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By Alasdair Locke Lecturer: David Tucker

.........................................................................................................................................................................................3 Braking...................5 Power........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Thermal efficiency.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Engine Technology..............................................................................5 Brake mean effective pressure........................................................................................................Table of Contents Vehicle Technology...................................3 Suspension..........................................................................................................................3 Transmission..................................................................................5 Torque................3 Steering........6 .................................

7 x 9. and also assumes the absence of a damper or any other factors influencing compression and rebound efficiency.6/TE relative to Go = 5493.g. The answer assumes a constant spring rate (not progressively wound or approaching coilbound).49 x Go Go = gearbox overall efficiency = FS/TE = 5493. This first question is looking at the torque multiplying/RPM reducing effect of a drivetrain.344:1 Suspension A helical spring carrying a load of 500N is compressed by 20mm.35M and the transmission efficiency is 87%. Stiffness = applied load / deflection = 500N / 20mm = 25N/mm ∴ load required (8mm) = Stiffness x Deflection = 25N/mm x 8mm = 200N Braking A disc brake rotating at 500rpm has three opposing pairs of friction pads pressing on it at an .87 / 0. The question is asking how much force the spring will take before it compresses by 8mm when a load of 500N is known to compress it 20mm. hitting a bump in the road) and then transfers the energy to the damper which in turn dissipates it primarily as heat.2 tons has an engine which develops a maximum torque of 106Nm.8:1 Weight = W = 2/3 of 1200Kg Torque = T = 106Nm Rolling radius = R = 0.849/4.Vehicle Technology Transmission A vehicle of total weight (w=mg) 1.6N/263. and is asking for a ratio calculation in relation to the level of grip the driven tyres produce when loaded with the relative weight of the vehicle.87 Fs = static friction = μ W g = weight x coefficient of friction x gravity = 1200Kg x (2/3) x 0.6N Gg = gearbox output ratio = 4.35 = 263. What would be the load required to compress the spring by 8mm? A helical sping is commonly used in the suspension design of most road and race cars. the effective tyre radius is 0. Assuming that the driving wheels carry 2/3 of the total load and the coefficient of friction between the tyres and road is 0. determine the lowest gearbox ratio which can be usefully employed if the driving wheels are not to spin.7 Go = Gg x Gr = FS/TE Rearranging: Gr = Go/Gg Tractive effort = TE = (T x Go x TEff) / R = 106Nm x Go x 0. The rear axle ratio is 4.7. The spring stores the energy from an axial compressive load (e.49 = 20.849 Gr = Go/Gg = 20.35M Coefficient of friction = μ = 0.8 = 4. Gr = gear ratio = ? Teff = transmission efficiency = 0.8:1.81m/s^2 = 5493.

001963m^2 Pressure = P = 490KPa = 490000Nm^2 Radius = R = 0.05^2 = [pi x ½ 0. or bearings.38 diameter and the torque transmitted to the drop arm shaft is 110Nm Although steering boxes are used fairly infrequently in modern motorsport vehicles (they're only really found in off-road time trial vehicles) this question has elements which can be transferred to calculate other similar systems. If the pressure on each pad during braking is 490KPa determine: • The frictional torque acting on the brake disc shaft • The power developed The first part of this question relates to the resistive torque which is being applied to the axle or driveshaft and as such applied through the hub and wheel as a braking force between the tyre and the road surface. This can therefore be used to quantify the energy “lost” by the vehicle with the given values. seals.3 x 490000 x 0.6kW The power developed during the braking event gives a clear indication of the efficiency savings that can be achieved using systems such as KERS in motorsport vehicles. Each pad is 50mm diameter and the coefficient of friction between the pads and the disc is 0.05^2]] = 0. The calculation doesn't calculate the relationship beyond the drop arm shaft and so does not include the pivoting friction of the tyre on the wheel which is not only a function of the weight over the axle but also of the rotational speed of .effective radius of 0. The second part of the question gives a value of the power transferred to the braking system during the braking event.001963 x 6 x 0. assuming a 1:1 lever ratio) turn in relation to a given steering input by the driver.15m.3.598kW = 13.3 Number of pads = n = 3 x 2 = 6 Disc speed = N = 500RPM Frictional torque = μ P A n R = 0.7049Nm = 260Nm Power developed = Tf x (2piN/60x10^3) = 13.15 = 259.15M Coefficient of friction = μ = 0. The final torque given in the calculations can therefore be thought of as the amount of torque necessary to rotate the assembly from a static position whilst the brake is engaged to the N value of 500RPM. and that there is no angular deflection or resistance from a CV joint or other powertrain component connected. Every time a vehicle is slowed using friction huge amounts of energy are dissipated and must therefore be produced again by the engine to regain the previous speed. The calculation assumes that the differential is open and without any frictional drag from oil. and by using more perceptive and predictive driving techniques in the case of a road car. The second part of the question relates to the transfer of force from the steering wheel indirectly to the road wheels and thus can describe the two way relationship governing the “weight” of the steering and the road feedback through the steering wheel. The first part of the question asks for a ratio of steering input to angular displacement of the steering components – how much will the drop arms (and hence the road wheels. Steering Calculate the gear ratio of a steering box which required 1 ¼ turns of the steering wheel to move the drop arm through 30deg from its central position to full lock in one direction Now go on to determine the percentage efficiency of the steering mechanism when the driver applies a force of 35N with each hand on the steering wheel of 0. Area = A = (pi/4) x 0.

