WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE

R.K.MALIK CSISA PROJECT CIMMYT INDIA

Thinking about tomorrow

Shift in Strategy from CA to CAPLUS
• Match CA with stimulus designed to boost growth and development of cereal systems. • Late sowings make the crops ( and CA) uncompetitive and less inputs further exhaust them and make them more uncompetitive. • Impact assessment need to concentrate on DOS, Hybrids, other component technologies and intercropping. • Weed shift under CA is different in South Asia with RWCS or MWCS. • It is important to understand the Good Agronomic Practices that allow competition in favour of crop

Ecological consideration in Weed Management.
– Understand how weeds invade . – How weeds continue to exist inspite of good control measures.. – How the ecosystem functions. – Introduce system approach in IWM

PHALARIS and BARNYARD GRASS
• INEVITABLE CONSEQUENCE RICE- WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM. • ADAPTED AND OCCUPIED DOMINANT POSITION BY SUMMED ACTIVITIES UNDER MODIFIED MANAGEMENT • DIVERSITY BETWEEN WEEDS IN LATE 1970s • DIVERSITY WITH IN PHALARIS IN EARLY 1990s • BROAD LEAF WEEDS TO PHALARIS, THEN PHALARIS TO PHALARIS • COLONUM TO CRUSGALLI AND CRUSGALLI TO GLABRASCENCE AND EVEN COLONA TO COLONA

Crisis lead to opportunities - Wheat
3300 3000 2700 2400 2100
3163

Karnal

Sonipat

Net returns (Rs/acre)

1800
1534

1500 1200

1147

900 600 300

1049

1200

270

0 1993-94 -300 -600 -900 -1200
-492 -616

1994-95

1997-98

-79

1998-99

1999-2000

-995

Years

INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND

WEED SPECIALIZATION

• HOHENHEIM UNVERSITY FARM WITH INTENSIVE FARMING WEED SPECIES FROM 1860 TO 1980 REDUCED 50%. • GREATEST LOSS OCCURRED UPTO 1940 BEBORE HERBICIDE USE ( ALDRICH AND KREMER BOOK ) • HAAS AND STREIBIG FROM DENMARK -ROLE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND AGRONOMIC PRACTICES.

Tillage vs weed seed distribution
• Over 60 % seeds in 19cm soil found in 1cm soil depth in Zero tillage. • Concentration of seeds decreases with soil depth. • With chisel plowing 30% seeds found in 1cm depth. • Mould board plough has equal distribution in all 19cm depth. » Yenish et al WS 1992 429

NUMBER OF WEEDS SPP IN ORGANIC AND CONVEENTIOAL FARMS (Schmidt&Steiner1987,Plakholm1990,Hermann et al 1986,
Hald&Reddersen1990 )

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Organic farms Conventional farms SWITZERLAND AUSTRIA GERMANY DENMARK

CROP ROTATION
• • • • • EFFECTIVE BECAUSE SELECTION PRESSURE IS DIVERSIFIED DIVERSIFICATION PREVENTS THE PROLIFICATION OF MOST SUITED WEED CHANGES THE COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF WEED SPP ROTATION EMPLOYS VARYING PATTERNS OF RESOURCE COMPETITION

Franke, 2003

Dry weight of red rice in two varieties of rice (Kwon et al 1991)
Dry weight of red rice ( g / m2 ) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 5 10 20 40 Red rice ( plants / m2 ) Lemont Newbonnet

Weed competitiveness in DSR
• • • • BASMATI HYBRIDS COARSE RICE First two fit well with DSR

Growth of Weedy rice and rice (Diarra et al 1985 )
200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Red Rice Rice

g

cm2

Dry weight

LAI

Flag leaf area.

Uneven water distribution
MORE INSECTS AND DISEASES

MORE WEEDS

STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE
Rice wheat cropping system - high productivity zone Simple weed flora Transplanted rice Herbicides X Water Management Herbicides X Puddling Rice nurseries weed management Crop rotation Direct seeded rice

Sesbenia crop for green manuring

Long term studies of green manuring and without green manuring and herbicide on the growth and yield of wheat crop
Treatment With green manure Clodinafop Clodinafop (R*) Weedy Weed free Without green manure Clodinafop Clodinafop (R*) Weedy Weed free C. D. at 5% 60 120 5110 5126 4006 5260 189 60 120 5234 5176 5048 5284 Dose (g a.i. ha-1) Yield (kg ha-1)

