Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
WITH ANNEALING MODULE
Vadim CAZAC, Ilie NUCA, Petru TODOS, Iurie NUCA
*
Technical University of Moldova
*
Technical University of ClujNapoca
vadimcazac@gmail.com, nuca_ilie@yahoo.com, todos@adm.utm.md, nuca.iurie@yahoo.com
Summary – This paper is focused on developing unified
microprocessor control system of a wiredrawing machine
which integrates the modules of the following subsystems:
wiredrawing, winding and annealing of the metal wire. The
main aim of this work consists in elaborating a system of
better control for the wiredrawing and for the annealing
module, all this for elevating the productivity and the
quality of the technological process of making electrical
wires.
The reference object of this paper work is referred to a
machine of the B24 type [7], which contains the
asynchronous motor with belts of the wiredrawing line
transmission, the controlled drive system of the drum
winding and the wire annealing module with manual
prescription of the necessary temperature (fig.1). Thus has
appeared the necessity of upgrading the automation system
of this wiredrawing machine according to the requirements
of the economical agent [8].
According to the technological process the developed
control system must control the necessary wiredrawing
force, speed and tension force prescribed to the wire, slow
start depending on the tension force, maintaining of a
constant tension force for excluding the breaking of the
wire at high speeds of winding, regulation of the energy
flux of the annealing module depending on the linear speed
of the wire.
The system ensures a gain of productivity and quality of
the technologic process of electric wire’s production. For
the winding mechanism a vector control system with three
contours of current and speed regulation, and one exterior
contour of the wire’s tension force. Through computer
simulation the control system’s performance indices were
proven.
Keywords: drawing, annealing, control system, electric
drive, vector control.
1. INTRODUCTION
The main course in developing of wire and cable
production is implementation of new technologies,
which allow intensifying the technological process and
elevating the economical efficiency, as well as obtaining
products with wanted physical and mechanical
proprieties.
Wiredrawing is the main method of wire production and
consists of pulling the metal wires through dies [13] .
The wires obtained after the drawing have exact
geometrical measurements with wanted physical and
mechanical proprieties (elasticity, plasticity). Compared
to other methods wiredrawing excludes any losses of the
processed material.
Modern wiredrawing machines are completely
automated and integrate in a unique system the
equipments of the wiredrawing process as well as of the
annealing process [46]. Older wiredrawing machines
have less automation which leads to the decrease of the
productivity, or breaking of the wire.
2. STRUCTURE OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM
According to the imposed task a control system of the
drawing machine was developed, which consists of 3
subsystems: of the wiredrawing asynchronous motor
drive, of the winding motor drive and of the wire
annealing module (fig.2). The general control of the
system is entrusted to a programmable microcontroller
1, whose control parameters can be changed through the
operator’s panel 2. For feedback are used current
transducers 3, 4, 5; speed 6, wire’s tension force 7.
The mechanical connection between drawing and
winding mechanisms is made through the drawn wire.
Fig.1. General view of the wiredrawer B24
1
2
6
5
7
12
11
10
8
3
9 4
2.1. The drive system of the wiredrawing machine
The wiredrawing process takes place at a speed of 50
m/s (averaging 2025 m/s). The drawing force is
developed by the traction drums and the friction force
between the drum and the processed wire by it. It
depends, mostly, on the friction factor in the dies of the
machine.
The wiredrawer’s drive system must develop the
necessary speed to overcome the drawing force to the
prescribed speed. The system consists of: an
asynchronous motor 8, a frequency converter with
scalar control 9. The motor does not require a drive
with high dynamical parameters, thus it functions with
its natural characteristic, without feedback loops.
2.2. The drive system of the winding machine
The winding machine’s drive system maintains the
prescribed speed and tension force to avoid breaking
the wire. It contains an asynchronous motor 10 and a
vector control frequency converter 11.
2.3. The control system of the annealing module
Annealing is a way of thermal processing, which
consists of heating, maintain and sudden chilling a
plastic and soft, free of inner stress, metal is obtained.
The temperature for annealing can be higher or lower
than of the critical, at which the metal suffers inner
changes. The operating principle of this module is
based on the induction of a electromotor tension into
the drawn wire, which cause appearance of eddy
currents thus producing the necessary heat for the
annealing through the Joule effect [9].
Temperature’s adjusting according to the wire’s speed
is made through the onephased converter of high
frequencies 12.
The analysis of the processes which take place when
wiredrawing and the problems that occur, like wire tear,
has imposed the integration in a single control system
the 3 processes: regulating the wiredrawer, regulating
the annealing module and regulating the winding
mechanism (fig.3)
Bloc de
prescriere a
acceleratiei
CF1 M1
ML
RT
Blocul de
comanda
vectorială
CF2 M2
TC
TΩM2
TT fir
∑
RP RF CFînaltă S
TP
TV fir
Tφs
φrez
UTT
Vpr
Ppr.
