EC57

EINSTEIN
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Subject Code: EC57
“Communication Systems Lab”

Name Reg No Branch Year & Semester

: …………………………………… : …………………………………… : …………………………………… : ……………………………………
©Einstein College of Engineering Page 1 of 86

EC57

INDEX

EX.NO.

DATE

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENTS

PAGE NO.

MARKS REMARKS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Amplitude modulation and Demodulation Frequency modulation and Demodulation Sampling techniques Pulse Modulation-PAM Pulse Modulation-PWM Pulse Code Modulation Time Division Multiplexing Line Coding Techniques Amplitude Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Delta Modulation Differential PCM Phase Locked Loop Pre-Emphasis/ De-Emphasis Error Control coding using MATLAB Characteristics of AM Receiver-Study

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EC57

Experiment No : 1 AMPLITUDE MODULATION & DEMODULATION AIM:

Date :

To construct a Amplitude modulator circuit & demodulate the Amplitude modulated wave.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED: S.NO 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) COMPONENTS Transistor Diode Capacitors Resistors CRO Bread Board,power supply 7) THEORY : The modulation is simply a method of combining two different signals and is used in the transmitter section of a communication system. The two signals that are used are the information signal and the carrier signal. Amplitude Modulation is the simplest form of signal processing in which the carrier amplitude is simply changed according to the amplitude of the information signal hence the name Amplitude modulation. When the information signals amplitude is increased the carrier signals amplitude is increased and when the information signals amplitude is decreased the carrier signals amplitude is Connecting Wires RANGE BC 107 IN4001 0.01µF, 0.1µF,10µF 22KΩ, 10KΩ,1.2KΩ,1.1KΩ

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EC57

AMPLITUDE MODULATION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DEMODULATION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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From the collector of the transistor. Using AFO the carrier signal is given to the base of the transistor. 7. By varying the amplitude of the modulating signal the values of Emax and Emin are noted down to find the modulation index. The demodulated (message) wave amplitude and frequency is noted down from the CRO. The capacitor is charged by the diode almost to the peak value of the carrier cycles and the output therefore follows the envelope of the amplitude modulation.wave rectifier circuit. 6. typically a capacitor and resistor in parallel. The simplest way of dealing with an AM signal is to use a simple half. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 5 of 86 . So the diode is followed by a filter. If the signal were simply passed through a diode to a resistive load. The amplitude modulated wave is now given as the input to the detector circuit. the modulated wave is noted down using CRO. The power supply is connected to the collector of the transistor.EC57 Decreased. 4. the output would be a series of half-cycle pulses at carrier frequency. 8. Circuit connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram. 5. The purpose of any detector or demodulator is to recover the original modulating signal with the minimum of distortion and interference. The modulating (message or base band) signal is given to the emitter of the transistor. 3. 2. PROCEDURE: 1.

EC57 MODEL GRAPH: OBSERVATION: Amplitude Time Frequency m Message Signal Carrier signal AM signal Demodulated Signal ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 6 of 86 .

What is the band width for AM? RESULT: Amplitude Modulator and Demodulators are constructed and its waveforms are analyzed by using the above circuits. 5.What is meant by Modulation? 2.EC57 VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.Applications of AM 4. 3.Define Modulation index(m). ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 7 of 86 .Types of Demodulation of AM.

EC57 FREQUENCY MODULATION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: FM DEMODULATOR: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 8 of 86 .

then the carrier has frequency of Fc as amplitude of the modulating signal increases. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 9 of 86 . IC NE565 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Resistors Capacitors Function Generator DSO Bread Board Connecting Wires 0 – 1 Mhz THEORY :  Frequency modulation is also called as angle modulation. as the amplitude of the modulating signal decreases. similarly. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: S. the frequency of the carrier decreases.NO 8) COMPONENTS Integrated Circuits RANGE IC X R2206. Frequency modulation is defined as changing the frequency of the carrier with respect to the message signal amplitude. When the modulating signal has zero amplitude.EC57 Experiment No : 2 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION Date : AIM: To construct & Design Frequency modulator using IC XR2206 & demodulate the Frequency modulated wave by using IC565. The frequency of the carrier increases. Here the amplitude of the carrier remains fixed & timing parameter frequency is varied.

