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OBJECTIVES
We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while
we are in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has
prepared four tasks for us. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of
interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, and I gladly choose to do this
individually. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work, we are to gain
valuable experiences and able to:
I. To apply and adapt a variety of problemsolving strategies to solve problems.
II. To improve thinking skills.
III. To promote effective mathematical communication.
IV. To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases
student interest and confident.
V. To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.
VI. To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhance effective learning.
VII. To develop positive attitude towards mathematics.
We are expected to submit the project work within three weeks from the first day the task
is being administered to us. Failure to submit the written report will result in us not receiving
certificate.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I would like to say thank you to my friends, teachers and parents for giving
me their full support in making this project successful.
Not forgotten to my family for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that
are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project.
Internet, books, computers and all that act as my source to complete this project.They also
supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate during
doing this project work.
Next, I would like to thank my teacher, Puan Sapura for guiding me and my friends
throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but she taught us patiently
and gave me guidance throughout the journey until we knew what to do. She tried her best to
help us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work.
Besides that, my friends who were doing the same project as mine and shared our
ideas.They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, but however, this
task was done individually.
Last but not least, any party which involved either directly or indirect in completing this
project work. Thank you everyone.
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INTRODUCTION
THE HISTORY OF BRICK PAVING
There are reports of brick pavements having been used for at least 5000 years. The
earliest evidence of such pavements comes from Mesopotamia. Here, because of lack of local
stone, pavements were surfaced with bricks.
In the USA, as in Europe, the selection of brick thickness was largely empirical. In the
American midwest experience showed that brick thicknesses as little as 60 mm could
successfully withstand motor vehicles. To verify this, accelerated trafficking tests were
initiated in 1926 by the Bureau of Public Roads. Here the objective was toe examine the
feasibility of using brick thicknesses of 75 mm or less. These tests appear to be the first
testtrack evaluations of a segmental pavement and, indeed, must represent one of the first
evaluations of any pavement made using scientific methods.
As in the case of stone setts, bricks were generally installed on a sand bed placed either
directly on the sub grade or on a broken stone base. The joints were filled with sand or, more
commonly, with a bituminous material applied hot. As an alternative to this, trials using
premoulded expansion strips to seal the joints were made in the USA but do not appear to
have been successful.
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The principal problem associated with brick pavements was their propensity to surface
damage. This was manifest as cracking and cobbling pavers. In an attempt to strengthen brick
pavements experiments were conducted in Holland and America whereby both transverse and
longitudinal steel reinforcement was laid in joints which were then mortared. Tests conducted
in Illinois in the 1930s showed such pavements could carry heavy traffic with little or no
maintenance. A more conventional approach was developed in Hungary. Here very
highquality paving bricks were made from clay with a high lime content which was molded
in steel forms under high pressure and fired at high temperatures. This process yielded bricks
with strengths similar to basalt setts and enabled pavement lives of about 30 years under
traffic to be achieved. However, in general, brick pavements normally had an effective life of
less than 20 years.