*R – Rotational herbicide

Studies on long term effect of commonly used herbicides with or without green manuring on yield of both the crops in rice-wheat sequence
Treatment With green manuring Butachlor Weedy Weed free Butachlor (Rotational) Without green manuring Butachlor Weedy Weed free Butachlor (Rotational) C. D. at 5% 1500 1500 6180 3408 7069 6279 1328 1500 1500 6848 4873 7205 7004 Dose (g a.i. ha-1) Yield (kg ha-1)

Zero tillage against Phalaris

}
Soil Seed Bank

240 210

220

ZT
180 150

CT

Number

128 110
85 77 112

120 90 60 30 0

54
29

NEPZ

EPZ

VZ

Mean

Phalaris minor intensity

Agro-climatic zones

Alarming contamination level in own saved wheat seeds
Contamination of wheat seed (collected from grain market) with P. minor (1999-2000)

Contamination of wheat seed (collected just before sowing) with P. minor (2001-02)

(Yadav and Malik 2005)

70 a 60 Treatments: 50 ab 1. Date of sowing (3)- main plot 40 bc a) October 25 30 b) November 10 20 c) November 25 10 Residue level (5)-sub-plot 02.

Effects of early sowing and residue mulch on weed suppression under ZT conditions
6 t/ha 0 t/ha 4 t/ha
c

P. minor (no./m2)

8 t/ha

c

0, and 10 0 t/ha 4, 6, 8 4 t/ha t/ha6 t/ha November 25
60
P. minor (no./m )

10 t/ha
8 t/ha 10 t/ha

October 25
a b

November 10

50 40 30 20 10 0 25-Oct 10-Nov 25-Nov
c

2

Effect of residue on weed seed predation
60
a

CT

ZT+residue

% seed predation

50 40
NS

30 20 10 0 P. minor C. album
b

NS

NS

Rumex

M. indica

Weed seed predation during fallow period after wheat harvest 2011

Emergence rate of the first (A), second (B), and third (C) flush of Phalaris minor under conventional ( , solid line) and zero-tillage ( , dashed line) in wheat (Source: Franke et al. 2007).

Polynomial relationship between sowing time and grain yield of wheat under ZT and CT
ZT CT

Changes in weed management practices in wheat

2008-09

2010-11 Source : Field survey

2009-10 Source : Data base of CSISA

Wheat Productivity & Date of Sowing

Polynomial relationship between sowing date and wheat yield (2005-06)
6500 6000 5500 Grain yield (kg/ha) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 290

Y = -0.2797x + 165.41x - 19908 R = 0.0427
Maximum yield was 4545 kg/ha on 23 Oct
2

2

300

310

320

330

340

350

360

370

17 Oct

27 Oct

7 Nov

16 Nov

26 Nov

6 Dec

16 Dec

26 Dec

Daily reduction of wheat yield was 0.74 kg/ha in Oct (1731), 8.85 kg/ha during 1-15 Nov, 17.25 kg/ha during 1630 Nov and 30.11 kg/ha in Dec

COMPETITION FOR RESOURCES
• IF DRY WEIGHT OF CROP AND WEED IS SAME- BOTH ARE MAKING SAME DEMAND FOR SPACE. • BROAD LEAF WEEDS MAKE DIFFERENT DEMAND ON SAME RESOURCES, OCCUPY DIFFERENT NICHES IN TIME AND SPACE.

Chemical Control
Less dose Faulty method Continuos use

Modern varieties Rice-wheat More fertilizer High Moisture

Weed seed bank

Zero tillage and Glyphosate- Perennial weeds

Double zero tillage- RWC

ZTW followed by PTR

Less Nitrogen and More Perennial

Tillage systems and weed infestation in pearlmillet-wheat rotation after 5 years, Research Farm, CCS HAU Hisar, 2001-02

Pearlmillet-wheat A= ZT –ZT B= MB-ZT C= CT-ZT

C B

A

Population of weeds (before spray) and grain and straw (yield of wheat during 2005-06 (9th year) in Pearlmillet wheat crop rotation (CCS HAU, Hisar)

Tillage treatments

Population of weeds (No./m2) before Grassy sprayBLW

Pearlmillet-wheat ZT-ZT CT-ZT CT-CT Average 26.4 55.2 43.2 41.6 32.8 42.4 33.6 36.2

SOIL MOITURE EFFECTS ON GLYPHOSATE
STRESSED PLANTS ( 13 % w/w soil moisture) PRODUCED SHOOT REGROWTH OF Asclepias syriaca EQUAL TO UNTREARTED. AT OPTIMUM MOISTURE ABSORPTION AND TRANSLOCATION WERE 44 AND 20% COMPARED TO 29 AND 7 % IN STRESSED PLANTS.

