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1. Please Specify the digestive enzymes, their place of education and describe their effects
Enzyme training venue effect Amylase salivary glands Carbohydrate division Among tongues Lipase Big Mouth division, milk fats Mage lipase stomach fat cleavage, milk fats Pepsinogen stomach protein cleavage (by hydrochloric acid conversion to pepsin) Galle liver emulsification of fats (Ellen spleen Education) Big pancreatic lipase division Pancreatic alpha-amylase Carbohydrate division (multiple sugar Simple sugar) Trypsinogen pancreatic protein cleavage (only by the alkaline environment in the small conversion to trypsin) Chymotrypsinogen pancreatic protein cleavage (only by the alkaline environment conversion to Chymotrysin) Carboxypeptidase pancreatic protein cleavage (only by the alkaline environment in the small conversion to Carboxypeptid)
2. Where is the liver, and what they met in the human body Makroskopischer building Largest metabolic organ of theϖ body • • • • • • • • • Right upper abdomen below the diaphragm under / behind the arch ribs Ca. 1 ½ kg 2 large and 2 small liver lobe between small liver, the liver lobes gate that is the entry point of Hepatic artery, and the portal vein and the exit point of the Ganges Gall production Gall juice: bile acid, cholesterol, bilirubin formation of growth hormones, Soma Tome Dine formation of the hormones and their precursors eg Somatomedine.Activation of vitamin D and thyroid hormones detoxification: body toxins – ammonia • supplied poisons - alcohol, drugs reduction of red blood dye – haemoglobin
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to bilirubin - elimination of the bile metabolic functions protein metabolism - albumin, globulins, coagulation factors, transport proteins fat metabolism - Neutral fats are stored as triglycerides carbohydrate metabolism - insulin creates glucose into the cells, excess glucose in the liver as glycogen stored glucagon creating glucose from the liver –
Modernization of the glucose in Glycogens
3. From what sections of the colon is built, and what functions it Macroskopischer building Ca. 1.5 m long If Frame shape to the small intestine Sections caecum (appendectomy) with worm progress rate (vermiform appendix) ascending colon – ascending colon transverse colon - Across the course colon colon descendens – descending colon Sigma Colon Sigmoid - S-shaped colon Rectum - Rectum 7-15 cm long goes from the colon, and ends on the aftermarket Anus closure of the anus consisting of the internal and externalϖ sphincter Hämorrhoidale braid Physiology: withdrawal of water and electrolytes thickening of the chair fermentation and decay byϖ Coli mucus incorporation by mucus production in the cells cup
4. Please describe the situation and the functions of the various lymphoid organs Thymus: Location: in the mediastinum (in the middle of the thorax (chest)) "basic school" T-Lymphocyten later fatter and he has no function – Thymus fats Almonds: tonsils
belong to the lymphatic revenge ring they control as "bouncer" the entrance to the throat, then catch debris and infectious pathogens from we differ: • Palatine tonsil - tonsils • Tonsil pharyngea - throat almonds • Lingual tonsil - tongue almonds you are with one of the main centres for the Production of Lymphocyten Spleen - Splen or Lien position: left upper abdomen, below the diaphragm, dorsal (back), protected by the ribs arch Function: Blood Renewal - outdated disposition and reduce blood cells, iron recycling immunological control of the blood, enartete cells and debris are identified and defense operations launched, Lymphocyten education. Blood memory function - at risk by shock volume deficiency leads to the contraction in the volume attempt by the lack of small blood reserve rebuild, and thus the cycle to maintain.
