Residue Management Machinery for CA

Harminder Singh Sidhu
Sr. Agricultural Engineer H.Sidhu@cgiar.org

An Agricultural Hub for the region - a vehicle for Second Green Revolution

Machinery v/s Issues
• Degradation of Natural Resources (Soil, Water & Environment) • Stagnation in the crop Yield • Declining Farmers Income • Scarcity of Farm Labor • Mechanization for small Farmers • Climate change • Sustainability of Agriculture

Conservation Agriculture
Three Principles • • • No/Minimum Tillage Soil Cover with residue Crop Rotation Three Benefits Enhanced Productivity Richer Resources Climate Adaptation

<<<<<<<<<< Choosing Directions >>>>>>>>>
•Un-sustainbility can not be the option •Systems need to be both biophysically and socio-economically sustainable. •Sustainability also demands confronting climate change

30

15

0

30

Kilometers

Rice Straw : 65-70% Rice Husk : 5-10% Wheat Straw : 10-15%

Legend Biomass Intensity (t/ha) 2.000 - 5.000 5.001 - 7.000 7.001 - 9.000 9.001 - 12.000

Total Surplus Crop Biomass in Punjab State

POSSIBLE STRAW MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Collection Straw incorporation (most difficult) Burning Complete burning (mostly practiced) Partial burning Straw Mulch

Mostly Practiced Rice Residue Management Technique

PIL in High Court

India

5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
50 250 1000 1950 5000

Sowing Time Lag for different options

25

20

22

Time (days)

15

10

8
5

9

0
0
Happy Seeder No-tillage Conventional Incorporation

Custom hiring Cost for different options
2500

2450

2000

Cost (Rs/acre)

1600
1500

1000

900 575
Happy seeder No-tillage Conventional Incorporation

500

0

Effect of residue management on soil temperature (5 cm)
35 Temperature ( C) 30 Max. 25 Bare Mulch Mulch 15 Bare Mulch Bare
o

Min. 20

10 18-Oct-03

26-Oct-03

3-Nov-03

11-Nov-03

19-Nov-03
Sidhu et al. 2007

Moisture conservation at different layers for mulched and un-mulched plots
19 .0 17.0

w ithout m ulch With m ulch

Moisture content (%)

15.0 13 .0 11.0 9 .0 7.0 5.0 7.5 15 30 60 90 12 0

Depth of layers (cm)

Weed matter growth in mulched and un-mulched plots
0.5 With m ulch Without m ulch 0.4 0.3 0.2

Quantity (t/ha)

0.25 0.2

With m ulch Without m ulch

Quantity (t/ha)

0.1 0 Plot A2 Plot P6 Plot P1

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Plot A2 Plot P6 Plot P1

Plots

Weed matter after 45 days of sowing

Plots

Weed matter after 90 days of sowing

Wheat Phenology 2007-08
Sowing Date- 13/11/2007
Sow ing-Flow ering, 103

Non-mulch

7

Sow ing-Maturity, 148

Germination

Sowing-Flowering

Sowing-Maturity

Mulch

8

Sow ing-Flow ering, 113

Sow ing-Maturity, 154

0

20

40

60

80

100 120

140

160

180 200

220

240

260 280

300

Source :Dr. Yadwinder Singh

Quantity of Nutrient available in Rice Straw in one hectare

140 120

140
100 quantity kg/ha 80 60 40

39 6 11

20 0
N P K S

Organic

Value of Nutrient Lost in Burning Rice Straw per ha
751
800 700 600 500 Rs/ha 400 300 200 100 0 N P K S Total

424 231 96 0

Canopy temperature under various tillage option
Wheat Varieties Canopy Temperature ( ºC ) Turbo Happy Zero till Conventional Rotoseeder Seeder 30.1 29.5 31.5 30.6 30.7 32.5 31.8 31.7 32.9 32.8 33.9 33.2

DBW 17 PBW 550 HD 2894

Average
No. of observations

30.37
43

31.27
10

32.13
18

33.30
5

Rice Residue Management

Performance of wheat during last three conjunctive years Districts Year (locations) Yield (t/ha) CT HS % increase*

4 2 12

2007- 08 (46) 2008- 09 (14) 2009 -10 (94) Mean (154)

4.59 4.34 4.35 4.46

4.73 4.54 4.48 4.58

3.02 4.61 3.15 3.20

* Over conventional

Rs 60000-65000 /ha

Germination

Moong Yield was 1.6 t/ha

Can we apply Nitrogen mechanically in straw mulch ?

10 Row Normal Turbo

Happy Seeder

22.5 cm

Row Geometry of 10 row Turbo Happy Seeder along with five Discs for N Placement

Front Row

Rear Row

Disc Row to apply Urea

Urea Box

Seed & DAP

45 cm

N- Management Trial x 8 locations
• • • • • • • Treatments: 100% N Basal 80% N Basal + One split 80% N Basal + According to Green seeker 50% N Basal + 2 Splits 50% N Basal + According to Green Seeker Recommended N Basal

Can we run Happy seeder in wet rice straw ? Morning hrs

New CA Seeder Prototype

e idu s Re

h us P

er

Ve r tine tical C utte r

wit hZ

T

New Zero Till Tyne

Easy Seeder – New CA Seeder Prototype

“Lot of changes are necessary to adopt conservation agriculture but the biggest change is in the mind.”
Franke Dijkstra Pioneer Brazilian zero tillage farmer. Started 35 years ago.

Conservation Agriculture

Agriculture of the Future Future of the Agriculture

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