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THE IDEOLOGIES OF MAO AND THE BIRTH OF NAXALISM
PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF
MODERN POLITICAL CONCEPTS TO HARI NAIR SIR
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. SHANGHAI MASSACRE AND LONG MARCH 4. WAR AGAINST JAPANESE IMPERIALISM
3. 4. 5. 5.
5. MAO THOUGHTS
• • • • • •
ON CLASS STRATIFICATION ON IMPORTANCE OF PEASANT REVOLUTION ON REVOLUTION ON WELL-BEING OF THE MASSES ON GUERRILLA WARFARE ON GRAND DEATH AND REMEMBRANCE
7. 11. 12. 14. 14. 17. 18. 19. 21. 22. 23. 24.
6. NAXALISM 7. CHARU MAJUMDAR’S THOUGHTS 8. NAXALBARI STRUGGLE 9. RELEVANCE IN CURRENT SCENARIO 10. CONCLUSION 11. REFERENCES
believed that Mao’s ideologies could pave the way for India’s working class revolution. one of the founders of CPI (Marxist-Leninist). His ‘Historic Eight Documents’. forming the basis of Naxalism. His ideologies have stood the test of time and the founding principles of Naxalism have been derived from his thoughts.ABSTRACT This term paper highlights the ideologies of Mao Tse-tung pre-1949 when he eventually. the term paper concludes with the relevance of Maoism in today’s world and what lies ahead for the human society. Finally. are a leaf out of the book of Mao. . Charu Majumdar. rose to power in mainland China.
was a Chinese Communist revolutionary. many were upset that the new government gave into European pressure to allow Japan to control parts of Chinese territory. .INTRODUCTION Mao Zedong. His theoretical contribution to Marxism–Leninism. The Republic of China was created. are collectively known as Maoism. and leader of the Chinese Revolution. a village in Hunan province. soon the differences surfaced leading to the Shanghai massacre in 1927. He was the architect and founding father of the People's Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949. Nationalism led to the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1912. Mao and 11 other people founded the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in Shanghai. In addition. the new government led by Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was unable to prevent crime and other hardships on the people. and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26. the Kuomintang and the Communists tried to work together to make China a better place. Slowly. the new republic slid into chaos and civil war. At first. however. along with his military strategies and brand of policies. But. guerrilla warfare strategist. which led to a famine. Many were murdered by thieves and criminals and agriculture slowed. and held control over the nation until his death in 1976. also known as Mao Tse-tung. 1976). In 1921. Mao was born to a peasant family in Shaoshan. He was still a student when the revolution of 1911-12 overthrew the Manchu government and made China a republic. 1893 – September 9. Marxist political philosopher.
000 miles to a new. with Chiang Kai-shek establishing himself as the leader of the right wing at Nanjing in opposition to the original left wing KMT government in Wuhan. France and the US all sent aid (the latter including the famous ‘Flying Tigers’ fighter-pilot volunteers). but attacks by the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) government army forced them to undergo the “Long March” lasting over a year and covering 6. conservative KMT elements carried out a full scale purge of Communists in all areas under their control. Under the terms of the Sian Agreement. The Communists had been encouraged to negotiate with the KMT by Stalin. effectively ending the KMT's four year alliance with Soviet Russia and its cooperation with the Chinese Communist Party. China also received aid from Nazi Germany for a short period. the Second Sino-Japanese War. Although the Japanese quickly captured all key Chinese ports and industrial .SHANGHAI MASSACRE AND THE LONG MARCH The April 12 Incident of 1927 refers to the violent suppression of Chinese Communist Party organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kaishek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party). the Wuhan regime had also expelled the Communists in its ranks. and even more violent suppressions occurred in cities such as Guangzhou and Changsha. Mao led a Communist area in Jiangxi Province in 1934. WAR AGAINST JAPANESE IMPERIALISM (1937-45) In 1937 skirmishing between Japanese and Chinese troops on the frontier led to what became known as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. where public opinion was strongly anti-Japanese. Britain. safer area to the north in Shanxi Province. The purge led to an open split between KMT left and right wings. By 15 July 1927. China also received aid from western democracies. Because of historic ties. and began supplying arms to China. Following the incident. the Chinese Nationalists (KMT) and the CCP now agreed to fight side by side against Japan. until Hitler decided to make an alliance with Japan in 1938. who saw Japan as an increasing threat on his Far Eastern border. This fighting sparked a full-blown conflict.