BLF
Fig. 3. The structural scheme of the control system
3. VECTOR CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE
WINDING MECHANISM
In the following scheme (fig.4) is represented the
simplified structure of the winding mechanism’s vector
drive, in which the pillar elements of this drive are
Fig.2 The functional scheme of the control system of the wiredrawer and of the annealing module
ului cu modul de recoacere
presented. The regulating of the wire’s tension force at
winding takes places in a direct way, using a transducer
for determining the tension force in the wire.
The scheme has 3 contours with subordinate regulating
of the internal of current, speed and the outer contour of
the wire’s tension force. Changing the regulating
modes is performed automatically after the influence of
the tension regulator over the limit block. In case the
wire is not a whole component of the regulator it drives
the regulator into saturation. The limit value is
prescribed by the signal Upv, prescribes the necessary
speed to an empty winding.
The force of stretching will start to rise and the tension
regulator will exit saturation and allow the contour of
stretch force regulator to work, considering that the
angular velocity of the drum is prescribed to be higher
that the linear speed of the drum.
At wire breakage a reverse process will start, the signal
from the tension force regulator’s exit will start to rise
until saturation. The winding’s speed will also start to
rise. To stop a full winding it is necessary to decrease
the limit value of the tension regulator until it reaches
nil. The multiplication and division device provides the
granting of the speed contour at function with
weakened magnetic flux or with changing the inertia
summary moment at the motor shaft. The law of
modification for the wire’s tension force is ensured by
the correcting block of tension force’s prescription.
HRV(S) HRCA(S)
HRCM(S) HRF(S)
HRT(S)
KTF
KTCA
KTV
KTT
BL
KTCM
KCF
1+TCFS
1/RE
1+TSS
KrLr
1+TrS
KCE
1+TCFS
1
J∑S
1/RE
1+TSS
3
2
pkr
BCTP
J∑
Jo
KTF
Esy
Esx
ψrx
MS
HBob(S)
T
UPF

+


UPV
UTF
Isy
ψrx
Usy
Upc
URCA
Upv
UPT
BCRB
Calculul mome
ntului
de inertie
ωT
Fig. 4 Simplified structural scheme of vector regulation system for speed and tension force [2]
The correction block of the prescribed tension BCTP
represents a proportional controller with a factor:
1
TB
CPT R
B
R
k k
R
 
= ÷

\ .
( 1 )
Where
R
k  reserve coefficient, decreasing the influence
of the winding’s radius on the tension force, being
chosen
R
k =1,
TB
R  radius of the winding’s drum;
B
R  radius of the winding.
BCRB is calculus block of the winding’s radius.
3.1 Calculus of the magnetic flux’s canal
The structural scheme of the magnetic flux’s canal at a
vector control includes two loops of automatic
regulation: the internal loop of the magnetization
reactive current I
sx
=I
m
and the outer loop of the
magnetization flux (fig.5).
HRCM(S) HRF(S)
KTF
KTCM
KCF
1+TCFS
1/RE
1+TSS
KrLr
1+TrS
Esx
UPF

TF
TCM
CF RCM BLCM RF CS CR
Im
Usx
URC
URF
URCM
Fig.5 Structural scheme of the magnetic flux’s canal
The turning system of coordinates xy is oriented after
the rotor flux ( )
, 0
r rx r ry
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ = = = , which ensures
the simplest structure of the SRA. This scheme does not
take into consideration the ABC /αβ, αβ/xy and
reverse xy/ αβ and αβ/ABC,
In the outer loop a magnetization current’s limit block is
introduced (BLCM).
3.2 Calculus of the magnetization current’s loop
Having determined the parameters of the motor,
belonging to the winging mechanism, we make the
calculus for the system regulation loops. The frequency
converter can be approximated with a first order
element
( )
( )
( ) 1
SX CF
CF
c CF
U S k
H S
U S T S
= =
+
(2)
Where:
.
2
3
sx N s
CF
CN CN
U U
k
U U
= = (3)
T
CF
=0,005sinner constant of the CF without a
prescription integrator element. If a Hall type current
transducer is chosen, then it can be described through a
noninertial element
TCM.N
TCM
SX.N
U
k =
I
(4)
Tuning of RCM is made, relative simply, based on the
criteria of the module of the transfer function of the
closed loop of current
( )
( )
.
1
2 1
d
d c
c c
H S
T S T S
µ µ
=
+
(5)
Where:
c
T
µ
 the small constant (uncompensated by the
controller) of the current’s loop
The RCM’s regulation object
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
.
1/
1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1
1 1
ORC CF CS TCM
CF TCM E
CF S TCM
OR C
C S
H S H S H S H S
k k R
T S T S T S
k
T S T S
µ
= · · =
· · =
+ + +
=
+ +
(6)
Where: 0.005
C CF
T T S
µ
= = ;
.
