ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration

ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration

 

Daylight and Thermal Comfort Analysis For ‘Leith Ecology Learning Centre’

 

Prepared by: Mohd Firrdhaus Mohd Sahabuddin (s1131077) MSc. Advanced Sustainable Design Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (ESALA) The University of Edinburgh Semester 2 / 2012

ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration

Contents Introduction Part 1: The Site Part 2: Aims Part 3: Research Methodologies - Daylight - Thermal Comfort - The IES Limitations Part 4: Daylight Analysis - Model 1: Benchmarking - Model 2: Testing - Model 3: Refining Part 5: Thermal Comfort Analysis - Model 1: Testing - Model 2: Refining Part 6: Conclusion References

. It also flourishes with natural habitats and wildlife. The role of designers is to find a solution to this issue. The advantage of this site is its location at the starting point of the master plan. especially in urban areas. It is not only effects the global environment. Located at the middle of the Leith Walk transect. PART 1: The Site The site is a disused railway line at the end of the Pilrig Park and opposite. and promoting a balanced ecosystem on the building envelope horizontally and vertically. PART 2: Aims The overall building aims are implementing the renewable energy technologies such as solar panel and rain water harvesting system. which would be enormous potential as a main route for human.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Introduction Nowadays the climate change has become a key issue in the world. which is serving as a social route crossing for cyclists & pedestrians.   Figure 1: The location of the site in the master plan The proposed building is an ecological overpass. The bad effects of climate change are most deeply felt in rural areas but even worse in the urban areas. it accommodates a few areas for learning. which is lectures room and cafeteria on the first level and exhibition space at the ground level. Pilrig Park at west of Leith Walk as well as linking Leith Links at east side. social interaction and wildlife movement. It serves for the two divided areas. At the same time. using of low carbon materials and organic base materials. exhibiting and relaxing. Those activities are defining by levels. but also the impact on the economy and life of mankind.

The analyses design solutions are on the passive devices only which using IES software. Figure 2: The overall building perspective   The target for sustainability standard is between ‘minimum standard’ and ‘best practice’ regulations set up by Max Fordham (refer to galleries. Standard 95 CO2/m2/yr G .15 0.5 m3/h.m2/yr 37 kWh/m2/yr 40 kWh/m2/yr >20% 0.m2 at 50Pa Best Practice 70-80 CO2/m2/yr F – 4 rating 120 kWh.m2 at 50Pa .25 0.15 3. it has overheated and glares problems.m2/yr 45 kWh/m2/yr 60 kWh/m2/yr Up to 20% 0.25 10 m3/h. So the aims are to achieve the best result of thermal and day lighting design.35 2. This area is unique because it is a south facade.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration For this assignment.40 0.20 0. The glazed area is about 550 m2 and potentially. only the exhibit space will be analyse.D rating 180 kWh. museums and archives sustainability matrix).20 1. and a part of the space is a double volume. Proposed Building Regulations 1 CO2 Emission design target 2 DEC rating 3 Energy consumption: • Heating & hot water • Mechanical cooling • Lighting 4 On site energy generation 5 U-values (W/m2K): • Wall • Average window • Roof • Ground floor 6 Airtightness Min.

There are three models for each analysis.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Design consideration and strategies: Design Consideration Daylight Minimum Standard No daylight or windows of any orientation covering only part of a bigger gallery space. the thermal equilibrium in the exhibition space and the inclusion of a reasonable sunlight are the prime targets of this assignment. museums and archives sustainability matrix. The first model is to determine the default settings without any influence from the devices.e. which are ‘thermal comfort’ and ‘daylight’ analysis. Best Practice Roof lights with fixed solar shading/aspect/geometry that exclude direct sun – i. plus blinds for black out 25 W/m2 max installed load.   Figure 3: The interior perspectives of exhibition area As a conclusion. Meanwhile. These two aspects are particularly prominent in deciding comfort level that determines the success of the design. . north light only. Artificial lighting and controls Source: The measurements above are extracted from Max Fordham’s galleries. the second measurement is on a model that has been in place the devices. PART 3: Research Methodologies The research methodology comprises into two areas of study. Finally. with or without blinds 50W/m2 max installed load. the third model is the development of the evaluation results earlier.

