1 Bob Long 1/12/10 Dissertation Proposal-2.0 Prof.

Pamela Radcliff-adviser Salir del Desierto: Dissident Artistic Expression Under Franco, 1936-1975 A las parejas de novios, que tienen que esconder tristemente su alegría. -Jesús López Pacheco, Canciones del amor prohibido, 1961.1 That's what art is all about. At least it’s the hope of hope. For “no hope” we have reality. -Osvaldo Golijov, 2006.2 I. Introduction From the beginning of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and through the years of the authoritarian Franco regime (1939-1975) the survival of artistic expression in Spain of artists sympathetic to the defeated Republic was constantly challenged. Whether threatened with assassination if caught in Nationalist-held territory during the war or with harassment, imprisonment, or worse if they did not restrain their expression after the war, these Spanish artists were simultaneously faced with choices of a profoundly personal and aesthetic nature. The regime’s obsession with a culturally traditionalist narrative through its control of the academy and all other public space made artistic movements, in particular those of the avant-garde, problematic and even dangerous. In order to secure a means for their artistic expression, artists were forced into life-altering decisions. The initial goal of the military coup in 1936 was clear: overthrow the democratically elected Republic and rid Spain of secular liberalism. But in short order, Francisco Franco’s campaign took on the mantel of a “Crusade” whose purpose was as hegemonic culturally as it was politically. By the end of the war, the Nationalists intended to blanket Spain with a conservative veil of “National Catholicism” that
“To the pairs of lovers who have to hide their joy”. The poems were written as a protest against the repressive social policies of the Franco regime.

As quoted in Jeremy Eichler, “Standing the Whole World on Its Ear,” New York Times, January 22, 2006. The Argentine composer was discussing his composition, Aindamar, inspired by the life of Federico García Lorca.

2 from the top down would control every form of public expression, every avenue of dissent, and as a result, every vehicle for the expression of art, literature, and music. This research will focus on these areas of expression using the lives of three Spanish artists, abstract expressionist painter Antoní Tàpies, poet and novelist Jesús López Pacheco, and composer Antonio José Martínez Palacios, as a template with which to measure artistic expression under Franco authoritarianism. Some Spanish artists caught in the maelstrom of the Spanish Civil War were already well known and have since been written about extensively. Poet and playwright Federico García Lorca was killed by Falangist assassins and dumped in an unmarked grave in his native Granada at the outset of the war. Surrealist painter Salvador Dalí remained in Paris during the much of the war and later, sheltered by his fame, found accommodation with the Franco regime. Film director Luis Buñuel’s decision to remain abroad made him an exile like the great swath of other artists and academics that backed the Republic and fled the Nationalist onslaught. All three were not only internationally recognized at the time of the war, but had also been in the forefront of the European artistic avant-garde for much of their creative lives. They serve here as indicators of the complexities presented to artists at the beginning of the conflict, but their degree of fame makes them exceptional. Though less celebrated, Antoní Tàpies, Jesús López Pacheco, and Antonio José (as Martínez Palacio preferred to be called) led lives that paralleled those of Buñuel, Dalí, and Lorca. José, like Lorca, returned to his hometown after civil war broke out in 1936 only to be murdered by the Falange, leaving a trail of unfinished work. Tápies and Dalí, both from Cataluña, remained part of avant-garde expression in Europe throughout their careers, though that expression underwent serious changes in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War and World War II. Both Buñuel and López Pacheco faced exile and its concomitant effect on creativity, but still managed to maintain a high level of productivity. The differences between these two groups of artists, however, are fundamental to this subject,

3 Tàpies and López Pacheco represent the younger generation that grew up during the Civil War and lived in Spain throughout most of the darkest years of the repression under Franco. Neither had the international reputation of Dalí or Buñuel that would have afforded them the opportunity to create on the international stage during the early years of the regime. On the other hand, Antonio José, though a prolific contemporary of Lorca, was only just beginning to gain the notice of more famous artists before his death. At the time, his compositions had only received a few performances in Spain and his artistic influence could not compare to that of Lorca´s. The primary purpose of this research is to examine the repercussions of the types of decisions made by these lesser-known Spanish artists of this period and place those repercussions in the broader context of Spanish society under Franco. Tápies, López Pacheco, and José were all recognized by their peers, though none had achieved international acclaim. For that reason, they are more representative of the broader spectrum of artistic expression that confronted the Franco regime’s authoritarian control. Additionally, López Pacheco and Tápies were actively engaged in organized, clandestine opposition to the regime as members of the Partido Comunista de España (PCE), while Antonio José died because of his opposition. All three lives, then, represent a counter-weight to the regime’s culturally hegemonic project. The narratives of these three artists should provide a gauge with which to better appreciate the motivation of all artists, their drive for expression, and the effect that drive has on the societies in which they live. But the lives of these individuals are also representative of a more complex experience, that of human artistic expression under a repressive regime. Spanish society throughout the years of Franco’s dictatorship was under varying degrees of centralized control. Especially during the first ten years of its existence, all public art, whether painting, music, sculpture, or literature, was answerable to the regime’s hegemonic National Catholicism. However, whatever circumstances may have forced adaptations over the years, the regime never once gave up the goal of forging a society that conformed to its conservative