CF TCM
OR C
E
k k
k
R
·
=
(7)
The current loop’s transfer function
( ) ( ) ( )
. . d C RCM OR C
H S H S H S = · (8)
As a result, if the following equals
( ) ( )
. .
d
d C d c
H S H S =
d
dc
RCM
CRC
H ( ) (1 )
H (S)
2 H ( )
S
CRC
S T S
k T S S
µ
+
= ~ (9)
The RCM’s controller be a PI type. The time constant
of this controller compensates the big constant of the
loop – the rotor constant T
IZ.C
= T
S
=0,248 S
The RCM’s integration constant is:
. .
2 2
CF TCM
I C OR C c c
E
k k
T k T T
R
µ µ
·
= · = · (10)
The coefficient of RCM’s proportional piece:
.
.
IZ C
RCM
I C
T
k
T
= (11)
The transfer function of the closed current loop
.
.
2 2
( ) ( )
( )
( ) 1 ( )
1/
2 2 1
SX d c
BC
PC d c
TCM
c c
I S H S
H S
U S H S
k
T S T S
µ µ
= = =
+
=
+ +
(12)
where: 1/
TCM
k  the inverse transfer function of the
TCM, introduced in the prescription current’s circuit
( )
. OR C
H S .
3.3 Calculus of the exterior loop of flux
The transfer function for the flux transducer
 
( )
/
RF
r x
U S
k V Wb
TF
¢
=
(13)
Transfer function of this loop controller:
CRF SC CR 2 2
H (S) H (S) H (S)
(2 2 1)(1 )
CRF
r
k
T S T S T S
µ µ
= · ~
+ + +
where:
.
TF r r
OR F
TCM
k k L
k
k
· ·
= (1415)
For tuning of the RF flux controller we use the same
criteria of the module with it’s desired function
( )
( )
.
2 2
1
2 2 2 1
d
d F
F c c
H S
T S T S T S
µ µ µ
=
+ +
16)
The necessary transfer function for the RF is
analogically determined, gaining a PI controller
d
d.F
RF
. OR.F
H ( ) (1 )
H (S)
H ( )
S
OR F F
S T S
k T S S
µ
+
= ~ (17)
where: 2 2 0.01
F c CF
T T T S
µ µ
= = =
The isodrome constant of the flux regulator, in this case:
.
0.813
IZ F r
T T S = =
The RF’s integration constant:
. I OR F F
T k T
µ
= ·
(18)
The proportional amplification constant:
.
.
IZ F
RF
I F
T
k
T
= 19)
3.4 Calculus of the motor’s speed vector control
canal
The calculus of vector control canal of the, winding
drum’s drive, motor’s speed has, the inner loop of the
active stator current, connected in cascade, I
s y
=I
r
with
the RCA regulator and an outer speed loop (RV) and a
speed transducer (fig.6).
This canal includes three DMD multiplicationdivision
devices of the parameters’ at the RV’s exit, and another
one at the current loop’s exit
HRV(S) HRCA(S)
KTCA
KTV
KCE
1+TCFS
1
J∑S
1/RE
1+TSS
3
2
pkr
J∑
Jo
KTF
Esy
MS

UTF
Isy
ψrx
Usy
Upc
URCA
Upv
Fig.6 The simplified structural scheme of the speed’s
vector control channel
The division devise at the RV’s device is determined by
the fact that this controller generates a prescription
signal for the motor’s electromagnetic couple, which is
proportional with the
r
¢ flux and the active stator
current I
SA
≈I
r
.
As consequence, the prescription signal for the active
stator current:
RV
PCA
TF
U
U
U
= (20)
The division device at the RV’s exit is meant for the
couple’s protection according to drum’s inertial variable
momentum.
3.5 Calculus of the active stator current’s loop
The active stator current transducer must be chosen with
the same exit signal U
TCA.N
=3,5 V at a nominal current
of 3.5 A. The current, being twice as much, at the
RCA’s entrance a voltage divider with a 0,5 coefficient
is introduced
.
.
TCA N
TCA
CA N
U
k
I
= 21)
The converter’s transfer function is the same as in the
reactive stator current’s case
( )
1
CF
CF
CF
k
H S
T S
=
+
22)
Where:
.
; 0.005
sy N
CF CF
CN
U
k T S
U
= =
0.005 .
C CF
T T S
µ
= =  the uncompensable constant of
the current’s loop.
Thanks to the current’s open loop, we get an current PI
controller with transfer function:
.
. .
1 1
( )
2
IZ C S
RCA
I C OR A C
T S T S
H S
T S k T S
µ
+ +
= =
·
23)
Whre:
.
0.248 .
IZ C S
T T S = =
. .