as is common today. This described in ‘Historical Scotland Technical Paper 14’ written by Rev.5 . the National Museum Directors' Conference (NMDC) has set a standard for exhibition area with a stable relative humidity (RH) in the range of 40 .5 .60% and a stable temperature in the range 16 . then 24. Therefore. then 23 .78 Winter (warm If 30%. .28 76 . Micheal Humphreys (Oxford Brooks University). Prof. Below are the preferred temperatures for public space in summer and winter seasons in UK climate. Susan Roaf (Heriot-Watt University) as below: “If a normal central heating system (with boiler and radiators) is installed and run at 20 to 22 degrees Celsius (°C). Prof. The importance of achieving the right temperature within the minimal expenses is the most crucial element in building design today. in this period the task needs specific and empirical evidence.75 Source: Adapted from ASHRAE 55-2010. a large amount of energy is required to heat such a traditional house. the cost of heating older houses is increasingly a concern.25°C.5 69 . Therefore. Indeed. with minimal usage of any mechanical equipment.82 clothing) If 60%.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Thermal Comfort The definition of thermal comfort is ‘the state of mind in humans that express satisfaction with the surrounding environment’ (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55). The best solution is using low cost passive design. Refrigerating.25°C.24 68 .5 74 .25. On the other hand.25. the aim of preferred temperatures for this exhibit area is in the range 16 . Fergus Nicol (London Metropolitan University) and Prof. Because of the rapid rise in electricity. and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) listed the standard operating temperatures in different types of buildings and different seasons.78 clothing) If 60%. maintaining the right thermal comfort for users inside the building is a challenge for all designers. then 20 . Temperature / Humidity Ranges for Comfort Conditions Relative Acceptable Operating Humidity Temperatures °C °F Summer (light If 30%. then 20.” The American Society of Heating. gas and particularly oil prices.

Below is the table for categories of sensitivity adapted from Museums & Galleries NSW website. The space has two different densities. tempera and acrylic paintings • Timber • Bone. the space will showcase educational materials related to regional wildlife. which has a large glazing area on its south façade. double-glazing lets approximately 80% and triple glazing lets 70% of the light. The design of the exhibition space is like a greenhouse. double volume exhibit area along the south glass wall and a fully covered single volume on its north wall. The aims of daylighting analysis are try to get the best shading devices composition on the facade. it is also depending on the materials exhibited in the gallery. manuscripts) • Watercolours.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Daylight Daylight or daylighting is another valuable natural resources and should be manipulated as possible. The exhibited materials are likely posters and real life plants such as shrub and herbs as well as a few species of insects. By doing that the daylighting can create a stunning visual environment as well as to save electrical energy. As a rule. Back to the exhibition space in the proposed building. Australia. the best lux for general exhibit area is 200 lux and the minimum is 50 lux. gouache and pastels • Photographs and films • Vegetable dyed material • Parchment and vellum • Textiles • Plastics and rubbers • Natural history specimens • Dyed leather • Oil. According to Museums and Galleries NSW. . The factors that influence the entry of sunlight into the building are the surface area of glass windows and the types of glass used either double glazed or triple glazed. Level of Sensitivity Very light Sensitive Types of Material • Paper (prints. it is suggested that an upper level of 1000 lux is used indoors. However. first. • Un-dyed leather • Archaeological materials • Oriental lacquer (Urushi) • Painted or lacquered metals • Metals • Stone • Ceramics • Glass Maximum lux level 50 lux Moderate Sensitivity 200 lux Insensitive Although light levels are not an issue. drawing. ivory and horn.

000 or maybe 2. while the inner space (yellow) requires around 200 to 2000 lux.” Source: Dr.” Source: Museums and Galleries.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration In this case. . Figure 4: Space separation   “Daylight illuminances in the range 500 to around 2. the preferred range for lighting in the exhibit area is about 50 to 200 lux. the red area will be known as zone A. daylight that equivalent to quarter of outdoor average (10000 lux) luminance might be required. NSW. largely once buildings where daylight-originated glare on visual display devices is a common problem. Note that these values are based on surveys carried out in non-residential. “Reduce daylight. time of year and whether it is overcast. In this exercise. in order to grow grass and shrub inside the building. diffusing blinds. exterior shutters.Apart from the damage caused by the high UV component of sunlight. while the yellow area is zone B. it creates difficulty in controlling light levels as the intensity will fluctuate continuously depending on the time of day.500 lux are often perceived either as desirable or at least tolerable. Daylight can be controlled using heavy curtains. John Mardaljevic Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development De Montfort University It can be concluded that the minimum lux for double volume space (red) is around 2000 to 4000. UV filtering material applied to windows or attaching boards to the windows. which is around 200 to 2500 lux. However. the amount of energy used for artificial lighting is not more than <50W/m2. Meanwhile.