EC57 PIN DIAGRAM (XR-2206): MODEL GRAPH ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 10 of 86 .

Observe the frequency-modulated signal on DSO. Calculate the BW. Measure the carrier signal frequency at the pin2 of IC XR2206. By Carlson’s rule BW = 2 (F+ Fm(max)) Where F Fm(Max) = Maximum frequency deviation = Maximum modulating frequency MODULATION PROCEDURE:       Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Apply modulating AF signal at pin7 of IC XR2206.EC57  The modulation index is defined as the ratio of the maximum frequency deviation to the modulating frequency. In demodulated output the original message signal is recovered. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 11 of 86 . DEMODULATION PROCEDURE:    Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Calculate the modulation index. The maximum frequency deviation is the shift from center frequency Fc when the amplitude of the modulating signal is maximum. Modulated signal is given as the input to 565.

Applications of FM 4.EC57 OBSERVATION: Amplitude Message Signal Time Frequency Carrier signal FM signal Demodulated Signal VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.What is meant by FM? 2.Define Frequency Deviation. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 12 of 86 . 5.Types of Angle Modulation.What is the band width for FM? RESULT: Frequency Modulator and Demodulators are constructed and its waveforms are analyzed by using CRO. 3.

EC57 SAMPLING CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PIN DIAGRAM: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 13 of 86 .

BFW10 0.EC57 Experiment No : 3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Date : AIM: To obtain the sampled version of given analog signal using operational amplifier and draw the spectrum. Sample and Hold circuits are used internally in Analog to Digital conversion. Excellent Sample and Hold circuits like the LF398 are available on a single chip for cheap and easy use. Sclear will short out the storage cap. Ssample will charge the capacitor to the present signal level. the output buffer will make sure that the voltage level across the storage cap won't decrease over time.01µF Range Quantity 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 14 of 86 . From there. for analysis and later use. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus IC741 FET Capacitor RPS CRO FG Bread board THEORY: The Sample and Hold circuit uses two buffers to keep a voltage level stored in a capacitor. which provides cleaner switching and also allows another circuit to control the sample and clearing operations.In actual practice. while the input buffer ensures the signal won't be changed by the charging process. discharging it and setting the output to 0V. the switches used are various forms of transistor switch. We might also use them to hold a given signal value from any particular sensor on a robot.

What is the usage of capacitor in the circuit diagram? 5.Define Nyquist rate. 3. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.What is zero order hold? RESULT: Thus the sample and hold circuit output is obtained using OP. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 15 of 86 . 4. The amplitude of the input signal should not exceed 10 volts.EC57 PROCEDURE: The sample and hold circuit is assembled with the desired components. The frequency of the sample signal is set to 5600 Hz. The next sample available is zero order holding device. The frequency of the input signal is set to 600 Hz.amp.Define sampling. integrate the signal between consequence sampling inputs. The input signal is given to the circuit from the function generator.What is the need for sampling? 2.

EC57 PAM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: MODULATION CIRCUIT: DEMODULATION CIRCUIT: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 16 of 86 .

1µF Quantity 1 2 3 3 1 2 1 ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 17 of 86 . 0.EC57 Experiment No: 4 PULSE MODULATION – PAM AIM: Date : To generate pulse amplitude modulated signals and demodulates it to get the original signal. The area of each sampled section is equal to the instantaneous value of the signal input. If the closing time t of the diode approaches zero. the output gives only the instantaneous value. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus Transistor Resistor Range 2N2222 10Kohm 22Kohm Capacitor CRO FG Bread board THEORY: In pulse amplitude modulation. the amplitudes of regularly spaced rectangular pulses vary with the instantaneous sample values of a continuous message signal in a one to one fashion. Since the width of the pulse approaches zero. The pulse in PAM can be of rectangular or the type that we have arrival in natural sampling. The carrier under goes amplitude modulation in PAM. Thus we get the PAM output. This signal is modulated with the message signal. The instantaneous sampling gives train of impulses. Natural sample method is used here to generate the PAM signal. The diodes are used as a switching element. The width of the pulse remains fixed.