5. Please describe the emergence of an jaundice Prähepatischen jaundice: (from the liver) Fault lies in front of the liver. The liver in its function as excretory organs overwhelmed and the Concentration of bilirubin in the blood rises. For example. Reinforced sinking of the red cells in the spleen leads to increased bilirubin in the blood. Intrahepatic jaundice: (in the liver) Fault lies in the liver Severe liver injury, the liver is only to a limited extent in a position to perform their work. Z. Ex. As part of a hepatitis or cirrhosis of the Liver Ikerus newborns the liver of newborn for the first days of Life still unable (due to a lack of maturation), the resulting bilirubin in the bile acid to the pair. Posthepatischen jaundice or Verschlussikterus (behind the liver) Fault lies behind the liver the bile ducts are laid, Meaning they are protected by gall stones or tumours closed. It comes at a jam bilirubin. 6. What's lymph and how does it
The lymph is a light yellow liquid, which consist mainly of water, Lymph plasma and white blood cells, and most of the cells of the body lapped. It is produced by leakage of blood plasma from the blood capillaries in the tissues. About lying between the cells Lymph capillary cell debris, slag materials, fat, bacteria and viruses disposed.
7. Why is the lymphatic system is so important to (tasks) As a network spans the lymphatic system by the body. At various points in this network are large and small lymph nodes. And so the system works: The blood pressure are small and liquid ingredients through the thin walls of the fine hair vessels (capillaries) in the body tissues pressed. Thus, nutrients and oxygen in the tissues. In return, the lymphatic system waste materials and carbon dioxide. The larger and solid ingredients remain in the blood. The liquid squeezed out returns mostly in the bloodstream. The task consists of the lymph nodes in the control and cleaning of them about the lymph Lymph capillaries added. In the lymph nodes are bacteria, viruses, dead cell components, and others completely alien to their basic building blocks apart and in the venous system returned. The lymph nodes continue to contain immune cells, called macrophages large (Phagocyten). They not only destroy bacteria, but also stimulate the production of antibodies against the pathogen. Other tasks: Spleen: reduction of blood impurities production of white blood cells production of protective substances Thymus: Development of the white blood cells in childhood development of immune functions until puberty (after no function more) Almonds: defense against infections
Anatomy / Pathologie
The heart and circulatory system
1. What criteria for the measurement of pulse information on the condition of the heart and circulatory system Frequency Tachycard > 100 / min bradycard <60/min Rhythm Rhythmically Arrhythmisch • • • Irregular With breaks With extra shots (extrasystoles)
Restorative condition weak Volume forming Strong The pulse provides information on the heart rate and rhythm in part on the 2. Which pulse changes may arise? In the frequency: Tachycardia and Brady card In rhythm Arrhythmic With tactile breaks or extra systoles In filling state 3. What is TIA. Please describe the appearance of symptoms TIA is "transient ischemic attack" (temporary lack of blood / oxygen deficiency accompanying attack), a harbinger of a short stroke occurring circulatory disorders by oxygen deficiency caused, is the term TIA. Neurological failures Appoplex = stroke What is it? "What is this? Causes? As a TIA are all neurological failures, which, a few minutes, seldom more than 1 to 2 hours. By definition, a TIA to 24 hours. Within this time, the symptoms completely. During a TIA remains awareness. TIA's need as a sign Brain infarct’s seen. The causes have to be clarified and dealt with.
Common symptoms of TIA balance disorders withϖ and without dizziness, eyesight and hearing disorders, usually in one eye (Amaurasis fugax) Disruption of the language or the language understanding, The inability to read, write or calculate, Feeling numbness in the arm or leg and knocked the legs. Causes and symptoms TIA is a Micro Emboli A TIA occurs at the moment when a small blood clot (Micro emboli) a blood vessel is blocked. It ends when the clot suddenly shatters and again dissolves in the blood. Main sources of these clots are vascular sealed platelet accumulation in the arteries and heart valves, as well as clot in the context of irregular heart activity. Other sources are occasionally low blood pressure, mechanical Crack cable of blood vessels during a head rotation, and heart rhythm disturbances. Symptoms of affected skull base. If one of the arteries trees at the base of the skull is affected, the symptoms often include visual disturbances such as double vision (Diploplie) and dizziness, nausea and vomiting, slow language, inability to speak and understand language, numbness around the mouth and itching or weakness in the arms or legs. Symptoms