“Daylight factor (DF) is a simple parameter to give an indication and measurement of the adequacy of daylight within a space. sky condition and reflectance from the inside and outside the space. it may contribute to other problems such as heat and glare. percentage of glass transmittance. the amount of daylight entering a space is dependent on a few factors such as total window area. however.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Figure 5: Components of shading devices   The usage of sunlight to reduce the reliance on electrical power is essential. Heriot-Watt University Therefore. if there is no restriction. Knowing the factors that contribute to the amount of daylight entering the building is essential because those factors have a relationship within each other. . It can be determined by an equation as below: Where:   DF W A T ϑ R : Average daylight factor : Window area : Area of all room surfaces : Transmittance of glass : Visible sky angle : Area weighted average reflectance of all room surfaces” Source: Lighting & Architecture Note.

In addition. there are some constraints in obtaining accurate results. The second model uses horizontal shading devices and double-glazed glass that allows 80% of sunlight. the third model uses both horizontal and vertical shading devices as well as 70% translucency glass or triple-glazed glass. The building also uses several reusable materials such as discarded clothes for insulation. represents summer. other problem occurred is the availability of sustainable building materials such as green roofs. the space had to be reviewed in ridicule or restricted.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration The IES Limitations In the simulations using IES software. There are also a continuous green roofs and green walls that using eco-trays as a base for planting. which January will present winter and July. green walls and the material made from reusable materials. The selection of the months is because of the coolest and warmest temperature could be happen during these seasons every year. so that the next model will prove a vertical shading device can reduce the entry of sunlight and the third model with a combination of horizontal and vertical shading devices can effectively control the amount of sunlight. Reliable measurement obtained is equivalent to lighting outside the building. The selected seasons are winter and summer. Those materials are mostly not available and the calculated outcome may not accurate. The first model is using default settings. This building is using timber construction and timber furnishing. Among the problems faced is the time for an analysis. While. This means that there are no influential elements applied such as shading device and glaze type. These materials can affect the reading of the simulation but cannot be found in the IES. which is quite long. . PART 4: Daylight Analysis There are three models for this analysis. The methodology is as follows the first model will provide the actual reading of the amount of lighting in the room. red brick crushed wall (gabion) for ground walls and shipping pallets for shading devices and louvers. Therefore in this study. Consequently the results obtained are 90 percent accurate.

0 External Wall Area (m2): 684.) (Min.00 m 0.0 % 3332.7 % 87.03 Working plane 1 Daylight factor Reflectance=0% Transmittance=100% Daylight Grid size=0.47 lux Ave. 39./Max.48 lux   Uniformity Diversity (Min.5 % 2087./Ave.0 Type of Glass: Single-Glazed (100% visible transmittance) Surface Quantity Values Min. 1. The external glazing area is 560.0 External Opening Area (m2): 560. It uses standard glass with 90-100% translucency.0 m2.04 0. 63.04 0.0 Floor Area (m2): 580.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Model 1: Benchmarking (Winter) Figure 6: Model 1 with no shading device   Model 1 above has no shading device.) 0.17 lux Max.000m² Margin=0.03 Table 1: Daylight Illuminance (Lux) and Factor for January . Volume (m3): 2381.61 m illuminance Area=580.

17 lux.) (Min.04 0.) 0./Ave.0 External Wall Area (m2): 684.6 % 7103. 32.04 0.). The minimum daylight factor is 1.) and 3332. Ave.0 External Opening Area (m2): 560.02 Table 2: Daylight Illuminance (Lux) and Factor for July .   Figure 7: Model 1 IES 3D Simulation Model 1: Summer Volume (m3): 2381.000m² Margin=0. the distribution of the light is almost equal inside the building.00 m 0. Daylight illuminance (lux) values for the same month is 87.61 m illuminance lux Area=580.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration The table 1 shows the values of daylight factor and daylight illuminance for January.02 Working plane 1 Daylight factor 1.7%.0 % 3367. in winter season. The mean/median value is 2087.94 Grid size=0.3 % Reflectance=0% Transmittance=100% Daylight 132.0 Type of Glass: Single-Glazed (90-100% visible transmittance)   Surface Quantity Values Min. Normally. and the maximum is 63%. 67. the sun projection is 100 to 450.91 lux Uniformity Diversity (Min./Max.0 Floor Area (m2): 580.24 lux Max.47 lux (min.48 lux (max. Therefore.

