ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

MEMORANDUM
Date: October 17, 2006 To: Sharon Warycka, Instructor, Technical Writing From: Karyn Lewis, Student, Technical Writing Subject: TOPIC FOR ANALYSIS PROPOSAL

Proposal for Comparing Job Opportunities in Two Cities Introduction Every year RIT graduates from the School of Print Media stumble into the real world without heading in any real direction as to the best suited area in the US to expand their careers or interests. Summary of the Problem Many young professionals from this area stay in New York or the Northeast because the area is familiar and comfortable, but are unaware of the actual opportunities for professional development in other parts of the country. This lack of detailed knowledge may prevent them from really reaching their professional goals or settling in the life they wished for. Proposed Study I’d like to complete a comparative analysis of two cities for the quality of job opportunities for students after college graduation. This study will analyze the print and publishing industry in two separate regions of the United States in order to get a better understanding of the print and publishing industry nation-wide. Specifically, I will research the city of Rochester, New York and Phoenix, Arizona for possible job growth opportunities for students graduating from a 4-year Print Media program and seeking a long-term, professional career at a managerial level. Methods and Sources My goal in this analysis is to determine which part of the region print media students may be more successful in overall, and which area they might be most comfortable living (all aspects accounted for). I will research and compare the industry trends and market forecast for both states as well as living conditions. This will require a deep look into the demand for professional and technical workers, indicators for recruitment plans, salaries and wages, and many, many statistics. My primary data resources will be through RIT’s online library database research system. I will use professional studies and surveys done on the industry, as well as news items and personal statements as support. Conclusion Print Media students should graduate knowing what region of the US would be best suited for their own professional career goals and personal interests. My analysis of the cities of Rochester and Phoenix will provide valuable information on the print and publishing industry in two separate regions to ease the decision-making process.

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A Comparison of the Print Media Industry In Two Cities

for Professor Warycka Technical Writing Instructor Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, New York

by Karyn N. Lewis 0502-444-03 student

November 8, 2006

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743 Kimball Drive Rochester, NY 14623 November 8, 2006 Sharon Warycka Technical Writing Professor Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, NY 14623

Dear Professor Warycka: Here is my analytical report, A Comparison of the Print Media Industry in Two Cities. The research and writing structure of my report is based on audience and use, principles of organization, methods of development, and principles of document design. The audience and use profile is briefly and directly listed under the introductory paragraph of my report. This allows readers to determine quickly whether the document will be useful; whether it applies to them or not. The profile describes who would want the document and why, and what kind of background the audience would need to understand it and how much they should already know. I used partition and classification as strategies for organizing my document. This helped to determine what its parts are, what it is made of, what relates to what, and what belongs where. Putting the analysis in an outlined, structured form allowed me to make an organized list that helps the readers follow the material. In the development of this comparative analysis, I chose to use the RIT Cooperative Education Research site as my main source of information because it most directly related to my search requirements with the most relevant information. I determined which questions I would ask, explored a balance of views, researched the topic in depth, evaluated my findings, then interpreted the findings. To create an effective page design, I employed the use of headings, proper spacing, and listed items. These provide immediate clues as to how the document is organized and which ideas are most important, as well as how they relate. I’ve put a lot of thought into this report, and would be available to answer any questions. Please contact me at knl2821@rit.edu for reference.

Sincerely,

Karyn N. Lewis

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Contents
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TABLES & FIGURES INTRODUCTION Purpose Audience and Use Profile FINDINGS Print Media Industry Overview Salary Index Sectors Print Media Programs Nature of Work Job Outlook Print Media in Rochester Business Environment
Household Income Employment Businesses Rankings

2 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
8 8

Living Conditions
Population Climate Cost of Living Rankings

8 8 9 9 9
9

Print Media in Phoenix Business Environment
Household Income Employment Businesses Rankings

10 10 10 10
11

Living Conditions
Population Climate Cost of Living Rankings

CONCLUSIONS Overview of Print Media Best Business Environment Best Living Conditions RECOMMENDATIONS Make a Decision Determine Your Career Goals Decide Where to Live Consider Your Financial Situation WORKS CITED

