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Area of Study 1 - Motion in one and two dimensions

Question 1 a) The formula for kinetic energy should be used. Thus, the velocity is 3m/s. (You can check this and see that * 1.2 * 9 is 5.4 Question 1 b) Conservation of energy applies, and work converts elastic potential energy to kinetic energy. So work done is 5.4 J, as listed. Question 1c) The formula for elastic potential energy can be used here as conservation of energy applies. So k = 1687.5 N/m. Question 1d) Impulse is equal to the change in momentum. This is mv, with v as previously calculated. Thus, it is 3.6 Ns. Question 2 The explanation should note that momentum is a vector. After the collision, the 1.2kg block moves backwards, and therefore has negative momentum (if the original direction of motion is positive). Therefore, the 2.4kg block must move forward with a greater momentum than that of the initial momentum, to compensate for the negative momentum that the 1.2kg block has in the final state. Question 3 B is the correct answer. The two forces on the right have vertical components that can be cancelled, and the horizontal contribution of these forces can be cancelled by the arrow on the left. Question 4 a) Cable A supports both spheres, so the magnitude is 30N. The direction is up. Question 4b) The reaction force is the force of the sphere on the earth (due to the spheres gravitational field), and this is directed upwards, or to the centre of mass of the sphere. Question 5a) As no acceleration occurs, the tension force is equal to the frictional forces, so 800 N. Question 5b) Using Fnet = ma, F = ma + friction, which is equal to 300N + 400N = 700N Question 5c)

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Use kinematics equations. v^2 = u^2+ 2ad = 16 + 20 m^2/s^2 v = 6 m/s Question 5d) T1 pulls everything along, so rope 1 will be the first to break. 2400N = ma + friction 2400N = ma + 800N 1600N = ma a = 1600N / 1200kg = 1.33 m/s^2 Question 6a) Using kinematics equations (vsin60)^2 = 2ad = 20 * 15 = 300 Thus v = 1/sin60 * (300)^0.5 = 20m/s Question 6b) Time of the flight is equal to twice the time taken to reach the top d = 0.5at^2 t = (2d/g)^0.5 = 3^0.5 = 1.732 s The total time for the flight is twice this, so is 3.46 s Question 7 a) The string will break when the centripetal force is at the breaking force. 4N = mv^2/r v = (4N * 1.8m/0.2kg)^0.5 v = 6m/s Question 7b) The ball will fly down the page, which is tangential to the motion Question 7c) The centripetal force is the sum of the gravitational force and the tension force, and at the top, mg is directed in the same direction as the centripetal force, whereas at the bottom, the weight force is directed in the opposite direction, so the tension needs to be greater to "cancel out" the weight force. Question 8a) Using GM/r^2 = 4pi^2r/T^2 and rearranging for r^3 gives r^3 = GMT^2/4pi^2 r^3 = 6.446 * 10^18 m^3 r = 1.86 * 10^6 m Subtracting the radius of the moon gives 1.2 * 10^5 m.

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Question 8b) Weightlessness occurs when there is no net gravitational field, and apparent weightlessness occurs when there is no normal force. When the astronauts are in orbit, their a is the same as g, and therefore they experience no normal force. Thus this is an example of apparent weightlessness, as gravitational fields do exist at their point in space.

Area of study 2 - Electronics and photonics

Question 1) The resistance of the resistors in parallel is 100 ohms. Therefore, the resistance of the set up is 250 ohms. Question 2a) 2V are dropped across D1. Therefore 10V is dropped across R1, and using V = IR, I = 10/100 = 0.1 A = 100mA Question 2b) 3V are dropped across D2, and therefore 5V is dropped across R2. Question 2c) The current has contributions from each of the loops in parallel. In the first loop, 2V is dropped across D1, so V across R1 is 6V. Thus the current from this circuit is 0.06A. In the second loop, 5V is dropped across R2, so I = 5/150 = 0.033A. Therefore, the total current is 0.093A, which is 93mA. Question 2d) The power in D1 = VI = 2 V* 0.1A = 0.2W. The power in D2 = VI= 3 V* 0.1A = 0.3W. The efficiency of D1 = 0.15/0.2 = 0.75. The efficiency of D2 = 0.2/0.3 = 0.67. Thus the efficiency of D1 is greater. Question 3a) V = IR(total) V/I = 3000 ohm + R 10/2,5 * 10^3 ohm = 3000 ohm + R 4000 ohm = 3000 ohm + R R = 1000 ohm Reading off the graph, this gives a light level of 10 lux. Question 3b) A sample circuit would include a voltage divider, with voltage out across the LDR. Using the voltage divider formula, the resistance of a resistor R to be placed in series, can be found

