219-Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering QUESTION BANK CS2363 Computer networks UNIT I PART A 1.

Define and compare LAN, WAN. LAN WAN 1.Scope of LAN is restricted to a 1. scope of WAN spans over large small/ single building geographical area country/ Continent 2. LAN is owned by same 2. a part of n/w asserts are owned or organization not owned 3 .Data rate of WAN is Gigabyte. 3. Data rate of LAN 10-100mbps 2. What is circuit switching? In a circuit-switched network, a dedicated communication path is established between two stations through the nodes of the network. That path is a connected sequence of physical links between nodes. 3. What is packet switching? In a packet-switched network, it‘s not necessary to dedicate transmission capacity along a path through the network. Rather, data are sent out in a sequence of small chunks, called packets. Packet switching is mainly used in terminal-to-computer and computer-to-computer communications. 4. Define Full Duplex and simplex transmission system. With Full duplex transmission, two stations can simultaneously send and receive data from each other. This mode is known as two-way simultaneous. The signals are transmitted in only one direction. One is the sender and another is the receiver. 5. Draw the diagram of twisted pair cable?

6. Why sliding window flow control is considered to be more efficient than stop and wait flow control. In sliding window flow control, the transmission link is treated as a pipeline that may be filled with frames in transit. But with stop-and-wait flow control only one frame may be in the pipe at a time. 7. List the various frequencies of wireless transmission. Terrestrial Microwave (2GHz to 40GHz), Broadcast Radio (30MHz to 1GHz), Infrared (3 x 1011 to 2 x 1014). 1

Prepared By Suresh Kumar. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering

8. Draw the diagram of coaxial cable?

9. Draw the diagram of optical fiber?

10. Differentiate between lost frame and damaged frame? What is the difference between stop and wait and sliding window protocol? Lost frame is the frame that fails to arrive at the other side. The damaged frame is a recognizable frame does arrive, but some of the bits are in error. In stop and wait protocol, we can send one frame at a time where as in sliding window protocol we can send multiple frames at a time. 11. What do you mean by error control and Flow Control? Error control refers to mechanism to detect and correct errors that occur in the transmission of frames. Flow control is a technique for assuring that a transmitting entity does not overwhelm a receiving entity with data. 12. Define piggybacking. The technique of temporarily delaying outgoing acknowledgment so that they can be hooked onto the next outgoing data frame is widely known as piggybacking.

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Prepared By Suresh Kumar. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering

13. What is OSI? Define HDLC. OSI is Open Systems Interconnection and is developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). HDLC stands for High Level Data Link Control. It has three stations, two links, and three types of data transfer. 14. What are the key elements of a protocol? Protocol is used for communications between entities in a system and must speak the same language. Protocol is the set of rules governing the exchange of data between 2 entities. It defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, when it is communicated Key elements of Protocol: Syntax – It refers to the structure or format of data meaning the order in which they are presented. Semantics – It refers to the meaning of each section of bit. How to do interpretation. Timing – When data should be sent and how fast they can be sent. 15. List the uses of a network access layer. Exchange of data between the computer and the network Sending computer provides address of destination May invoke levels of service Dependent on type of network used (LAN, packet switched etc.) 16. What are the uses of transport layer? Reliable data exchange Independent of network being used Independent of application 17. What is protocol data unit (PDU)? At each layer, protocols are used to communicate and Control information is added to user data at each layer. Transport layer may fragment user data. Each fragment has a transport header added and header consists of Destination SAP, Sequence number and Error detection code. 18. What are the uses of internet layer in TCP/IP? Systems may be attached to different networks Routing functions across multiple networks Implemented in end systems and routers 19. What is a layered Network Architecture?  A layer is created when a different level of abstraction occurs at protocol. Each layer should perform a well defined function.  Function of each layer should be chosen using internationality standardized protocols. Boundaries between should be chosen to minimize information flow across the interfaces.  A set of layers and protocol is called network architecture. A list of protocols used by a system is called protocol stack.

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Prepared By Suresh Kumar. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Why is flow control and error control duplicated in different layers? Like the data link layer. 24.20. reusing the functions provided at all other layers 21.  Addressing: Two stations in a multi point that involved in transmission must be specified using physical address  Access Control: When two or more devices are connected to the same link. you may only need to modify the functionality at one layer. the transport layer is responsible for flow and error control .  It decomposes the problem of building a network into more manageable components. It contains 5 layers 22.  Flow Control: Sending station does not overwhelm receiving station. flow control and error control is performed end-end rather than across a single link.a manageable unit. interface. OSI  It distinguishes between service. if we want to add some new service.Compare OSI and Internet Protocol. But at transport layer.protocol  Protocols are well hidden  Dejure. How do layers of the internet model correlate to the layers of the OSI model? OSI TCP/IP Physical Layer Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Access Layer Network Layer IP Layer Transport Layer TCP Layer Session Layer Application Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer 23. Standard Fit Model then protocol  In transport layer only connection Oriented services are available  It contains 7 layers TCP It does not distinguish between service.  Error Control: Any error in bits must be detected and corrected using some mechanism. 4 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. What is the need for layering?  It reduces the design complexity. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .Interface.  It provides a modular design. Access control mechanism is needed to determine which device has control over the link at any given time. protocol Protocols are not just hidden Defacto standard Fit protocol then model In Transport layer choice is for Connection oriented/connection less. What is the use of data link layer in OSI?  Frame synchronization: Data is divided by data link layer as frames . Flow control and error control at data link layer is node-to-node level.