11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 15

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Tables & Figures
Table 1 Industry Consolidation Chart Table 2 Household Income Distribution Chart – Rochester Table 3 Employment by Occupation Chart – Rochester Table 4 Household Income Distribution Chart – Phoenix Table 5 Employment by Occupation Chart – Phoenix 7 8 8 11 11

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Introduction
Purpose
Every year new RIT graduates from the School of Print Media enter the working world not knowing what they want to make of their careers or where they want to work. These students are unaware of the most opportune areas within the United States for growth and success in the print and publishing industry. Consequently, many of them stay in the Rochester area to seek out jobs because it’s familiar and comfortable, or choose not to pursue a career in the print media industry at all. Their lack of knowledge may prevent them from reaching their specialized goals or living the kind of lifestyle they dreamed. This is a comparative analysis of two individual cities for the quality of job opportunities for students after college graduation. The study analyses the print and publishing industry in two separate regions of the United States in order to get a better understanding of the industry nation-wide. Specifically, I researched the city of Rochester, New York and Phoenix, Arizona for possible job growth opportunities for students graduating from a four-year print media program and seeking a long-term, professional career at a managerial level. My goal for this analysis was to determine which part of the United States print media students may be more successful in overall, and in which area they might be more comfortable living. To do this, I compared the industry trends and market forecast for both cities, as well as in-depth living conditions. This required a deep look into the demand for professional and technical workers, indicators for recruitment plans, salaries and wages, and more. Print media students should graduate knowing which region of the U.S. would be best suited for their own professional career goals and personal interests. My analysis of the cities of Rochester and Phoenix will provide valuable information on the print and publishing industry in two separate regions to ease the decision-making process.

Audience and Use Profile
The following analysis is written for students studying print media and prospective students thinking of entering a similar college-level program. A basic understanding of and interest in the print media industry is helpful but not required. The purpose of this document is to inform individuals of the large range of opportunities within the print media industry and the considerations they need to make when choosing a place to live and work. It includes the many factors of the business and living conditions within specific regions needed in making a valuable comparison.

Findings
Print Media Industry
Overview Books, newspapers, and periodicals entertain, educate, and bring us the news we need to be informed citizens (Career Resource Site: Journalism & Publishing). They are an important outlet for critical thinking—informed and otherwise—that keeps the print media industry booming. The industry is competitive and fast-paced with especially high revenues in continually increasing advertising and information. In the print media industry, professionals, software and equipment, and the needs of customers are subject to an accelerated process of change. Companies in this industry constantly have to keep up with

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technological advances and immediately respond to the newest innovations. Despite these market requirements, there is an astounding number of private and public companies that tough the print media market today and do so successfully (Understand the changing Landscape). Some general facts about the print media industry:      Represents over $700 billion in global shipments Includes over 100,000 establishments worldwide Ranks in the top 5 employers for most G7 countries Are the world’s third largest user of energy and resources Contributes 6-10%, on average, to the GDP

Salary Index Print media professionals with a Bachelor in Science degree are expected to make between $27,000$45,000 annually, or an average of about $37,000 (Newcomb).

Sectors Print media is a large industry, which is in part why it is so appealing for young students seeking a career with a wide range of opportunities growing on the edge of technology. The industry includes businesses with core revenues tied to paper and electronic delivery of sales, manufacturing, technology, and distribution (Understand the Changing Landscape). It’s comprised of seven sectors, including:        Printers Publishers Advertising Agencies Converters Print Supply Chain Technology Providers Content Management Companies

Print Media Programs Print media programs today are not solely focused on print. They are designed to educate students on the latest cross-platform and hybrid technology trends in the ever-changing industry. ―Print media programs involve all aspects of cross-media digital printing and publishing. They include print as well as an array of electronic and digital media, many of which are used as an extension of print communications or in place of them‖ (Newcomb). Undergraduate programs in print media are geared toward providing students with managerial and technical knowledge. Within these programs, students can concentrate their studies in multiple sectors of the industry. Print media students usually have access to a wide range of equipment and resources that represent the industry’s most cutting edge printing and digital media technology (Newcomb). They typically use both Macintosh and Windows workstations configured with the latest imaging, publishing, multimedia and color management software, as well as a wide array of scanners, color output, and proofing devices available.