in retaliation for attacks by partisans who waged a guerrilla war against the invader. to an estimated 10 to 20 million Chinese civilians deaths. It was in response to these sanctions that Japan decided to attack America at Pearl Harbor. including cities such as the Chinese capital Nanking and Shanghai. and so initiate World War II in the Far East . by the war’s end. CCP and KMT forces continued resisting. both sides used ‘scorched earth’ tactics. There were also savage reprisals carried out against Chinese peasants.000 civilians and raped 80. when Japanese troops slaughtered an estimated 300. ambushing supply columns and attacking isolated units.centres. Massacres and atrocities were common. The most infamous came after the fall of Nanking in December 1937. By 1940.000 women. the war descended into stalemate. nor the Chinese to evict the Japanese from the territory they had conquered. In the brutal conflict. But western intervention in the form of economic sanctions (most importantly oil) against Japan would transform the nature of the war. Many thousands of Chinese were killed in the indiscriminate bombing of cities by the Japanese air force. The Japanese seemed unable to force victory. Warfare of this nature led.
“The middle bourgeoisie. Chairman Mao comments on the fickle-minded attitude of this class towards the Chinese revolution. So. He was quite sure of their motives in supporting imperialism and recognized them as the major constituent of the counter-revolutionary group. His prime idea was to identify the classes which will support the revolution and those which will not. by which is meant chiefly the national bourgeoisie. he comments“Who are our enemies? Who are our friends? This is a question of the first importance for the revolution. due to their vested reasons. is inconsistent in its attitude towards the Chinese revolution: they feel the need for revolution and favour the revolutionary movement . Chairman Mao was highly critical of this class as he believed that they owed their parasitic growth to imperialism.” The middle bourgeoisie.” The landlord class and the comprador class.MAO THOUGHTS ON CLASS STRATIFICATION Mao was of the view that an in-depth analysis of the current stratification in the Chinese society is pivotal to the growth of revolution. He comments – “These classes represent the most backward and most reactionary relations of production in China and hinder the development of her productive forces. Their existence is utterly incompatible with the aims of the Chinese revolution. A revolutionary party is the guide of the masses. and no revolution ever succeeds when the revolutionary party leads them astray.
” The petty bourgeoisie.” Chairman Mao also dismisses the hopes of this class to establish their rule over China. He believes that this revolution will decide the ultimate winner between the imperialists and the revolutionists and equanimity will lead nowhere. Each has hoisted a huge banner: one is the red banner of revolution held aloft by the Third International as the rallying point for all the oppressed classes of the world. Although all strata of this class have the same petty-bourgeois economic status. there is no room for them to remain "independent". they fall into three different sections. . The intermediate classes are bound to disintegrate quickly. revolution and counter-revolution. office clerks. the intellectuals--students. the master handicraftsmen. small lawyers-and the small traders. Mao imparts special attention to this class. lower government functionaries. others turning right to join the counter-revolution. the revolution is threatening the hope of their class to attain the status of a big bourgeoisie.against imperialism and the warlords when they are smarting under the blows of foreign capital and the oppression of the warlords. His views are typified by his comments – “The present world situation is such that the two major forces. The owner-peasants and the master handicraftsmen are both engaged in small-scale production. some sections turning left to join the revolution. are locked in final struggle. the other is the white banner of counterrevolution held aloft by the League of Nations as the rallying point for all the counter-revolutionaries of the world. Chairman Mao includes in this category the owner-peasants. primary and secondary school teachers. but they become suspicious of the revolution when they sense that. both because of its size and class character. with the militant participation of the proletariat at home and the active support of the international proletariat abroad.
This section is very numerous.The first section consists of those who have some surplus money or grain. afraid of government officials. the feudal landlords and the big comprador-bourgeoisie. . He underlines their importance in the success of the revolution as they are the most oppressed section of the petty bourgeoisie. principally. Mao understands that this section is tempted by the lives of the middle bourgeoisie and thus has a suspicious attitude towards revolution. Chairman Mao segregates this section into five categories: • • • • • the overwhelming majority of the semi-owner peasants the poor peasants. The third section consists of those whose standard of living is falling. the warlords. and also a little afraid of the revolution. the small handicraftsmen. the shop assistants and the pedlars (hawkers). Mao comments. these classes are against the imperialists but when the time of the revolution arrives.“People of this sort are timid. As a result. they have a lot of faith in its propaganda and are suspicious of the revolution. making up about onehalf of the petty bourgeoisie. Mao reveals that although. The semi-proletariat. Since they are quite close to the middle bourgeoisie in economic status. that is. they are quite wary of the intentions of the imperialists and want them taken down.” This section is a minority among the petty bourgeoisie and constitutes its right-wing. Chairman Mao reveals their state of mental distress owing to the contrast between their past and their present. they may prefer to remain neutral. those who. The second section consists of those who in the main are economically self-supporting. earn more each year than they consume for their own support. Their principal opposition to the imperialists has been the consequence of suffering from the oppression and exploitation of the imperialists. citing the might of the imperialists.