Topology. Encryption / Decryption. 26. 27. List the key ingredients of technology that determines nature of a LAN. communication occurs between the entities in different systems. 28. What are the three criteria necessary for an effective and efficient network? The most important criteria are performance. Ring Topology Bus Topology and Tree Topology are the topologies available for LAN. Transmission medium and Medium access control technique are the technology that determines nature of a LAN. Reliability is measured by frequency of failure. reliability and security. Two entities cannot just send bit streams to each other and expect to be understood. preamble generation/removal (for synchronization) and Bit transmission/ reception are the functions of physical layer. Performance of the network depends on number of users. 30. Accuracy: The system must deliver data accurately. distributed databases. Authentication and Compression are the functions of presentation layer. the entities must agree on a protocol. Star Topology. 5 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Why are protocols needed? In networks. 29. Timeliness: The system must deliver data in a timely manner. A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communication. Translation. faster problem solving. type of transmission medium. security through redundancy and collaborative processing. What is mean by data communication? Data communication is the exchange of data (in the form of 1s and 0s) between two devices via some form of transmission medium (such as a wire cable). For communication. 31.25. What are the advantages of distributed processing? Advantages of distributed processing include security/encapsulation. What are the three fundamental characteristics determine the effectiveness of the data communication system? The effectiveness of the data communication system depends on three fundamental characteristics: Delivery: The system must deliver data to the correct destination. What are the functions of physical layer and presentation layer? Encoding/ decoding of signals. Security issues include protecting data from unauthorized access and viruses. List the common topologies available for LAN. the capabilities of the connected h/w and the efficiency of the s/w. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . the time it takes a link to recover from the failure and the network’s robustness in a catastrophe.

and 2. What is the difference between a passive and an active hub? An active hub contains a repeater that regenerates the received bit patterns before sending them out. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . The transport layer ensures end-to-end reliable data transmission. At the receiving machine. What are header and trailers and how do they get added and removed? Each layer in the sending machine adds its own information to the message it receives from the layer just above it and passes the whole package to the layer just below it. If there are no standards. Session. 36. they allow interoperability among unrelated software systems. they deal with the physical aspects of moving data from one device to another. A trailer is added at layer2.1)/2=15 Number of ports per device=n1=6-1=5 37. A passive hub provides a simple physical connection between theattached devices. 33.3.5. How many cables are needed? How many ports are needed for each device? Number of cables=n (n-1)/2=6(6. and actions appropriate to that layer are taken. the headers or trailers attached to the data unit at the corresponding sending layers are removed.4. presentation and application layers are the user support layers. 35. Distinguish between peer-to-peer relationship and a primarysecondary relationship. For n devices in a network. Headers are added to the message at the layers 6. Ring topology – n 34. Why are standards needed? Co-ordination across the nodes of a network is necessary for an efficient communication. data link and network layers are the network support layers. 38. what is the number of cable links required for a Mesh and ring toplogy? Mesh topology – n (n-1)/2. difficulties arise. Primary-secondary relationship: One device controls traffic and the others must transmit through it. This information is added in the form of headers or trailers. Group the OSI layers by function.32. The seven layers of the OSI model belonging to three subgroups. Peer-to-peer relationship: All the devices share the link equally. A standard provides a modelor basis for development to which everyone has agreed. 6 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Physical. Assume 6 devices are arranged in a mesh topology.

7 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Single mode: Fiber with extremely small diameter that limits beams to a few angles. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 42. Discuss the mode for propagating light along optical channels. the receiver looks for changes from one level to another as its basis for recognition of 1s. It is connected to a network through a DCE. 40. positive and negative voltages have specific meanings: positive for 0 and negative for 1. There are two modes for propagating light along optical channels. multimode and single mode. What are the three events involved in a connection? Creating a connection involves three steps: connection establishment. 44. Amplitude Time 10000000000100 3 Data circuit-terminating equipment is a device used as an interface between a DTE and a network. 41. What does the electrical specification of EIA-232 describe? The electrical specification of EIA-232 defines that signals other than data must be sent using OFF as less than -3 volts and ON as greater than +3 volts. Instead. resulting in an almost horizontal beam. the voltages are meaningless. What is the DC component? Direct current is a zero-frequency signal with constant amplitude. What are the functions of a DTE? What are the functions of a DCE? Data terminal equipment is a device that is an information source or an information sink. 43. The transport layer creates a communication between the source and destination. 45. How does NRZ-L differ from NRZ-I? In the NRZ-L sequence. data transfer and connection release. in the NRZ-I sequence. Multimode: Multiple beams from a light source move through the core in different paths. What is refraction? The phenomenon related to the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another.39. The data must be transmitted using NRZ-L encoding.

If a collision detected during transmission. nomadic access. If the medium is busy. and then transmit immediately. The leading edge of the transmitted frame has returned to the station. 1. MAC control field contains any protocol control information needed for the functioning of the MAC protocol. wait for some time. otherwise go to step 2. transmit. 49 What is preamble? A 7-octet pattern of alternating 0s and 1s is used by the receiver to establish bit synchronization is called as preamble. 50 When a transmitting station will insert a new token on the ring? It will insert a new token when the station has completed transmission of its frame. If the medium is idle. 3. a priority level could be indicated here.3 specification. LAN extension. and frame coped (F) indicators. transmit a brief jamming signal to all station to indicate collision has occurred and then cease transmission. and geography are the reason for using bridges in LAN 8 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Reliability. 54 What is a bridge? List the reason for using bridges in LAN. which is R for ―reset‖ or ―false‖ and S for ―set‖ or ―true‖. address recognized (A). After transmitting a jamming signal. 2. whether or not the frame header has returned to the station. 53 Give the applications of wireless LANs. 48 List the rules for CSMA/CD. continue to listen until the channel is idle.46 What is meant by Ethernet and MAC control? Ethernet is a networking topology developed in 1970 which is governed by the IEEE 802. performance. then transmit again. security. Bridge is a hardware networking device used to connect two LANs. cross building interconnect. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . A bridge operates at data link layer of the OSI layer. 51 What is Early Token Release (ETR)? ETR allows a transmitting station to release a token as soon as it completes frame transmission. 4. and advantages hoc networks. 47 What is CSMA/CD? It is a protocol used to sense whether a medium is busy before transmission but it has the ability to check whether a transmission has collided with another. 52 What is Frame Status (FS)? It contains the error detected (E). Each indicator is represented by a symbol. For example.

release the token. A station that data transmissions after releasing back its own transmission. Why is it necessary? To detect collision. 60 Give the format of Ethernet address. valid full format should contain 64 bytes from destination address to checksum. n(n-1)/2 lines are required.55 What is No-transition? A station of this type is either stationary or moves only within the direct communication range of the communicating stations of a single BSS (basic service set) 56 What are the functions of a bridge? The function of a bridge between two LANs A and B are: Reads all frames transmitted on A and accepts those addressed to stations on B Using medium access control protocol for B. there are contention periods during which collisions happen and no data is successfully transmitted. 59 Ethernet stipulates a minimum size of a frame. To identify valid frame from garbage. 58 Compare FDDI with token ring 802. FDDI No priority and reservation bits No need of converting a token to start of data frame by inverting token bits because of high data rate A station that transmits data frames releases a new token as soon as it completes data. It converts a token to data frame changing token frame. Dest addr Src addr Preamble 48 48 64 Type 16 Body CRC 32 61 What is meant by the contention period of Ethernet? How many lines are required to connect n – systems in Direct Mesh topology? When several stations on an Ethernet have data to send.5. 62 What does IEEE 10 Base 5 standard signify? 10 represents data rate 10 Mbps. 57 What is spanning tree routing? The spanning tree approach is a mechanism in which bridges automatically develop a routing table and update that table in response to changing topology. retransmits the frames onto B Does the same for B-to-A traffic. So if the data portion is less than 46 bytes.5 It has priority scheme by using reservation bits. 802. pad field is used to fill out the frame to minimize size. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 5 refers to segment length 5* 100 m that can run without repeaters Base represents Base band communication 9 Prepared By Suresh Kumar.