EC57 MODEL GRAPH: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 18 of 86 .

Define PAM.What is frame in PAM? 3. TABULATION: Amplitude Message Signal Time Frequency Carrier signal PAM signal Demodulated Signal VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 3. Set the input signal and carrier signal. 2. What do you mean by companding? Define compander.EC57 PROCEDURE: 1. Obtain PAM signal Measure the amplitude and frequency Demodulate the PAM signal.What is aperture effect? 4. 2. Make connections as shown in the diagram. RESULT: Thus the PAM signal is obtained and the original signal is demodulated from PAM signal. 4. 5. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 19 of 86 . What is the need for speech coding at low bit rates? 5.

EC57 PWM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: MODULATION CIRCUIT: DEMODULATION CIRCUIT: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 20 of 86 .

The amplitude is constant. The demodulation circuit used is a simple filter circuit that demodulator the PWM signal and gives the original message input. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 21 of 86 . It modulates the time parameter of the pulses.01µF 0-30v THEORY: The PWM is also known as pulse duration modulation. width of the pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus IC Resistor Range 555 47Kohm 10Kohm Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Capacitor RPS CRO FG Bread board 0. Bandwidth on transmission channel depends on rise time of the pulse. The width of PWM pulses varies.EC57 Experiment No : 5 PULSE MODULATION – PWM Date : AIM: To generate pulse width modulated signals and demodulates it to get the original signal.

EC57 MODEL GRAPH: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 22 of 86 .

RESULT: Thus the PWM signal is obtained and the original signal is demodulated from PWM signal. Set the input signal and carrier signal.EC57 PROCEDURE: 1.Define bandwidth efficiency. 4. 5.Define deviation ratio 4. 2. 3.Define PWM. Obtain PWM signal Measure the amplitude and frequency Obtain the demodulated output. TABULATION: Amplitude Message Signal Time Frequency Carrier signal PWM signal Demodulated Signal VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the disadvantage of uniform quantization over the non-uniform Quantization? 3. 2.What is carrier recovery? 5. Make connections as shown in the diagram. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 23 of 86 .

EC57 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: MODULATION CIRCUIT: DEMODULATION CIRCUIT: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 24 of 86 .

EC57

Experiment No : 6 PULSE CODE MODULATION AIM:

Date :

To generate pulse code modulated signals and demodulates it to get the original signal. APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Apparatus PCM kit CRO Patch card THEORY:

Range VCT07

Quantity 1 1

Pulse Code modulation come under digital communication technique. In PCM the message signal is represented by a sequence of coded pulse which accomplished by representing the signal in discrete form in both time and amplitude. PCM consist of a receiver and transmitter part. Transmitter section consists of sampler, quantizer, encoder and parallel to serial converter. Receiver part consists of serial to parallel set converter. Digital to analog converter and LPF are constituted as receiver part. Sampling, Quantizing and Encoding operations are performed in the same circuit which is called as analog to digital converter.

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make connections as shown in the diagram. Set the start of conversion switch from low to high and high to low. Set the input signal and obtain the PCM signal. Obtain the demodulated output. Measure the data and plot the graph.

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EC57

TABULATION: Message Signal: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in

PCM Signal: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in Frequency in

Demodulated Signal: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in

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EC57

VIVA QUESTION: 1.Write the equation for probability of error 2.Define quadbit 3.Explain M-ary 4.State the concept of PCM 5.PCM is analog or digital modulation ,Explain.

RESULT: Thus the PCM signal is obtained and the original signal is demodulated from PCM signal.

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EC57

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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Obtain the demodulated output.EC57 Experiment No :7 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Date : AIM: To obtain time division multiplexed signal from different channel and make it to transmit in a single channel. PROCEDURE: 1. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus Range Quantity TDM kit CRO Patch card VCT02 1 1 THEORY: Time Division multiplexing is a digital process that can be applied when the data rate capacity of the transmission medium is greater than the data rate required by the sending and receiving devices. 5. 3. Make connections as shown in the diagram. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 29 of 86 . multiple transmission can occupy a single link by subdividing them and interleaving the portions. the multiplexer allocates exactly the same time slot to each device at all times whether or not a device has anything to transmit. TDM can be implemented in two ways. 4. Adjust the potentiometer to set the input signal. In such a case. Synchronous TDM and Asynchronous TDM. View the modulated output. 2. Measure the data and plot the graph. In synchronous.