The small handicraftsmen being semi-proletarians because. The industrial proletariat. textiles and shipbuilding--and a great number are enslaved in enterprises owned by foreign capitalists. have tiny funds and very small earnings. No other section of the people is so concentrated. is the most progressive class in modern China and has become the leading force in the revolutionary movement. The second reason is their low economic status. and do not make enough to feed and clothe themselves. They have been deprived of all means of production. this class is pivotal for the revolution. Mao reveals that the industrial proletariat represents China's new productive forces. Thus. mining. the primary two categories are exploited by the landlords throughout the year. Constituting a major chunk of the rural masses. this entire section is highly receptive to the revolution. supporting their families on meagre pay and getting an increase perhaps only once in several years while prices rise every year. The shop assistants are employees of shops and stores. when it surfaces.According to Mao. He understands their plight as they are the ones working directly under the orders of the imperialists. maritime transport. The pedlars. too are often forced to sell part of their labour power and are somewhat similar to the poor peasants in economic status. are subjected to the most ruthless . though they own some simple means of production and moreover are self-employed. whether they carry their wares around on a pole or set up stalls along the street. These two million industrial workers are mainly employed in five industries--railways. moreover. Mao identifies them as the key to success of the revolution. have no hope of ever becoming rich and. have nothing left but their hands. if and may. Mao analyses the reasons behind their emergence as the supporters of the revolution as he comments“The first reason why the industrial workers hold this position is their concentration.
however great. He also identified the leading force in their revolution as the industrial proletariat. its closest allies being the entire semi-proletariat and petty bourgeoisie. warlords. to be accepted or rejected as they decide. in China. like a hurricane.treatment by the imperialists. ON IMPORTANCE OF PEASANT REVOLUTION Chairman Mao was deeply impressed with the peasant revolutions taking place in mainland China in the late 1920s.” Thus. They will sweep all the imperialists. the warlords and the bourgeoisie. will be able to hold it back.” Mao was adamant that his revolution could not succeed without the aid of the peasants and thus wanted to imbibe in his party principles. He was quite sure about the success of these revolutions against imperialism as he comments – “In a very short time. his views were brought into reality as the popular slogan "All power to the peasant associations" became a reality. Every revolutionary party and every revolutionary comrade will be put to the test. As the peasant revolutions progressed. corrupt officials. the big landlord class and the reactionary section of the intelligentsia attached to them. a force so swift and violent that no power. the bureaucrats. the principles of the peasant revolution. Mao through an in-depth analysis of the classes in China identified his enemies – the ones in league with imperialism--the warlords. local tyrants and evil gentry into their graves. several hundred million peasants will rise like a mighty storm. His view was a consequence of the belief that the peasant associations were more sympathetic towards the troubles of the peasants. . He was always supportive of the powers being snatched from the local tyrants and the evil landlords and passed to the peasant associations. That is why they are particularly good fighters.
He elucidated the following achievements of the peasant revolutions: ORGANIZING THE PEASANTS INTO PEASANT ASSOCIATIONS HITTING THE LANDLORDS POLITICALLY Mao was of the view that the primary attack on imperialism was to snatch political power away from the landlords and the peasant revolution succeeded in doing that. and hoarding and cornering. the middle-aged and the . Prohibition on increasing rents and deposits Prohibition on cancelling tenancies Reduction of interest. • HITTING THE LANDLORDS ECONOMICALLY • Prohibition on sending grain out of the area. • • • OVERTHROWING THE ARMED FORCES OF THE LANDLORDS AND ESTABLISHING THOSE OF THE PEASANTS OVERTHROWING THE POLITICAL POWER OF THE COUNTY MAGISTRATE AND HIS BAILIFFS • All decisions are made by a joint council consisting of the magistrate and the representatives of the revolutionary mass organizations. forcing up grain prices. SPREADING POLITICAL PROPAGANDA Mao believed that the peasant revolution had done more to spread political propaganda than any political school could possibly had done. "Down with imperialism!" "Down with the warlords!" "Down with the corrupt officials!" "Down with the local tyrants and evil gentry!"--these political slogans have grown wings. they have found their way to the young.