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PART A
(a)(i)
Estimation Method 1: (Area)
Area of pavement = ) 100 300 (
2 2
÷ t
Area of a tile = 25 x 10
Number of tiles =
10 25
) 100 300 (
2 2
×
÷ t
1 0 0 5 ~
2 m
1 m
Circular pavement
Plants
6
Estimation method 2: ( Using concept of Arithmetic Progression)
Starting from the interior, the number of tiles for the first layer
25
) 2 ( 100 t
=
The number of tiles for the second layer
25
) 2 ( 110 t
=
The number of tiles for the third layer
25
) 2 ( 120 t
=
20
25
) 2 ( 290
...
25
) 2 ( 120
25
) 2 ( 110
25
) 2 ( 100
S = + + + +
t t t t
This is an arithmetic progression with
25
) 2 ( 10
,
25
) 2 ( 100 t t
= = d a
Number of tiles
(
¸
(
¸
+ = ~
25
) 2 ( 290
25
) 2 ( 100
2
20
20
t t
S
= 980
*Alternative Method 3:
From the diagram on the right,
100
5 . 12
tan
1 ÷
= ZAOB and AOB Z = 2 u
° ~ 25 . 14 0
Hence, for the innermost layer, the number
of tiles
°
°
~
25 . 14
360
3 . 25 =
7
For the second layer,
110
5 . 12
tan
1
1 1
÷
= Z OB A and ° ~ Z = 97 . 12 2
1 1 1
OB A u
Number of tiles
°
°
~
97 . 12
360
8 . 27 ~
For the third layer,
120
5 . 12
tan
1
2 2
÷
= Z OB A and ° ~ Z = 89 . 11 2
2 2 2
OB A u
Number of tiles
°
°
~
89 . 11
360
3 . 30 ~
For the fourth layer,
130
5 . 12
tan
1
3 3
÷
= Z OB A and ° ~ Z = 98 . 10 2
3 3 3
OB A u
Number of tiles
°
°
~
98 . 10
360
8 . 32 ~
This is an arithmetic progression: 25.3, 27.8, 30.3, 32.8, …
a = 25.3, d = 2.5,
hence, the total number of tiles   5 . 2 ) 1 20 ( ) 3 . 25 ( 2
2
20
20
÷ + = ~ S
= 981
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(a)(ii)
Method 2 is a more accurate estimation compare with method 1. Method 2 takes
into consideration the spaces between tiles whereas Method 1 does not.
(a)(iii)
Method 1 is quick and simple and therefore easy to understand. This is a major
reason why it is being practiced by most masons with some modification. Due to their
experience, they deduct a certain number of tiles from the total number required by the area
calculation to compensate for the spaces between tiles, and they are quite accurate.
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PART B
(b)(i) Octagonal pavement
Method 1 : (Area)
Area of one trapezium = ° ÷ ° 45 sin ) 100 )( 100 (
2
1
45 sin ) 300 )( 300 (
2
1
Area of octogonal pavement = ° ÷ × 45 sin ) 10000 90000 (
2
1
8
Number of tiles =
250
45 sin 320000 °
= 905
Method 2 : (Arithmetic Progression)
Referring to the diagram
on the right,
° = 5 . 22 sin 2OP PQ
1 1 1 1
2 R P PQ Q P + =
2 2 1 1 2 2
2 R P Q P Q P + =
° = = 5 . 22 tan 10
2 2 1 1
R P R P
and this is an arithmetic
progression.
How many layers are required?
°
= =
5 . 22 cos
10
2 1 1
P P PP
MM
1
= M
1
M
2
= 10 cm
10
Number of layers
°
=
5 . 22 cos
10
200
18 4776 . 18 ~ =
° = = 5 . 22 sin 200 PQ a and ° = = 5 . 22 tan 20 2
1 1
R P d
  ° ÷ + ° = 5 . 22 tan 20 ) 1 18 ( ) 5 . 22 sin 200 ( 2
2
18
18
S
Number of tiles required 106
25
18
~ =
S
Total number of tiles for the octagon pavement = 8 x 106
= 848
*Alternative Method 3: (Scale Drawing)
Using a scale of 1 : 20 and draw one eighth of the octagon.
3 tiles
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Estimation from the scale drawing:
There are 18 complete layers.
Number of complete whole tiles needed = 18 x 3 + 15 + 12 + 9 + 6 + 3
= 99
To fill up the empty spaces, tiles will be cut into smaller parts and the estimated
number of tiles = 3 x 3
= 9
Total number of tiles = 8 x (99 + 9)
= 864
There is quite a difference between Method 1 and Method 2. This is probably due to
the number of layers of tiles. Method 2 only considers 18 complete layers which does not
cover the whole area of the octagon pavement, whereas Method 1 considers the whole area.
(b)(ii)
Comparing the circular design and the octagonal design, the octagonal design will be
easier to construct because of its straight line layers and management of the few empty
spaces between the tiles. To lay the tiles in circles will be quite a task and there empty
spaces to fill in between every tile.
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FURTHER EXPLORATION
(a) Two circular plots pavement.
Refer to the diagram beside.
Method 1: (Using Area)
OK
ON
KOM
1
cos 2
÷
= Z
° ~ 11 . 67
=1.172 radian
Area of segment KLMN
) 11 . 67 sin 172 . 1 )( 300 (
2
1
2
° ÷ =
60 . 11283 ~ cm
2
Number of tiles required
45
250
60 . 11283
~ =
Number of tiles required for the pavement
) 45 1005 ( 2 ÷ =
= 1920
2.5 m
3 m
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Method 2:
To calculate the number of tiles required for the arcs passing through points K
1
, K
2
, K
3
and K
4
.
(i) Arc passing through point K
1
Arc length 
.