Glyphosate efficiency
• Sodium carbonate or bicarbonate reduce glyphosate activity. • Ca,Fe,Zn,Al,and Mg cations reduce its activity. • Diammoniumsulphate and urea increase its activity.

Kumar et al ( 2012)

Sulfonylurea herbicides.
Inhibit Acetolactate synthase enzyme. ALS is the first common enzyme of branched chain amino acids pathway. ALS is present in plants and Mos not in animals, hence no animal toxicity. Differential root ALS activity exist in S-R corn. » Forlani etal.1991 ws 553.

Fops and dims
Aryloxyphenoxypropanoicacid-fops. Cyclohexanedione - dims. Both inhibit fatty acid synthesis. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase present in stroma of chloroplasts , other plastid This enzyme is affected in grasses.

Fops antagonism vs BL Herbicides
Decreased uptake e.g. haloxyfop Vs bentazon. Decreased amount reaching the site of action. Decreased translocation - DCF-2,4-D.

GREEN REVOLUTION TO GENE REVOLUTION?
Green Revolution – growth was faster between 1960 to 1990 Such progress has now slowed down The green revolution small farmers productivity, and decrease in food prices To resume and to spread such growth now need a paradigm shift – Gene Revolution

HERBICIDE RESISTANT WHEAT
IMIDAZOLINONE RESISTANT WHEAT DEVELOPED

POTENTIAL OF GENE TRANSFER BETWEEN WHEAT AND WEED ( AEGILOPS CYLINDRICA ) ESTABLISHED. HERBICIDE RESISTANT WHEAT MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY PLAN THAT WOULD MINIMIZE POTENTIAL FOR JUMPING GENE
( ZEMETRA ET AL WS 1998 313 )

Wheat weed, pest and disease management practices in high productivity zones
N = 499

% reporting herbicide only Number of applications per season % reporting insecticide/fungicide Crop budget for weed, pest and disease (Rs./ha) Gross revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue with zero-tillage, 000 Rs.

96.4 1.0 (± 0.27) 1.0 1700 29.7 1.6 4.3

Rice weed, pest and disease management practices in high productivity zones
N = 468 % reporting herbicide application % reporting hand weeding Frequency of hand weeding Frequency of herbicide used Frequency of hand or herbicide Manual weeding labour days/ha % reporting pesticide/fungicide use Crop budget for weed, pest and disease (Rs./ha) Production cost (Rs./kg) Gross revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue with zero-tillage in wheat, 000 Rs. 97.6 60.3 0.68 (± 0.62) 0.98 (± 0.15) 1.66 (± 0.64) 5.51 (± 5.3) 88.5 2800 6.8 38.6 4.2 4.3

Dry Direct Seeded Rice

Cost analysis of DSR
Risk Financial Cost Administrative fees Rental (Land & water) Wages (employees) Items Drying Harvesting Herbicides Pesticides Seed Ferttilizer Appln Tillage & Planting 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 %age 50.00 60.00 70.00 India Uruguay

Cyperus rotundus control

Post-emergence:
1. Pyrazosulfuron (25-30 g ai/ha) 1. Halosulfuron (60 g ai/ha) 2. Azimsulfuron (35 g ai/ha) 3. Bispyribac (suppress) (30 g ai/ha)

Echinochloa spp./ Phalaris ( resistance)/ regeneration
Pre-emergence:
1. Pendimethalin (1.0 kg ai/ha) 2. Oxadiargyl (90 g ai/ha)

Post-emergence:
1. Bispyribac (25 g ai/ha) 2. Bispyribac + oxadiargyl (20 g + 90 g ai/ha) 3. Bispyribac + azimsulfuron (20 + 20 g ai/ha)

E. colona

E. crus-galli

Leptochloa & Eragrostis spp control
Pre-emergence:
1. Pendimethalin (1.0 kg ai/ha) 2. Oxadiargyl (90 g ai/ha)

Ergrostis japonica

Post-emergence:
1. Cyahalofop (120-150 g ai/ha) 2. Azimsulfuron (35 g ai/ha)

Leptochloa chinensis

Cyperus rotundus and Physalis
• Halosulfuron (60 g ai/ha) • Azimsulfuron ????