EC57 TABULATION: Message Signal: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in Carrier Signal: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in Modulated Signal: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in Demodulated Signal: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 30 of 86 .

EC57 VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.What is Multiplexing? 3.Explain the ideal channel noise. RESULT: Thus the TDM signal is obtained and the original signal is demodulated from TDM signal. 4. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 31 of 86 .State the concept for TDM. 5.What are the 4 primary causes for ISI? 2.What is coding efficiency.

EC57 BLOCK DIAGRAM ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 32 of 86 .

The process of converting the original information into a data sequence is referred to as source coding. the electrical waveforms are coded representations of the original information. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus Range Quantity 1 1 Trainer kit VCT37 CRO Patch card THEORY: In digital systems. If the original information is an analog signal. Generally the line coding is used in transmitter section while decoding in receiver section. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 33 of 86 . where a ‘1’ is transmitted by a pulse and a ‘0’ is transmitted by no pulse. Simplest form of coding is ONOFF. The line decoding is the process of converting standard digital codes into source coded waveforms. this must be converted to a series of discrete values that can be transmitted digitally.EC57 Experiment No :8 LINE CODING TECHNIQUES Date : AIM: To obtain the standard digital codes from the source coded signals using various techniques. The line coding is the process of converting source coded signals into standard digital codes for the purpose of transmission over the channel. There are many possible ways of assigning the waveforms into the digital data.

6. Press the switch SW2 once. Obtain the coded output as per the requirement. 4. Connect coded signal test point to corresponding decoding test point as inputs. 3. 5.EC57 Various line coding formats are 1. 6. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 34 of 86 . Set the SW1 as per the requirement. Connect the PRBS (test point P5) to various line coding formats. 4. Set the potentiometer P1 in minimum position. 5. Unipolar RZ Polar RZ Polar NRZ Bipolar NRZ Bipolar RZ Manchester coding PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the power supply. Display the encoded signal on one channel of CRO and decoded signal on second channel of CRO. 2. 3. 2.

EC57 MODEL GRAPH: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 35 of 86 .

4. RESULT: Thus the various line encoding and decoding techniques were studied and the corresponding waveforms were drawn by using VCT-37 trainer kit.State the concept of Manchester coding.Differentiate polar and bipolar.What is codec? 5. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 36 of 86 .What are the different types of coding techniques for digital data? 2. 3.EC57 TABULATION: No Coding techniques 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unipolar RZ Polar RZ Polar NRZ Bipolar NRZ Bipolar RZ Manchester coding ON time OFF time VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.Explain Line coding.

EC57 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: MODULATION CIRCUIT: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 37 of 86 .

The disadvantage of ASK is the modulated carrier signal is not continuously transmitted. PROCEDURE: 1.EC57 Experiment No :9 AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING Date : AIM: To generate ASK modulated and demodulated signal. 4. 2. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus Range Quantity 1 1 Trainer kit VCT17 CRO Patch card THEORY: ASK or ON-OFF key is the simplest digital modulation technique. Obtain ASK signal Measure the amplitude and frequency Obtain the demodulated output. In this method there is only one unit energy carrier it is switched ON/OFF depending upon the input binary sequence to transmit symbol 0 & 1. Set the input signal and carrier signal. 5. 3. Make connections as shown in the diagram. No pulse is transmitted output contains some complete no of cycle of carrier frequency. ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 38 of 86 . The peak power requirement is also high. The bit error probability rate is also not required in this technique.

©Einstein College of Engineering Page 39 of 86 .EC57 MODEL GRAPH: .

EC57 TABULATION: INPUT DATA: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in CARRIER SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in MODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in DEMODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 40 of 86 .

EC57 PROGRAM FOR ASK: ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 41 of 86 .

