.
m, nˆen P(x) −xP(1) l`a d¯a th´ u
.
c
khˆong. D
-
˘a
.
t a = P(1), ta c´o
P(x) = ax.
2. 1) Ta c´o f(x) = c(x −x
1
)(x −x
2
) . . . (x −x
n
) v´o
.
i c ∈ R, c = 0. Khi d¯´o
f

(x) = c[(x −x
2
)(x −x
3
) . . . (x −x
n
) + (x −x
1
)(x −x
3
) . . . (x −x
n
) +
+(x −x
1
)(x −x
2
) . . . (x −x
n−1
)].
T` u
.
d¯ˆay suy ra
f

(a)
f(a)
=
1
a −x
1
+
1
a −x
2
+ +
1
a −x
n
.
2)
A =
1
(2 −x
1
)(1 −x
1
)
+
1
(2 −x
2
)(1 −x
2
)
+
1
(2 −x
3
)(1 −x
3
)
= (
1
1 −x
1
+
1
1 −x
2
+
1
1 −x
3
) −(
1
2 −x
1
+
1
2 −x
2
+
1
2 −x
3
)
=
ϕ

(1)
ϕ(1)

ϕ

(2)
ϕ(2)
.
Ta c´o ϕ(1) = −1, ϕ(2) = 5, ϕ

(1) = 1, ϕ

(2) = 12. Vˆa
.
y A = −
17
5
.
Lˆa
´
y d¯a
.
o h`am 2 vˆe
´
cu’ a
1
x −x
1
+
1
x −x
2
+
1
x −x
3
=
ϕ

(x)
ϕ(x)
, ta c´ o
−(
1
(x −x
1
)
2
+
1
(x −x
2
)
2
+
1
(x −x
3
)
2
) =
ϕ(x)ϕ

(x) −ϕ

(x)
2
ϕ(x)
2
.
Do d¯´o B =
1
(1 −x
1
)
2
+
1
(1 −x
2
)
2
+
1
(1 −x
3
)
2
=
ϕ

(1)
2
−ϕ(1)ϕ

(1)
ϕ(1)
2
= 9.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh quy na
.
p theo n. R˜o r`ang mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung khi n = 0. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆe
.
nh
d¯ˆe
`
d¯´ ung d¯ˆe
´
n n. Khi d¯´o
(x + 1)
2n+3
+x
n+3
= (x + 1)
2
(x + 1)
2n+1
+x.x
n+2
= (x
2
+ 2x + 1)(x + 1)
2n+1
+x.x
n+2
= (x
2
+x + 1)(x + 1)
2n+1
+x((x + 1)
2n+1
+x
n+2
).
150
Sˆ o
´
ha
.
ng th´ u
.
nhˆa
´
t chia hˆe
´
t cho x
2
+x+1, sˆo
´
ha
.
ng th´ u
.
hai chia hˆe
´
t cho x
2
+x+1
theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t quy na
.
p. Vˆa
.
y mˆe
.
nh d¯ˆe
`
d¯u
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh.
4. x
k
= x
qn+r
= (x
qn
− 1)x
r
+ x
r
= (x
n
− 1)

q−1
¸
j=0
x
jn+r

+ x
r
, trong d¯´o
deg(x
r
) = r < n = deg(x
n
−1). Do d¯´o du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia Euclid x
k
cho x
n
−1 l`a
x
r
.
5. Theo ph´ep chia Euclide (xsin ϕ + cos ϕ)
n
cho x
2
+ 1, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i q(x) ∈ C[x] v` a
a, b ∈ C sao cho (xsin ϕ + cos ϕ)
n
= (x
2
+ 1)q(x) +ax +b.
Thay x bo
.
’ i i v`a −i, ta c´o