Did Spanish artists residing in Spain during the Franco regime have significant contact with the diaspora. many of whom had fled to the Americas. paint. And although in later years censorship of public artistic expression was modified. will be to examine these two artistic cultures. and it affected their creative work in profound ways. A secondary goal of this work. then. An inquiry into the ways in which Spanish society experienced art during the regime and the interactions these and other artists had with society during the dictatorship will throw light on the rapid opening of Spanish culture in 1975 after Franco’s death. the confusing mix of freedom and longing to return could not be escaped. the effects on artistic life in exile will serve as a corollary to the effects of expression directly under the dictatorship. and to what extent did they influence each other’s work? How. there existed a cultural divide between them. in fact. and writers learned their craft. the diaspora of Spanish artists. For the artists in exile. Although they were free to write. or perform. his life presents a further nuance. Abroad. Understanding the world of a Spanish exiled artist is fundamental to understanding how artistic expression survived the Civil War and whether or not the exile experience radiated back to those who remained in Spain. were under guidelines set by the corporatist Spanish state. Because Jesús López Pacheco became an exile in the latter years of his life. and their fellow artists back home in Spain. musicians. but political as well. in order to understand the extent to which they interacted. formed a unique sub-set whose common bond with the artists they left behind was not merely artistic. did the direction of expression of the peninsular artist differ from that of the diaspora as the years of the dictatorship dragged on? Ultimately. any research on the effects of an authoritarian regime on artistic expression is a study about freedom of expression and human rights itself. the conservatories and universities where young painters. But art has often not followed the same course as . domestic and disaporic. their host countries. throughout the regime’s history the institutions of art. In this research.4 cultural paradigm.

Dissertation Argument More specifically. Secondly. but their work often became increasingly introspective and retreated into the confines of their exile. Part of that phenomenon is due to the transcendent nature of artistic expression. though often tightly controlled and always suppressed by some degree. this research proposes that. II. Their productivity did not suffer. should go a long way toward establishing the validity of this idea. a country recovering from a brutal civil war under the . appeared consumed by their continued separation from Spain and the personal grief they felt at not being able to return. this research should serve to broaden concepts of how artists can represent a form of covert resistance that is extremely effective long term against an authoritarian regime. The examination of the lives of these three Spanish artists. which speaks truth to power without literality. The cases of artistic expression defying authoritarian manipulation in modern history are numerous. whose creative output was so dramatically intertwined with the dictatorship’s censorship. especially in the early years of the dictatorship.5 other forms of expression. many of the Spanish artists who remained behind sustained a high degree of continuity and originality in their expression. The hope is that this research on Spanish artists living under the repression of the Franco regime will add to the growing reservoir of historiography on those years in modern Spain. In the meantime. though isolated by their own government. the work of the diasporic artists. III. artistic expression in Spain had a far greater effect on Francoist cultural hegemony than previously believed. from the music of African-Americans under slavery and “Jim Crow” laws in the American South to the work of expressionist painters under Nazism or protest literature in Soviet Russia. even in a controlled public sphere. But as importantly. ironically. Significance of the project This is a study of a society under stress. although they achieved this in the midst of much personal suffering. who were comparatively free to express themselves.

economic upheaval. This study. The significance of what that separation meant in terms of both cultural continuity for the Spanish and cultural development in art could deepen the understanding of how human artistic expression is maintained and survives. Madrid. should provide ample evidence of that perspective for a cultural historian. and changes in technology (even the technology of war). whether because of personal angst or reasons of exile. For historians of art. or New York at the dawn of World War II and the postwar years. therefore. then. who struggled to learn and live under trying circumstances far different from their exiled counterparts. The years of the Franco regime require. an analysis of the Spanish artistic diaspora at this period could offer tangible rewards.6 repression of a dictatorship. who constantly reposition themselves by seeking out any environment where they can best express their art. The European artist of the twentieth century was in a unique position to digest and reflect the massive social changes brought on by war. Artists often are a mobile and perceptive lot. or Paris in the interwar years of the 1920s and 1930s. Sources in Theory . who represent varying versions of resistance to that regime. the exodus of an artistic diaspora left behind a virtual control group in Spain. can only add to a better understanding of that history. European artists had a mobility that allowed them a unique perspective for creative introspection on a global stage and a platform from which to influence culture. IV. The focus on these three individual artists. continued attention both because of the regime’s longevity in contemporary history and because of the nature of its attempts to suppress history. For historians of modern Europe. the Spanish Civil War will continue to be a principle focal point in research because of the depth of the centrifugal social forces surrounding its build-up and its aftermath. Whether they turned up in Mexico City. For historians of contemporary Spain.