4. use of double-glazed with 70-80% visible transmittance and reduction of glazing wall area from 560. Volume (m3): 2381. Decrease amount of glazing (assess trade-off with energy consumption).7%.0 External Opening Area (m2): 354. Normally. The mean/median value is 3367.91 lux (max.0 m2 to 354.).0 . 2.0 m2. 3.24 lux. the sun projection is 450 to 600.3m (7'6") has greater impact). in summer season. The modifications are the implementation of vertical shading devices. Suggestions for Improvement There are 4 suggestions to reduce the amount of penetration light into the building.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration The table 2 shows the values of daylight factor and daylight illuminance for July. Evaluate size and shape of glass (glass above 2. Model 2: Testing (Winter) Figure 10: Model 2 with vertical shading devices   Model 2 above has some modifications. and the maximum is 67. Therefore. Evaluate other daylighting metrics such as glare. The minimum daylight factor is 1. the distribution of the light is not equal inside the building. More light is concentrated at Zone A with 7000-lux compare to Zone B with 3000-lux. Daylight illuminance (lux) values for the same month is 132.0 External Wall Area (m2): 684.0 Floor Area (m2): 580.3%. Select a glass type with a different visible transmittance (Tvis).94 lux (min. among them are: 1.) and 7103.

) (Min.250m² Margin=0.66 lux.50 m illuminance Area=493.1 % 216. and the maximum is 51.08 Table 3: Daylight Illuminance (Lux) and Factor for January The table 3 above shows the values of daylight factor and daylight illuminance for January (winter)./Max.66 lux (min. The minimum daylight factor is 4.15 0.08 Working plane 1 Daylight factor Reflectance=0% Transmittance=80% Daylight Grid size=0. 4.) and 2720.1%.66 lux Max.15 0.) 0.5 % 2720. Figure 12: Model 2 IES 3D Simulation   .5%. Daylight illuminance (lux) values are 216.74 lux   Uniformity Diversity (Min.9 % 1473. The mean/median value is 1473.). 51.66 lux Ave.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Type of Glass: Double-Glazed (70-80% visible transmittance) Surface Quantity Values Min.50 m 0.74 lux (max. 27./Ave.

04 Working plane 1 Daylight factor Reflectance=0% Transmittance=80% Daylight Grid size=0. the distribution of the light is not even inside the building.0 External Wall Area (m2): 684.20 lux Uniformity Diversity (Min. and the maximum is 60.9 % 2517.0 Type of Glass: Double-Glazed (70-80% visible transmittance)   Surface Quantity Values Min. 2. 23.4%./Ave.) 0.11 lux Ave.11 lux (min.50 m illuminance Area=192.20 lux Max. Figure 14: Model 2 IES 3D Simulation   .50 m 0. The minimum daylight factor is 2.2%./Max.09 0. More light at Zone A with 3500-lux to 6000-lux compare to Zone B around 1000-lux to 3000-lux.) and 6355.04 Table 4: Daylight Illuminance (Lux) and Factor for July The table 4 above shows the values of daylight factor and daylight illuminance for July (summer).0 External Opening Area (m2): 354.771m² Margin=0. The mean/median value is 2517.2 % 234.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Model 2: Summer Volume (m3): 2381. 60.) (Min. Daylight illuminance (lux) values for summer are 234.).20 lux. Therefore.20 lux (max.0 Floor Area (m2): 580.4 % 6355.09 0.

