You are on page 1of 35

CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

Conservation Agriculture-Based Crop Management Strategies for Adaptive Research and Delivery of CA-based Crop Management Technologies to Farmers
Ken Sayre Consulting Agronomist with the CIMMYT Conservation Agriculture-Based Crop Management

The Four Principles of Conservation Agriculture Provide the Foundation to Develop and Apply the CA-based Crop Management Appropriate Crop Management Component Technologies Must be Specifically Developed for Each Crop Production System
Appropriate Crop Residue Management Appropriate Pest and Disease Management Appropriate Seeders/other Implements Other Relevant Crop Management Components

Appropriate Fertilizer Management

Selection of Appropriate Cultivars

Appropriate Irrigation Management

Appropriate Weed Control Practices

Dramatic Reductions In Tillage

Retention of Adequate Levels of Residues on the Soil

Economically Viable Diversification of Crop Rotations

Perception of Economic Benefits by Farmers

The Foundation for the Development of Suitable CA-based Crop Management Technologies

DELIVERY OF CA-BASED TECHNOLOGIES TO FARMERS

WHY MUST FARMERS PARTICIPATE IN THIS PROCESS?

Normal Research, Development and Delivery Systems are Linear


However, the linear flow of knowledge which has commonly been used by researchers and extension agents may work for delivery of new crop cultivars etc but does not lead to the transfer and farmer adoption of more comprehensive, integrated technologies like CA-based technologies.
Researchers conducting formal research in established institutions
Basic research Strategic research Applied research

Researchers Extensin
Technology transfer

Farmers

Adoption

Knowledge flow

The Research and Development System that is Best suited for CA-based technologies is integrated and interlinks the needed partners
Innovation systems involving multiple agents (especially including farmers), each registering their expectations and contributing their own comparative advantage towards resolving the problem of developing functional CA systems.
Machinery Manufacturers

Input Suppliers
Innovative Farmers

Extension (Change) Agents

Researc hers

Equipme nt Develope rs

CA-based Research and Delivery Hub An approach to effectively involve researchers working in a multidisciplinary manner with farmers, agriculture leaders, private sector and other needed partners to develop and deliver relevant CAbased Crop Management Technologies to farmers.

Locations of 5 Current CAbased Hubs in Mexico


Cd. Obregn Irrigated (Arid Conditions) 39 masl

(3 more Hubs are being established)

Mexico
El Bajio Mainly Irrigated: Some Rainfed (600-900mm) 1500 masl
Mexico City

CIMMYT Headquarters El Batn Mainly Rainfed Low Rainfall (350-600mm) 2249 masl

Toluca Rainfed High Rainfall (700-1200mm) 2640 masl

Chiapas Tropical, mainly Rainfed High Rainfall (900-1800mm) Variable Altitude

CA-BASED RESEARCH AND DELIVERY HUB


Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

CA-based Agricultural Machinery Development

Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

FARMERS Adaptive Research abd Delivery Platform for Long Term Multidisciplinary Adaptive Research, Implement Testing and Demonstration and Training, Farmer Best Best Best Bet Bet Bet Practice 1 2 x

NARS/Private Sector/NGO Involvement


Strategic Breeding and Testing of different Cultivars
Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

FARMERS

FARMERS

FARMERS

FARMERS

FARMERS

Strategic Soils and Agronomy Component Technology Studies


Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

FARMERS

FARMERS

FARMERS

FARMERS

Socio-economic Evaluations

Strategic Weed, disease and Pest Management Component Technology Studies

Once a Crop Production System has Been Selected to Develop Appropriate CA-Based Technologies :
We Establish a CA-based Research and Delivery Platform Trial to Compare Existing Farmer Practices with CA- based Technologies Over the Long-Term and to provide a focal point for multidisciplinary/multi-stakeholder interactions While at The Same Time We Immediately Identify Interested, Innovative Farmers to Begin to Test and Compare Best Bet CA-based Technologies with Existing Farmer Practices in Modules in Farmer Fields