2
I C OR A C
T k T
µ
= · (24)
The RCA’s amplification coefficient
. IZ C
RCA
IC
T
k
T
= 25)
The transfer function of the current’s closed loop:
2
2
1/
( )
2 2 1
2
2 2 1
TCA
BC
C C
C C
k
H S
T S T
T S T
µ µ
µ µ
= =
+ +
=
+ +
(26)
3.6 The calculus of the speed’s loop
We pick a speed transducer with a transfer coefficient:
. TC V
TV
rN
U
k =
O
(27
)
The inertial summary momentum of the drum and
motor:
( )
2 2 2
/
M T M B T TO R
J J J J m R R i
E
= + = + · ÷ 28)
Where:
B
m =10 kg ;
T
R =0,15m;
TO
R =0,05m
The transfer function of the speed regulation object:
( )
.
.
2 2
3
( ) ( ) /
2
2 1
OR V BC TV r r
OR V
C C
H S H S k p k J S
k
S T S T S
µ µ
E
= · · + · =
=
+ +
(29)
Where
.
1.346
ORV
k =
If we start from this transfer function, thanks to the
speed’s closed loop:
. 2
1
( )
(2 2 1)
d
d v
V C C
H S
T S T S T S
µ µ µ
=
+ +
30)
Then we get a pure proportional regulator for speed:
.
. . .
1 1
2
d
d v
RV
OR V OR V V OR V C
H
H
H k T k T
µ µ
= = = (31)
The speed’s loop’s transfer function closes with a
proportional regulator is:
( )
2 2
1/
( )
2 2 1 1
TV
BV
C C C
k
H S
T S T S T S
µ µ µ
=
+ + +
32)
But a pure proportional speed regulator does not provide
a stationary error reporting to the motor’s load couple.
The cable’s winding mechanism does not require a null
stationary error, which is why we choose a PI speed
regulator.
For simplifying the grant of the system, the whole drive
of the wiredrawer and of the winding mechanism is
equated to a transfer function of second degree.
Following this equation we get the following structural
scheme (fig.7.):
HRT(S)
DLT
Upv
1
1+TEPVS
HBV(S)
RTRTO
2
1
ired
ECUSk
Lk
FP
UTT
1
S
1
TT
FT
ΔV
Fig.7. The simplified structural scheme of the drive
system
The transfer function of the speed loop:
2 2
0 0
( )
2 2 1
AE
BV
k
H S
T S T S
=
+ +
(33)
Where:
0
2 0.01
CF
T T s = =
.
0
1 1
2
Cu fir
T T
AE EPV
TV r k
E S
R R
k k
k i L
÷
= ·
(34)
1
2
RT
AE T
k
k T
µ
= (35)
4. THE MODEL OF THE WIREDRAWING
MACHINE’S CONTROL SYSTEM
The Simulink model of the wiredrawing machine’s
integrated control system (fig.8) contains drives of : the
module of wiredrawing, the mechanical parts’
movement equations, and wire annealing and winding.
The mathematical models of the wiredrawer’s drive
contain transfer functions of the drive motor and of the
frequency converter. The scalar drive of this motor is
made of the following reason: the wiredrawer does not
require a drive with high dynamical parameters, the
motor having functioned on its natural characteristic,
without feedback loops.
The cascade vector control system if the winding
drum’s motor speed is made of an outer loop of the
active stator current I
s y
=I
r
with the RCA regulator, the
outer speed loop (RV) and the correction loop of the TT
transducer’s tension force.
The mathematic model of the wiredrawing and winding
machine’s parts’ contains the following relations [10]
.
2 1
2 2
.
2
( ) ( ( ) ( ))
( )
( )
( )
1
( ) ( )
( )
Cu cond
T LM LM
k
T
LM M
red
M din
E S
F S V S V S
L S
R S
V S
i
S M S
J S
e
e
E
¹ ·
= ÷ ·
¦
¦
¦
¦
= ·
`
¦
¦
= ¦
¦
)
(36)
where:
F
T
– tension force;
V
LM1
wire’s linear speed;
V
LM2
winding mechanism’s drum’s linear speed;
S
cond.
conductor’s section;
L
k
lathe’s work length;
R
T
drum’s radius;
E
Cu
elasticity coefficient of the metal’s wire.
When modeling of the annealing module, because of the
load’s active character, the frequency correction of the
phase shift was excluded, and the load’s impedance has
a constant value. The converter is esteemed with a first
degree element, and the force section has the following
relation as basis:
2
ind S S
P I R = · (37)
Drive module of
wiredrawing machine
Module drive winding mechanism
Annealing module
Work Machine
Prescribing element
of acceleration
prescribing
tension force
Ms1
Ms2
W 1 2
tension force
power the induction
element's
W, M1
W, M2
V liniar 2
Uc1
Uc
magnetic fluxi
Ms
prescribed tension
force
Tension correction
Engine speed M2
Ms
Uc
W, M1
W, M1
W, M2
Fig.8 The Simulink model of the control system
5. SIMULATION RESULTS
Based on the developed model the transitional processes
at start, acceleration and deceleration of the vector
control winding machine’s drive, the study of the wire’s
tension force in dynamical modes, the dependence of
the transmitted power to the inductor of the annealing
module compared to the wire’s linear speed, adjusting
the regulators’ processes etc.