Bridge connects n/w and removes loop in the path using spanning tree algorithm It constructs a spanning tree of edges between hosts that maintain connectivity of the graph with no loops. 10 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. It broadcasts any signal through all outgoing lines. It should be able to distinguish addresses of host on different LAN. It is a multi input/output port device. 1. Repeater operates on the physical layer level. . 5. Address Learning and Loop Resolution. If collision occurs again .2 or 3 slot at random and waits. A bridge should have enough buffer space to store the frames until it is transmitted. It is a dynamic algorithm. Repeaters and hubs are interconnecting devices. Hub: A Hub has several point to point segments coming out.1. . Repeater: Repeaters extends the Ethernet segment and it repeats the signal. If 2 stations collide and each one picks same random number 0/1. 66. 4. It is a multi way repeater. 2. It works at layer 1 and layer 2 level. This function is called as forwarding. Switches are hardware or software device capable of creating temporary connections between more devices which are not directly connected. Hub. each station waits either 0 or 1 slot time before trying again. Bridges are used to interconnect LANs. It should follow congestion control mechanisms to overcome congestion.After second collision.Name any two network connecting devices? Can a bridge replace repeater for interconnecting 2 segments of a n/w? Repeater repeats the signal to the actual strength so that they can travel and works at physical layer. 67. It does forwarding & filtering frames using LAN destination address. Bridges are used to connect LAN or WAN and works at data link layer level. It can contain information about other bridges. The algorithm works as Frame Forwarding. 69. Bridge is an network connecting device. each one picks either 0. It transfers data coming from one input port to one or more output ports.63 Define Repeater. Define a switch and a bridge. 3. This algorithm is called binary exponential ―back off algorithm‖. Here collision probability is more. limitations of bridges:Scalability and Hetrogenity 68. What are different types of bridge? What are the limitations of bridges? Simple Bridge connect 2 LAN Multi port Bridge connect more than 2 LANs Transparent Bridge it learns on its own about connected LANs. 65. then next time the number of slots to wait is chosen at random from 0 to [2 3 – 1]. Collision Probability is more.. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .Define Spanning Tree Algorithm. Mention the functions of Bridges. 64 What is meant by Exponential back of algorithm? After first collision. It does not amplifies the signal. A bridge observes and forwards all frames that it receives.

(Refer Peterson) 5. Explain in detail the error detection and error corrections. .(Refer Peterson) 11.A bridge cannot replace repeater for interconnecting 2 segments of a network because functions of them are entirely different. Explain about Physical links and Channel access on links.11 with example 7. Explain Sliding window flow control and stop and wait flow control in detail.Discuss the various line encoding techniques used to send analog and digital data on digital channels. Explain about OSI network architecture (ReferWilliam stallings) 4. .(Refer Peterson) 11 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. 70. List and discuss the various techniques available in error detection. What is Token ring? What is the use of bit stuffing? Token ring is a set of nodes are connected together in a ring. (ReferWilliam stallings) 2. Explain in detail about IEEE 802. It is used to detect the error during the transmission of the stream of bits.(Refer Peterson) 14. . Explain about internet architecture (ReferWilliam stallings) 3.Explain about learning Bridges and the spanning tree algorithm in detail. Bit stuffing is bit oriented protocol.(Refer Peterson) 8.Write in detail about Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.(Refer my notes) 13. Explain the Mesh and star topologies of the networks in detail with diagram. Describe about the layering and protocols. Data flow always in a particular direction around the ring.(ReferWilliam stallings) 17.illustrate how CRC will calculate with an example. the sending information are directly transmitted to the concern receiver. PART-B 1.(Refer my notes) 15. . Describe about link layer Flow Control. In switches. write short notes on transmission media. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . Explain the following: Switches and Bridges.(Refer Peterson) 12.(Refer Peterson) 19. (ReferWilliam stallings) 9. . .(Refer Peterson) 10. . Discuss about Framing. .What are the advantages of switches? Write the frame format for FDDI. Explain about Token Ring andfiber distributed data(FDDI) interface in detail.(Refer Peterson) 6. 8 8 48 48 32 8 24 Start of Control frame Dest addr Src Body addr CRC End of Status frame 71. ReferWilliam stallings) 16. compare and contrast the Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol with selective repeat ARQ.(Refer Peterson) 18. with an example .

Class 3 7.225-----------. These are designed to cover the needs of different types of organizations. 245. What is Switched virtual circuit? Here virtual circuit is created wherever is needed and exist only for duration of the specific exchange. What is IP address? An Internet Address is made of four bytes (32 bits) that define a host‘s connection to a network.20.123. Stripping off and Using pointers are the different types of source routing approach. 3.Class D. Class Netid Hostid 12 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. D. Issue Datagram subnet Circuit Switching Circuit setup Not Required Required Transmission path No Transmission path dedicated path Delay Packet transmission delay Call setup delay Addressing Each packet contains the full Only data is sent source and destination address Bandwidth Dynamic Bandwidth Fixed Bandwidth Routing Each packet is routed Entire data is sent through the independently same path Congestion control Difficult Easy if enough buffers can be allocated in advance for each VC set up Complexity In the transport layer In the network layer Suited for Connection-oriented and Connection-oriented service connectionless service 2.85.10.Class C 220. Differentiate Packet Switching and circuit Switching. -----------.9.Class B. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .34. There are currently 5 different field lengths patterns.11. each define a class of addresses.56 ------------.10 -----------.UNIT – II PART A 1.Class A. SVC. 195.48. Define Unicasting.47 -----------. class A. E.220. Unicasting: Transmitting data from a single sender to a single receiver.36. 6. 127. Broadcasting and Multicasting.119 --------. B. 4. the relationship between all packets belonging to a message or session is preserved single route is chosen between sender and receiver at the beginning of the session. Classify the following addresses 23.78. Broadcasting: Transmitting data from a single source to all the other nodes in the network Multicasting: Transmitting data from a single source to a group of destination nodes. When the data are sent all packets of the transmission travel one after another along that route Virtual circuit transmission is implemented in two formats PVC. 5. What is Virtual circuit Switching? In the virtual circuit approach. C. It can be used with connection establishment and connection termination.24. What are the different types of source routing approach? Rotation.31.Class A 159.