ai +b = cos(nϕ) +i sin(nϕ),
−ai +b = cos(−nϕ) +i sin(−nϕ).
.
T` u
.
d¯´o du
.
cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a xsin(nϕ) + cos(nϕ).
6. Su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep chia Euclid:
f(x) = (x + 1)g(x) + (2x
2
−x −1),
g(x) = (x −1)(2x
2
−x −1) + (2x + 1),
2x
2
−x −1 = (x −1)(2x + 1).
Do d¯´o 2x + 1 l`a u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f(x) v`a g(x). Ta c´o
2x + 1 = g(x) −(x −1)(2x
2
−x −1) = g(x) −(x −1)(f(x) −(x + 1)g(x))
= g(x) + (x
2
−1)g(x) −(x −1)f(x)
= x
2
g(x) −(x −1)f(x).
7. Su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep chia Euclid:
f(x) = (x
2
+x + 1)g(x) + 2x,
g(x) = 2x(2x
2
+x) +x + 1,
2x = 2(x + 1) + 1.
Do d¯´o 1 l`a u
.
´o
.
c chung l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t cu’ a f(x) v`a g(x).
8. Gia’ su
.
’ AB + BC + CA khˆong nguyˆen tˆo
´
c` ung nhau v´ o
.
i ABC. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n
ta
.
i d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
´
t kha’ quy D ∈ F[x] sao cho D [ (AB + BC + CA) v`a D [ ABC.
Do D bˆa
´
t kha’ quy nˆen D [ A ho˘a
.
c D [ B ho˘a
.
c D [ C. Gia’ su
.
’ D [ A. V`ı D [ A v`a
D [ (AB +BC +CA) nˆen D [ BC v`a do D bˆa
´
t kha’ quy nˆen D [ B ho˘a
.
c D [ C.
Gia’ su
.
’ D [ B. Vˆa
.
y D [ A v`a D [ B. Mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i d¯iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n (A, B) = 1.
9. Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n liˆen tiˆe
´
p ph´ep chia Euclid, ta d¯u
.
o
.
.
c (A, B) = 1.
V´o
.
i U =
1
2
(x
2
−x + 1), V = −
1
2
(x
3
−x
2
+x + 1), ta c´ o AU +BV = 1.
10. 1) Thay x b˘a
`
ng x + 1, ta c´o
(x + 1)
4
−13(x + 1)
3
+ 45(x + 1)
2
−61(x + 1) + 25 = x
4
−9x
3
+ 12x
2
−6x −3.
151
D
-
a th´ u
.
c n`ay bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trong Q[x] theo tiˆeu chuˆa

n Eisenstein v´o
.
i p = 3.
2) Thay x b˘a
`
ng x + 1, ta c´ o
(x + 1)
4
+ (x + 1)
3
+ (x + 1)
2
+ (x + 1) + 1 = x
4
+ 5x
3
+ 10x
2
+ 10x + 5.
D
-
a th´ u
.
c n`ay bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trong Q[x] theo tiˆeu chuˆa

n Eisenstein v´o
.
i p = 5.
11. 1) Thay x b˘a
`
ng x + 2, ta c´o
(x + 2)
3
−3(x + 2) + 1 = x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 9x + 3.
D
-
a th´ u
.
c n`ay bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trong Q[x] theo tiˆeu chuˆa

n Eisenstein v´o
.
i p = 3.
2) f(x) c´o bˆa
.
c 3 trong Q[x] nˆen f(x) l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trong Q[x] khi v`a chı ’
khi f(x) vˆo nghiˆe
.
m trong Q.
Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) c´o nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı ’ l`a q ∈ Q. Khi d¯´o q
3
− 3n
2
q + n
3
= 0 hay

q
n

3
−3

q
n

+1 = 0. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
q
n
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a d¯a th´ u
.
c x
3
−3x+1. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay
mˆau thuˆa

n v´o
.
i 1).
12. (b−a)
2n−1
= ((x−a)−(x−b))
2n−1
=
2n−1
¸
k=0
C
k
2n−1
(−1)
k
(x−a)
2n−1−k
(x−b)
k
=

n−1
¸
k=0
C
k
2n−1
(−1)
k
(x −a)
n−1−k
(x −b)
k

(x −a)
n
+
+

2n−1
¸
k=n
C
k
2n−1
(−1)
k
(x−a)
2n−1−k
(x−b)
k−n

(x−b)
n
.
T` u
.
d¯´o ta c´o U(x −a)
n
+V (x −b)
n
= 1, trong d¯´o

U =
1
(b −a)
2n−1
n−1
¸
k=0
C
k
2n−1
(−1)
k
(x −a)
n−1−k
(x −b)
k
,
V =
1
(b −a)
2n−1
n−1
¸
l=0
C
n+l
2n−1
(−1)
n+l
(x −a)
n−1−l
(x −b)
l
.
13. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) l`a kha’ quy trˆen Q. Khi d¯´o f(x) c´ o thˆe