From fig.9 and fig.10 a following fact is observed: the
control system of the annealing module ensures the
proportional regulation of the element’s energy
depending on the wire’s linear speed, after it has been
wiredrawn.
An overregulation of the tension force can be observed
when simulating the winding systems, without
considering the reaction of the tension force, (fig.11)
which may lead to tearing of the wire. As a result, in the
control system, a tension s force transducer was
introduced for eliminating of this overvoltage and for
ensuring the prescribed value (fig.10.).
6. CONCLUSIONS
In order to improve the regulation indices and to gain in
productivity of the wiredrawing machine a single
control system was developed through integration of the
4
6
8
10
2
V, m/s
5 10 15 20 25 30
winding and wiredrawing machines’ drive control, as
well as of the annealing module, subsystems. Based on
the transfer functions the mathematical model for the
system: of automatic regulation for the wire’s tension
force and of regulation of energy flux for the annealing
module depending on the wire’s linear speed has been
eveloped.
Fig. 9. The variation of the wire’s linear speed
The computer simulation of the developed control
system proves: the adequate behaving of the
wiredrawing machine for different variations of the
prescription signals and for different perturbations; the
optimization of the dynamic and static processes vs. the
quickness and exclusion of oscillations and
overregulation of the controlled dimensions.
5 10 15 20 25 30
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
P, W
T, s
5
0
5
10
15
20
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
T,s
F, N
References
1. S.Kalpakjian, S.Schmid, Manufacturing engineering
& technology. PrenticeHall, 2006.
2. R.N. Wright. Wire technology: process engineering
and metallurgy. Elsevier, 2010.
3. Фетисов Г.П. и др. Материаловедение и
технология металлов. M.: Высшая школа. 2001.
4. Drawing technology. www.sampsistemi.
com/.../13146.html
5. Solutions for your wiredrawing machine.
www.automation.siemens.com/.../wiredrawing
machines.aspx
6. Wiredrawing Machines and Accessories
http://morgankoch.com/
7. B24 stainless steel wiredrawing machine.
http://factory.dhgate.com/cablemanufacturing
equipment/b24stainlesssteelwiredrawing
machinep44716833.html
8. Utilaj pentru producerea cablulu. /www.tehelectro
sv.com/index.php
9. N.Golovanov, I Şora. Electrotermie şi
Electrotehnologii. Vol.1. Ed. Tehnică, Bucureşti,
1997. ISBN 9733111449.
10. V.Cazac. Sistem de trefilare microprocesoral cu
motoare asincrone. Teză de licenţă, Chişinău, 2010.
Fig. 10 The variation of the induction element’s
emited energy
Fig. 11 The tension froce when regulating
without a reaction loop
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time (Seconds)
F,[N]
Fig. 12 The tension froce when regulating with a
reaction loop
The drive system of the winding machine The winding machine’s drive system maintains the prescribed speed and tension force to avoid breaking the wire. which cause appearance of eddy Fig. The drive system of the wiredrawing machine annealing through the Joule effect [9]. without feedback loops. 2. regulating necessary speed to overcome the drawing force to the the annealing module and regulating the winding prescribed speed. The control system of the annealing module RT UTT Blocul de comanda vectorială CF2 M2 TΩM2 TT fir BLF φrez Tφs Ppr. The operating principle of this module is based on the induction of a electromotor tension into the drawn wire. machine. It contains an asynchronous motor 10 and a vector control frequency converter 11.4) is represented the simplified structure of the winding mechanism’s vector drive. has imposed the integration in a single control system The wiredrawer’s drive system must develop the the 3 processes: regulating the wiredrawer. on the friction factor in the dies of the wiredrawing and the problems that occur. like wire tear. mostly. metal is obtained. free of inner stress.1.2 1 12 11 6 9 5 7 4 3 8 10 Fig. between the drum and the processed wire by it.2.2 The functional scheme of the control system of the wiredrawer and of the annealing module ului cu modul de recoacere currents thus producing the necessary heat for the 2. which consists of heating. The temperature for annealing can be higher or lower than of the critical. ∑ RP RF CFînaltă S TP TV fir Annealing is a way of thermal processing. maintain and sudden chilling a plastic and soft. VECTOR CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE WINDING MECHANISM In the following scheme (fig. The motor does not require a drive with high dynamical parameters. Vpr Bloc de prescriere a acceleratiei CF1 M1 TC ML 2. 3. in which the pillar elements of this drive are . It The analysis of the processes which take place when depends. a frequency converter with scalar control 9. The wiredrawing process takes place at a speed of 50 Temperature’s adjusting according to the wire’s speed m/s (averaging 2025 m/s). The structural scheme of the control system 3. The drawing force is is made through the onephased converter of high developed by the traction drums and the friction force frequencies 12. at which the metal suffers inner changes.3) asynchronous motor 8. The system consists of: an mechanism (fig.3. thus it functions with its natural characteristic.