Nature of Work Students of print media programs are prepared for startup employment in the areas of pre-press and file preparation, customer service, production, plant operations, color management, quality control, electronic publishing, digital imaging, publishing, e-commerce print services, sales, technical support, and more

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(Newcomb). Having taken a large variety of courses within the fields of printing and new media, graduates leave with an innovative, integrated skill set, a solid technical background of cross-media digital workflow processes, and a keen understanding of current and predicted issues and trends. They are trained as potential professionals in the print media industry.

Job Outlook Publishing has recently been marked with massive mergers, consolidations, decreased circulation, and lower advertising revenues. As a result, the job market is stagnant, with employment expected to grow more slowly than other occupations through the year 2012, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Career Resource Site: Journalism & Publishing). Job opportunities are likely to rise and fall with advertising revenues. However, print will never die and the industry is vastly changing—focusing on digital and hybrid crossplatform efforts, including the web. In this case, the demand has never been greater for print media professionals with both print and multimedia experience. Professionals who have their goals set early can jump in the industry with incredible return, though it will be more and more competitive with better and more versatile technology. The graph on the following page demonstrates the changing demand in the print media industry over time.

Table 1: Industry Consolidation Chart (Romano)

Print Media in Rochester
Business Environment The Rochester regional economy rests on a high level of technological innovation, a firm base of university research, and the availability of a skilled workforce (big packet). Currently, the hot business sectors for the Rochester area include biotech, photonics, imaging science, software development, and telecom. Demand for technology professionals is ultra-high in Rochester, ranked 20th in the nation for high-tech output (CRS: City Profiles – Rochester). Rochester’s largest industry sector is service, with 36 percent of business and 34 percent of the workforce, and the development and manufacturing of cameras, film, and related products is large and well-known in the immediate region (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

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A few important factors to consider when comparing the business environment of two cities for success in the print media industry include overall average income for the area, income for specific managerial-level positions in the area and employment trends, as well as business and city rankings.

Household Income. The average household income in the Rochester metro area for 2002 was $60,087, with the average household income $42,873 in surrounding areas (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The average for the U.S. was $64,338. The following chart shows the distribution of household income for the Rochester area and the U.S.
Table 2: Household Income Distribution Chart – Rochester (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Employment. A typical Print Production Coordinator working in Rochester, NY earns a median base salary of $48,082 (Career Search: Salary Wizard). General and Operations Managers made an average of $42.62 an hour in 2001 (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The chart below shows the percentage of employees per occupation. Note that the Professional and Related occupation classification is higher than the U.S. average in both the city of Rochester and the metro area.
Table 3: Employment by Occupation Chart – Rochester (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Businesses. Rochester is home to a few large corporations rated as the best companies to work for, including Wegmans Food Markets and Eastman Kodak Company (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Rochester is also home to the fast-growing business Execuscribe. Eastman Kodak is rates in the Fortune 500, and Wegmans is in the Forbes 500.

Rankings. One of the most direct and obvious methods of comparing the business environments of two regions is looking at national rankings. These rankings look into several important factors that make a