the idea of a New Spanish State. 2007) and amplified and adapted by Stuart Hall (Resistance Through Rituals. what Hall referred to as the “intensity and variety of State battering” determines the possibility of resistance. 4 The works of these artists can be analyzed using some similar tools. A golpe de estado was the result. can be seen as an attempt to reassert political hegemony by a group of conservative elites who had lost control of the State during the years of the Republic. of how dissident artistic expression could assert a space for itself within the walls of that hegemonic control becomes part of this examination. Prison Notebooks. while reducing dissenters to individual and insignificant specks of dust. Stuart Hall’s framework of cultural contestation in opposition to hegemony could be vital to the discussion of the Francoist cultural project of National Catholicism. Stuart Hall. who was writing on the cultural resistance of British youth during the 1960s. draped in the mantel of traditional Catholicism. 2007). 1993). when it became apparent to the Nationalists that labeling their enterprise a “Crusade” provided a reservoir of emotional and symbolic ammunition for their cause. was key to projecting their hegemonic strategy. the “overdetermination” of artists. coercion. 3 4 .” 3 But this hegemony was not to be strictly political. or as Gramsci defined it “the content of the public’s political will” were usurped by the regime. 1993). To paraphrase Hall. provide models that are particularly useful. all avenues of public opinion. 237. the concepts laid out by Antonio Gramsci on hegemony (Prison Notebooks. then. in Gramscian terms. 213. And once the regime was in complete control of national mechanisms of state in 1939. insuring that “only one force will mold public opinion and hence the political will of the nation. 1930-1932. The Franco insurrection of 1936. From the earliest period of the Civil War. and cooptation resulted in unintended avenues of dissent along lines of artistic expression. although alone they might Antonio Gramsci. Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain (New York: Routledge. What the Franco regime intended through censorship.7 In terms of an overall theoretical approach to analyzing the Franco dictatorship. Volume III (New York: Columbia University Press. An understanding.

and progressive dissolution of. it is Stuart Hall again who presents us with the most room to move analytically. however. there is in artists an underlying drive to create that is not adequately explained unless one looks for theoretical guidance elsewhere. The transcendent quality of artistic expression outlined by Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. realism. is not the same as that of the Stalinist doctrine of “Socialist Realism. Tàpies." defined by their concerns with daily life in the modern world. Schopenhauer. Possibly. Nietzsche. Jesús López Pacheco is placed by most critics into a group of European writers from the 1950s and 1960s termed "Social Realists. Lukács had problems with what he regarded as subjectivism in Expressionist art. This movement presented a distinct literary departure from the previous avant-garde project in Spain such as the work of Federico García Lorca or that of novelist Ramón Gómez de la Serna. It should be noted that Lukács’s concept of “Realism. for that matter.” 5 López Pacheco’s writing seems to reflect an emphasis in precisely the direction indicated by Lukács concerns. was merely an attempt to redefine reality through a bourgeois prism. because of his belief that the avant-garde continually displayed “growing distance from.” though based in its critical contestation with the avant-garde and related somewhat in content. while Impressionism. Both Tàpies and López-Pacheco created their works in an environment that threatened their expression and their works can be viewed in Hall’s counterhegemonic context. for instance. neither of which falls close to Lukács’s framework. In the intellectual history of modern Europe. 5 . Aesthetics and Politics: The Key Texts of the Classic Debate Within German Marxism (London: Verso. Here Marxist philosopher György Lukács’s Realism in the Balance (1938) might be theoretically useful.8 not seem to represent a completely coherent counter-hegemonic set. to Lukács. then. Unfortunately. and Ernest Bloch. 29. as well as the discussion of the artist in Sigmund Freud’s work might ultimately provide an important key to the nature and impetus behind artistic expression in general and that of José. 1980). Beyond broad models of cultural contestation. and López Pacheco specifically. the lush French impressionism of Antonio José. this analysis creates a problem with interpreting the abstract expressionist work of Antoní Tàpies or.” which was intended as a framework in the Soviet Union in which artists could further the purposes of the Communist state.

Nietzsche speaks of the artist as an “imitator” (not as a charlatan. The World as Will and Representation (Mineola. In The Birth of Tragedy (1872). “Kindly nature. New York: Dover Publishing. To each of them in differing degrees. “That he knows the essential in things which lies outside of all relations. “has given the artist the ability to express his most secret impulses. there is an aspect of artistic expression that springs from a somewhat different source. Freud’s concept here entails the understanding of artistic expression as a vehicle of sublimation.” he writes in his analysis of Leonardo de Vinci. 1999). There is a historical relationship between these European intellectuals that can be traced to an understanding of worlds of creativity that do not fall neatly into the realm of reasoning. For Freud. In both. but rather as a reflector) of a union between Dionysian ecstasy and Apollonian intellectual artistic instincts. problematic. and these works have a powerful effect on others who are strangers to the artist. A painting or a poem could be a map of the soul and a means to communicate it to others. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche we can find ways to see the artist and his or her creations as part of an intuitive process that does not clearly fit a rational explanation. 195. “The artist lets us peer into the world through his eyes. 1966). by means of the works that he creates. Sigmund Freud. and who are themselves unaware of the source of their emotion. the artist serves the world as a vehicle with which humans can gain a respite from an encompassing Will that drives all of life. 57. on the other hand. art represents an instinctive conduit of expression and the artist serves a unique purpose. The artist then becomes a vehicle through which expression of this union is achieved. Leonardo de Vinci (new York: Routledge. is the gift of genius and is inborn…”6 For Schopenhauer.” 7 An authoritarian regime trying to systematically control the public sphere could find artistic expression. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche were both deeply suspicious of any explanation of artistic expression that depended on the 6 7 Arnold Schopenhauer. .9 Freud occupy a place at odds with nineteenth century dialectical discourse. which enables the artist to could navigate personal neurosis while at the same time engage the social world. which are hidden even from himself.” Schopenhauer writes. given Freud’s insight.