Physalis

C.rotundus

Complex flora dominated by Cyperus
• Tank mixtures
– – – – – – – – Pyrazosulfuron + bispyribac Halosulfuron + bispyribac Bispyribac + azimsulfuron WEEDY RICE Herbicide resistant maize/ wheat / rice Weed management in upland Kharif crops

Complex annual flora
• Oxadiargyl+ bispyribac • Pendimethalin + bispyribac • Azimsulfuron + bispyribac • Shifting weed flora • Intercrop weed management

Weedy rice: Emerging problem in DSR
• Stale seedbed • Certified seed (free from weedy rice seeds) • Removing panicles before seed production • Hybrid rice

Cultivated rice

weedy rice

Weedy in in field Weedy ricericericerice field

New emerging problematic weeds
• Weedy rice • Leptochloa • Eragrostis

Ergrostis japonica

Leptochloa chinensis

Physalis minima
•Carfantrazone@20g/ha30 to35days after sowing. •Dose may be increased if the weed crosses 4-5 leaf stage. •Fop and dims have to be applied in sequence

Ageratum conyzoides
•Use pre-seeding herbicides specially Glyphosate@ 1% sol.+ 0.5% surfactant. •Surfactant can be applied even 2-3 days before seeding crops. • There is no need to wait for 3 weeks even if it is applied on weeds carried over from rice to wheat.

Other Crops
Maize- Atrazine @0.5kg/ha-Pre emergence Atrazine @ 0.25kg/ha(Post emergence SoyabeanPendimethalin@1kg/ha(Pre emergence)- and other dinitroaniline Imazethapyr @ 100 g Fenoxaprop@100g AI/ha Sugarcane-Atrazine, 2,4-D, Metribuzin Cotton-Pendimethalin@1.5kg/ha

GM CROPS- NEW TECHNOLOGY

High Yielding Varieties helped increasing production. In turn, increase input use (fertilizer, irrigation etc) Together, increased pest problems. Pesticide use increased resistance In the absence of alternate pesticides, GM crops became necessary- foundation of GM Technology

Uncontrolled phalaris resulting from poor herbicide distribution

…however, poor application techniques result in poor control.

TILLER SURVIVAL
• SENESCENCE OF FOLIAGE--DEATH OF TILLERS • HIGH WEED POPULATION--800 PLANTS • AVERAGE TILLER SURVIVAL--1.4 OUT OF 14

NUMBER OF SPIKELETS
• • • • FIXED VERY EARLY NUMBER OF FLORETS DIFFERENTIATED ( EACH SPIKELET ) LAST ONE ------- AND SUCCESSIVE ---NOT DEVELOPED. • WEED COMPETITION AND RESOURCE AVAILABILITY.

NUMBER OF SPIKELETS
• SET AT : • FIRST STAGE OF RAPID ELONGATION OF GROWING POINTS • FIRST EAR PRIMORDIA---- 4-5 LEAF STAGE • IWM AND INM IMPORTANT

POST INITIATION
REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT
• DRY WEIGHT OF CROP/WEED • CANOPY COVER AND PLANT HIEGHT • ALLOCATION OF FOOD MATERIAL FROM SOURCE TO SINK

PHLOEM TRANSPORT
• • • • SYSTEM---DISTRIBUTES FOOD TRANSPORT DIRECTION---SOURCE TO SINK MAIN ENERGY---- WITHIN PLANT LOADING AND OFFLOADING--- METABOLISM

XYLEM TRANSPORT
• • • • • ROOT PRESSURE----NOT SUFFICIENT SUCTION EFFECT-- TRANSPIRATION MAIN ENERGY -- SUN RH INSIDE PLANT-- 100% RH OUT SIDE -- 50--90 %

Fops and dims
• • • • Aryloxyphenoxypropanoicacid-fops. Cyclohexanedione - dims. Both inhibit fatty acid synthesis. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase present in stroma of chloroplasts , other plastid • This enzyme is affected in grasses.

Fops antagonism vs. BL Herbicides
• Decreased uptake e.g. haloxyfop Vs bentazon. • Decreased amount reaching the site of action. • Decreased translocation - DCF-2,4-D.