69 lux Uniformity Diversity (Min. and the maximum is 43.50 m illuminance Area=192.04 Surface Quantity Working plane 1 Daylight factor Reflectance=0% Transmittance=60% Daylight Grid size=0. .9 % 2318. Daylight illuminance (lux) values are 98.771m² Margin=0.79 lux Ave. The minimum daylight factor is 1.13 0.9%./Max.) 0.0 Type of Glass: Double-Glazed (50-60% visible transmittance)   Values Min.9%.0 Floor Area (m2): 580.0 for model 2 that means the reduction of 25% sunlight during the summer when verticalshading devices introduced.79 lux (min.0 External Wall Area (m2): 684.69 lux (max. 43./Ave. 1.). It is decreasingly about 30%.13 0.) and 2318.04 Table 5: Daylight Illuminance (Lux) and Factor for January The table above shows the values of daylight factor and daylight illuminance for January (winter).) (Min.9 % 98. During the summer. the lux values are 3367.50 m 0. the mean/median values have changed significantly between model 1 and 2. The mean/median value during winter for model 1 is 2087-lux compare to 1473-lux for model 2.85 lux.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration However. 14.9 % 789.0 External Opening Area (m2): 210. The mean/median value is 789.85 lux Max.0 for model 1 and 2517. Model 3: Re-fining (Winter) Volume (m3): 2381.

10 0.0 External Opening Area (m2): 210. 43.02 Working plane 1 Daylight factor Reflectance=0% Transmittance=60% Daylight Grid size=0.) and 4551. 0.52 lux Max.771m² Margin=0.).92 lux (max.3%.) (Min. Daylight illuminance (lux) values for summer are 86.10 0.85 lux (min.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration   Figure 16: Model 3 IES 3D Simulation Model 3: Summer Volume (m3): 2381. and the maximum is 43./Ave.50 m 0. 7.0 External Wall Area (m2): 684.8 % 86.0 Type of Glass: Double-Glazed (50-60% visible transmittance)   Surface Quantity Values Min.) 0.02 Table 6: Daylight Illuminance (Lux) and Factor for July The table above shows the values of daylight factor and daylight illuminance for July (summer)./Max.0 Floor Area (m2): 580.8%. The minimum daylight factor is 0.85 lux Ave.9 % 833.50 m illuminance Area=192.92 lux Uniformity Diversity (Min.3 % 4551. .

The mean/median value during winter for model 2 is 1473-lux compare to 789-lux for model 3.0 for model 2 and 833. the distribution of the light is mostly equal in zone B.0 m2 to 210.0 for model 3 that means the reduction of 67% sunlight during the summer when vertical and horizontal shading devices introduced. During the summer. the lux values are 2517. The mean/median value is 833.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Therefore.0 m2 and use of 50-60% translucency glass. A bit more light at Zone A with 1200-lux to 3000-lux compare to Zone B around 200-lux to 1000-lux. In addition to this result are the reduction of the glazing area from 354. the mean/median values have changed significantly between model 2 and 3. .52 lux. It is decreasingly about 46%.   Figure 18: Model 3 IES 3D Simulation However.

The result shows an equal distribution of daylight inside the . Three key elements for reducing the light in are use of vertical and horizontal-shading devices. In summer. all three models analyses are different on each other.0 67.0 25.0 Per cent % 62.0 75.0 2 Model 2 1473 2517 70-80% 354.0 Shading Device Model Types 1 Model 1 No Vertical Only Vertical and Horizontal Per cent % 30. The model 3 analysis has given the preferred light illuminance and meet the target of appropriate lux readings between 200-lux to 2500-lux. The different readings are the results of several modifications made on the south facade.0 Table 7: Comparison for all models Comparison 1 Winter (Lux) Summer (Lux) Comparison 2 Winter (Lux) Summer (Lux) Comparison 3 Winter (Lux) Summer (Lux) Model 1 2087 3367 Model 2 1473 2517 Model 1 2087 3367 Model 2 1473 2517 Model 3 789 833 Model 3 789 833 Reduction (Lux) 614 850 Reduction (Lux) 684 1684 Reduction (Lux) 1298 2534 Table 8: Comparison for model 1 against model 2 Table 9: Comparison for model 2 against model 3 Table 10: Comparison for model 1 against model 3 Clearly.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Conclusion As a conclusion. The range of the illuminance for zone A is 1000-lux to 2300-lux and zone B illuminance range is 100-lux to 900-lux. Average Lux (Winter) 2087 Average Visible Lux Trans(Summer) mittance 3367 90-100% Glazing Area (m2) 560. the reduction of daylight illuminance from model 1 and model 3 during the winter season is 62% (1298 lux).0 Per cent % 46. the total daylight reduction achieved from model 1 and model 3 is 75% (2534 lux). changes on glass visible transmittance and the amount of glazing area.0 3 Model 3 789 833 50-60% 210. The amount of light entering the exhibition area becomes lesser and lesser.