Why do we go for Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization procedure? RESULT: Thus the modulated and demodulated signal was obtained for amplitude shift keying techniques ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 42 of 86 .What is the Baud rate for ASK? 4.Define OOK. 2.Define information capacity 3.What is Digital Transmission? 5.EC57 VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.

EC57 BLOCK DIAGRAM ©Einstein College of Engineering Page 43 of 86 .

3. 5. Obtain the demodulated output. As the input digital binary signal change state the phase of output carrier shift two angles that are 180o out of phase. Each time a change in input logic condition will change the output phase consequently for PSK the output rate of change equal to the input rate range and widest output bandwidth occurs when the input binary data are alternating 1/0 sequence. Page 44 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering Range VCT21 Quantity 1 1 . The fundamental frequency of an alternate 1/0 bit sequence is equal to one half of the bit rate. Set the input signal and carrier signal. Make connections as shown in the diagram. The input carrier is multiplied by either a positives or negatives consequently the output signal is either +1sinwct or 1sinwct. In a PSK modulator the carrier input signal is multiplied by the digital data. PROCEDURE: 1. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus PSK Kit CRO Patch cards THEORY: PSK is a digital modulation scheme which is analogues to phase modulation.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No : 10 PHASE SHIFT KEYING Date : AIM: To obtain the modulated and demodulated output waveform by using Phase Shift Keying technique. 2. In binary phase shift keying two output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency one out of phase represent logic 1 and logic 0. Obtain PSK signal Measure the output data and draw the graph. The first represent a signal that is phase with the reference oscillator the latter a signal that is 180o out of phase with the reference oscillator. 4.

Communication Systems Lab MODEL GRAPH: . : Page 45 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: INPUT DATA: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in CARRIER SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in MODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in DEMODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in Page 46 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab PROGRAM FOR PSK: Page 47 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Explain Coherent detection 2. What is maximum likelihood detector? 5. Page 48 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .What is correlator? RESULT: Thus the modulated and demodulated signal was obtained for phase shift keying techniques.Communication Systems Lab VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.Advantages of PSK 4.Difference between PSK and FSK 3.

Communication Systems Lab FSK CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Page 49 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

When input is HIGH. The standard digital data input frequency is 150Hz. binary code is transmitted by shifting a carrier frequency between two preset frequencies.01µF THEORY: In digital data communication. This type of transmission is called frequency shift keying technique. fo=1.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :11 FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING Date : AIM: To obtain the modulated and demodulated output waveforms by using hardware kit and in Matlab program for Frequency Shift Keying technique. A 555 timer in astable mode can be used to generate FSK signal.45/(Ra+2Rb)c Page 50 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus IC Transistor Resistor Range 555 BC547 47Kohm 10Kohm Quantity 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 Potentiometer 50Kohm Capacitor FG RPS CRO 0. transistor Q is off and 555 timer works in the normal astable mode of operation.

Communication Systems Lab MODEL GRAPH: THEORETICAL CALCULATION: Page 51 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab PROGRAM: Page 52 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: INPUT DATA: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in CARRIER SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in MODULATED SIGNAL: Symbol Amplitude Time period No.of cycle Frequency Symbol 1 Symbol 0 Page 53 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Make connections as shown in the circuit diagram.What are the Different types of Digital modulation? 2.Advantage of PSK over ASK&FSK? 4. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 3.Communication Systems Lab PROCEDURE: 1. 4. 5.What is base band signal receiver? 5. 3. Obtain FSK signal Tabulate the output data and draw the graph. Justify the obtained output with theoretical calculation.Define h-factor in FSK RESULT: Thus the Frequency Shift Keying modulated output waveform is obtained and it is justified with theoretical calculation.Define PSK. Set the input signal and carrier signal.QPSK. 2. Page 54 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab BLOCK DIAGRAM: QPSK MODULATOR: QPSK DEMODULATOR Page 55 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

