Spring 2012 Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester IV MC0076 – Management Information Systems– 4 Credits (Book ID: B0901

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Assignment Set – 1 (60 Marks)
======================================================================================= Each question carries six marks 10 x 6 = 60. 1. What do you understand by Information processes data? Ans. Data are generally considered to be raw facts that have undefined uses and application; information is considered to be processed data that influences choices, that is, data that have somehow been formatted, filtered, and summarized; and knowledge is considered to be an understanding derived from information distinctions among data, information, and knowledge may be derived from scientific terminology. The researcher collects data to test hypotheses; thus, data refer to unprocessed and unanalyzed numbers. When the data are analyzed, scientists talk about the information contained in the data and the knowledge acquired from their analyses. The confusion often extends to the information systems context, and the three terms maybe used interchangeably. The acquisition of information is a first step in its use. We can obtain information from either formal or informal sources. Formal sources provide information in a relatively organized and predictable fashion, for example, business forms; electronic monitoring equipment such as digital thermometers; and machine-readable purchased data such as an encyclopedia (Personal records, corporate annual reports, summarized transaction histories) on a compact disc. Informal sources provide information in a less structured way and include conversations with customers, suppliers, and other employees, as well as general observations of personal and organizational activities. Generally, acquiring information through informal sources costs less, but the information acquired may be harder to organize and use effectively. Data acquisition can occur manually or electronically. Managers often hand-write evaluation reports or salespeople maintain written records of customer orders. Increasingly, managers can enter evaluation data directly into the computer, and salespeople can use point-of-sale terminals to record detailed sales information electronically. Experts estimate that electronic forms for capturing data cost at least 70 percent less to design, purchase, use, carry, and revise than the equivalent paper forms. Processing information describes transforming it into a usable form. Processing typically occurs at two times: first, between the acquisition and storage of information, and second, between its retrieval and communication. The processing that occurs between acquisition and storage generally requires a large amount of personal labor. Manual processing, involves duplicating, sorting, and filing data. Electronic processing, such as with electronic scanners, involves transforming and entering the data into an electronic form. Although both manual and computerized processing may require significant clerical time and incur high costs, electronic processing can reduce these costs. Processing occurs between storing and communicating information for both manual and computerized systems. In manual systems, filing clerks typically perform the processes of retrieval, formatting, and display. When summaries or special analyses are required, analysts with special skills, such as skills in finance or accounting, may process the data. Manual information processing involves high labor and time costs but low equipment costs. Manual processing of large volumes of data tends to be more expensive than computer processing. In computerized systems the processing between retrieval and communication allows more analysis and display possibilities in a shorter time. The costs of computerized processing include rental or depreciation of computer equipment, the labor costs of operating the equipment, and the costs associated with programming software to retrieve, format, and display information. Computerized processing involves lower labor and time costs but higher equipment costs than manual processing. 2. How do you retrieve information from manual system? Ans. An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. Queries are formal statements of information needs, for example search strings in web search engines. In information retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in the collection. Instead, several objects may match the query, perhaps with different degrees of relevancy. An object is an entity that is represented by information in a database. User queries are matched against the database information. Depending on the application the data objects may be, for example, text documents, images, audio, mind maps or videos. Often the documents themselves are not kept or stored directly in the IR system, but are instead represented in the system by document surrogates or metadata. Most IR systems compute a numeric score on how well