This question highlights a numerical method for calculating output power from an engine dyno output and is an important calculation for analysis and instrumentation systems.00454 x 0.1 x 5600 = 36441.2% Engine Technology Torque An engine develops 26kW of power at 3800rpm. If the CV of the fuel was 44. Determine the engine torque.58:1 Steering box efficiency = SBEff = (Torque ratio/gear ratio) x 100 = 77.e.4KW Thermal efficiency A six cylinder two stroke engine of 4100cm3 swept capacity on a bench test gave a specific fuel consumption of 0.5 MJ/kg calculate the brake thermal efficiency This is another numerical method of analysis used when dyno testing an engine. parking. which is why progressive or variable power steering systems give the most assistance at low vehicle speeds.34Nm Power A test on a 4cyl 4 stroke engine. IMEP = Pm = 860KPa = 860000NMsqd L = stroke =0. .38 or 50 x (0.1 A = (pi x 0.38/2) = 9.5m From these readings find the indicated power. In this example it's a relatively low powered engine. Gear ratio = (360 x no of turns) / no of degrees by drop arm Gr = (360 x 1.076sqd)/4 = 0. i.07 = 36.25) / 30 = 15:1 Torque applied = F x D = 25 x 0.00454msqd = area on top of cylinder n = RPM / 2 = (2800 / 2) x 4 = 5600 IP = (Pm A L n) / 60 = (1/60) x 860000 x 0. This is a very simple calculation to describe the relationship between engine output power and torque.the road wheels themselves – it's a lot easier to turn a rotating wheel than a stationary wheel.366 kg/(kW h) when developing a BMEP of 758 kN/m2 at 1500rpm. kW = (T 2Pi N)/(60 x 10exp3) therefore T = (kW x 60 x 10exp3)/(2 x pi x 3800) = 65.5 = 11.5Nm Torque ratio = output T / input T = 110/9. and is an important part of the emissions requirements. bore of 76mm stroke of 100mm had the following readings taken: Speed = 2800rpm IMEP = 860KPa Effective brake load 198N @ 0.

Pb = (BMEP L A n) / 60 Large N for 2 stroke. with periods of much higher and much lower fuel efficiency. small n for 4 stroke Pb = (758 x 0. Brake mean effective pressure A 6 cyl engine as a total swept volume of 0.0015/6 = 0. The answer. Of course in an engine this pressure varies during the combustion event so the BMEP is an average of the combustion pressure curve as it transfers energy to the crankshaft for one single combustion event.00025msqd n = (2200/2) x 6 = 6600 24.7 = 28. Without knowing the test cycle used it's impossible to comment on the design or efficiency of the engine beyond generalisations. 78% of the energy from the fuel is being lost to the cooling system and entropy etc.2KN at 2200rpm. given as a pressure value.44 kg/h BTE = pb x 3600 / fc x cv =(77. For instance at idle the fuel efficiency will be 0% as no useful work is being extracted from the engine.2x10^3x60) / 0.00025msq x 6600) / 60 Rearranging: Pmb = (24.366 x 77.44x(44.00025msq x 6600 = 880x10^3NMsqd = 880KPa . BP = (Pmb L A n) /60 LA = swept volume = 0.0015m3.0041 x 1500) / 60 = 77. Same thing Fuel consumption = Sfc x BP = 0. is the effective mean pressure on the piston crown pushing it down the bore with a uniform pressure along the whole stroke. It develops a brake power of 24.5x10exp3)) = 0. but it's important to remember that this is an overall result for a test cycle.22 x 100 = 22% The results suggests this is a petrol engine with average fuel efficiency.7 x 3600) / (28.2x10exp3 = (Pmb x 0.7 kW BP = Pb. Calculate the BMEP BMEP is an effective measure of viewing engine performances against given output power outputs comparatively.

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