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6V = 10V * 3000/(3000 + R) 3000/(3000+R) = 0.6 3000 = 1800 + 0.6R 1200/0.6 = R R = 2000 ohm Question 4a) The voltage gain is 10/0.04 = 250 Question 4b) The graph will be inverted and multiplied by 250. Points on the new graph with voltages smaller than -10V and greater than 10V should not exist; clipping occurs at these voltages. Question 5) Modulation device - manipulates the electrical input signal to produce a light output (converts between forms of energy), potentially adding a carrier wave Light beam - transmits the information between physical locations Demodulation device - converts the light signal to an electrical signal, and performs operations to make this signal the same as the input signal (such an operation could be subtracting the carrier wave)

Detailed study 1 - Einsteins special relativity

Question 1) A. This can be verified with formulae that are outside of the scope of the VCE course. Question 2) D. Relative motion (can imagine that particles are moving with the sound), so player running towards measures speed of 340m/s, and other player measures 330m/s. Question 3) C. You can go through the numbers here, but it is apparent that A and B are incorrect (as c is constant in a vacuum), and D does not make sense as if we can see the quasar, the light has had time to reach earth. Question 4) B. No acceleration can be observed. Whilst D does suggest that no centripetal acceleration occurs, it does not account for linear acceleration. D would be correct if it stated that it was travelling at a constant speed in a straight line. Question 5) C. The results would have differed if ether had been detected.

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Question 6) Total energy = rest energy + kinetic energy rest energy =mc^2 = 9 * 10^16 * 1.67 * 10^-27J = 1.5 * 10^-10 J Therefore A is correct (the contribution from the kinetic energy is negligible) Question 7) C. Using calculations and substitutions, the ratio is the square root of 1/.16 = 1/0.4 = 2.5 Question 8) A. Proper time is shorter than other measurements, or equal to them. Question 9) D. Length contraction is apparent, but only in the direction of motion. Question 10) The velocity at which she passes is 0.866c. The length she observes is 10m, so t = 10m/(0.866 * 3 * 10^8) = 3.85 * 10^-8s, which is C. Question 11) Apparent mass increases as velocity increases, if mass is taken as gamma multiplied by the rest mass. So A. Question 12) The work done is the difference in energies, which is gamma2mc^2 - gamma1mc^2 gamma1 = 1.05 gamma2 = 1.15 so the work done = 0.1 * rest mass energy = 5.98*10^-10J, so the answer is B.

Detailed Study 2 - Materials and their use in structures

Question 1) The pole is in compression, and each pole exerts a force of 70.71N down. So the correct answer is B. Question 2) A. The stiffest alloy is the one with the largest gradient. This is alloy A. Modulus is stress/strain = 300 * 10^6/0.004 = 7.5 * 10^10Pa Question 3) C. F = stress * area = 2 * 10^-3 * 250 * 10^6 N = 5.0 * 10^5N Question 4) D. From the graph, alloy D.

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Question 5) A. From the graph, alloy A. Question 6) A. Toughest has the largest area underneath. This is alloy A from the graph (not always material with longest plastic region). Question 7) Energy per unit volume can be found by finding the area underneath the graph. This is approximately 11 squares. Each square has an area of 50MPa * 4 * 10^-3 = 2 * 10^5Pa. Therefore the energy per unit volume is 2.2 * 10^6Pa. The volume of the sample is 2 * 2 * 10^4m^3 = 4 * 10^-4 m^3. Therefore, the total energy is 8.8 * 100J, which is approximately 900J, which gives C. Question 8) D. Use torque, placing the anchor structure as the pivot. Question 9) Fnet = 0, so B is correct. Question 10) B. The blocks are under compression, so B makes sense. Question 11) C. Shear forces occur in this characteristic diagram. Question 12) C. The diagram is consistent with a beam sagging in the middle.

Detailed study 3 - Further electronics

Question 1) f = 1/T; T = 0.025, thus f = 40Hz. So B. Question 2) The voltage will be 240 * 50/1200 = 10V. So A. Question 3) A and D must be incorrect as the two parts of the bridge are not joined.This means that the only options left are C and B. C is correct. Question 4) The power across a diode is 0.7 * 0.14W = 0.098W which is approximately 0.1W. The size of the plate must therefore be 0.1/100 *1m = 0.001m^2, which is A.