the number of events that actually influence an organization’s activities (effective events) has also grown rapidly. patents and copyrights. as opposed to the self-sufficiency of companies producing a complex product down to its minute elements. Rather. The process may then be iterated if the user wishes to refine the query 3. are still governed by the demands of society. as another example. 2) MRS is built for situations in which information requirements are reasonably well known and are expected to remain relatively stable. Two principal factors have led to increased interdependence. Explain the different components of MIS. Ans. These differences lead to diversity. because of the infrastructure discussed earlier. an organization must have information systems able to cope with large volumes of information in a selective fashion. Ans. and increased turbulence-are not simply ancillary to a transition to the new societal form. over an extensive period time. or in terms of the volumes of corporate communications. diversity. Organizations operating in the public sector.each object in the database match the query. are the hallmarks of an information society: 1) Dramatic Increase of Available Knowledge: Whether measured in terms of the number of scholarly journals. Characteristics of MRS are: 1) MRS are usually designed by MIS professionals. Pressures on the public sector in democratic societies. Huber concludes that these factors – an increase of available knowledge. and interdependence. like their development. is a rather elaborate process. The environment in which organizatio ns op erate from the in formatio nal p ersp ectiv e in terms proposed by George Huber of the University of Texas. Great care is exercised in developing such systems because MRS is large and complex in terms of the number of system interfaces with various users and databases. 3) Increased Turbulence: The pace of events in an information society is set by technologies. who has studied the organizational design required by an information society. people and organizations learned to specialize: they do things differently and organize themselves differently to accomplish specialized tasks. His conclusions provide a framework for determining what is required of an organizational information system. growth of complexity. also make the environment in which public organizations operate more complex. . Mention different characteristics of MRS. both the production and the distribution of knowledge have undergone a manifold increase. These. we should expect that these factors would continue to expand at an accelerating rate (a positive feedback exists). interdependence has increased on a global scale. Modification of such systems. Even the most isolated of countries participates in some way in the international division of labor. Consider the volumes and speed of trades in the securities and currency markets. The top ranking objects are then shown to the user. while rarely in a competitive situation. A growing world population and the industrial revolution combined to produce numerosity. Moreover. according to Huber. they will be a permanent characteristic of the information society in the future. rather than end users. or a growing number of human organizations. organizations must be compatible with this environment 5. with the use of life-cycle oriented development methodologies (as opposed to first building a simpler prototype system and then refining it in response to user experience). A company’s product is typically a part of a larger system. The second factor is specialization in firms that make narrowly defined products." To succeed in an information society. This limits the informational flexibility of MRS but ensures a stable informational environment. To thrive. Widespread use of telefacsimile. along with the pressures conveyed from the private sector. produced with contributions from a number of interdependent firms (consider a car or a computer). has removed the "float"-the lag between sending and receiving-in written communications. we expect that the rapidly changing environment will be not only "more so" but also "much more so. Equally important. To succeed. What are the challenges of information management? 4. The speeds of today’s computer and communication technologies have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of events occurring within a given time. Moreover. and rank the objects according to this value. Bar ring some catastrophic event. The first as been the revolution in the infrastructure of transportation and communication. 2) Growth of Complexity: Huber characterizes complexity in terms of numerosity. The great amount of change and turbulence pressuring organizations today thus calls for rapid innovation in both product and organizational structure.

Use of case tool. information gained through MRS is used in the manager’s decision-making process. Expand product line to meet broader range of customer needs d. process presentation management. Poor track record in implementing strategy f. 6) MRS generally report on internal company operations rather than spanning the company’s boundaries by reporting external information. Operating system and its level of usage in the system. Interface mechanism: Data transfer. c. displayed as a screen) in a pre specified format. . imaging. Ans. if of limited size. etc. communication. Ans. Naturally. potential internal Weaknesses. Weak market image j. Below-average marketing skills l. Many servers contain illegal. lotus notes. Based on simple processing of the data summaries and extracts. but rather rely on summarization and extraction from the database according to given criteria. EDI. Well-structured decision rules. 8. Faster market growth Potential Internal Weakness are: a. Obsolete facilities c. radio. Ans. Front end tools and back end database management system tools for the data. 5) MRS generally has limited analytical capabilities-they are not built around elaborate models. rather than projecting the future. Missing key skills or competence e. 6. f. Plagued with internal operating problems g. List down the Potential External Opportunities. defamatory information (which cannot be legally communicated using facilities like TV. d. Vertical integration f. Weaker distribution network k. 1. Higher overall unit costs relative to key competitors 7. are built into the MRS itself. i. Handling of server and client based data and application logic. Lack of managerial depth and talent d. What are the technology evaluation factors that need to be considered during ERP selection. Application and use of standards in all the phases of development and in the product. Unable to finance needed changes in strategy m.). Diversify into related products e. such as economic order quantities for ordering inventory or accounting formulas for computing various forms of return on equity. Enter new markets or segments c. Down loading to PC based packages. network. report writers. as there are no laws related to its use. j. Client server architecture and its implementation-two tier or three tier. immoral. MS-Office. Support system technologies like bar coding. h. Falling trade barriers in attractive foreign market g. etc. Hardware-software configuration management. Potential External Opportunities are: a. report information is obtained and printed(or. b. Too narrow a product line i. screen painter and batch processor. List are as follows: a. g. Serve additional customer groups b. Internet can be used in illegal ways. Falling behind in R&D h. e. No clear strategic direction b. OLE/ODBC compliance.3) MRS does not directly support the decision-making process as a search for alternative solutions to problems. screen generators. Complacency among rival firms h. real time access. 4) MRS is oriented towards reporting on the past and the present. Object orientation in development and methodology. What are the common business exposures and risk of using internet by organization.