constant-amplitude digital modulation. One bit is directed to the I channel and the other to the Q channel. The QPSK signal is demodulated in the I and Q product detectors. The I bit modulates a carrier that is in phase with the reference oscillator and the Q bit modulates a carrier that is 900 out of phase with the reference carrier. The output of the product detectors are fed to the bit combining circuit. Two bits (a dibit) are clocked into the bit splitter. It is an M-ary encoding technique where M=4. with QPSK four output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency. which generate the original I and Q data bits. QPSK modulator is two BPSK modulators combined in parallel. they are simultaneously parallel outputted. The input QPSK signal is given to the I and Q product detectors and the carrier recovery circuit. After both bits have been serially inputted.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :12 QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING Date : AIM: To obtain the modulated and demodulated output waveforms by using hardware kit and by Matlab program for Quadrature phase Shift Keying technique. where they are converted from parallel I and Q data channels to a single binary output data stream. Page 56 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . The carrier recovery circuit produces the original transmit carrier oscillator signal. The recovered carrier must be frequency and phase coherent with the transmit reference carrier. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus QPSK Kit CRO Patch cards Range VCT29 Quantity 1 1 THEORY: QPSK is another form of angle-modulated.

Communication Systems Lab MODEL GRAPH: Page 57 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab PROGRAM: Page 58 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Page 59 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: INPUT DATA: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in CARRIER SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the binary input data to I-channel. Connect the binary input data to Q-channel. Adjust gain control pot to set equal amplitude in I and Q channel. Adjust pot1 and pot3 to get bipolar data. 6. 5. Display binary input data on CRO. Switch on the power supply. 3. 7. Connect the sine wave input to balanced modulator (I channel) as a carrier signal and to sine wave input to balanced modulator (Q channel) as a carroer signal. Obtain QPSK signal. RESULT: Thus the Quadurate Phase shift Keying modulated and demodulated output waveform is obtained. Connect the QPSK to input of QPSK demodulator. 4. Obtain the demodulated QPSK signal. 9. 8. 2.

Communication Systems Lab BLOCK DIAGRAM: DM MODULATOR: DM DEMODULATOR: Page 60 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Date : Apparatus QPSK Kit CRO Patch cards THEORY: Range VCT32 Quantity 1 1 Delta modulation transmits only 1 bit per sample. now adjust the offset control signal. quantizer and integrator. If the current sample is larger than the previous sample. Obtain the demodulated output. PROCEDURE: 1. Keep the signal ON/OFF switch in OFF position. The modulator comprises of comparator. Set the sine wave by adjusting OFFSET and AMP 3.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :13 DELTA MODULATION AIM: The objective of this equipment is to examine and study the technique of delta modulation and demodulation. 6. With DM. rather than transmit a coded representation of the sample. therefore multiple-bit code is required to represent a one sample. Ensure that the following initial condition exits on VCT-32 a. Set clock frequency as 8KHz. a logic level 0 is transmitted. Turn ON the left side ON/OFF switch and right side ON/OFF. Note down the quantizer output. Keep all potentiometer controls in min. 5. Vary the sine wave from 150Hz. If the current sample is smaller than previous sample. Note that the amplitude of sine wave decreases at 2KHz of frequency 4. each code is a binary representation of both the sign and magnitude of a particular sample. 2. b. only a single bit is transmitted. Obtain the modulated output. which simply indicates whether that the sample is larger or smaller than the previous sample. Connect modulator output to demodulator input. integrated output and biphase NRZ encoder. With conventional PCM. a logic 1 is transmitted. Page 61 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Switch on the power supply.

Communication Systems Lab MODEL GRAPH: Page 62 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: INPUT DATA: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in INTEGRATOR SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in MODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in DEMODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in Page 63 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Page 64 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Communication Systems Lab VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2.Define delta modulation. 5.Define Adaptive DM. 4.Define Granular noise.What is slope over load? 3.How the noises are reduced in DM? RESULT: Thus the delta modulated and demodulated waveforms were obtained.