The scheme has 3 contours with subordinate regulating of the internal of current. which ensures the simplest structure of the SRA. In case the wire is not a whole component of the regulator it drives the regulator into saturation. the signal from the tension force regulator’s exit will start to rise until saturation. decreasing the influence force. The regulating of the wire’s tension force at winding takes places in a direct way. ry 0 . BCRB is calculus block of the winding’s radius. Esx 1/RE 1+TSS KrLr 1+TrS ψrx KTCM KTF UTF UPV UPT HRT(S) BL Upv HRV(S) J∑ Jo MS Calculul mome ntului de inertie KTF Upc HRCA(S) KCE 1+TCFS Usy ψrx Esy 1/RE 1+TSS Isy 3 pkr 2 1 J∑S HBob(S) T URCA KTCA BCTP ωT BCRB KTV KTT Fig. RF UPF URF URCM HRF(S) BLCM URC HRCM(S) RCM CF KCF 1+TCFS TCM KTCM TF KTF Usx Esx CS 1/RE 1+TSS Im CR KrLr 1+TrS k R . To stop a full winding it is necessary to decrease the limit value of the tension regulator until it reaches nil. The law of modification for the wire’s tension force is ensured by the correcting block of tension force’s prescription. 4 Simplified structural scheme of vector regulation system for speed and tension force [2] The correction block of the prescribed tension BCTP represents a proportional controller with a factor: R kCPT k R 1 TB (1) RB Where chosen reactive current Isx=Im and the outer loop of the magnetization flux (fig. Changing the regulating modes is performed automatically after the influence of the tension regulator over the limit block. αβ/xy and reverse xy/ αβ and αβ/ABC. considering that the angular velocity of the drum is prescribed to be higher that the linear speed of the drum. At wire breakage a reverse process will start. prescribes the necessary speed to an empty winding.radius of the winding.5 Structural scheme of the magnetic flux’s canal The turning system of coordinates xy is oriented after the rotor flux r rx r .1 Calculus of the magnetic flux’s canal The structural scheme of the magnetic flux’s canal at a vector control includes two loops of automatic regulation: the internal loop of the magnetization Fig. The winding’s speed will also start to rise. This scheme does not take into consideration the ABC /αβ. speed and the outer contour of the wire’s tension force. being of the winding’s radius on the tension k R =1. .radius of the winding’s drum.presented. The multiplication and division device provides the granting of the speed contour at function with weakened magnetic flux or with changing the inertia summary moment at the motor shaft. RB . The force of stretching will start to rise and the tension regulator will exit saturation and allow the contour of UPF + HRF(S) HRCM(S) KCF 1+TCFS stretch force regulator to work.5).reserve coefficient. The limit value is prescribed by the signal Upv. using a transducer for determining the tension force in the wire. RTB . 3.
C S As a result.C H RCM (S) Hd (S ) (1 TS ) S dc H CRC ( S ) 2kCRC T S (7) For tuning of the RF flux controller we use the same criteria of the module with it’s desired function 1 d H d .c ( S ) H BC ( S ) SX U PC ( S ) 1 H d . if the following equals d H d .the inverse transfer function of the TCM.C (11) TI . F T F (18) (8) (9) .01 S The isodrome constant of the flux regulator.the small constant (uncompensated by the controller) of the current’s loop The RCM’s regulation object H ORC S H CF S H CS S H TCM S The RCM’s controller be a PI type. The frequency converter can be approximated with a first order element U S kCF (2) H CF S SX U c ( S ) 1 TCF S Where: U 2 Us (3) kCF sx.005sinner constant of the CF without a prescription integrator element.F S 16) 2 2T F S 2T c S 2 2T c S 1 The necessary transfer function for the RF is analogically determined.C S H RCM S H OR. kCF kTCM RE The current loop’s transfer function H d .C 2kOR.2 Calculus of the magnetization current’s loop Having determined the parameters of the motor. relative simply. belonging to the winging mechanism.c S (5) 2T c S T c S 1 Where: T c .F (17) H RF (S) H OR.C S . F Tr 0.F T F S where: T F 2T c 2TC F 0. in this case: TIZ . F kTF k r Lr kTCM 1 T S 1 T S C S kOR. gaining a PI controller Hd (S ) (1 TS ) S d. If a Hall type current transducer is chosen.813 S The RF’s integration constant: TI kOR.C= TS=0.3 Calculus of the exterior loop of flux The transfer function for the flux transducer U (S ) kTF RF V / Wb rx (13) kCF kTCM 1/ RE 1 TCF ( S ) 1 TS ( S ) 1 TTCM S Transfer function of this loop controller: kCRF H CRF (S) HSC (S) H CR (S) 2 2 (2T S 2T S 1)(1 Tr S ) (6) where: kOR .F ( S ) kOR.248 S The RCM’s integration constant is: kCF kTCM T c (10) RE The coefficient of RCM’s proportional piece: T kRCM IZ .c S kOR. introduced in the prescription current’s circuit H OR.005 S .C TI . then it can be described through a noninertial element U kTCM = TCM.N Tuning of RCM is made. N U CN 3 U CN TCF=0. based on the criteria of the module of the transfer function of the closed loop of current 1 d H d .In the outer loop a magnetization current’s limit block is introduced (BLCM).C S H d . 3.C T c 2 The transfer function of the closed current loop I (S ) H d .C (1415) Where: TC TCF 0. 3. The time constant of this controller compensates the big constant of the loop – the rotor constant TIZ. we make the calculus for the system regulation loops.c ( S ) 1/ k 2 2 TCM 2T c S 2T c S 1 (12) where: 1 / kTCM .N (4) I SX.