The funds for the evening schools come from the "public revenue from superstition". and from other idle public funds or property. to the women and children in countless villages. evil gentry and lawless landlords have themselves driven the peasants to this. He believes that the local tyrants. His following comment has been an inspiration to many communist revolutions around the world - . Mao was pretty appreciative of the fact that peasant revolutions were aware of the importance of education and opened schools wherever they ruled. and especially consumers'. from ancestral temple funds. marketing and credit co-operatives because of the continuous exploitation at the hands of the landlords and evil gentry. THE MOVEMENT FOR EDUCATION In China education had always been the exclusive preserve of the landlords.old. • THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT The peasants really needed co-operatives. ON REVOLUTION Mao derived his ideas from Marx and Lenin and posited the aim of the Chinese Communist Party as “To complete China's bourgeoisdemocratic revolution (the new-democratic revolution) and to transform it into a socialist revolution when all the necessary conditions are ripe--such is the sum total of the great and glorious revolutionary task of the Chinese Communist Party.” Mao cited the annihilation of the feudal forces as the real objective of the national revolution and supported the violent methods adopted by the peasants against the authority. and the peasants have had no access to it. they have penetrated into their minds and are on their lips.
restrained and magnanimous. it cannot be so refined. A revolution is an insurrection. Thus. overthrow imperialism and the Kuomintang by means of such war. an act of violence by which one class overthrows another. he commented – “Our central task at present is to mobilize the broad masses to take part in the revolutionary war. the millions upon millions of people who genuinely and sincerely support the revolution. or writing an essay. so temperate. A rural revolution is a revolution by which the peasantry overthrows the power of the feudal landlord class. Comrades! What is a true bastion of iron? It is the masses. That is the real iron bastion which no force can smash no force whatsoever.” Mao believed in the power of unity and believed that it was a key to success in overthrowing The Kuomintang and that their seemingly powerful reign was a myth and could be overthrown.” ON GUERRILLA WARFARE Mao was a strong believer in the power of Guerilla Warfare to fight imperialism. so leisurely and gentle. or painting a picture. He always urged his comrades to prioritize the war of the masses as the central idea of the revolution. He commented“Kuomintang is now pursuing a policy of blockhouse warfare. it can be waged only by mobilizing the masses and relying on them. For the revolutionary war is a war of the masses. courteous. feverishly constructing their "tortoise-shells" as though they were iron bastions. kind. Without using the greatest force.“A revolution is not a dinner party. spread the revolution throughout the country. and drive imperialism out of China. It attains all the more importance when a nation fights for .” ON WELL-BEING OF THE MASSES Mao was a proponent of the well-being of the masses. the peasants cannot possibly overthrow the deep-rooted authority of the landlords which has lasted for thousands of years. or doing embroidery.
these hostilities began at a time when the people were unable to endure any more from the Japanese imperialists. the development of the type of guerrilla warfare characterized by the quality of mass is both necessary and natural.' We consider guerrilla operations as but one aspect of our total or mass war because they. Under these circumstances. 4. In our case. said: 'A people's insurrection and a people's revolution are not only natural but inevitable. 5. and society in general offer obstacles to his progress and may be used to advantage by those who oppose him. Equipping forces. There are certain fundamental steps necessary in the realization of this policy. In guerrilla warfare we turn these advantages to the purpose of resisting and defeating the enemy. . They are the inevitable result of the clash between oppressor and oppressed when the latter reach the limits of their endurance. Recovering national strength. 3. Arousing and organizing the people. Establishing bases. guerrilla operations are a necessary part. When the invader pierces deep into the heart of the weaker country and occupies her territory in a cruel and oppressive manner. to wit: 1. which is the complete emancipation of the Chinese people. In a war of revolutionary character. there is no doubt that conditions of terrain. in People and Revolution. Lenin.liberty against an imperialist country. 2. lacking the quality of independence. Mao cited the creation of a national united anti-Japanese front as the policy to pursue in order to gain our political goal. Destroying enemy's national strength. Mao was of the view that guerrilla warfare was to be united with the army operations as they cannot be successful in isolation. Achieving internal unification politically. are of themselves incapable of providing a solution to the struggle. climate. 7. 6. Regaining lost territories.