Any time a host/router needs to find the physical address of another host on its network. It is an universal address system. Associates an IP address with physical address. it formats an ARP query packet that includes the IP address and broadcasts it. 12. from routing table then it sends the datagram to default router. 14. Another name MAC address. Another name IP address.8. data link and network layer of the OSI model . It is useful when a site has small set of local address connected to it and connected to the rest of the Internet. It contains 48 bits. Does not give any clue for routing Its structure gives clue for routing 10. class B networks? Class A: Number of networks = 127 Number of hosts = 224 -1 Class B : Number of networks = 214 -1 Number of hosts = 216 – 1 = 65. It is implemented by n/w layer. What do you mean by ICMP? ICMP is an error reporting mechanism. 13. What does a router do when it receives a packet with a destination address that it does not have an entry for. Physical Address Logical Address 1. 2. Define Router. best-effort. It contains 32 bits 3. How many network addresses and host addresses are supported by class A. Define ARP. IP services unreliable. A server on the network recognizes the RARP packet and returns the host‘s internet address. It is a local addressing system. Define RARP Allows a host to discover its internet address when it knows only its physical address ( a diskless computer). It is flat in nature Hierarchical in nature 6. It is implemented by data link layer. its capabilities are much more than those of a repeater or a bridge. List out functions of IP. All hosts in the network process the ARP packet but only the required station sends back physical address. 11. connectionless packet system. The host wishing to retrieve its internet address broadcasts an RARP query packet that contains its physical address to every host on its physical network. Therefore. in its routing table? Default Router: If IP Software is not able to find the destination. A router operates as the physical. A router is termed as an intelligent device. Differentiate Physical Address and Logical Address. Unreliable – delivery is not guaranteed Connectionless – each pocket is treated independent from others Best-effort delivery – it makes an earnest attempt to deliver packets. 13 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 4.535 9. 15. The source must relate the error to an individual application program and take other actions to correct the problem. 5. It does not specify the action to be taken for each possible error. It is used to find the physical address of the node when its Internet address is known.

it adds its addresses to the list. IP s/w performs routing function – finds a path from source to destination. The source sets that time. So host forwards a datagram without inserting its address to it. ICMP is an error reporting mechanism. 18. It does not specify the action to be taken for each possible error. Basic idea is every node sends its knowledge about the entire network to its knowledge about its neighbours to the neighbours. 17. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for IP Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 22. List some of the unicast routing protocols. If pointer > length. Basic idea is each node sends its 1. TTL is written hops or time in seconds. Distance Vector Routing Link state routing 1. Write the difference between Distance vector routing and Link state routing. It is informing the source that the error has occurred and the source has to take actions to rectify the errors. 14 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. 0 8 16 24 31 Code (7) Length Pointer First IP address Second IP address 20. entire network 2. Cost and Next Hop 19. What is the use of TTL in IP header? It lets how long that datagram is allowed to live in the network. OSPF uses link state routing 21. the list is full. it compares pointer & length. It is dynamic routing 2. RIP uses Distance vector routing 3.It defines basic unit of data transfer through TCP/IP. Record route is useful only if source & destination agrees. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . The principle of inter networks are provide a link between networks and routing for delivery of packets. A collection of communication networks interconnected by routers is called internetworking. To whom ICMP reports error message? ICMP allows routers to send error messages to other router or hosts. What is internetworking and what are its principles? Internet is an interconnected set of networks. What are the important fields in a routing table? Destination. IP includes a set of rules that embody the idea of unreliable packet delivery 16. To add. It is dynamic routing 3. What is Trace route option? Record Route/ Trace Route: Here source creates an empty list of IP addresses and each router on the path of the datagram adds its IP address to the list whereas a router get a datagram that has record route option. Routers and hosts in the path of that datagram should decrement TTL and removes it when TTL = 0 and send an error message to the source. From outside it looks like a simply layer n/w.

in which every link is considered to be of equal length and given the value one. when the message passes through the layers each layer adds the headers or trailers. It contains synchronization. transmission rates. The circuit is dedicated to a specific user. each layer removes the data meant for it and passes the rest to the next layer. It contains four fields. Class B . addressing etc. Because it always in place. Destination Service Point Address DSAP) Source Service Access Point Control field Information field 31. Packets in this technology are referred to as datagram. What is Permanent virtual circuit ? In this technique the same virtual circuit provided between two users on a continuous basis. At the sending machine. it is called hop-count routing. What is meant by hop count? The pathway requiring the smallest number of relays. flag. At the receiving machine. Class C Multicast: Class D 24. A router has to determine the best possible transmission path among several available paths. the network treats it although it existed alone. as well as the physical address of the next station to receive and route a packet. What are headers and trailers and how do they get added and removed? The control data added to the beginning of a data is called headers. Which class IP addresses are used for multicast and unicast? Unicast : Class A. What are data grams? In datagram approach. topologies. 15 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. What is the use of a router? A router is useful for interconnecting two or more heterogeneous networks that differ in their physical characteristics such as frame size. 28. 30.23. No one else can use it. What are the functions of MAC? MAC sub layer resolves the contention for the shared media. it can be used without connection establishment and connection termination 25. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . What is protocol data unit? The data unit in the LLC level is called Protocol Data Unit (PDU). The control data added to the end of a data is called trailers. 27. 26. flow and error control specifications necessary to move information from one place to another. each packet is treated independently from all others. Even when one packet represents just a place of a multipacket transmission.