of head affected artery. Is the head artery affected, it can be a complete vision loss ("Blackout") cause. A blood emptiness, or a lack of blood flow (ischemia) of a cerebral hemisphere has symptoms such as unilateral paralysis, numbness, unilateral vision loss or speech loss. Treatment Medication or surgical intervention. TIA can be medically or surgically treated. With a narrowing (stenosis) of the head artery of more than 70% is a Endarterieektomie that means a cut the vascular wall deposits, appropriate. With a narrowing of less than 70%, this treatment is not as plausible. Clot Formation against drugs. A therapy against platelets / Clot formation should be instituted. Aspirin has been shown in several studies of its effectiveness against TIA and stroke. Ticlopidine, a platelet aggregation inhibitor, has been shown in two large studies a higher efficacy than aspirin show 4. What phrophylaktischen measures can be taken to prevent a Apoplex Thrombosis Embolism Bleeding
40-50 percent of all strokes are caused by a thrombus
30 to 35 percent of all strokes are caused by an embolus, in a different region of the body (such as heart arose)
20 to 25 percent of all strokes are supported by a rift caused a brain artrie
In order to prevent a Apoplex, you must, in any case, reduce the risk factors Risk factors for stroke in general: Stress Obesity: promotes atherosclerosis Lack of movement: sport preventsϖ arteriosclerosis and may even partially und o. smoking Alcohol fat metabolism disorders diabetes mellitus hypertension It may also be medically with a Thrombocytenaggregationshemmer, eg ASA 100, to prevent this event
5. Please describe the emergence of an jaundice Prähepatischen jaundice: (from the liver) Fault lies in front of the liver. The liver in its function as excretory organsϖ overwhelmed and the concentration of bilirubin in the blood rises. For example. Reinforced sinking of the red cells in the spleen leads to increased bilirubin in the blood. Intrahepatic jaundice: (in the liver) Fault lies in the liver severe liver injury, the liver is only to a limited extent in aϖ position to perform their work. Z. Ex. As part of a hepatitis or cirrhosisϖ of the liver Newborn ikterus the liver of newborn for the firstϖ days of life still unable (due to a lack of maturation), the resulting bilirubin in the bile acid to the pair. Posthepatischen jaundice or Verschlussikterus (behind the liver) Fault lies behind the liver the bile ducts are laid, meaning they are protected by gall stones or tumors closed. It comes at a jam bilirubin.
6. When it comes to a hepatic encephalopathy and what the symptoms of The hepatic encephalopathy is a brain leberbedingte dysfunction:
The diseased liver is in the metabolism of ammonia incurred no longer effectively remove from the blood. The toxic ammonia reaches High concentrations in the brain. disruption of the metabolism and the functions of the brain are the result
First evidence of hepatic encephalopathy are: discount end concentration ability restriction of logical thinking Compact attention decrease in the response capability deterioration in the short-term memory and psychomotor skills (fine motor)
7. What is a liver cirrhosis and what specific symptoms to When cirrhosis is referred to a chronic disease of the liver, from the entire body is affected. Liver cells are increasingly destroyed. The liver tries to compensate for this loss, and new forms as a substitute Cicatricial liver cells and connective tissue. This nodules formation of connective tissue and liver cells, the duties of the healthy liver but not in its entirety. The liver functions are sustained disrupted. If this process of rules proliferation of new connective tissue and liver cells progresses, hardens the liver, is knotty and finally shrinks. As a result of the destruction of liver structure is also the circulation of the liver severely hampered, so that the portal vein and blood from Hepatic artery No longer flow through the liver and can be dam. Consequently there is a Pfort artery pressure. The most common Causes cirrhosis: Over consumption of alcohol over a long period (alcoholic cirrhosis) chronic viral hepatitis (B, C, D with B) Autoimmune chronic hepatitis Congenital disorder of iron, copper and fat metabolism Autoimmune chronic diseases of the biliary tract (such as primary biliary cirrhosis) severity longtime cardiac weakness Symptoms fatigue is a guiding weight loss impotence liverskin characters
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Palmarerythem, it is a clear red Kleinfingerballens reduction of body hair with the development of a female Behaarungstyps in men Spider naevi, or vascular spiders in the neck and upper body area White nails
Dupuytrensche contracture, or connective tissue hardening andϖ shrinking of the palms of tendon jaundice, a yellowing of the eyes and skin itching bleeding and bruising water abdomen (ascites) varicose veins bleeding from the oesophagus Hepatic encephalopathy.