it seems. V. for Spanish artists who rose a generation later. José. The same cannot be said. as indicated by the few translations available at the time. And both men’s writing had influence on Freud. due to the strict control the regime had on the public sphere. But the problem remains in this area of research that the earliest years of the Franco regime provide the least amount of evidence on cultural matters. suffered an additional handicap. of course. This attitude is reflected in the available literature on Spanish twentieth century artistic expression and is another reason why it is important to focus on other. interest in Spain quickly waned as the clouds of war in Europe rose on the horizon. then.10 purely rational. and López Pacheco these other sources of artistic creation is necessary. such as Antoní Tàpies. let alone the specific lives of individuals. Literature review/historiography The advantage of centering one’s research on three individuals within the broader topic of artistic expression under the Franco dictatorship is. While critical analysis on painters sympathetic to the Republic. Writers. lesser-known Spanish artists. especially Nietzsche’s references to the primacy of dreams in human understanding of the past. Once the Spanish Civil War was over and Franco’s government had consolidated its control militarily and politically. Since the rise of the avant-garde at the beginning of twentieth century in Europe there had never been a want of criticism on primary Spanish avant-garde figures such as Dalí and Buñuel. does exist among the art libraries of . their works were often given minimal attention. the ability to limit the range of inquiry with the hope of creating a template that sheds light on a broader context. And Spanish artistic expression had another burden placed upon it in the wider world of events. In terms of European critical recognition outside of Spain. when trying to fathom the full range of impulses that drove their work. To recognize in Tàpies. with the exception of Lorca or Ramón Gómez de la Serna.

it mostly refers to work done after 1950.11 universities. there appears to be a deficiency of scholarship from the perspective of the expressive voices of Spanish musicians. 2) literature that emphasizes the opposition against the regime. or curse. and finally 5) literature that focuses on artistic expression in general and expression under authoritarianism specifically. . Finally. of being promoted by the regime as a tourist attraction. For the earliest years of the Franco repression there exists little. there still exists a broad spectrum of sources with which to begin such research. which had the benefit. Likewise. the works of writers who tried to publish during the first years of the repression were under strict censorship. other than flamenco. 4) historiography on the Spanish cultural diaspora that spread across the Atlantic to the Americas after the war. The literature can be roughly divided into five categories: 1) historiography of the Franco era and its social repression with some emphasis in the area of cultural history. Given these limitations. 3) biographical material on the artists emphasizing their body of work.

Memoria y olvido de la guerra civil española (1996) and Memoria de la guerra y del franquismo (2006). and since the late 1980s a veritable explosion of scholarship has occurred regarding its political evolution. and. as well. and all contain pertinent discussion on the use of culture by the regime.agonía y victoria (el protocolo 277) (1989). its social history. the memory of the dictatorship in the minds of Spaniards. are books written from the perspective of supporters of the regime and the perspective of Franco’s National Catholic agenda. its political and social histories. and Ulrich Winter’s compendium of articles Lugares de memoria de la Guerra Civil y el franquismo: representaciones literarias y visuals (2006) are examples of the newer contentious arena of history and memory studies in Spain and represent an indication of the struggle over representations of its recent past. Antonio Cazorla Sánchez´s Las políticas de la victorias: la consolidación del Nuevo Estado franquista (2000). its lasting effect on present society. 1936-1975 (1987). Any of a number of books by Ricardo de la Cierva. are helpful in understanding Francoist historians rationalization of the war and the first . Glicerio Sánchez Recio’s edited compendium El primer franquismo. Juan Pablo Fusi’s Franco (1987). more recently. Stanley Payne’s Franco’s Regime. in particular the third section by Francisco Moreno on the regime’s use of violence (1999). Together these works provide an overview of the regime’s roots. Jean Grugel and Tim Rees’s Franco’s Spain. and the Santos Juliá edited Victimas de la Guerra Civil.12 There is no shortage of books on the history of the Franco era. Of particular note. who promoted the regime’s historical “modernization” project. Some of the instrumental works in these areas include: Luis Suárez Fernández’s three volume Franco: Cronica de un timepo (2001). including Historia del franquismo: Origenes y configuración (1939-1945) (1975) and 1939. 1936-1959 (1999). Paloma Aguilar Fernández’s two books on historical memory. co-edited with historian Santos Juliá.