170. The specific responsibilities of network layer include the following: Logical addressing. Discuss the various Switching Techniques used in networks 21.0 128. Define fragmentation and Explain Why the IPV4 and IPV6 Protocol need to fragment some packets 17. 33.0 255.96.255.166.167. 8.96. 3.192 (2) 128. For The Routing Table shown Below.0 Default Interface 0 Interface 1 R2 R3 R4 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Explain about the OSPF and Interdomain routing (BGP)routing algorithms.151 (3) 128. 10.)internet Protocol (2). traffic or the state of the link. Describe about Ipv6 13. (i) Explain Packet switching technique in detail.96. (i) Explain in detail about IP addressing.0 255. What are the responsibilities of network layer? The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packet across multiple network links.254.0 255. Describe distance Vector Routing 14.255. . 9.165. Discuss in detail the various aspects of IPv6 18. (ii) Explain the Datagram delivery and Forwarding in Internet Protocol.96. 7.192 (4) 128. Explain the IP datagram format.0 128.169.96.254.121 128.32. cost refer to hop count while in case of link state routing. Discuss about Subnetting and CIDR.252. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . cost is a weighted value based on a variety of factors such as security levels.Routers 19. 12.0 128.168. Discuss in detail about the OSPF routing Protocol 16.180.96.255. Routing. 2. (ii) Explain in detail about source routing approach. 5.255. What do you mean by switching? Explain Virtual circuit switching techniques.255. Write short Notes on (1.0 16 255. PART B (Refer all in Peterson) 1.96. Explain about Address Resolution Protocol. Describe about Queuing discipline 11. Explain in detail about Distance vector routing protocol with an example 20.96. 4.164. what does the router do with packets addressed to the following addresses? Subnet Number Subnet Mask Next hop (1) 128. Explain in detail about Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol and Internet Control Message Protocol. fragmentation and reassembly. How the packet cost referred in distance vector and link state routing? In distance vector routing. compare The distance Vector and Link state routing Protocol 15. Explain the Routing Information protocol/Distance vector routing in detail. Explain the differences between the adaptive and non adaptive routing 6.

Simple average Exponential / weighted average Exponential RTT backoff Jacobson‘s Algorithm 4. What is the Wrap around time for T3 link with 45 Mbps data rate? Once a segment with sequence x survives in Internet.25 can have 4095 VC. For that downward multiplexing / splitting used to improve throughput. it does upward multiplexing or downward multiplexing. The first such strategy is to discard any incoming packet for which there is no available buffer space. If packets arrive too fast node than to process them or faster than packets can be cleared from the outgoing buffers. (eg) X.73 min 5. What are the various adaptive retransmission policy of TCP. Multiple applications employ same transport protocol.55sec=12. Fast retransmit and fast recovery 17 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. but use different port number. Slowstart mechanism c. port). Multiple services can use that single VC using upward multiplexing. How an application process running in one host is addressed by another process through TCP? It uses socket address (host. 2.25 can use only 3bit/7bit/15bit sequence number. 3. Additive Increase Multiplicative decrease b. then there will be no empty buffer. So a high speed network may need a larger sequence space. According to lower layer n/w protocol. Wrap Around Time for T3-45Mbps (232 x 8) /45Mbps=763. What do you mean by congestion? Any given node has a number of I/O ports attached to it. How fast 32-bit sequence no space can be consumed? 32-bit sequence no is adequate for today‘s network. Multiplexing:Transport layer performs multiplexing/ demultiplexing function. Give any two Transport layer service 1. There are two buffers at each port—one to accept arriving packets & another one to hold packets that are waiting to depart. a. What is the wrap around time for TCP Sequence Number. Reliability : [ Error Control and Flow Control ] 2. TCP cannot use the same sequence no. (eg) X.UNIT – III PART A 1. 6. Port represents a particular transport service in a host. The alternative is for the node that is experiencing these problems to exercise some sort of flow control over its neighbors so that the traffic flow remains manageable. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . Name the policies that can prevent congestion.

It is a 16 – bit field used in error correction. Source port address:.7. Give the datagram format of UDP.for one byte data over head is 40 byte) 8. What is function of transport layer? The protocol in the transport layer takes care in the delivery of data from one application program on one device to an application program on another device. What are the duties of the transport layer? The services provided by the transport layer End-to. They act as a link between the upper layer protocols and the services provided by the lower layer.It defines the total length of the user datagram in bytes. 18 Source port Address Prepared By Suresh Kumar.It is the address of the application program that will receive the message. Transport layer delivery across multiple network links. Destination port Address 16 bits 16 bits Total Length Checksum 16 bits 16 bits Total Length :.end delivery Addressing Reliable delivery Flow control Multiplexing 11. Checksum :. What is the difference between network layer delivery and the transport layer delivery? Network layer delivery: * The network layer is responsible for the the source-to-destination delivery of packet * The transport layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message. 9. Destination port address:. ( . 9.It is the address of the application program that has created the message. What is TINYGRAM? 1byte data + 20 byte IP header + 20 byte TCP header=41 byte => known as ‗ TINYGRAM‘overhead is more . The transport layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .

17. Error control. Creating a connection involves three steps: Connection establishment Data transfer & Connection release. TCP divides long transmissions into smaller data units and packages each into a frame called a segment. What is meant by congestion? Congestion in a network occurs if user sends data into the network at a rate greater than that allowed by network resources. The dividing process is called segmentation. Duplication control. Connection service Connectionless services 16. the transport protocol divides it into smaller usable blocks. Sequence control. 14. 13. What are the three events involved in the connection? For security. Why the congestion occurs in network? Congestion occurs because the switches in a network have a limited 19 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. 15. What are the types of multiplexing? The types of multiplexing are. Loss control. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . Upward multiplexing Downward multiplexing 10. the transport layer may create a connection between the two end ports. 18. What are the four aspects related to the reliable delivery of data? The four aspects are. What are the two possible transport services? Two basic types of transport services are. The transport layer creates the connection between source and destination. What is meant by segmentation? When the size of the data unit received from the upper layer is too long for the network layer datagram or data link layer frame to handle.12. A connection is a single logical path between the source and destination that is associated with all packets in a message. What is meant by segment? At the sending and receiving end of the transmission.