co-operation. in On Guerrilla Warfare. withdraw. mobility. seek a lightning decision. and attack. flanks. attack. and other vulnerable spots are his vital points. harass him when he stops. It must be adjusted to the enemy situation. guerrilla warfare must fail. When guerrillas engage a stronger enemy. deliver a lightning blow. the terrain. Mao talked about the basic guerrilla strategy based primarily on alertness. as it must. and assistance cannot be gained. Unorganized guerrilla warfare cannot contribute to victory and those who attack the movement as a combination of banditry and anarchism do not understand the nature of guerrilla action. if its political objectives do not coincide with the aspirations of the people and their sympathy.” said Lenin. exhausted and annihilated. attacked. the existing lines of communication. strike him when he is weary. the relative strengths. they withdraw when he advances. attack the hollow. Evil does not exist in guerrilla warfare but only in the unorganized and undisciplined activities that are anarchism. In guerilla strategy. We must educate them and reform them in the light of past experience. select the tactic of seeming to come from the east and attacking from the west. “The whole people must try to reform themselves during the course of the war. . In guerrilla warfare.Without a political goal. the enemy's rear. and there he must be harassed. avoid the solid. dispersed. Only in this way can guerrillas carry out their mission of independent guerrilla action and coordination with the effort of the regular armies. pursue him when he withdraws. the weather and the situation of the people.
supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. India. must love and help each other. such as Chhattisgarh. The Naxals are considered far-left radical communists. In later years. be he soldier or cook. He quotes the ancient Chinese writer Szuma Chien "Though death befalls all men alike. Orissa and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like . but to work for and die for the exploiters and oppressors is lighter than a feather. Our cadres must show concern for every soldier.ON ‘GRAND DEATH’ AND REMEMBRANCE Chairman Mao believed that a person’s death could either be insignificant or could be sacrificed for his nation. leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist– Leninist). He believed that the latter was the right way to die. we should have a funeral ceremony and a memorial meeting in his honour. From now on. it may be weightier than Mount Tai or lighter than a feather. when anyone in our ranks who has done some useful work dies." To die for the people is weightier than Mount Tai. In this way we express our mourning for the dead and unite all the people NAXALISM The term 'Naxal' derives from the name of the village Naxalbari in the state of West Bengal. and all people in the revolutionary ranks must care for each other. Their origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). Mao was acutely aware of the value of a human life and condemned unnecessary sacrifices during the course of war. where the movement had its origin. it spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India.
caste and religion. For. Charu Majumdar was inspired by the doctrines of Chairman Mao. who initiated a violent uprising in 1967. Naxalism was led by Charu Majumdar. His ideologies were well documented owing to his writings. such an opportunity. the ruling class will not give us and is not giving us either. So for the . He advocated that Indian peasants and lower class tribals overthrow the government and upper classes by force. They work for the decentralization of poor. but the form of the main movement depends on the ruling class. The present feature of our age is that the government is fighting every movement by violent attacks. CHARU MAJUMDAR’S THOUGHTS Charu Majumdar was a firm believer in armed uprising against the government and believed that ‘satyagraha’ was not the right mode to tackle the peasant problems at the time. They believed that economic freedom could be achieved only through an uprising against the rich. Kanu Sanyal and Jagan Santhal. especially the ‘Hisoric Eight Documents’ which form the basis of Naxalite ideology.the Communist Party of India (Maoist) Naxalites are those who fight for the freedom of the downtrodden and equal social and financial status for all irrespective of class. which he held responsible for their plight. “We are still unable to realize that in the present era we cannot build up peaceful mass movements. All types of movements have to be carried on at all ages.