CA-BASED RESEARCH AND DELIVERY HUB


LONG TERM ADAPTIVE RESEARCH AND ELIVERY PLATFORM TRIAL FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY/MULTI-STAKEHOLDER ACTIVITIES
Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

Development of Appropriate CAbased Machinery


FARMERS Adaptive Research and Delivery Platform for Long Term Multidisciplinary Adaptive Research, Implement Testing and Demonstration and Training, Farmer Practice Best Bet 1 Best Bet 2 Best Bet x

FARMERS

FARMERS

NARS/Private Sector/NGO Involvement


Breeding and Testing of different Cultivars
Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

FARMERS

FARMERS

FARMERS

Soils and Agronomy Component Technology Studies

FARMERS FARMERS FARMERS FARMERS Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

Socio-economic Evaluations

Weed ,disease and Pest Management Component Technology Studies

The Adaptive Research and Delivery Platform allows the opportunity for Long Term Multidisciplinary Research Activities with the Participation of all Stakeholders for insure: The development of new CA-based crop management technologies The understanding of of the long-term effects/benefits of these new CA technologies on sustainable production The determination of the potential long term economic benefits of the new CA technologies

Testing and Development of the Multi-Crop/Multi-Use Prototype CA Implement in the Adaptive Research and Delivery Platform Trial in Cd. Obregon, Mexico
Planting Wheat and banding basal fertilizer Configured for Maize Planting

Side-dress banded N application for Wheat

Side-dress banded N application for Maize

Using the CA-Based Research Platform Long Term Trial to Compare Farmer Practice versus Permanent Raised Beds for Irrigated Wheat-based Systems
Farmer Practice Furrow Irrigated Tilled Raised Beds CA-based Practice Furrow irrigated Permanent Raised Beds

Using the CA-Based Research Platform Long Term Trial to Compare Different Tillage/Residue Levels in Permanent Raised Beds for Rainfed Conditions
Without Residue With Residue

Using the CA-Based Research Platform Long Term Trial to Compare Different Weed Control Strategies
Conv,Till Maize; No Residue Zero Till Maize; With Residues

Wide versus Narrow Permanent Beds for Rainfed Conditions

Comparison of the Efficiency of Rain Water Use for Conventional Farm Practices versus Conservation Agriculture-based Practices in Year with Very Low Rainfall
Conventional Tillage with Crop Residues Removed Zero Tillage with Crop Residues Retained

Comparing Genotypes with and without Tillage

Using the CA-Based Long Term Adaptive Research and Delivery Platform for Multidisciplinary Research
Student thesis Research On-going Project Research

Comparison of Rainfed Maize Yield for Different Tillage, Rotation and Residue Managem ent Practices over 10 Years in Central Mexico

7000 6000 Grain Yield (kg/ha) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Maize-Wheat; Zero Till Seeding; All Residues Retained Continuous Maize, Conv. Till Seeding; All Residues Removed (Farmer Practice) Maize-Wheat; Zero Till Seeding; All Residues Removed

Comparison of Rainfed Wheat Yields for Contrasting Tillage and Residue Management Practices over 11 Years in Central Mexico
8500 7500 Gra in Yie ld (k g/ha ) 6500 5500 4500 3500 2500 1500 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Wheat-Maize; Zero Till - All Residues Retained (Best CA-based Practice) Wheat-Maize; Conv. Till; - All Residues Removed (Farmer Practice) Wheat-Maize; Zero Till - All Residues Removed

Effect of tillage and residue management over seventeen years on average wheat grain yields with with optimum N management at CIANO,Obregon
8500 8000 Gra in Yie ld (k g/ha ) 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Year of Harvest Conventional till beds - residues incorporated Permanent beds - residues burned Permanent beds - 70% residues removed Permanent beds - residues retained