all-or-none rule. where triggers are used to move the process.2. The MIS in the re-engineered organization would be more of a performance monitoring tool to start with and them a control for the performance. Ans. learning and strategic effectiveness . 10. 3. It is. production. therefore. evaluating customer satisfaction. processing.e. etc. material.) Limited banning of material in Internet is not possible i. radio. Also mention their elements. The triggers could be business rules and stored procedures. The business itself would undergo a qualitative change in terms of the change in the platform of business calling for different MIS. Building the MIS is a long term project. enabling the process to become automation in its execution. The question arises – Is sending/receiving large quantity of mail ethical? Risk of internet to Organization: • Contracting viruses • Interception of passwords by hackers • Interception of sensitive/commercial data • Illegal/objectionable use of site by users • Inability to effectively disconnected Internet to own employees • Misrepresentation of identity by site visitors • Legal loopholes in electronic contracts • No security against eavesdropping • No security against interception • Misuse of supplied/captured information • Misrepresentation of identity of site 9. There is no law against Spamming i. Massive flaming of large quantity of e-mail to one address. expectation and perceptions. The decision support systems will be integrated in the business process itself. Explain with relevant example the concept of business process. sending unsolicited mail 5. analysis and reporting would be process central and performance efficiency would be evaluated in relation to the value generated by the processes. Any exercise towards building design of the management information system will be processed by an exercise of business re-engineering. Free speech advocates say that screening of incoming material is the resp onsibility of the receiving end 4. The Management Information System in a re-engineered organization would be process centered. TV. The data capture. Explain the link between MIS and BPR. The MIS will be concentrated more on the performance parameter evaluation which is different in the parameter evaluation which is different in the re-engineered organization.e. etc. The traditional MIS in function-centered like finance. essential to have a relook at the organizational where the mission and goals of the organization are likely to be replaced. The role of Management Information Systems will be raised to a level where the following activities would be viewed for the management action: • • • • • • Control of process cycle time Work group efficiency Customer satisfaction index Process efficiency and effectiveness Effectiveness of the Management in enterprise management and not in enterprise resource The strength of the organization in terms of knowledge. There is minimal or no control over the Internet (unlike telephone.

There is also variability in the manner how the application logic is developed and presented. Explain the needs for information in the following areas a) Cost leadership Ans. The architecture could be a two tier or three tier as shown in Fig below. viz. the architecture required is to separate the data and its management from its application. while limited data move from parent to subsidiary. a headquarters organization makes all major decisions. A global corporation has rationalized its international operations to achieve greater efficiencies through central control. and specify their cost benefits. distribution. Hence. Since. 1. Client/Server model – Architecture . The client is a user and the server provides the services required by the user the to run the system. Although its strategy and marketing are based on the concept of a global market. and diagnostic systems can support physicians’ diagnoses. A high level of information flows from subsidiary to parent.. the Application Logic. and the Presentation. The user requires the choice of using the data as it suits him the most. A cost leadership strategy seeks to achieve competitive advantage by allowing the business unit to make more profit than its competitors when selling to customers at the same price. b) Global corporation Ans. c) ERP architecture Ans. identify preferred treatments. the application logic has to be separate from the data. the information needs are dynamically changing. electronic conferencing can bring the expertise of a team of physicians in remote locations to a single problem. The company requires quality internal information to reduce costs by achieving efficiencies in production. the Data Management. home health terminals allow patients to consult with doctors online. Bedside terminals can store patient records. A company pursuing a global strategy needs to transfer the operational and financial data of its foreign subsidiaries to headquarters in real time or on a frequent basis. Complete information about costs makes costs easier to control and creates a competitive advantage. Any information system has three basic components. Even hospitals can use information technology to reduce costs by eliminating paperwork and improving services. These components can be built with the client server role definitions.Spring 2012 Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester IV MC0076 – Management Information Systems– 4 Credits (Book ID: B0901) Assignment Set – 2 (60 Marks) ======================================================================================= Each question carries six marks 10 x 6 = 60. and sales.