20 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. The bytes in the IP address that corresponds to 0 in the mask will change to 0 in the subnetwork address For other bytes. List out the user related attributes? User related attributes are SCR – Sustainable Cell Rate PCR – Peak Cell Rate MCR. a small packet containing routing information sent by a router to all other router by a packet called link state packet. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . What is LSP? In link state routing. the user can request a particular attribute each service class is associated with a set of attributes. A device used to connect two separate networks that use different communication protocols.buffer size to store arrived packets. What are the networks related attributes? The network related attributes are. For each connection. Cell loss ratio (CLR) Cell transfer delay (CTD) Cell delay variation (CDV) Cell error ratio (CER) 23.Minimum Cell Rate CVDT – Cell Variation Delay Tolerance 22. What are the rules of nonboundary-level masking? The bytes in the IP address that corresponds to 255 in the mask will be repeated in the subnetwork address. Define Gateway. What are the two categories of QoS attributes? The two main categories are User Oriented Network Oriented 21. What is meant by quality of service? The quality of service defines a set of attributes related to the performance of the connection. 19. 24. 20. 25. use the bit-wise AND operator.

Window > 0 Source can send data. c. It advertises a window size of Advertised window = Max Rev buffer – (Last ByteReceived – Last ByteRead )(i. It is very useful for audio or video delivery which does not need acknowledgement. Source IP address Destination IP address Zero Protocol TCP Length Pseudo header is not transmitted nor they included in length. Added & taken ones complemented. but fast service It is used by audio. header . Random Early Detection(RED). UDP/TCP prepends a pseudo header to datagram.e. SMTP UDP Provides connectionless service. b. TCP on sender side Sender calculates an effective window. 21 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 29. Store zeroes in CHECKSUM field Entire object (pseudo header. Source based congestion avoidance. What are the different phases in TCP state machine? Connection Establishment. Give some examples for situations using UDP.26. DEC bit. To compare checksum. It is useful in the transmission of multimedia data. No connection establishment delay Provides unreliable. 28. Effective Window = Advertised window –(Last Byte sent – Last Byte Acknowledged) If Effective. 31. How does TCP sender window size change using effective window? Calculation of effective window: TCP on Receiver side must keep Last Byte Received – Last Byte Read <= Max Rcv Buffer. Name the policies that can prevent congestion. Data transfer and Connection Release 30. What is SYN segment? It is used to start a TCP connection and provides agreement between sender and receiver on sequence number 32. data) is divided into 16 bits. video and multimedia applications. How check sum is calculated in TCP? To compute checksum.) free space in received buffer. What is the main difference between TCP & UDP? TCP It provides Connection oriented service Connection Establishment delay will be there Provides reliable service It is used by FTP. 27. a.

This notification is implemented by setting a binary congestion bit which is known as DEC bit. The two types of error in flow control and error control are single bit error and burst error. Its advantages are scalable and easy to identify the fault. But the transport layer services are end to end level. Each router under this mechanism monitors the load and explicitly notifies the end nodes when congestion is going to occur.List out various congestion control and congestion avoidance techniques congestion control: AIMD. Both the layers are having the flow control and error control mechanisms. What is tree topology? Tree topology is generalization of bus topology.33. It begins at a point known as headend. and each of these may have branches. What is ARQ? What are the two types of error in flow control and error control? Automatic Repeat Request is used to retransmit the information automatically when the packet is lost while transmit. A full duplex operation is used for transmission and reception of data in a bus. Data link layer is responsible for node to node delivery of the frames while transport layer is responsible for end to end delivery of the entire message. What is star topology? List the advantages of it. in the header of the packet that follows to the router. Central node is referred as star coupler which uses two point-to-point links. What is ring topology? In the ring topology. 36. where one or more cables start. 34. What is a bus topology? Bus topology uses a multipoint medium and all stations are attached through appropriate hardware interfacing known as a tap. RED 37. slow start. Define the DEC bit mechanism. the network consists of a set of repeaters joined by point-topoint links in a closed loop. How do transport services differ from the data link layer services? The data link layer services are at node to node level. Fast retransmit and Recovery congestion avoidance techniques: DEC bit . The data link layer offers at node to node level. But the transport layer offers at end to end level.Connection control and Congestion control 35.Flow control. In star topology. 22 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. The repeater is a device which receives data in one link and transmits them in other link. Transmission medium is a branching cable with no closed loops. 38. each station is directly connected to a common central node. 39. one for transmission in each direction. Now source can adjust its sending rate to avoid congestion. The destination host copies this DEC bit into the corresponding ACK and sends back to source. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 40. What are the TCP services to provide reliable communication? Error control. 41.

12. Explain Adaptive retransmission policy in detail. Write short notes on (i) TCP segment format. Discuss about congestion avoidance algorithm in detail. Explain TCP state Transition diagram. Explain the real transport protocol of UDP and how will you calculate checksum in UDP? What is the significance of Pseudo Header in UDP? 8. Explain adaptive flow control in detail and its uses 15. Explain the working of TCP using The state Diagram 14. How the connection is established using three-way handshaking. Explain connection establishment and connection closing in TCP.42. (8) 4. (8) (ii)Explain the slow start mechanism. (i) Explain DECbit mechanism in detail. a protocol defines a communication service that it exports locally. 7. 13. 2. Explain the significance of Clark‘s solution and Nagle‘s algorithm 11.(ii) Wrap around time. Explain the TCP Connection establishment and termination using Timeline diagram. PART B [Refer only in Peterson] 1. Explain TCP sliding window algorithm for flow control. 6. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 10. explain in detail 16. 9. 3. iii) silly window syndrome. Describe about congestion control algorithms in detail 5. along with a set of rules governing the messages that the protocol to implement this service. Discuss briefly about the techniques used to improve Qos 23 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. What is PUSH mechanism? Explain CODE BITS in TCP header. What is peer to peer process? Communication between peer to peer process.

The first phase applies the discrete cosine transform (DCT) to the block. since we might find long strings of 0s if there are many similar symbols next to each other. Delta encoding. This is because a lossy algorithm removes information that it cannot later restore.UNIT – IV PART A 1. Block Diagram for JPEG Compression 5. but this compression is lossless. lossy compression does not promise that the data received is exactly the same as the data sent. It is also possible to perform RLE after delta encoding. and audio.lossless compression Ensures that the data recovered from the compression/decompression process is exactly the same as the original data. then DCT transforms this signal into an equivalent signal in the spatial frequency domain. 7. lossy step. such as executable code. the lost information will not be missed by the receiver. Lossy algorithms are used to compress still images. text files. AAABBCDDDD would be represented as A001011000. DCT phase In jpeg compression. A lossless compression algorithm is used to compress file data. This phase is lossy. It takes an 8 × 8 matrix of pixel values as input and outputs an 8 × 8 matrix of frequency coefficients. 6. and numeric data. for example. because programs that process such file data cannot tolerate mistakes in the data. This is a lossless operation but a necessary precursor to the next. Hopefully. This results in additional compression. If the image is a signal in the spatial domain. 4. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .Quantization phase: It is the second phase of JPEG compression where the insignificant bits of the frequency coefficients obtained from DCT phase are dropped. 3. video. 24 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Thus. simply encodes a symbol as the difference from the previous one. Note that delta encoding is likely to work well for encoding images where adjacent pixels are similar.Encoding phase: This is the final phase of JPEG compression where the quantized frequency coefficients are encoded in a compact form. however. 2.