This study aims to prove that the materials used can contribute to the internal comfort of a building. minimum and mean/median for every month will be used. The table 11 below explains it all. PART 5: Thermal Comfort Analysis In this study. the analyses run on two models with the first model retains the existing settings to obtain the thermal readings for the use of common building materials and tools commonly available in the market. While the second model will use building materials in accordance with ASHRAE standards and emphasizing quality and performance of sustainable materials. comfort index of user satisfaction and total loads of heating and cooling system. which first for opaque materials and second is for glazed materials.2499 2. glare problems might be still occur which in this case the use of movable blinds are preferable. The uses of 50-60% visible transmittance glass can reflect the heat and keep the building in a balance thermal condition. However. The analyses contain a few readings such as internal temperature measurement.2497 0.6886 .1944 U-Value (W/m2) 1. Simulation runs for the whole year. There is no selected season for this analysis. and readings such as maximum. There are two parts. OPAQUE Materials Flat Roof (2002 regs) 100mm Reinforced-Concrete Ceiling Standard Wall Construction (2002 regs) 13mm Pll 105mm Bri 13mm Pll Standard Floor Construction (2002 regs) Wooden Door GLAZED Materials Low-E Double Glazing (6mm + 6mm) (2002 regs) Low-E Double Glazing (6mm + 6mm) (2002 regs) 4mm Pilkington Single Glazing Table 11: List of materials for model 1 Components 1 Roof 2 Ceiling 3 External Wall 4 Internal Partition 5 Ground Floor 6 Door Components 1 Roof light 2 External Glazing 3 Internal Glazing U-Value (W/m2) 0.6896 0.9773 1.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration exhibition area. Model 1: Testing Below is a list of the building materials used for the model 1.9773 3.3495 1.

These values are so influential as the key factors on influencing the thermal result.uvalue.fwt) People dissatisfied: Exhibition Area (ies model 2.aps)   Graph 2: People dissatisfied percentage .ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration “The U value is the measurement of heat transmission through a material or assembly of materials.28 0C with the Mean radiant temperature: Exhibition Area (ies model 2.aps)   minimum is 28.uk/ The materials listed in the table 11 show the U values for each of the construction materials. The U value of a material is a gauge on how well heat passes through the material and the lower the U value. people dissatisfied in this exhibition area are extremely high with nearly 100% for almost of the months. The mean/median for this graph is 38. the greater the resistance to heat and therefore has a better insulating value.40 0C. 55 50 45 Temperature (°C) 40 35 30 25 20 15 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Graph 1: A year temperature distribution Air temperature: Exhibition Area (ies model 2.41 0C.aps) Date: Wed 01/Jan to Wed 31/Dec According to graph 1 above.fwt (DundeeEWY. the maximum temperature is 53.co. 25 100 90 20 80 15 Temperature (°C) Dry resultant temperature: Exhibition Area (ies model 2.” Source: http://www.aps) 70 Percentage (%) 10 60 50 5 40 30 20 0 -5 10 -10 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0 Jan Date: Wed 01/Jan to Wed 31/Dec Dry-bulb temperature: DundeeEWY. Hence. The readings given are considering too high and not acceptable for normal thermal comfort.

ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration The cooling loads for this area is also high because of its maximum set point temperature.8000 1. the strategy is by using materials that have closest values as replacement.2756 2.4554 1. Wood Super-Insulated Floor Wooden Door GLAZED Materials NCM 2010 National Roof Light Low-E Triple Glazing SC=0. In this case.2 Small Double-Glazed Windows – Low-E Coating Table 12: List of materials for model 2 Components 1 Roof 2 Ceiling 3 External Wall 4 Internal Partition 5 Ground Floor 6 Door U-Value (W/m2) 0.2204 0. OPAQUE Materials Super-Insulated Flat Roof Ceiling 10mm Timber Flooring 200mm Air-25mm Batt Super-Insulated External Wall Frame Partition with 4 In. However.1944 Components 1 Roof light 2 External Glazing 3 Internal Glazing U-Value (W/m2) 1. the simulation cooling set point is 21.9094 0.28 0C is too high to meet the set point temperature. which required a lot of energy to do it. the maximum temperature 53. This building has a continuous green roof and green walls.1769 0.1 0C. This is the recommended temperature for an exhibition area.8927 . these materials are not available in IES materials library. Model 2: Refining The refining analysis is using materials with appropriate values of U-value. For this analysis. For that reason. discarded clothing as insulation and some parts are using shipping pallet for ventilation and shading devices.