phˆan t´ıch d¯u
.
o
.
.
c th`anh
t´ıch cu’ a hai d¯a th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai:
x
4
+px
2
+q = (x
2
+ax +m)(x
2
+bx +n).
So s´ anh hˆe
.
sˆo
´
o
.
’ hai vˆe
´
, ta suy ra

a +b = 0,
m+n +ab = p,
an +bm = 0,
mn = q.
152
Nˆe
´
u a = 0 th`ı b = 0 v`a

m +n = p,
mn = q.
Khi d¯´o m v`a n l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
− px + q = 0. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay c´o nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u tı’ khi v`a chı’
khi ∆ = p
2
−4q l`a b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
Nˆe
´
u a = 0 th`ı m = n v`a

a = −b,
2n −a
2
= p,
n
2
= q.
V`ı a v`a n l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’
nˆen q, 2

q −p pha’ i l` a b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
T` u
.
c´ac kˆe
´
t qua’ trˆen suy ra r˘a
`
ng d¯a th´ u
.
c x
4
+px
2
+ q l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen
Q khi v`a chı’ khi q, p
2
−4q v`a 2

q −p khˆong pha’ i l`a b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’.
14. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) = (x − a
1
)(x − a
2
) . . . (x − a
n
) − 1 v´o
.
i a
i
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo
´
nguyˆen
phˆan biˆe
.
t, i = 1, . . . , n, khˆong pha’ i l`a bˆa
´
t kha’ quy trˆen Q. Khi d¯´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hai
d¯a th´ u
.
c g(x) v`a h(x) trong Z[x] sao cho
(1) f(x) = g(x)h(x), v´o
.
i 0 < deg(g(x)), deg(h(x)) < deg(f(x)).
T` u
.
d¯˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (1) suy ra f(a
i
) = g(a
i
)h(a
i
) = −1, v´o
.
i i = 1, . . . , n. V`ı
g(a
i
), h(a
i
) ∈ Z nˆen g(a
i
) = −h(a
i
), v´o
.
i i = 1, . . . , n.
D
-
˘a
.
t k(x) = g(x) + h(x). Nˆe
´
u k(x) = 0 th`ı ta c´o g(x) = −h(x), nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
f(x) = −(g(x))
2
. Hˆe
.
sˆo
´
dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a f(x) b˘a
`
ng 1, c` on hˆe
.
sˆo
´
dˆa
˜
n d¯ˆa
`
u cu’ a
−(g(x))
2
luˆon ˆam. D
-
iˆe
`
u n`ay khˆong thˆe

xa’ y ra. Nˆe
´
u k(x) = 0 th`ı deg(k(x)) < n,
nhu
.
ng k(a
i
) = g(a
i
) +h(a
i
) = 0, i = 1, . . . , n. Vˆa
.
y k(x) c´o n nghiˆe
.
m phˆan biˆe
.
t,
mˆau thuˆa
˜
n v´o
.
i deg(k(x)) < n.
153
T
`
AI LI
ˆ
E
.
U THAM KHA

O
[1] G. Birkhoff v` a S. MacLane, Tˆo

ng quan vˆe
`
d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
hiˆe
.
n d¯a
.
i (Ba’ n di
.
ch tiˆe
´
ng
Viˆe
.
t), NXB D
-
H & THCN, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1979.
[2] Nguyˆe
˜
n Gia D
-
i
.
nh, Gi´ao tr`ınh To´an cao cˆ a
´
p 1 (Phˆa
`
n D
-
a
.
i sˆo
´
), NXB Gi´ao du
.
c,
H` a Nˆo
.
i, 2005.
[3] Nguyˆe
˜
n Gia D
-
i
.
nh, B`ai tˆ a
.
p D
-
a
.
i sˆo
´
(Tˆa
.
p 1), NXB Gi´ao du
.
c, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 2004.
[4] B` ui Duy Hiˆe
`
n, B`ai tˆa
.
p D
-
a
.
i sˆo
´
d¯a
.
i cu
.
o
.
ng, NXB Gi´ao du
.
c, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 2001.
[5] Trˆa
`
n Diˆen Hiˆe