Communication Systems Lab BLOCK DIAGRAM: DPCM MODULATOR: DPCM DEMODULATOR: Page 65 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Obtain the modulated output. Keep DC voltage in minimum position 2. which is redundant. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus DM Kit CRO Patch cards Range VCT34 Quantity 1 1 THEORY: In a PCM Encoded waveform.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No : 14 Date : DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE MODULATION AIM: The objective of this equipment is to examine and study the technique of differential PCM and demodulation. DPCM is designed specifically to take advantage of the sample to samples redundancies in such waveforms. the difference in the amplitude of two successive samples s transmitted rather than the actual sample. Now vary the DC control POT. This necessitates transmitting several identical PCM codes. PROCEDURE: 1. Now connect modulated output to demodulator input 4. Page 66 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . With DPCM. Fewer bits are required for DPCM than conventional PCM. there are often successive samples taken in which there is little difference between the amplitudes of the two samples. Switch on the power supply. the ADC coded data ranges which also reflects at the output of the LATCH. Connect DC voltage and vary to 1. 3. Now display the output of zeros and ones in the CRO.5v. Because the range of sample differences is typically less than the range of individual samples.

Communication Systems Lab TRAINER KIT DIAGRAM: Page 67 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab MODEL GRAPH: Page 68 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: INPUT DATA: Amplitude in ON Time in OFF Time in MODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in DEMODULATED SIGNAL: Amplitude in Time in Frequency in Page 69 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Define Dibit.Define Vocoder. 3. RESULT: Thus the differential PCM modulated and demodulated waveforms were obtained. 4.Bit rate of DPCM.Define baseband transmission 5.Say the difference between PCM and DPCM. Page 70 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 2.

001f -6V Fig.001f C=1f 10 2 Vin Input 8 7 Demodulated output Reference Output NE565 3 9 1 6 4 5 VCO output (fo) C T =0.Communication Systems Lab CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: +6V R T =6.8 K C=0.1 Page 71 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

IC7490 7) Connecting Wires Page 72 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.power supply RANGE BC 107 NE565.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :15 PHASE LOCKED LOOP Date : AIM: To study the characteristics of Phase Locked Loop .NO 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) COMPONENTS Transistor IC Capacitors Resistors CRO Bread Board.

an error voltage Ve is generated. The signal Vc shifts the VCO frequency in a direction to reduce the frequency difference between fs and fo. The circuit is then said to be locked. The phase detector is basically a multiplier and produces the sum (fs+fo) and difference (fs-fo) components at its output.Communication Systems Lab DESIGN: THEORY: If an input signal Vs of frequency fs is applied to the PLL. The VCO continues to change frequency till its output frequency is exactly the same as the input signal frequency. the phase detector compares the phase and frequency of the incoming signal to that of the output Vo of the VCO. Page 73 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . The high frequency component (fs+fo) is removed by the low pass filter and the difference frequency component is amplified and then applied as control voltage Vc to VCO. It the two signals differ in frequency and /or phase.

f2=1640Hz. f4=360Hz Page 74 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Communication Systems Lab PIN DIAGRAM: -Vcc Input Input VCO Output Phase Comparator VCO Input Reference Output Demodulated Output 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 NC NC NC NC +Vcc External Capacitor for VCO External Resistor for VCO NE 565 12 11 10 9 8 OBSERVATION: f1=755Hz. f3=1250Hz.

This is the upper end of the capture range.What is frequency synthesizer? RESULT: Thus the PLL characteristics are studied Theoretical Lock range fL= Practical Lock range fL= Theoretical Capture range fC= Practical Capture range fC= Page 75 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .What is VCO? 2.Define Lock range. till PLL tracks the input signal. 3. Now gradually decrease the input frequency till f3 when the PLL is again locked. Make the circuit connection as shown in Fig 1. 5. 6. Set the input square wave of 1Vp-p at 1KHz. Keep on decreasing the input frequency till f4 when the loop is unlocked. 5.Define PLL. Compare theoretical and practical values of lock range and capture range. Measure the practical free running frequency of VCO for zero input.Communication Systems Lab PROCEDURE: 1. Increase the input frequency till PLL is locked. 3.Capture range. This frequency f1 gives the lower end of the capture range. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 4. 2. This is the lower end of the lock range.What are the applications of PLL? 4. Go on increasing the input frequency to f2 (upper end of the lock range).