Performance of Wheat Lines Developed by Parallel Selected by Zero and Conventional Tillage for irrigated conditions in Cd. Obregon, Mexico Effects of Cross, Tillage and Selection Systems on Grain Yield Averaged over 2005, 2006, 2005

6500

G r a i n y i e l d (k g / h a )

6000

PB, S-ZT PB, S-CT

5500

CB, S-ZT CB, S-CT

5000

4500
SERI/..BERKUT SW94.../PBW65

Cross FILIN./PASTOR

MILAN./PASTOR

PFAU../AMAD

Using the CA-Based Adaptive Research and Delivery Platform Long Term Trial to Train Technicians, Scientists and Farmers
Farmer Training Visiting Scientist Training

CA-BASED ADAPTIVE RESEARCH AND DELIVERY HUB


DEMONSTRATION AND ADAPTIVE RESEARCH IN MODULES IN FARMER FIELDS
FARMER

FARMER

Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

FARMER

Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

Adaptive Research and Deli very Platform for Long Term Multidisciplinary Adaptive Research, Implement Testing and FARMERS Demonstration and Training, Farmer Practice Best Bet 1 Best Bet 2 Best Bet x FARMERS

FARMER

FARMERS FARMERS
FARMER

Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

FARMERS Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules


FARMER

Farmer Field Adaptive Research and Demonstration Modules

THE ADAPTIVE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION MODULES IN FARMER FIELDS PROVIDE THE VENUE TO:
Test the Best Bet CA-based Crop Management Technologies Side-by-side with Farmer Practices in Farmer Fields Fine-tune these CA-based Technologies as Needed in the Farmers Fields with Active Farmer Participation Allow the Module Farmers to Organize and Become the Spokesmen to Explain the New CA-based to Surrounding Farmers Utilize the Modules in the Farmer Fields for Field Days Demonstrate the New CA-based technologies to Farmers from the Surrounding Areas and to Facilitate their Potential Adoption of the Technologies

Meeting with Farmers to Identify Those Interested in Cooperating with the Farmer Module

Using the Comparisons of Farmer Practices and the Best Bet CA-based Technologies in the Modules for Demonstrations and Training of Technicians, Scientists and Farmers

Farmer/Service Provider Training in the Operation of CA-based Seeders in the Modules

Using the Comparisons of Farmer Practices and the Best Bet CA-based Technologies for Farmer Training in Machinery Use in the Modules CA-based Technology
Farmer Practice

Comparing Farmer Practices with the Best Bet CAbased Technologies for Grain Sorghum in the Adaptive Research and Demonstration Module
Irrigated Sorghum on Tilled Raised Beds (Farmer Practice) Best Bet CA- Irrigated Sorghum on Permanent Raised Beds

Farmer Field Day for Harvest in the Adaptive Research and Demonstration Module

Comparison of average wheat grain yields, variable production costs and returns over variable costs for wheat produced with conventional tilled beds versus permanent raised beds in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico form 2001 to 2004
G r a i n Y i e l d (k g / h a a t 1 2 % H2 O )
8,000 7,500 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000
4,985 4,011 6,245 6,926 6,356 8,000

Conventional tilled beds Permanent beds


6,550

7,500 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000

M e x ic a n p e so s

Grain yield (kg/ha)

Production costs (Mexican pesos)

Returns over variable costs (Mexican pesos)

Comparison of CA-based Practices versus Farmer Practices in Farmer Modules Farmer Fields in the Central Highlands of Mexico
Cropping System Number of Modules in Farmer Fields CA-based Practices Average Maize Yield (kg/ha) Farmer Practice Average Maize Yield kg/ha CA-based Practices Returns Above Variable Costs (Mexican Pesos) Farmer Practice Returns Above Variable Costs (Mexican Pesos)

Irrigated Maize

19 29

8830 4830

6950 3000

17,154 5566

11,926 1853

Rainfed Maize

1US Dollar = 13.5 Mexican Pesos

WHEAT ON PERMANENT RAISED BEDS IN KAZAKHSTAN

Thanks