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successful business atmosphere and rate cities accordingly. Some of the more notable rankings related to the business environment of Rochester include:  Rochester was ranked #25 out of 268 metro areas in terms of its Creativity Index. The Creativity Index is a mix of four equally weighted factors: the Creative Class (scientists, engineers, architects, designers, writers, artists, musicians, or any profession where creativity is a key factor) share of the workforce; innovation; high-tech industry; and diversity. This ranking was listed in The Rise of the Creative Class, 2002 (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Rochester metro area was listed in the 2002 Forbes/Milken Institute list of ―Best Places for Business and Career.‖ It ranked #164 out of 200 metro areas, with the criteria including salary growth; job growth; number of technology clusters; overall concentration of technology activity relative to the national average; and technology output growth (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Rochester metro area was in Entrepreneur magazine’s list of ―Best Cities for Entrepreneurs‖ in 2002. The area ranked #58 out of 61 in the large city category, with the criteria including entrepreneur activity; small-business growth; economic growth; and risk (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Rochester metro area made Inc. magazine’s list of the ―50 Best Large Metro Areas to Start and Grow a Company‖ for 2000. The area ranked #49 out of 50, with the criteria including Significant Starts (firms started in the last 10 years that still employ at least 5 people); and Young Growers (firms 10 years old or less that grew significantly during the last 4 years) (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). In ING Group’s 2001 ranking of the largest metro areas according to the general financial security of residents, the Rochester metro area ranked #47 out of 125. Criteria included Earnings and Wealth Potential, Safety Net (insurance and retirement savings); Personal Threats; and Community Economic Vitality (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Living Conditions Rochester is said to have developed into a city of both small-town charm as well as high-tech sophistication. Its comfortable size, cutting-edge industries, big-city cultural amenities, and easy access to the great outdoors are just a few of the reasons why it’s New York’s third-largest urban area (CRS City Profiles – Rochester). In comparing the living conditions of two cities for comfort and lifestyle, a few general factors must be considered. These include the population, climate, and cost of living for the area, as well as overall city rankings.

Population. In the metropolitan area of Rochester, the population is about 219,733 people within a 36.44 square mile area (CRS City Profiles – Rochester). In the surrounding Monroe County, the population is 736,738, in a 663.21 square mile area.

Climate. January highs reach 30˚F with an average low of 16˚F. July temperatures reach a high of 80˚F with lows in the upper 50’s (CRS City Profiles – Rochester). The distinct weather allows residents to take full advantage of a variety of outdoor activities year-round.

Cost of Living. Rochester has a fairly low cost of living—14 points below the national average, according to Yahoo! real estate (CRS City Profiles – Rochester). However, the median household income hovers at about $30,000, which is roughly half the national average. The average price for a four-bedroom, two-bath home is Rochester is about $250,000—which is peanuts compared to other cities. Rental prices have risen, but a two-bedroom apartment typically does not go over $900.

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Rankings. One of the most direct and obvious methods of comparing specific living conditions between two regions also includes looking at national rankings. Some of the more notable rankings related to living conditions in the Rochester area include:  In the Millennium Edition of Places Rated Almanac, Rochester ranked #30 out of 354 metro areas. The criteria included the cost of living; climate; crime; transportation; job outlook; education; the arts; health care; and recreation (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Rochester ranked #64 out of 143 in the smaller city category in Ladies Home Journal 2002 ranking of ―America’s 200 Best Cities for Women,‖ the criteria including crime; lifestyle; education; jobs; health; child care; politics; and the economy (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Rochester was selected as one of the ―Best Cities for Families‖ by Child magazine in 2001. It ranked #7 out of 100 cities surveyed, with the criteria including the number of pediatricians per capita; proximity to a children’s hospital; immunization rates; infant mortality rate; air quality; water quality; school spending; pupil-teacher ratio; availability of parks/green space; nearby recreational opportunities; average commute time; number of sunny days; average cost of a 3-bedroom home; unemployment rate; future job growth; crime rate; percentage of children under 5; and mandated minimum child care ratios (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Rochester ranked #114 out of 200 cities in the 2002 Ladies Home Journal ranking of the 200 largest cities in terms of safety, with the criteria including violent crimes; crimes against property; and rape (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Rochester metro area made Industry Weeks’ fourth annual World-Class Communities list in 2001, ranking #77 out of 315 metro areas. The criteria included MSA Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) per manufacturing employee; and MSA percent share of the U.S. manufacturing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Print Media in Phoenix
Business Environment The Phoenix metro area population has grown to nearly three million—an increase that continues to make Phoenix an attractive location for companies that are expanding into the fields of electronics and communications (big packet). Phoenix’s thriving economy is in large part to its diverse industries such as high-tech manufacturing, tourism, financial services, and trade (CRS City Profiles – Phoenix). Companies providing services account for about 3 in 4 jobs in Phoenix. Experts on the city’s economy predict this sector will continue to grow (CRS City Profiles – Phoenix). For the use of direct comparison of the business environment of Phoenix to Rochester for success in the print media industry, I have listed the overall average income for the area, income for specific manageriallevel positions in the area and employment trends, as well as business and city rankings for Phoenix. Household Income. The average household income in the Phoenix metro area for 2002 was $67,357, with the average household income $63,892 in surrounding areas (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The average for the U.S. was $64,338. The following chart shows the distribution of household income for the Rochester area and the U.S.