n, Nguyˆe
˜
n V˘an Ngo
.
c, Gi´ao tr`ınh To´an cao cˆa
´
p I, NXB Gi´ao
du
.
c, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1997.
[6] Nguyˆe
˜
n H˜ u
.
u Viˆe
.
t Hu
.
ng, D
-
a
.
i sˆo
´
d¯a
.
i cu
.
o
.
ng, NXB Gi´ao du
.
c, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1998.
[7] Ngˆo Thˆe
´
Phiˆe
.
t, Gi´ao tr`ınh d¯a
.
i sˆo
´
(Tˆa
.
p 1), Tru
.
`o
.
ng D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Tˆo

ng ho
.
.
p Huˆe
´
,
Huˆe
´
, 1977.
[8] D
-
o`an Qu` ynh, Khu Quˆo
´
c Anh, Nguyˆe
˜
n Anh Kiˆe
.
t, Ta
.
Mˆan, Nguyˆe
˜
n Do˜an
Tuˆ a
´
n, Gi´ao tr`ınh To´an d¯a
.
i cu
.
o
.
ng, NXB D
-
a
.
i ho
.
c Quˆo
´
c Gia H`a Nˆo
.
i, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1998.
[9] Helena Rasiowa, Co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a to´an ho
.
c hiˆe
.
n d¯a
.
i (Ba’ n di
.
ch tiˆe
´
ng Viˆe
.
t), NXB
Khoa ho
.
c v`a K˜ y thuˆa
.
t, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1978.
[10] Kenneth H. Rosen, To´ an ho
.
c r`o
.
i ra
.
c ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng trong tin ho
.
c (Ba’ n di
.
ch tiˆe
´
ng
Viˆe
.
t), NXB Khoa ho
.
c v`a K˜ y thuˆa
.
t, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1997.
[11] Ho`ang Xuˆan S´ınh, D
-
a
.
i sˆo
´
d¯a
.
i cu
.
o
.
ng, NXB Gi´ao du
.
c, H`a Nˆo
.
i, 1995.
154
MU
.
C LU
.
C
L`o
.
i n´oi d¯ˆa
`
u
Chu
.
o
.
ng I: Lˆogic to´an v` a tˆ a
.
p ho
.
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1. Lˆogic to´an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
B`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Tra’ l`o
.
i v` a hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng I . . . . . . . . 22
Chu
.
o
.
ng II:
´
Anh xa
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.1.
´
Anh xa
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2. Gia’ i t´ıch tˆo

ho
.
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3. Lu
.
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4. Nh´om v`anh v`a tru
.
`o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
B`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Tra’ l`o
.
i v` a hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng II . . . . . . . 53
Chu
.
o
.
ng III: Quan hˆe
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.1. Quan hˆe
.
v`a c´ ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a n´ o . . . . . . . . . 66
3.2. Quan hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng d¯u
.
o
.
ng v`a quan hˆe
.
th´ u
.
tu
.
.
. . . . . . . 69
B`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Tra’ l`o
.
i v` a hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng III . . . . . . . 81
Chu
.
o
.
ng IV: Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen v`a sˆo
´
nguyˆen . . . . . . . . . 89
4.1. Sˆo
´
tu
.
.
nhiˆen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.2. Sˆo
´
nguyˆen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
B`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Tra’ l`o
.
i v` a hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng IV . . . . . . . 104
Chu
.
o
.
ng V: Sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı ’, sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c v`a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . 110
5.1. Sˆo
´
h˜ u
.
u tı’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.2. Sˆo
´
thu
.
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
5.3. Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
B`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Tra’ l`o
.
i v` a hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng V . . . . . . . 132
155
Chu
.
o
.
ng VI: D
-
a th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6.1. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h` am d¯a th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6.2. Thuˆa
.
t to´an chia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
6.3. D
-
a th´ u
.
c bˆa
´
t kha’ quy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
B`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Tra’ l`o
.
i v` a hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆa
.
p Chu
.
o
.
ng VI . . . . . . . 148
T`ai liˆe
.
u tham kha’ o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Mu
.
c lu
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
156