88 0C. a right selection of materials can create a convincing thermal result within the space. The results are better than model 1.aps) Graph 4: People dissatisfied percentage   The percentage of dissatisfied people significantly decreased. the aim of preferred temperatures of 16 . On this occasion. 34 32 30 Temperature (°C) 28 26 24 22 20 18 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Date: Wed 01/Jan to Wed 31/Dec Graph 3: Model 2 temperature distribution Air temperature: Exhibition Area (ies model 2. For this simulation.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration Below is the temperature distribution graph for model 2. the maximum temperature is 33.aps) 100 90 80 70 Percentage (%)   60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Date: Wed 01/Jan to Wed 31/Dec People dissatisfied: Exhibition Area (ies model 2. However.aps) Dry resultant temperature: Exhibition Area (ies model 2. due to reduction of the internal temperature.25°C that has been set before is nearly achieved. .0 0C while the mean/median is 25. Clearly.aps) Mean radiant temperature: Exhibition Area (ies model 2.15 0C and the minimum is 18. there are still high percentages of dissatisfied people in July to September because of warm condition inside the building.

Another factor to get a good result is by choosing the right system and the right temperature of cooling set point. the materials used are able to control the amount of irradiation and heat penetration into the building. how to determine the appropriate amount of window openings and the composition of shade that can effectively manage excessive light. Both analyses carried out with a close relationship with each other.aps) Cooling plant sensible load: Exhibition Area (ies model 2. the heating load is at the lowest level compare to the other months. Whereas.aps)   Graph 5: Heating and Cooling Loads In August and September. Examples of what can be seen in the simulation of lighting is. This is because of those months are in the summer season and demand for heating system is not appropriate.aps) Air system input sensible: Exhibition Area (ies model 2. The amount of light and heat entering the room could affect the internal temperature of the room. design a room or building can be reinforced further by the use of IES software. This software can help designers meet the basic criteria in determining the comfort level of a building. . Similarly. PART 6: Conclusion As a conclusion. designers should be required to understand the factors involved in both processes to achieve the optimal design of thermal comfort and its purpose.ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration 16 14 12 10 Load (kW) 16 14 12 10 Gain (kW) 8 6 4 2 0 -2 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 8 6 4 2 0 -2 Jan Date: Wed 01/Jan to Wed 31/Dec Heating plant sensible load: Exhibition Area (ies model 2. Therefore. in the simulation of thermal comfort proves that the building materials play a crucial role in determining the thermal comfort in buildings. the results obtained from the analysis.

2012.org. Thomas. Museums and Galleries NSW (Australia). Max Fordham. Heriot-Watt University 8.uk/ [Accessed May 6. 5. Lighting & Architecture lecture note.co. Galleries. Anon.ashrae. R. F. Available at: http://www.uk. pp. S. 6. 2012]. National Museum Directors' Conference (NMDC). The American Society of Heating. and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Historic Scotland Technical paper 14. Available at: http://mgnsw. Available at: http://www. U-Value.au/ [Accessed May 5.uvalue. 7.nationalmuseums. Max Fordham. uvalue. 2.org [Accessed May 6. 2006. Nicol. Humphreys.. Refrigerating.. New York: Taylor & Francis Inc.. 2012. In Keeping Warm In A Cooler House.org. . 1-28. Environmetal Design: An Introduction for Architects and Engineers Third.com/ [Accessed May 5.maxfordham. Available at: http://www..ARCH 11042: Advanced Sustainable Design Elaboration References 1. 4. 2012]. 3. 2012]. 2012]. & Roaf. 2011.co. 2012. Guiding Principles Reducing Carbon Footprint. Historic Scotland Technical Paper. Available at: www. Museums and Archives Sustainability Matrix. 2012. M. Edinburgh: Online Publication. 2012. ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2010: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. 2012].uk/ [Accessed May 6. Lighting for Exhibition.

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