\

× =
÷
290
250
cos 2
180
290
1
t
Number of tiles required 33 . 12 ~
(ii) Arc passing through point K
2
Arc length 
.

\

× =
÷
280
250
cos 2
180
280
1
t
Number of tiles required 47 . 10 ~
(iii) Arc passing through point K
3
Arc length 
.

\

× =
÷
270
250
cos 2
180
270
1
t
Number of tiles required 367 . 8 ~
(iv) Arc passing through point K
4
Arc length 
.

\

× =
÷
260
250
cos 2
180
260
1
t
Number of tiles required 788 . 5 ~
(v) Total number of tiles required for the pavement
) 788 . 5 367 . 8 47 . 10 33 . 12 ( 2 2
20
+ + + ÷ = S
91 . 73
25
) 2 ( 290
25
) 2 ( 100
2
20
2 ÷
(
¸
(
¸
+ × =
t t
1887 ~
14
(b) Refer to the diagram beside.
Area of triangle EFG
EH HF × × × =
2
1
2
2
135
tan 50 50
2
1
2
°
× × × =
Total area of pavement
2
135
tan 2500 2 45 sin ) 10000 90000 (
2
1
8 2
°
× ÷ ° ÷ × × =
27 . 440477 = cm
2
Number of tiles required 1762 ~
(c)
I will choose the overlapping double octagonal design as shown in Diagram 3. The
alternative design that I will suggest is an overlapping double rombus design. This is because
the number of tile used is lesser and it makes better landscape.
(d)
It is not practical for using aluminium tins and sand to lay the pavement. Although brick
is very heavy, but it costs cheaper than other materials and gives good cold and heat insulation,
it is also waterproof and fireproof. However, aluminum tin shouldn’t use at pavement which
can even cause injuries to people who step on it when there is a sharp edge on the aluminium
tin.
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CONCLUSION
After I accomplished this project, I have found that the additional mathematics is fun
and very useful in daily life. I have learnt the important of perseverance as time will be inverted
to ensure the completion and excellence of this project.
On the other hands , I have learnt the virtue to making together as I have helped and
received help from my fellow peers in the production of this project. I realised the important to
be thankful and appreciative during completing this task. This is because I able to apply my
mathematical knowledge in daily life and appreciate the beauty of additional mathematic.
This project is a several training stage for me to prepare myself for the demands of my
future undertaking in the university and work life.
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REFLECTION
While I conducting this project, there is a lot of information that I have found. I have learnt
how the area of the pavement is measured. Apart from that, this project encourages the student to
work together and share their knowledge. It is also encourages student to gather information
from the internet, improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication.
Not only that, I had learned some moral values that I can practice. This project had taught me to
responsible on the works that are given to me to be completed. This project also had made me
felt more confidence to do works and not to give easily when we could not find the solution for
the question. I also learned to be more discipline on time, which I was given only 3 weeks to
complete this project and hand in to my teacher just in time. I also enjoy doing this project as I
need to spend my time with friends to complete this project and it had tightens our friendship.
17
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
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