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Table 4: Household Income Distribution Chart – Phoenix (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Employment. Arizona is recognized for its favorable business climate. The city has suffered zero or negative job growth in only 4 of the past 54 years (CRS City Profiles – Phoenix). A typical Print Production Coordinator working in Phoenix, AZ earns a median base salary of $46,299 (Career Search: Salary Wizard). General and Operations Managers made an average of $36.80 an hour in 2001 (big packet). The chart below shows the percentage of employees per occupation. Like Rochester, note that the Professional and Related occupation classification is higher than the U.S. average in both the city of Phoenix and the metro area.
Table 5: Employment by Occupation Chart – Phoenix (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Businesses. Phoenix is also home to one large corporation rated in as one of the best companies to work for, including Avnet (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Several businesses, including Avnet, Phelps Dodge, and Pinnacle West Capital are rated in the 2002 Fortune 500, and Shamrock Foods is rated in the 2002 Forbes 500. Phoenix is also home to several fast-growing businesses, including Auction Systems Auctioneers & Appraisers; CIW Services; Keller Williams Realty Ahwatukee Foothills.

Rankings. In looking at the business environment of Phoenix, I again researched the national rankings ranking for the area. I chose the same rankings as those of the Rochester area for a direct comparison. Some of the more notable rankings related to the business environment of Phoenix include:  Phoenix was ranked #22 out of 268 metro areas in terms of its Creativity Index. The Creativity Index is a mix of four equally weighted factors: the Creative Class (scientists, engineers, architects, designers, writers, artists, musicians, or any profession where creativity is a key factor) share of the workforce; innovation; high-tech industry; and diversity. This ranking was listed in The Rise of the Creative Class, 2002 (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

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The Phoenix metro area was listed in the 2002 Forbes/Milken Institute list of ―Best Places for Business and Career.‖ It ranked an outstanding #17 out of 200 metro areas, with the criteria including salary growth; job growth; number of technology clusters; overall concentration of technology activity relative to the national average; and technology output growth (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Phoenix metro area was in Entrepreneur magazine’s list of ―Best Cities for Entrepreneurs‖ in 2002. The area ranked #29 out of 61 in the large city category, with the criteria including entrepreneur activity; small-business growth; economic growth; and risk (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Phoenix metro area made Inc. magazine’s list of the ―50 Best Large Metro Areas to Start and Grow a Company‖ for 2000. The area ranked #1 out of 50, with the criteria including Significant Starts (firms started in the last 10 years that still employ at least 5 people); and Young Growers (firms 10 years old or less that grew significantly during the last 4 years) (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). In ING Group’s 2001 ranking of the largest metro areas according to the general financial security of residents, the Phoenix metro area ranked #66 out of 125. Criteria included Earnings and Wealth Potential, Safety Net (insurance and retirement savings); Personal Threats; and Community Economic Vitality (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Living Conditions Phoenix is the capital of Arizona, a hub of the Southwest, and the heart of a metro area of more than 3 million people. With this many people comes a large community with years of organized community services to maintain the natural beauty of the land and its blend of Spanish, Native American, and cowboy culture, and to keep it law-abiding and just as exciting as ever. For the use of direct comparison of living conditions of Phoenix to Rochester for comfort and lifestyle, I have listed the population, climate, and cost of living for the area, as well as overall city rankings for Phoenix.