5 coefficient is introduced U kTCA TCA. N 21) ICA.248 S.5 A.5 Calculus of the active stator current’s loop The active stator current transducer must be chosen with the same exit signal UTCA. motor’s speed has.the uncompensable constant of the current’s loop.15m.C 2kOR. the inner loop of the active stator current.N=3.C 25) TIC The transfer function of the current’s closed loop: 1 / kTCA H BC ( S ) 2TC S 2 2TC 1 (26) 2 2TC S 2 2TC 1 kRCA 3.005 S .F 3.The proportional amplification constant: T kRF IZ . A TC S 23) U sy. This canal includes three DMD multiplicationdivision devices of the parameters’ at the RV’s exit.346 If we start from this transfer function. Is y =Ir with the RCA regulator and an outer speed loop (RV) and a speed transducer (fig.6). winding drum’s drive. N Whre: TIZ .V ( S ) H BC ( S ) kTV r p kr / J S 2 (29) kOR. A TC (24) The RCA’s amplification coefficient Upv KTV Fig. The current. Thanks to the current’s open loop.C S 1 TS S TI .005 S U CN TC TCF 0.4 Calculus of the motor’s speed vector control canal H CF ( S ) 19) Where: kCF kCF 1 TCF S 22) The calculus of vector control canal of the.F TI . RTO =0. at the RCA’s entrance a voltage divider with a 0.V S T2C S 2 2TC S 1 Where kOR.C TS 0. we get an current PI controller with transfer function: H RCA ( S ) 1 TIZ .5 V at a nominal current of 3.V 1. As consequence. and another one at the current loop’s exit UTF KTF Upc HRV(S) J∑ Jo MS URCA KTCA HRCA(S) KCE 1+TCFS Usy 1/RE 1+TSS Isy 3 pkr 2 1 J∑S ψrx Esy .v ( S ) 2 TV S (2TC S 2TC S 1) Then we get a pure proportional regulator for speed: .6 The simplified structural scheme of the speed’s vector control channel The division devise at the RV’s device is determined by the fact that this controller generates a prescription signal for the motor’s electromagnetic couple. the prescription signal for the active U stator current: U PCA RV (20) UTF The division device at the RV’s exit is meant for the couple’s protection according to drum’s inertial variable momentum. TCF 0. N The converter’s transfer function is the same as in the reactive stator current’s case TIZ . TI . connected in cascade. being twice as much. which is proportional with the r flux and the active stator current ISA ≈Ir.V (27 rN ) The inertial summary momentum of the drum and motor: 2 2 2 J J M J T J M mB RT RTO / iR 28) Where: m B =10 kg . thanks to the speed’s closed loop: 1 d 30) H d . RT =0. . 3.05m The transfer function of the speed regulation object: 3 H OR.6 The calculus of the speed’s loop We pick a speed transducer with a transfer coefficient: U kTV TC .C S 2kOR.