8. Explain the clinical picture of Mucoviscidose The cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease with a risk of 1:2500, the predominantly white population. A typical feature is the formation of very tough Mucus in the lung, pancreas, liver and small intestine, the function of these organs affected. The first symptom is often the bowel obstruction of the infant. Later, the problems from the lungs to the fore. Frequent infections must always be treated with antibiotics and lead to increasing deterioration of respiratory function. The damage to the liver and pancreas can be very well controlled with medication. The diagnosis is done through analysis, which already investigation by amniotic fluid during pregnancy is possible. Because the genetic is not curable, is the therapy in the treatment of the symptoms. In rare cases, a lung transplant is possible and promising. Today, the average life expectancy of over 40 years. Cystic fibrosis occurs, as mentioned, almost only white people. Germany is homing to 6000 8000 to cystic fibrosis patients, of which about 30% are older than 18 years. Symptoms The disease usually results in any adverse changes secretion in the lungs, pancreas, liver, small bowel, skin and sexual organs. Today, about 90% are dying of cystic fibrosis sufferers to complications in the lungs. Lungs Due to the disturbed chloride exchange in the lung is a zäh liquid mucus, the bronchi and their ramifications, and the alveoli Bronchiolen clogged. Glimmer hairs With your wall is normally equipped with a thin layer of mucus, on the inhalation particles remain liable, and how on a conveyor to the throat and then managed cough or swallowed. The tough, thick mucus of sick person, but the assets Glimmer hairs poorly or not at all away. This can lead to a narrowing of the airways and obstruct breathing. At the same time, however, develop infections, because bacteria are not removed and in the airways remain. Such recurrent infections damage lung tissue, because their immune cells of the immune system to be activated, the aggressive chemicals and enzymes release, and so inflammatory
reactions. The destruction and narrowing of the bronchi progressing with the times as far away, until finally the lungs failed. Very rarely occurs in these cases, a lung transplant in question. Forecast In the 50s and early 60s, most patients died already in the infant or child's age. Due to a significant improvement of symptomatic, not causal therapy, the average life expectancy today-born patients in more than 40 years.
9. Describe it in or emphysema, and the consequences for the patients that can Definition The Emphysema is a pathological Billow the lungs. There are the reversible acute pulmonary emphysema at acute asthma attack and the chronic emphysema, mostly as a result of chronic bronchitis in smokers from the 50th Year of life occurs. There are also occupational causes. You can dust loads, a number of chemical substances, as well as pressure loads at a emphysema. At least with dust and chemical substances, the emergence of emphysema, chronic bronchitis. The chronic bronchitis, in the case of dust by a foreign body reaction caused, in the case of chemicals with the chemical irritant itself burdens pressure of the lungs can be a strain of the alveoli also lead to emphysema. Symptoms Power reduction, shortness of breath, chest Barrel shaped and chronic cough. Diagnosis Medical examination, lung X-ray, lung function testing and blood gas analysis Therapy Smoking, bronchodilator medications, breathing exercises, oxygen transfer, administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and surgery. Complications and history Acute complications: Spontaneous pneumo thorax This leads to a collapse of the lung, if marginal Emphysen blow burst in the air in Pleura gab dismissed. Infections of the airways can also complicate pulmonary emphysema, as the power reserve of the respiratory system quickly overwhelm. Chronic complications Pulmonary hypertension, A high pressure in the pulmonary circulation Overloading of the right heart, this particular form of heart failure is called cor pulmonale. Forecast The prognosis of this disease is bad, because the changes in the lung structure even when treatment is not Education capable Patients with congenital α1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency develop the symptoms of a Lungenemphysems mostly between 30 And 40 Year of life. Secondary diseases such as Cor pulmonale complicate the disease and therefore worsen the
prognosis. Under a Cor pulmonale is a right heart enlargement on the basis of increased vascular resistance in the pulmonary circulation.
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