Population. In the city of Phoenix, the population is about 1.6 million people in a 469 square mile area (CRS: City Profiles – Phoenix). In the surrounding metro area, the population is 3.5 million in 2,000 square miles. Climate. Average temperatures in July reach a high of 105˚F and a low of 79˚F. In January, the average temperatures reach a high of 65˚F and a low of 39˚F (Big packet). The mild climate allows for year-round outdoor activities (CRS: City Profiles – Phoenix). Cost of Living. Living in Phoenix is far less expensive than in other large cities (big packet). The cost of living index is 98.25—lower than the national average of 100. A $62,000 salary is the equivalent to $100,000 in Los Angeles (CRS: City Profiles – Phoenix). However, housing prices have risen drastically in recent years, The median price for homes in the Phoenix area range from $458,690 to $150,410. Average rents in Phoenix range from $600 to $650 for a one-bedroom apartment and around $700 for a twobedroom.

Rankings. As for the Rochester region, I also looked into the national rankings related to living conditions in the Phoenix region, using the same rankings as used for Rochester for a direct comparison. For the Phoenix area, these include:  In the Millennium Edition of Places Rated Almanac, Phoenix ranked #10 out of 354 metro areas. The criteria included the cost of living; climate; crime; transportation; job outlook; education; the arts; health care; and recreation (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

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Phoenix ranked #41 out of 143 in the smaller city category in Ladies Home Journal 2002 ranking of ―America’s 200 Best Cities for Women,‖ the criteria including crime; lifestyle; education; jobs; health; child care; politics; and the economy (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Phoenix was selected as one of the ―Best Cities for Families‖ by Child magazine in 2001. It ranked #22 out of 100 cities surveyed, with the criteria including the number of pediatricians per capita; proximity to a children’s hospital; immunization rates; infant mortality rate; air quality; water quality; school spending; pupil-teacher ratio; availability of parks/green space; nearby recreational opportunities; average commute time; number of sunny days; average cost of a 3-bedroom home; unemployment rate; future job growth; crime rate; percentage of children under 5; and mandated minimum child care ratios (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). Phoenix ranked #95 out of 200 cities in the 2002 Ladies Home Journal ranking of the 200 largest cities in terms of safety, with the criteria including violent crimes; crimes against property; and rape (Career Search: Top Rated Cities). The Phoenix metro area made Industry Weeks’ fourth annual World-Class Communities list in 2001, ranking #9 out of 315 metro areas. The criteria included MSA Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) per manufacturing employee; and MSA percent share of the U.S. manufacturing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Career Search: Top Rated Cities).

Conclusions
Overview of print media
This is a fast-paced, constantly changing world of communication. The primary objective of Print Media Programs is to prepare students for employment in printing, publishing, and allied industries. The graphic communications industry is in an exciting transition period, moving from a mature industrial sector to an emerging information sector (Newcomb). Technology, particularly the digitization of knowledge, is reshaping the graphic communications industry with the convergence of design, computers, telecommunications, and new media and Internet-based approaches. Print media professionals must understand the changing landscape of the industry and help simplify and integrate these new developments into their business environments. The key to success in this industry is to find new value propositions as quickly as possible. Overall, successful employees in the field will be able to uncover market opportunities, create targeted plans, and define the metrics for success. All in all, to be the most productive and accomplished professional you can be, you must do your research and determine the best place to live according to the business environment as well as your own personal lifestyle and needs.

Best Business Environment
Collecting similar data in the form of facts and ratings from two separate cities allows for a direct comparison of the business environment of each. It is simple to look from one section to the next in order to find the exact data needed. In comparing the business environments of Rochester, New York and Phoenix, Arizona, several factors show that Phoenix may be the better choice. This is based on the overall average income for the area, income for specific managerial-level positions in the area and employment trends, as well as business and city rankings. In comparing the information discussed in Findings, the overall average income, the income for specific managerial-level positions and employment trends, as well as business and city rankings all support the favor of Phoenix over Rochester. The average income is higher in Phoenix, the employment growth is positive in Phoenix, and all of the major business-related and city rankings listed is scored higher than the

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same in Rochester. There is no doubt as to the better business environment in support of the Print Media Industry.