Define Nonce. possession of the private key is required to decrypt the message.8. Cryptographic hash functions typically don‘t involve the use of keys. in which each participant has a private key (shared with no one else) and a public key (available to everyone). where. 12.Data compression: The goal of data compression. 10. Certification Authority(CA) is an entity claim to be trust worthy for verifying identities and issuing public key certificates. 14. Nonce is the random number which is used only once in the message. There is a requirement that the sending and receiving hosts to process every byte of data in the message 9. 25 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. A secure message is sent to a user by encrypting the data with that user‘s public key. the idea is to map a potentially large message into a small fixed-length number. Define X. Authentication means verifying the identity of the remote Participant.509 authentication. They are classified as Commercial CA.Public and Private key: Any of several encryption algorithms (e. 13. You must use own keys if CA is used.Define CA. a given participant is the only one that knows its own private key. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . 17. RSA signature. so that we may encode it in as few bits as possible. One of the major standard for certicates is known as X.It includes a) Identity of the entity being certified b) Public key of the entity being certified c) Identity of the signer d) Digital signature e) Dig Sig Algorithm identifier f) Timer Expiration(optional) 15.. the participant uses this key to produce the signature 11. where the code can have been generated only by one participant. is a complete scheme for certifying binding between public key and identities. Public Key Infrastructure(PKI). Govermental CA and Even Free CA. is to remove as much redundancy from the data as possible.Digital signature: A digital signature is a special case of a message integrity code. and so only the receiver can read it.eg. RSA). It is also known as Self certifying certificates.g.(range something ouside the n/w). PKI starts with ability to verify the identities and bind them to keys OUT-of-Band.509. analogous to the way a regular hash function maps values from a large space into values from a small space.Define PKI. Instead.

Explain in detail about PGP. Explain in detail about TLS and IP security. . data integrity and Non-repudiation.(Refer in Peterson) 4.(Refer in Peterson) 3.(Refer in Peterson) 6. 19. 22.(Refer in Peterson) 8.Explain in detail about Video Compression. The participants negotiate the choice of a) data integrity Hash. Define Demilitarized Zone(DMZ). Define Packet filter. Explain in detail about Image Compression.(Refer in William stallings) 5. Define Handshake protocol in security. Discuss in Detail about Firewalls.Explain in detail about Audio Compression. Define Record Protocol. 22. .(Refer in William stallings) 26 Prepared By Suresh Kumar.Explain in detail about modes of operation in security.Explain in detail abot Diffie-Hellmann Algorithm. . DMZ is used to hold services such as DNS and Email server that need to be accessible to the outside. MD5 or SHA used to implement HMAC. but it will not detect the state of the packet where it arrive. 21. 3DES c) Session key establishment approach . With in session establish by the handshake protocol TLS record protocols add confidentialty and integrity to the underline transport services. Pretty good Privacy(PGP) is the widely used approach to provide security for Email.Define Firewalls. Explain in detail about key predistribution.(Refer in Peterson) 9. e) Past to the transport layer for transmission. Messages handed down from the application layer are a) Fragmented or coalesced into blocks of convenient size. b) Optionally compressed c) Integrity protected using Hmac. Part B. 1. d) Encrypted using a symmetric key cipher.Disucuss in detail about Kerberos. It provides authentication. .(Refer in William stallings) 7.(Refer in Peterson) 10.(Refer in Peterson) 2. 20. b) Symmetric key cipher for confidentiality among the possibilities are DES. Define PGP. A firewall is a system that is a sole point of connectivity between the sited it protects and the rest of the network.18. AES . It filter the packet from third person using firewall mechanism. confidentiality. A pair of of TLS participants negotiate at run time which cryptography to use. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .

A DNS Resolver is responsible for making requests of the local DNS server in behalf of clients. 2. Stream mode: Default mode and data is delivered from FTP to TCP as a continuous stream of data. How does a DNS Resolver bootstrap the Domain Name Lookup process? A DNS Resolver must know the IP address of at least one DNS server. It uses this address to start the DNS Lookup process. 3. Statelessness.com) into IP numbers. 4. 6. 5. User location User availability User capabilities Session setup Session management What is the Domain Name System responsible for? The Domain Name System converts domain names (of the form www. What are the four groups of HTTP Headers? The four groups of HTTP headers are General headers. Block mode: Data is delivered from FTP to TCP in terms of blocks.1. UNIT – V PART A List the capabilities provided by the SIP (Session Intimation Protocol). Why do we need a Domain Name System? What role does the DNS Resolver play in the DNS system? IP numbers uniquely identify hosts on the Internet: however they are difficult to remember. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . Request Headers and Response Headers. What are the transmission modes of FTP? i. What are the four main properties of HTTP? Global Uniform Resource Identifier. 9. 7. What is WWW and SMTP? The SMTP is used for connection between sending mail. 27 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Resource metadata. WWW is an internet application that allows user to view pages and move from one web page to another. 8.vtubooks. Request-response exchange. Entity Headers. ii. We therefore need a memorable way of identifying hosts. Each data block follows the three byte header. the Web server sends back an HTTP response that contains an HTML page as usual. What do you mean by active web pages? When a client send a HTTP request for an active Web page. HTML page also contains a small program that executes on the client computer inside the Web browser.