Gabriel Ureña’s Las vanguardias artísticas en la postguerra española. Principal among these works is a virtual guide to the Francoist National Catholicism entitled Franco y La Cultura: labor del estado español published in 1947 by La Oficina de Información Española in Madrid. During the 1990s and into twenty-first century research projects began to appear that were dedicated to art and expression under the regime as well as works that incorporated cultural studies within larger frameworks. La politica artística del franquismo: el hito de la Bienal Hispano-Americana de Arte (1996). Miguel Cabañas Bravo’s. In addition. its censorship.13 years of the regime. including an important section on the cultural aperture of the early 1950s. . gives an invaluable summary of the direction and fate of the avant-garde project in Spain after the civil war. a critical book in understanding the components of the early years of literature repression under. censores y bibliotecarios en el primer franquismo. An example of the type of work that uses important cultural tools. The nature of the repression enforced by the regime. and its control of the public space through media and the academy are at the heart of this historiography. especially literary and graphic art. Examples of the latter are Ángel Llorente’s Arte e ideología en el franquismo. Eduardo Ruiz Bautista’s Los señores del libro: propagandistas. The last amounts to an exhaustive study of the Franco regime’s attempts to present a new face to the world through an exhibition of Hispano American painting and sculpture. 1936-1951 (1995). to underpin its explanation of the Franco years is Javier Ugarte Tellería’s La nueva Covadonga insurgente: origenes sociales y culturales de la subelvación de 1936 en Navarra y el País Vasco (1998). Both of these types of works provide important insights into how the regime saw the role of art and the artist. 1940-1959 (1982). This first category of historiography is rounded off by a group of books that define and analyze the regime’s use of repression and repression of artistic expression directly.

Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain. Fernanda Romeu Alfaro’s El silencio roto: mujeres contra el franquismo (2002). social. important works that focus on social and political confrontation to the regime include: Joe Foweraker’s Making Democracy in Spain: Grass-roots Struggle in the South. Lastly. Pere Ysàs’ Disidencia y subversión: la lucha del régimen franquista por su supervivencia. there is a recent revisionist view of the origins of the war and the meaning of the regime. albeit clandestine. the only well organized and fully national. national. Michael Richards’ A Time of Silence . north and northeastern Spain. Enrique Berzal de la Rosa’s chapter “ Estado y represión: aproximación al estudio de los mecanismos represivos durante el primer franquismo” in the Santiago Castillo´s edited Estado. 1955-1975 (1989). and a second book by Cabañas Bravo published in 1996 that pertains directly to artists in opposition to the 1951 Bienal. and foreign affairs entitled El franquismo: el régimen y la oposición put together by the Historical Archive of the Provence of Guadalajara. Though not exclusively about the opposition to the regime is a two volume set of articles focusing on local. 1960-1975 (2004).14 The second category of works that are concerned with opposition to the regime is essential for understanding the sympathies held by all three of the protagonists of this study. Tápies and López Pacheco were of the generation that grew up under Franco and were both members of the Communist Party (PCE). Of prime importance to the researcher is a whole section dedicated to the availability of sources in archives from all over central. Artístas contra Franco: la oposición de los artistas mexicanos y españoles. In that regard. Isaías Lafuente´s Esclavos por laq patria: La explotación de los presos bajo el franquismo (2002). moviemientos cosiales (1997). protesta. and political histories of Francoism and its opposition. opposition the regime had for much of its history. 1936-1945. It is an exhaustive collection of articles in two volumes split into six areas of inquiry including cultural. These are typified by the work of journalist Pío Moa .

Catalan. sculpture. is particularly useful as it includes prints. The Funcació de Tàpies in Barcelona holds not only a number of the artist’s works produced between 1946 and 1974. In terms of Antoní Tápies. Tàpies’ art is readily available for viewing at several museums in Europe and America including: the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Madrid. French. The third category of literature includes biographical scholarship on the artists along with collections of their various works. it also provides a wealth of sources through its library and archive. published in 1977. the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. the Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao. Youssef Isaghpour´s 2006 monograph. Antoní Tàpies was a prolific artist and his paintings and sculptures are well represented throughout the world. the most complete collection on Tàpies exists at the Museu D’Art Contemporani de Barcelona with fortytwo works. however. including the copious collection of Tàpies monographs on contemporary art. He also penned a memoir. write about the life of a painter anymore than one can discuss the life of a writer or composer without some examination of the works themselves. and English. One cannot. the Musée d'Art moderne de la Ville de Paris. Tàpies. and interviews. the source pool is enriched because the painter extensively wrote critical works on art himself and was published in Spanish. an exile. a biography. and prints that were created during the Franco regime. Memòria personal: fragment per a una autobiografia. Beyond Barcelona. was not. but he traveled often in the later years of the regime and was well aware of the emerging trends in modern art.15 Rodríguez whose De un tiempo y un país: la izquierda violenta. including painting. who was only fifteen when Barcelona fell to the Nationalists in January of 1939. 1968-1978 (2002) represents a politically conservative view of leftist opposition to the Franco regime in its final years. the Staedel . Among the museums that have works by Tàpies from the period relevant to this research. Tàpies. however. like López Pacheco.