etc. relying on single powerful mainframes. and procedures. to distributed processing have been the rapidly increasing power and decreasing costs of smaller computers. Explain with relevant examples the concept of business process. Also mention their elements. software. imaging. Hardware-software configuration management. h. personnel. to widely spread personal computers (also known as microcom puters). b. and similar documents Hardware Software 4. Indeed. Support system technologies like bar coding. d. network. 2. What are the uses of Executive Information Systems? . lotus notes. 5. Client server architecture and its implementation-two tier or three tier. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION Multiple computer systems: mainframes. screen generators. How do you define Management Reporting Systems? Ans. EDI. screen painter and batch processor. The use of multiple computers.d) Technology Evaluation Factor: Ans. The physical components of MIS comprise the computer and communications hardware. report writers. some writers call MRS management information systems. 6. Factors are: a. end users in certain aspects of their work Specifications for the use and operation of computerized information systems collected in user manuals. Almost all organizations employ multiple computer systems. operator manuals. j. real time access. k. memory hierarchy. 7. Front end tools and back end data based management system tools for the data. minicomputers. Handling of server and client based data and application logic. metropolitan area networks. c. ranging from pow erful mainframe machines (sometimes including supercomputers) through minicomputers. and wide area networks Systems software and applications software Database Personnel Procedures Organized collections of data used by applications software Professional cadre of computer specialists. f. e. Down loading to PC based packages. g. MS-Office. is called distributed processing. the name we reserve for the entire area of informational support of operations and management. Application and use of standards in all the phases of development and in the product. Object orientation in development and methodology. The driving forces that have changed the information processing landscape from centralized processing. input and output devices Communications: local area networks. Interface mechanism: Data transfer. database. Briefly explain components of MIS. process presentation management. The main objective of MRS is to provide lower and middle management with printed reports and inquiry capabilities to help maintain operational and management control of the enterprise. Explain with relevant examples the ascertaining the class of information need for the business execution. Use of case tool. usually interconnected into networks by means of telecommunications. personal computers Computer system components are: central processor(s). OLE/ODBC compliance. Ans. How information is selected and organized? 3. Operating system and its level of usage in the system. communication. Management reporting systems (MRS) are the most elaborates of the management-oriented MIS components. i.

etc. 8. Explain different components of DSS. Executive information systems (EIS) provide direct support for top managers. 3. 5) Front end tools and back end data based management system tools for the data.e. A high level of information flows from subsidiary to parent. and to investigate the general trends of the economies in the many countries where the company may be doing business. immoral. There is no law against Spamming i. 2. sending unsolicited mail 5. Factors are: 1) Client server architecture and its implementation-two tier or three tier. etc. Ans. assess the business environment. all-or-none rule. Although its strategy and marketing are based on the concept of a global market. The three principal DSS subsystems and their principal capabilities are shown in figure 10. a headquarters organization makes all major decisions. A company pursuing a global strategy needs to transfer the operational and financial data of its foreign subsidiaries to headquarters in real time or on a frequent basis. defamatory information (which cannot be legally communicated using facilities like TV.). Massive flaming of large quantity of e-mail to one address. senior and executive vice presidents. senior managers employ a great variety of informal sources of information. Limited banning of material in Internet is not possible i. However. 3) Handling of server and client based data and application logic. TV. In particular. and the board of directors also need to be able to track the performance of their company and of its various units. as there are no laws related to its use. 4) Application and use of standards in all the phases of development and in the product. so that computerized information systems are able to provide only limited assistance. radio. process presentation management. The question arises – Is sending/receiving large quantity of mail ethical? b) Global corporation Ans. top managers equip a special "war room" with large screens onto which the EIS projects color displays.1. There is minimal or no control over the Internet (unlike telephone. radio. Various commercial systems support DSS development and package these DSS capabilities in a variety of ways by distrib uting them among a series of optional modules. Characteristically. Many servers contain illegal.Ans. Frequently. Free speech advocates say that screening of incoming material is the responsibility of the receiving end 4. 1. and develop strategic directions for the company’s future. Components of DSS 10.e. these executives need a great diversity of external information to compare their company’s performance to that of its competition. 2) Object orientation in development and methodology. A global corporation has rationalized its international operations to achieve greater efficiencies through central control. while limited data move from parent to subsidiary. . the chief executive officer. Explain various Organizational limits to Relational Decision Making. Write a note on a) Ethical and Social issues with E-Commerce. 9. Internet can be used in illegal ways. e) Technology Evaluation Factor Ans.).

EDI. real time access. 10) Operating system and its level of usage in the system. 9) Down loading to PC based packages. 11) Hardware-software configuration management. OLE/ODBC compliance. network. . etc. 8) Support system technologies like bar coding. screen generators. communication. 7) Use of case tool. lotus notes. screen painter and batch processor. imaging. MS-Office. report writers.6) Interface mechanism: Data transfer.

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