the tactic of area-wise seizure of power can be the only tactic. Form armed units for confrontation. Mao Tsetung's: "The enemy's armoury is our armoury. The people do not have food. Majumdar wrote“Apparently the government might look powerful. His emphasis on educating them is also a leaf from Mao’s book who believed that peasant revolutions were the greatest teachers of political propaganda to the masses. So Chairman Mao has said: "The reactionary force is actually a paper tiger." To build up that armoury the working class should take the lead. his focus on the decentralization of power is testified. By this thought. He was highly influenced by Mao’s unrelenting belief in the power of unity of the masses and the fallability of the seemingly-powerful authority. He wanted the proletariat to be the focal point of this struggle as they suffered the most under the imperialist design of the government. We should remember that the teaching of Comrade Mao. the fighting peasantry and every fighting people: • • • Take to arms. the call should be given to the working class. the armed resistance movement has appeared as the most important necessity. So in the interest of mass movements. Politically educate every armed unit. "Turn the imperialist war into a civil war" — we should understand the significance of this slogan. because it has in its hands food and arms. Majumdar held similar opinions as Mao about the government and wanted power to be vested in the peasant associations. The tactic which was adopted by China's Great Leader Comrade Mao Tsetung — the same tactic should be adopted by the Indian Marxists. But it is the unity and firm spirit of these unarmed masses that smash all the arrogance of reaction and make the revolution successful. To resolve the imperialist war we should advance along the path determined by Lenin.” His reverence to Mao is distinctly clear with the aforementioned essential points of a mass peasant armed struggle against the government. If we can realize the truth that the Indian revolution will invariably take the form of civil war." . The ruling class of India is trying to solve its crisis by imperialist tactics.people. they are unarmed.
the contradiction between the peasants and the landlords in the countryside remains even today the main contradiction. whose political ideology will be MarxismLeninism and its highest development-the thought of Mao Tse-tung.In the present era. • Unity of workers and peasants. The People's Democratic Revolution in India has to be directed against the bureaucrat and comprador bourgeoisie in the country and against feudal exploitation in the vast rural areas. feudal exploitation continues to be the main form of exploitation to which they are subjected. His continued emphasis on the building of a revolutionary party which will provide the adequate leadership during the struggle was a part of Mao’s ideology. NAXALBARI STRUGGLE . armed struggle. To organize this new-democratic revolution and lead it to victory we need a party of the working class. • The building up of a revolutionary Party. Because forty crores of people out of the total population of fifty crores live in the rural areas in our country and because even today. This is the biggest and most important task that faces us today. Only then can we claim to have made progress in building up a genuine Maoist party. a Communist Party. • The revolutionary resistance movement. These rebel comrades must apply in practice the thought of the Chairman and must thereby train up worker and peasant cadres. main tasks will be on the basis of three main slogans. for India is at present going through a period of revolutionary upsurge and this path pointed out by the Chairman Mao is being increasingly accepted by growing numbers of peasants and revolutionary masses. Both gentlemen agreed that the revolution could only succeed with the best interests of the working class at the forefront. This contradiction can only be resolved in the countryside through the establishment of liberated zones by the peasants' armed forces under working class leadership.
Peasants in different areas must prepare themselves in a manner so as to be able to render ineffective the state apparatus in their respective areas. . It is precisely this that gives the Naxalbari struggle its uniqueness.Majumdar wrote about how the Naxalbari peasant struggle was an example." Majumdar. The unique lesson Majumdar wanted everyone to learn from it was “Militant struggles must be carried on not for land. broad sections of the peasantry cannot be drawn into the movement. not only for India. it is also an international struggle. nor can the backward sections of the peasants be raised to a level where they can grasp our political propaganda. imperialism and all systems of exploitation. That is why the Naxalbari struggle is not merely a national struggle. "Peasants should seize the next harvest" is a slogan which will draw broad sections of the peasants into the fold of the movement.” Qouting Mao . While the comrades who are working among the peasants should continue to propagate politics. nor can their hatred against their class enemy be sustained. and is acting today as a base of reactionary forces against the people struggling for liberation. For. Hatred must be roused against the jotedar class as it starves the peasants throughout the year."the complete collapse of colonialism. "Seize the coming crops" is a slogan which must be propagated from this moment. and our conscious political propaganda will change the nature of this peasant movement. if they wanted the peasants to support the struggle. crops etc. they should never belittle the necessity of formulating common slogans on economic demands. He was aware that the well-being of the masses should be the aim of the comrades. and the complete emancipation of all the oppressed peoples and nations of the world are not far off. without this. but also for the world. like Mao. was a believer in the power of Guerilla Warfare in fighting for the interests of the working class. but for the seizure of state power. India has been turned into a base of imperialism and revisionism..