When modeling of the annealing module. VLM1wire’s linear speed. Lk ( S ) (36) The speed’s loop’s transfer function closes with a proportional regulator is: 1/ kTV H BV ( S ) 32) 2 2TC S TC S 2 2TC S 1 1 But a pure proportional speed regulator does not provide a stationary error reporting to the motor’s load couple.7. Scond.V TC (31) 4. ECuelasticity coefficient of the metal’s wire. the mechanical parts’ movement equations.V TV 2kOR.H RV d H d .conductor’s section. THE MODEL OF THE WIREDRAWING MACHINE’S CONTROL SYSTEM The Simulink model of the wiredrawing machine’s integrated control system (fig. The mathematical models of the wiredrawer’s drive contain transfer functions of the drive motor and of the frequency converter.8) contains drives of : the module of wiredrawing. and wire annealing and winding. because of the load’s active character. Following this equation we get the following structural scheme (fig. The mathematic model of the wiredrawing and winding machine’s parts’ contains the following relations [10] FT ( S ) (VLM 2 ( S ) VLM 1 ( S )) VLM 2 M 2 ( S ) RT ( S ) ired . The simplified structural scheme of the drive system The transfer function of the speed loop: M 2 ( S ) M din ( S ) (33) H BV ( S ) k AE 2T S 2T0 S 1 2 0 2 Where: T0 2TCF 0. RTdrum’s radius. the whole drive of the wiredrawer and of the winding mechanism is equated to a transfer function of second degree.7. kTV 2 ir Lk (34) where: FT – tension force. the outer speed loop (RV) and the correction loop of the TT transducer’s tension force.v 1 1 H OR. The cable’s winding mechanism does not require a null stationary error. 1 J (S ) ECu Scond .): FP UTT TT 1 DLT HRT(S) Upv 1 1+TEPVS ΔV RTRTO 1 2 ired ECUSk Lk 1 FT S HBV(S) Fig. The cascade vector control system if the winding drum’s motor speed is made of an outer loop of the active stator current Is y =Ir with the RCA regulator. For simplifying the grant of the system. Lklathe’s work length. the motor having functioned on its natural characteristic. The converter is esteemed with a first degree element. and the force section has the following relation as basis: 2 Pind I S RS (37) k RT 1 2k AE TT (35) . the frequency correction of the phase shift was excluded. and the load’s impedance has a constant value. without feedback loops. VLM2winding mechanism’s drum’s linear speed. which is why we choose a PI speed regulator.01 s k AE kEPV 1 RT RT 0 1 ECu S fir .V kOR. The scalar drive of this motor is made of the following reason: the wiredrawer does not require a drive with high dynamical parameters.
Based on the transfer functions the mathematical model for the system: of automatic regulation for the wire’s tension force and of regulation of energy flux for the annealing module depending on the wire’s linear speed has been eveloped. subsystems. CONCLUSIONS 6 4 2 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fig. From fig. 6. without considering the reaction of the tension force.). An overregulation of the tension force can be observed when simulating the winding systems.11) which may lead to tearing of the wire. adjusting the regulators’ processes etc. As a result. as well as of the annealing module. The variation of the wire’s linear speed winding and wiredrawing machines’ drive control. M1 Uc Drive module of wiredrawing machine magnetic fluxi Uc1 Prescribing element of acceleration Ms Engine speed M2 prescribed tension force Ms2 Tension correction Module drive winding mechanism prescribing tension force W. the study of the wire’s tension force in dynamical modes.9 and fig.10 a following fact is observed: the control system of the annealing module ensures the proportional regulation of the element’s energy depending on the wire’s linear speed. 9.Ms Uc Ms1 W. after it has been wiredrawn. M2 Work Machine tension force V liniar 2 Annealing module power the induction element's Fig. In order to improve the regulation indices and to gain in productivity of the wiredrawing machine a single control system was developed through integration of the .10. the dependence of the transmitted power to the inductor of the annealing module compared to the wire’s linear speed. SIMULATION RESULTS V. (fig. M1 W. in the control system. m/s 10 8 Based on the developed model the transitional processes at start.8 The Simulink model of the control system 5. a tension s force transducer was introduced for eliminating of this overvoltage and for ensuring the prescribed value (fig. M2 W. acceleration and deceleration of the vector control winding machine’s drive. M1 W12 W.
tehelectrosv.html 8. Manufacturing engineering & technology. www.Cazac. /www.dhgate.s 20 Fig. 2000 T. com/.com/index. S. s 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fig.sampsistemi.aspx 6. B24 stainless steel wiredrawing machine. 11 The tension froce when regulating without a reaction loop .html 5. ISBN 9733111449. Wire technology: process engineering and metallurgy.com/ 7.Golovanov. W 12000 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 10000 8000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 6000 4000 Time (Seconds) Fig.com/cablemanufacturingequipment/b24stainlesssteelwiredrawingmachinep44716833. Bucureşti. M. I Şora.. Ed.. Utilaj pentru producerea cablulu. Teză de licenţă./wiredrawingmachines.1. Elsevier. 12 The tension froce when regulating with a reaction loop References 1.Schmid. Vol. www. 2006. 4. R. 2001. 2. N. Wright. 14000 P. the optimization of the dynamic and static processes vs. N 15 10 5 0 5 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 T. Tehnică.F. 10 The variation of the induction element’s emited energy 20 F. Фетисов Г. 2010. 10. Sistem de trefilare microprocesoral cu motoare asincrone.П./13146. http://factory. S. и др. 1997. 2010. Материаловедение и технология металлов. PrenticeHall. Chişinău.N.siemens. V.: Высшая школа. Wiredrawing Machines and Accessories http://morgankoch.[N] The computer simulation of the developed control system proves: the adequate behaving of the wiredrawing machine for different variations of the prescription signals and for different perturbations.automation.com/. Solutions for your wiredrawing machine. Drawing technology. 3.Kalpakjian. Electrotermie şi Electrotehnologii. the quickness and exclusion of oscillations and overregulation of the controlled dimensions.php 9...
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?