MOISTURE STRESS AND EFFICIENCY OF FOPS
• RETENTION OF FENOXAPROP ON DIGITARIA REDUCED • RETENTION OF DICLOFOP ON WILD OAT REDUCED • LESS SURFACE AREA CONTACT DECREASED RETENTION • DE-ESTERIFICATION REACTION NECESSARY FOR FENOXAPROP ACTION IS INHIBITED BY MOITURE STRESS. • MOITURE STRESS INDUCED DETOXIFICATION OF FENOXAPROP. • ROSSI ET AL WS 1993 335

Sulfonylurea herbicides.
• Inhibit Acetolactate synthase enzyme. • ALS is the first common enzyme of branched chain amino acids pathway. • ALS is present in plants and Mos not in animals ,hence no animal toxicity. • Differential root ALS activity exist in S-R corn. » Forlani etal.1991 ws 553.

Spray Volume and herbicide efficiency
• Small droplets with less volume are more effective. • Spray volume effects herbicide retention. • It affects the degree of spray distribution. • It results into high concentration at the foliage. • High concentration gradient between concentrated droplets results into greater rate of diffusion into leaf cells.

High fertilizer use will increase the weed flora in favour of grasses. Simplification of weed flora will lead to increase in herbicide use.

Ten important weeds in rice-wheat
Northwest IGP Phalaris minor Avena ludoviciana Chenopodium album Melilotus indica Medicago denticulata Rumex maritimus Anagalis arvensis Circium arvense Convolvulus arvensis Polypogon monopeliensis Eastern IGP Chenopodium album Physalis minima Phalaris minor Avena ludoviciana Anagalis arvensis Commelina benghlensis Ageratum conzoides Fumaria parviflora Rumex meritimus Spergula arvensis

Rainfed transplanted rice
Upper, medium and low toposequence Fimbristylis miliacea Cyperus iria Cynodon dactylon Paspalum distichum Cyperus difformis

Weeds of Rice in Eastern U.P. and Bihar
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cyperus rotundus Echinocloa colona Physalis minima Eragrostis japonica Commelina spp. (Commelina diffusa and C. benghalensis)

Grain yield of wheat after 11 years of zero-tillage at farmers field in Haryana (Average of 6 sites)
6000

Zero-Tillage

Conventional Tillage

5000

4000 G in Y ld (k h -1) ra ie g a

3000

2000

1000

0 199798 199899 19992K 200001 200102 200203 Ye ar 200304 200405 200506 200607 200708

Wheat weed, pest and disease management practices in high productivity zones
N = 499

% reporting herbicide only Number of applications per season % reporting insecticide/fungicide Crop budget for weed, pest and disease (Rs./ha) Gross revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue with zero-tillage, 000 Rs.

96.4 1.0 (± 0.27) 1.0 1700 29.7 1.6 4.3

Rice weed, pest and disease management practices in high productivity zones
N = 468 % reporting herbicide application % reporting hand weeding Frequency of hand weeding Frequency of herbicide used Frequency of hand or herbicide Manual weeding labour days/ha % reporting pesticide/fungicide use Crop budget for weed, pest and disease (Rs./ha) Production cost (Rs./kg) Gross revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue, 000 Rs. Net revenue with zero-tillage in wheat, 000 Rs. 97.6 60.3 0.68 (± 0.62) 0.98 (± 0.15) 1.66 (± 0.64) 5.51 (± 5.3) 88.5 2800 6.8 38.6 4.2 4.3

The next green revolution

The Economist 2008

A schematic representation of croplivestock interactions
CROP SYSTEM LIVESTOCK SYSTEM

Rice-wheat Residue management Crop types Use of resource conservation technologies/conservation agriculture Markets for crop inputs (e.g. combine) & produce (e.g. crop resides)

CROP-LIVESTOCK INTERACTIONS
-Crop residues -Fodder crops -Feed crops - Traction - Manure

Livestock feed management

Livestock types

Indirect system interactions (risk; resource use)

Markets for livestock inputs & produce (milk & meat; dung as fuel)

Similar interactions with other enterprises

Wheat Herbicide
Molecules % Total marker

Isoproturon 75 WP Fenoxaprop p ethyl 10 EC Sulfosulfuron 75 WP Clodinofop Propargyl 15 WP Atlantis (Iodo+ Meso sulfuron) Total (Sulfo+Metaxuron) 2, 4-D ester Metsulfuron 20WP(Algrip) Metribuzin 70 WP Metaxuron 80 WP (KABU)

5% 2% 25% 47% 1% 7% 1% 12% 1% 0% 100%

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