recognises the individual forest dweller's right to live in and cultivate forest land he had been occupying. one of the hotbeds of Maoist activity in the state. there is Mumbai government. which they had been cultivating for generations." It is a pointer to the pride the 450-odd people. 205 km away.following the passing of the historic Forest Rights Act (FRA) in December 2006. had no right to pluck even a leaf from the thick clusters of bamboo that surrounded their village. (Cutting trees and selling the timber is still barred. Worse: most of them. At the state. Until then.mainly to provide themselves unhindered access to Indian timber .RELEVANCE IN CURRENT SCENARIO Mendha Lenka Village "At the centre.was a crushing blow for the hundreds of thousands of forest dwelling tribals who depended largely on the forests around them for livelihood. had also cleared land. in adjoining Gadchiroli district. 1927. but here we are our own government. passed after decades of prodding by activist groups. forests were governed by the Indian Forest Act. It also allows the government to grant community forest rights to village gram sabhas. The passing of this law by the British .) . Mendha Lekha became the first village in the country to secure community forest rights (CFR) . living in the village of Mendha Lekha. Thus the residents of Mendha Lekha. mostly Gond tribals. living in a reserved forest. there is Delhi government. after which no one except the state had rights to the forest's produce. living in forest villages. thereby permitting them to manage the forest around them and utilise its 'minor produce'. a colonial law that gave the government the right to unilaterally declare any area a 'reserved forest' or 'protected forest'. The FRA.
proposed bringing NREGA under the purview of gram sabha.Decisions are taken with everyone's consent. Mao’s consistent focus on the decentralization of power looks all the more relevant in today’s world as resources dwindle. This welcome change has been a consequence of the increased awareness of the working class. Even if one member disagrees. The villagers believe in swayamshasan (self-rule). He suggests that in areas where Community Forest Rights are recognized. including India. The Government of India has begun to recognize the power of the masses and has acceded to some of their demands like granting Community Forest Rights (CFR) to the residents (as mentioned above). the gram sabha (peasant association) in a participative democracy may soon be the need of the hour. the gram sabha should be primary implementing agency for all interventions of government (including MGNREGA). due to better education facilities and the easier access of information. CONCLUSION Mao’s five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence have not only found their way into the Chinese Constitution but have also been an integral part of the foreign policy of many countries. mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity mutual non-aggression non-interference in each other's internal affairs equality and mutual benefit peaceful co-existence Apart from these principles of peaceful co-existence which have found their way into the Indian perspective through the signing of Panchsheel. the decision is put on hold and reviewed by the members of the gram sabha. the Union Minister. Mao’s relentless pursuit of working for the best interests of the . Jairam Mahesh. As representative democracy has begun to lose its footing with discontentment rife amongst the masses. The call for Mao’s sustainable self-rule by the peasant associations reflects well on the way our future society can turn out to be.
devoid of any authority. in the future. In reality. as they cannot stand injustice being done to their people in their homeland.masses and uniting them can serve as the basis for the self-governing society. something which the great French philosopher. the need of the government is not a luxury enjoyed by us. “the enemy’s armoury is our armoury” . As Mao said.org/reference/archive/mazumdar/ . Mao has been vilified by some critics as being a ruthless anarchist. Indeed. which the Maoists dream of. the greater relevance of Mao's philosophy in today's world is “to help maintain peace. silence falls on deaf ears and a thick-skinned Government needs a rude awakening at times. where selfrule will be the norm and each one would be ruled by another as well as none. Rousseau. After all. The Maoists may have been branded as terrorists but they are greater patriots than most of us. Mao had an innate respect for human life. and the day may not be far off when the world settles into smaller.marxists. I will like to believe that. but a rule imposed upon us. sustainable. On the contrary. but in today’s world. would be particularly proud of.marxists. as evident by his speech on the death of one of his comrades (as mentioned above). So. their protests may have taken a sinister route at times. who had no respect for human life. humans are innately at peace with one-another as opposed to what Hobbes may have wanted us to believe by his ‘war of all against all’ theory and it’s the Government which uses war as a selfish measure to keep this notion at bay. there will exist a peaceful society. yes. As evident by the example of Mendha Lenka village.org/reference/archive/mao/ http://www. he was reflecting on the fact that a violent government needs a violent revolution to be overthrown. stability and development” and create a more equitable global order. peaceful societies. REFERENCES http://www.
schoolnet.org/wiki/naxalite http://www.net/India/CPI-Maoist-Docs/index.co.htm .htm http://www.bannedthought.http://wikipedia.spartacus.uk/COLDmao.
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