e. HTTP HTTP transfer the file from server to client. Compare the HTTP and FTP: S. question record. web pages) HTTP use only one port connection. 12.(i. 16. Service threats exploit service flaws in computers to inhibit use by legitimate users. 14. FTP transfers the file from client to server and server to client. Compressed mode: File is compressed before transmitting if size is big.No FTP 1. They are Control Connection and Data connection. Basic functions of email: composition. (i. Port 80) It also use TCP protocol. List the two types of DNS message.e. The response message consists of a header.What is meant by attack? An attack on system security that derives from an intelligent threat: that is an intelligent act that is a deliberate attempt to evade security services and violate the security policy of a system. What is a URL and web browser? Uniform Resource Locator is a string identifier that identifies a page on the World Wide Web. Run length encoding method is used for compression. 10. This results in a very simple implementation without the need for complex state machines.e. answer record. Two methods of HTTP are GetMethod( ) and PostMethod( ).iii. What is the main difference between FTP & HTTP? FTP – Out – of – band. 28 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. port 20 and port 21) 3. Displaying. 15. The query message consists of the header and the question records. Reporting. What is rlogin? What are the two methods of HTTP? Remote login is used to login into remote system and access its contents. 2. 11. 13. request or response. it need not remember any transaction. authoritative record and additional record. Information access threats intercept or modify data on behalf of users who should not have access to that data. 18. What is use of digital signature? What are the basic functions of e-mail? Data appended to. Web browser is a software program that interprets and displays the contents of HTML web pages. or a data unit that allows a recipient of the data unit to prove the source and integrity if the data unit and protect against forgery. Define threats. 17. What are the advantages of stateless server of HTTP? Because of the statelessness of HTTP.FTP uses two parallel TCP connections to transfer a file. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . HTTP – In – band. and Disposition. DNS messages are: Query and Response. Uses TCP protocol. It uses two different port connections. (i. Transfer.

25.Name some of the country category uk United kingdom. executed files into text files. Describe why HTTP is designed as a stateless protocol. Internet is divided into many top level domains.Japan. 23. Each domain is divided into sub domain and so on. MIME translates all these non ASCII codes to SMTP 7 bit ASCII code Messages – more than certain size can be translated by MIME into SMTP acceptable size 20. Resolver sends UDP packet to nearest DNS server (local DNS server) Local DNS server looks up domain name and returns IP address to resolver as in previous part. Which protocol support email and give details about that protocol? SMTP is a standard protocol for transferring mails using TCP/IP SMTP standardization for message character is 7 bit ASCII SMTP adds log info to the start (i. How will you categorize DNS. in India 24. What is the use of MIME Extension? MIME converts binary files. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering .Topmost domains are categorized into generic and countries. Generic domain categories: comcommercial govUS government edueducational orgprofile organization milUS military netnetwork providers. Then only it can be transmitted using SMTP SMTP cannot transmit text data including national language characters. Resolver returns IP address to application program. 29 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. HTTP is therefore stateless to ensure that the Internet is scalable since state is not contained in the HTTP request/response pairs by default.19.e.What an application program of DNS does? The application program interested in obtaining IP address of a domain name calls a library program "Resolver". sg -singapore jp .) path of the message 21. Maintaining state across request-response connections significantly increase the initial interactions in a connection since the identity of each party needs to be established and any saved state must be retrieved.

Define MEP. type. called MIB-II. <wsdl:data types> <wsdl:message> <wsdl:port> <wsdl:binding> <wsdl:services> 30. Define WSDL. Give an example for hierarchy of name servers. TTL} 28.26. 27. MIB is a companion specification that helps that helps client indicate which piece of information it wants to retrieve and also helps the server know which variable in memory to read to satisfy the request. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . The MIB defines the specific pieces of information—the MIB variables—that you can retrieve from a network node. Web services definition language. What are the tables containing name servers? Name servers are {name. The current version of MIB. 29. value. 30 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. Message exchange pattern (MEP) that gives the sequence in which the message has to be transmitted including the fault message to be sent when an error disrupts the message flow. class. organizes variables into 10 different groups. Define MIB.

video) that comprise the session ■ Detailed information needed to receive the session (e. We would also be able to support features like call forwarding.. For example. it is designed with a different sort of applications in mind. What are the informations included in SDP? SDP conveys the following information: ■ The name and purpose of the session ■ Start and end times for the session ■ The media types (e. and thus provides quite different capabilities than HTTP.31. Define Session Control Protocol and mention the different categories. three-way calling. audio. The protocols that have been defined include ■ SDP (Session Description Protocol) ■ SAP (Session Announcement Protocol) ■ SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) ■ SCCP (Simple Conference Control Protocol) 33. Many multimedia applications need a protocol called the session control protocol. Session control protocol provides a mechanism to notify the intended recipient to expect such a call for example. However. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . Define Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) SIP is an application-layer protocol that resembles HTTP.g. the multicast address 31 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. What are the features of SOAP protocol? Soap Envelope Soap Part Soap header Soap header Soap header Soap Proxy XML Soap Default 32. The capabilities provided by SIP can be grouped into five categories: ■ User location: determining the correct device with which to communicate to reach a particular user ■ User availability: determining if the user is willing or able to take part in a particular communication session ■ User capabilities: determining such items as the choice of media and coding scheme to use ■ Session setup: establishing session parameters such as port numbers to be used by the communicating parties ■ Session management: a range of functions including transferring sessions (e. suppose that we wanted to be able to make IP-based telephone calls across the Internet.g..g.. and so on using SCP. by sending a message to some multimedia device that would cause it to make a ringing sound. to implement ―call forwarding‖) and modifying session parameters 34.

2. what I taught in the class. PART B 1. what is the idea used in public key encryption systems 9. storage. 4. What is Domain Name Service (DNS) and explain in detail about the domain hierarchy and name servers.mp3 file stored on their computer. state strengths and weaknesses. thereby providing access to larger archival stores. and so on. Discuss about MIME. Explain the salient Features of the SMTP protocol 10. M Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering . disk bandwidth. 3. IMAP and POP3 5. Explain the SMTP and HTTP . Explain about HTTP. than any one user could afford individually. the transport protocol to be used. Explain The role Of DNS in computer network 8. Discuss how the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is useful in electronic mail. How does the E-Mail system Work? 13. the port numbers. 32 Prepared By Suresh Kumar. larger video-audio conferences.to which data will be sent. Give their uses. 7. For example. but instead being able to access music files directly from whoever in the Internet happens to have a copy of the required . Define peer-to-peer network. Discuss about the components of network Management on the Internet 11. network bandwidth. Explain in detail about WWW. Describe about the World Wide Web (WWW). CPU). in the context of sharing MP3 files it means not having to download music from a central site. 6. Note All u can refer some problems based. Write short notes on symmetric –Key –cryptography 12. A peer-to-peer network allows a community of users to pool their resources (content. more complex searches and computations. the encoding schemes) 35.

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