Lucha contra el murciélago y otros cuentos (1988). La hoja was published in Mexico in 1973 and later in Spain in 1977 after Franco's death. the Kunstmuseum in Basel. a younger voice in his art at the time of the dictatorship. The literary oeuvre of Jesús López Pacheco is important to this study for several reasons: he represents. a book of short stories. That short book. In part. This scarcity of early work is mentioned by the author in a brief autobiographical sketch he did for the release of Pongo la mano sobre España. On the other hand. The Guggenheim Museum and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Canciones del amor prohibido (1961). he also wrote and published in Spain as a member of the illegal PCE. was published abroad. Moreover. as well as his second novel. and his writing bridges the period of the middle to late Franco years. living under the regime seriously hampered his creative output. his fictive biography. Of these works. He wrote only two novels. the most important in terms of its broader implications of artistic expression under the regime is his 1958 work.16 Museum in Frankfurt. La hoja de parro (1973). though he did manage to write a good amount of literary criticism in his later years as a professor in Canada. Central eléctica (1958). The fact that his next . Central eléctrica. he was not as prolific an artist over the forty-five years of his career as was Antoní Tàpies. His books of poetry and fiction include: Dejad creer este silencio (1953). and The Museum of the Art Institute in Chicago. and some collections of poems. Mi corazón se llama Cudillero (1961). López Pacheco wrote and published as an exile from Spain toward the end of the regime. a book of poetry denied publication in Spain due to Francoist censors. The former was a part of a collection published in Buenos Aires entitled España a tres voces (1963) that included the poetry of other dissident Spanish poets Marcos Ana and Luis Alberto Quesada. Between the years 1953 and 1958 the author had nothing published at all. Asilo poético (1992) and Ecologas y Urbanas (1998). like Tàpies. La hoja de parro (1973). because of its stark portrayal of everyday life in Spain at the time.

1990). There are. and Carlos Blanco Aguinaga. and Iris M. Julio Rodríguez Puértolas. no complete biographies on the life of Jesús López Pacheco In terms of literary analysis. Zavala's 1978 Historia social de la literatura española (en lengua castellana).17 work fell victim to Franco censors indicates the importance of the novel and exemplifies the roadblocks that the regime meant to throw in front of certain artists. 1990). 2004). 1939-1989. Manuel L. The latter work is significant in its appraisal of Central eléctrica as one of the earliest examples of a post-war Spanish author assimilating some of the literary techniques of James Joyce and William Faulkner. . López Pacheco’s work receives mention in several books on contemporary Spanish literature including those by David Thatcher Gies (The Cambridge history of Spanish literature. at this time. Jaime Benítez (La torre. Abellán (Medio siglo de cultura.

One book. Fortunately. Finally. that does make a major contribution to placing the author in his historical context in Spain is Envenenados de cuerpo y alma: la oposición universitaria al franquismo en Madrid (1939 . artists writing to artists tend to speak a language different from other types of personal . there are other tools available to researchers. they can provide a window into the growing contestation that was beginning to build among artists and writers chafing under the dictatorship’s censorship. As of 2009. by José Álvarez Cobelas. the work of López Pacheco is usually included only within compendiums of contemporary Spanish literature. because they are communications between two Franco-era artists. Letters of this nature are always insightful in giving the researcher a glimpse into strictly personal thoughts of a far more improvisational nature than a literary work. one should note that. an umbrella group that was intended to provide a medium for the discussion and dissemination of contemporary literature in the 1950s. though highly regarded. Relying solely on the author's works and the books that contain some mention of him is not sufficient to bring his life into full focus. And. personal letters of the author became available and have been transferred to the archive of the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona. the son of the author and a scholar of medieval Spanish history at Santa Clara University in California is a major source of memory and context on the author’s life. however. Fabio López Lázaro. Here López Pacheco is mentioned as one of the primary organizers of the Congreso de Escritores Jóvenes (Congress of Young Writers). especially his formative years as a writer. both with left leaning sympathies.18 Generally. This information will be vital for several reasons. family. written to poet José Agustín Goytisolo during the years surrounding the publishing in Spain of Central eléctrica.1970). These include letters written between 1958 and 1961. He has consented to be interviewed for this project. and years in exile. published in 2004.

José's catalogue of works is varied and includes some one hundred and fifty works. There is a story. José was known to a far-ranging group of artists and friends. the Falangist militiamen who executed him were seemingly aware of the artistic credentials of their victim. Each is conscious of the experience of artistic expression in the other. including one in Sevilla during the year of his death. But unlike Lorca. Beyond his musical associations. or deep song. or 12th) only two months after Lorca’s death. He was teaching music in Burgos and already held various performances of his Sinfonía castellana (1923). in fact. among them Federico García Lorca and Salvador Dalí. He was captured two months before his death. the only work devoted exclusively to his life and compositions. of Antonio José meeting and receiving the blessing of French composer Maurice Ravel in Paris in the 1920s. of flamenco music. take place. similar to Lorca's death. 9th. José's work had only just begun to achieve national acclaim and was not known outside of Spain. 8 . I have not as of yet in my research been able to confirm that the meeting took place. Researching the life of Antonio José probably presents the greatest challenge. and. at this point.19 correspondence. The situation surrounding his death is still shrouded in mystery. Both composers utilized the vocabulary of the cante hondo. In the early twentieth century. and held for two months before he was executed. He was murdered in early October of 1936 (the actual date is listed in three different sources as occurring on either the 8th. and this research is intended to help understand those circumstances and bring his career and its meaning into fuller light within the context of the repression under Franco. and their observations take on a more intuitive nature. but was instead captivated by the folk songs of the region surrounding his native Burgos. there was a movement toward a "new" national music of Spain that included classical composers Joaquín Rodrigo and Manuel de Falla. 8 A 1995 masters thesis by music historian Yolanda Acker of the University of Melbourne written is. at approximately the same time Lorca was murdered in Granada. José represented an extension of that movement. or that the praise for José´s work attribute to Ravel did. possibly apocryphal.