Communication Systems Lab CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PRE-EMPHASIS: DE-EMPHASIS: Page 76 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Apply a sine wave of 5Vpp amplitude. Plot a graph of normalized gain Vs frequency. 3.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :16 PRE-EMPHASIS / DE-EMPHASIS Date : AIM: Design and conduct an experiment to test a pre-emphasis and de-emphasis circuit for 75Ps between 2. 2. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. Page 77 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .NO 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) COMPONENTS IC Capacitors Resistors CRO Bread Board. vary the frequency and note down the gain of the circuit.power supply 6) Connecting Wires RANGE IC741 PROCEDURE: 1.1KHz to 15KHz and record the results. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

Given f1 = 2. 2.1 KHz. Also r/R = Rf/R1. then R1 = 2.1KHz Then Rd = 820. f2 = 15KHz. fC = 1/2SRdCd. MODEL GRAPH: Page 78 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . De-emphasis circuit. Choose Cd = 0. Pre-emphasis circuit.1Pf and fC = f1 = 2.Communication Systems Lab DESIGN 1.2K and Rf = 15K.1Pf then r = 820 and R = 100. f2 = 1/2SRC Choose C = 0. f1 = 1/2SrC.

Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: PRE-EMPHASIS: Vi= Frequency(Hz) VO Gain= VO/ Vi Gain in dB DE-EMPHASIS: Vi= Frequency(Hz) VO Gain= VO/ Vi Gain in dB Page 79 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Define Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. Page 80 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Define capture effect. 3.Define transmission efficiency. RESULT: Thus the Pre-Emphasis and De-Emphasis circuit was designed and analysed using IC741.What is advantage of FM over Am? 2.Communication Systems Lab VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.What are the types of FM? 5. 4.

3.Get the input binary sequcence.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :17 ERROR CONTROL CODING USING MATLAB Date : AIM: To write a program in MATLAB for error control coding techniques. 5.Calculate the redundancy bits once again for the received bits.Transmit the signal that contains message bits+redundancy bits added at the end.Calculate the reundancy bits for the corrosponding code. ALGORITHM: 1.If the redundancy bits=’0’ then no error in the transmission otherwise some error in the transmission. 4. Page 81 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 2.

Communication Systems Lab PROGRAM: Page 82 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Communication Systems Lab RESULT: Thus the error control coding techniques are executed using MATLAB programs. Page 83 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Therefore. If the pass band is greater than 10KHz. more than one channel may be received and demodulated simultaneously. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Set audio oscillator frequency as 1KHz and amplitude as 1Vp-p b. Switch ON the trainer kit. Adjust the carrier frequency of AM transmitter to one position. Selectivity is a receiver parameter that is used to measure the ability of the receiver to accept a given band of frequencies and reject all others. with the commercial AM broadcast band. the receiver must limit its bandwidth to 10KHz. PROCEDURE: 1. for a receiver to select only those frequencies assigned to a single channel. a portion of the modulating signal information for that channel is rejected or blocked from entering the demodulator and. Patch card. For example. Adjust the gain of the audio amplifier in some position. a. c. CRO 3. each station’s transmitter is allocated a 10KHz bandwidth. consequently lost. Page 84 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 2. THEORY: Heterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a non-linear device or to translate one frequency to another frequency using non-linear mixing. Initial setup is made as follows. 2.Communication Systems Lab Experiment No :18 CHARACTERISTICS OF AM RECEIVER Date : AIM: To study the characteristics of AM receiver. The first section is the RF section which consists of a predictor is a broad tuned BPF with an adjustable centre frequency that is tuned to the desired carrier frequency. VCT 06KIT. If the pass band of a receiver is less than 10KHz.

Communication Systems Lab BLOCK DIAGRAM: Page 85 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Also find out -60db bandwidth of IF amplifier 3.Define shape factor. Connect CRO across test point and find out -3db bandwidth of IF amplifier. 4. 2. 2. Page 86 of 86 ©Einstein College of Engineering .What are the three noises present in the AM reciver? 5. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Now tune the gang capacitance in the preselector block. such that the output is of maximum amplitude.What is sensitivity? 3. Calculate Shape factor for various input signal.Communication Systems Lab TABULATION: No 1 2 dB -3 -60 Bandwidth 1. RESULT : Thus the characteristics of the AM receiver is studied.Define Selectivity.Define Q factor in AM receiver.

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