. Exile and Cultural Hegemony. though in only limited versions. almost thirty percent of the total population of refugees. His Sonata castellana (1922) for guitar and the Sinfonía. His purpose was to describe an evolution in thinking of the Spanish Republican diaspora from what he terms a “Gramscian ideal” of the intellectual as politically involved to one of a more detached observer. This is one reason why there is an abundance of personal accounts and historiography available on this Spanish Civil War diaspora. many of whom would eventually make their way to Latin America. both of which examine cultural and political issues of the exiled Spanish. his most advanced orchestral work. Sebastiaan Faber’s 2002 book. One of the salient facts regarding the immigrant population of Spanish Republican exiles to Latin America is the high concentration of academics. Another category of relevant scholarship is that dedicated to Spanish Republican exiles. His Suite Ingenua 1928) an orchestral work that utilizes a quasi-piano concerto form contains some of his most evocative string orchestration and clearly points to the great influence of French Impression in his style. and artists. trabajo y hogar: El exilio republicano español en América Latina (2007). are readily available today. takes a different tack than either of the first two monographs. on Spanish Republic intellectuals in Mexico. Two other key works of the historiography include Patricia W. Of particular importance is the book Spanish Culture Behind the Barbed-Wire (2004). intellectuals.20 although his discography is much smaller. Faber´s work will be instrumental in configuring some of the changes that occur in the artistic expression of exiles over the time of their separation from Spanish culture under Franco. by Francie Cate-Arries that discusses the Republicans in French prison camps at the end of the Civil War. Fagan's Exiles and Citizens: Spanish Republicans in Mexico (1973) and Dolores Pla Brugat’s Pan.

Madrid. it is the expression of these exile artists. The list of articles. Likewise. But under a regime of authoritarian social and political control. particularly the latter. and editors Kenda Bar-Gera and Wolfgang Zemter’s Persecuted Art and Artists Under Totalitarian Regimes in Europe During the Twentieth Century. The creative expression of an artist within any society is framed by that society as well as a need or will to express oneself. sociological. autobiographies. These works concentrate on dissident artists under German. books. diaries. A sampling of some of the scholarship from this last category includes the broad compilation Art and Power: Europe Under the Dictators. autobiographies by film director Luis Buñuel and poet Luis Cernuda. because of the parallels in control mechanisms within all authoritarian states. That need (discussed below) can often take precedence over the artist’s subsistence. as well correspondences from exiles that fill up archives in Mexico City.21 Beyond secondary sources. the rise in young dissident artistic expression in Spain in the later Franco years parallels . 1930-1945 with a foreword by Eric Hobsbaum. books on German state control of the arts such as Alan Steinweis’ Art. and interviews with Spanish refugees from the Civil War is extensive. unimpeded by authoritarian censorship that is vital to understanding their lives outside of Spain and the effects of separation on their artistic output. and deeply individualistic phenomenon. and Buenos Aires. Ideology. Personal diaries of the exiles includes works by author Max Aub and philosopher Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez. and Soviet dictatorships and. Spanish. the dynamic of self-preservation versus expression is thrown into stark relief. Artistic expression is presented in this research as a cultural. The twentieth century has many examples of the struggle for artistic expression within dictatorships and all should be examined in order to gain a general understanding of the stresses at play. In fact. memoirs. on the machinations of their struggle with authority. and Economics in Nazi Germany are particularly insightful for the Spanish case. Salamanca.

cohorts. where Jesús López Pacheco eventually resided. In a more Gramscian vein. during authoritarian regimes. critics. Research on the diaspora of Spanish artists during this period and the mutual effects between the diaspora and the artist community in Spain could lead naturally to interviews in Latin America (Mexico. both national and regional. as well as comprehending the influence their artistic production had on Spanish society requires two levels of research. Research Methods and Agenda This is a work of contemporary cultural history and the theory pool outlined above is intended to illuminate its methodology. or even relatives of cohorts who lived through the Franco years will prove a fruitful and enriching contribution to the source material and literature on this subject. or Argentina) as well as Canada. Steven Brown and Ulrik Volgsten’s book. the families of artists. given the contemporary nature of this research. Music and Manipulation: On the Social Uses and Social Control of Music. These studies. But as well. Cuba. presents a series of essays that come down hard on the side of music as a cultural device of the controlling elite to maintain power. will be intrinsic to work on the death of Antonio José. Such interviews also open up the field of history and memory studies. the cultural researcher profits from face-to-face interactions with artists in the . The lives of all three artists.22 that of younger Russian artists represented by Natalia Tamruchi in An Experience of Madness: Alternative Russian Art in the 1960s-1990s. a case interwoven with many of the issues that have dominated interest in Spain on recovery of historical evidence from the Franco years. Placing these three artists within the social context of their times. Especially where visual works are concerned. VI. one-on-one interviews with Spanish artists. could leave traces in the archives. in particular. because their artistic expression and political dissidence intersected and interfered with the regime’s cultural project. an area that has grown exponentially in the twentieth century as individuals and societies in Europe have come to grips with the horrors inflicted by them. and upon them.

and painters). the Spain portion of the dissertation research will move to Barcelona to the Museu d'Art Contemporani. In specific terms.23 appraisal of a works significance The abstract expressionist work of Antoní Tàpies. the Fundación de Antoni Tàpies. collectors. study will be conducted at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid on the life and music of Antonio José with the help of researcher and archivist Yolanda Acker of the Instituto Complutense de Ciencias Musicales. In addition. musicians. Acker also will be of assistance in traversing the Archivo del Ayuntamiento de Burgos (birthplace of José) where she conducted her own research on José. was a major influence among young artists in Mexico in the late 1960s. especially at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía and Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona where work by Tàpies from the late 1940s and early 1950s is available. In addition. as outlined in the review of literature. and the Biblioteca de la Unversitat Autónoma de Barcelona where personal letters of Jesús López Pacheco are available. the initial plan is that this research will focus on the lives of the three artists and will involve a period of research of roughly one year would begin in the fall of 2010 in Madrid. research in Madrid and Barcelona´s museums would be essential. for instance. Ms. Speaking with some of those artists today would be useful. Finally. These interviews along with interviews focusing on the life of Jesús López Pacheco in Madrid will be done with assistance from Juan Trouillhet-Manso. research will be done in Oviedo at the Archivo Histórico de Asturias. an adjunct professor of linguistics at Complutense. Archival work on the Franco years would be important at the Archivo Histórico Nacional in Madrid and at the Archivo General de la Guerra Española in Salamanca. Work involving interviews with artists (writers. and other people connected with the art world in Madrid during the years of Franco’s dictatorship would be vital to this project. critics. Further. museum curators. where letters and papers of the author have been donated. .

where López Pacheco taught at the University of Western Ontario. Canada. where smaller parts of the Spanish artistic diaspora fled after the Civil War.Aperture. and yet it is a burden continually acceptable to the artist. Chapter Organization Chapter 1 .Home and Exile-Artistic Influences Chapter 9 . and either Argentina or Cuba. The plan . Artistic creation is an enormous burden to bear under the stress of a repressive political and cultural environment. where the Colegio de México (La Casa de España) resides. Writing timetable The period of research will extend from the fall of 2001 up to the fall of 2010.Artistic Expression Under the Gun VIII. The period set aside exclusively for the writing and editing of the dissertation would be from the end of 2011 through 2013.The Essence of Censorship and the Primacy of Literature to the Regime Chapter 8 . though writing will be an ongoing process during the whole period of research starting in 2009. VII.The War and the Repression –Cultural Perspectives Chapter 4 . The plan at this time could involve shorter periods of travel to regions of the Spanish artistic diaspora including Mexico.“Art in the Time of Cholera” The idea is to use this chapter as an introduction to the topic and thesis of the dissertation as a loose paraphrasing of García Marquez´s novel. beginning in the summer of 2011. Chapter 2 .Antonio José and the Repression Chapter 3 . Protest.Antoní Tàpies Chapter 5 .Conclusion .Jesús López Pacheco Chapter 7 .Introduction .24 Both the archives in Salamanca as well as the Associación para el Estudio de los Exilios y Migraciones Ibéricos Contemporáneos (AMEIC) at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia in Madrid carry comprehensive documentation regarding the Republican exile diaspora. and Expression Chapter 6 .

Proyectos de Recuperación de Archivos del Exilio Español de la Republica. Archivo de la UAB (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona .A. IX. Exilios en méjico: Entrevistas orales a exiliados. Interviewed by Bob Long via email between March 10th and April 2. Berkeley: University of California Press. Aub. leaving the fall of 2012 for revisions and the spring and summer of 2013 to review. Salamanca. Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española. Archival sources: Archival General de la Guerra Civil Española. tra. ___________. Luis. Diarios: (1939-1972). and prepare for the dissertation defense in the fall of 2013. Max. 2000. 2006. The conclusion would be finished by summer of 2012. An Unspeakable Betrayal: Selected Writings of Luis Buñuel. Buñuel. 1982.Servei de Biblioteques). Barcelona: Alba Editorial. S. trans. de la Fuente. Bibliography Interviews: Blanco Aguinaga. por Ana M. Ediciones Robert La Laffont. Carlos. 1945-1977. 1998. Chapters 7 and 8 would be finished by the spring of 2012. Mi último suspiro. ed. 1993.25 for now is as follows: The Introduction and Chapters 2and 3 would be finished by the spring of 2011 Chapters 4 through 6 would be finished by the fall of 2011. ______________. by Garrett Wright. . El archivo de la república española en el exilio.: París. Alicia. edit. Salamanca. Primary sources: Alted Vigil.

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