Best Living Conditions
Collecting similar data in the form of facts and ratings from two separate cities allows for a direct comparison of the living conditions of each as well. It is simple to look from one section to the next in order to find the exact data needed. In comparing the living conditions of Rochester, New York and Phoenix, Arizona, several factors again show that Phoenix may be the better choice—though the factors are more up to discretion than that of the business environment. This is based on the population statistics, the climate, the cost of living, and the overall rankings related to living conditions. The population is much larger in Phoenix, but this allows for the opportunity of more consistent and reliable business growth. The climate is much hotter in Phoenix, but the temperatures aren’t as humid and are therefore more comfortable than the hot temperatures in Rochester. Also, the Phoenix climate is more predictable and nice all-year round, though Rochester citizens can experience a range of extreme conditions. The climate factor is based on personal preference. The average prices for homes is much less in Phoenix than in Rochester, though the cost of living is several points higher than that of Rochester (though both are still less than the national average). In general, the major living-conditions related rankings show that Phoenix may be a safer and healthier place to live.

Recommendations
Make a Decision
For the majority of students, life after college is something that’s both anticipated, but also somewhat feared. Students can’t wait to get their faces out of textbooks and behind desks in good companies. However, the transition takes some careful planning and consideration.

Determine Your Career Goals. New graduates need to decide on exactly what they want to do in terms of career plans. Landing a post-graduate job can take time and patience, but it varies greatly from person to person and region sought. To avoid accepting a position in a company that is irrelevant to their field of study and personal interests, they need to have a plan of action ready to implement, with a backup plan in case things don’t turn out the way they expected. Even after reaching their goal of obtaining a college degree, they still have many more goals to achieve. They have to consider what they want to do with their professional life; climb the corporate ladder or own their own business, and decide what’s important in their personal lives; whether or not they want to own a home or have kids, etc. Decide Where to Live. For independent students, living under someone else’s rules is unacceptable. These students need to decide what part of the country they really want to live in and relocate as soon as possible, taking in consideration the business environment and living conditions for specific areas.

Consider Your Financial Situation. There is an important financial factor to consider as well, and that is student loan repayment. Unless the rules have changed, student loans carry a 6- month grace period. This means that students have six months to get settled and find a job, before their student loan repayment will begin.

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Works Cited
―Career Resource Site: City Profiles – Phoenix.‖ Wetfeet.com. 2006. RIT Office of Cooperative Education & Career Services. 24 October 2006 <http://www.wetfeet.com/cb/schools /cityprofiles.asp?citypk=19&pageid=1&dpid=21>. ―Career Resource Site: City Profiles – Rochester.‖ Wetfeet.com. 2006. RIT Office of Cooperative Education & Career Services. 24 October 2006 <http://www.wetfeet.com/cb/schools /cityprofiles.asp?citypk=37&pageid=1&dpid=21>. ―Career Resource Site: Journalism & Publishing.‖ Wetfeet.com. 2006. RIT Office of Cooperative Education & Career Services. 24 October 2006 <http://www.wetfeet.com/cb/schools /industrylist.asp?dpid=21>. ―Career Search: Salary Wizard.‖ Salary.com. 2006. RIT Office of Cooperative Education & Career Services. 24 October 2006 <http://careersearch.salary.com/salarywizrd/layutscripts/ swzl_newsea rch.asp>. ―Career Search: Top Rated Cities.‖ CareerSearch.net. RIT Office of Cooperative Education & Career Services. 24 October 2006 <http://beta.careersearch.net/client/top_cities/>. ―Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2006-2010 – Industry Preview.‖ Pricewaterhouse Coopers International Limited. 2006. 26 October 2006 <http://www.pwc.com/extweb/industry.nsf/docid /8CF0A9E084894A5A85256CE8006E19ED?opendocument&vendor=>. Newcomb, Shauna. ―School of Print Media BS: Career Overview for Students.‖ RIT Office of Cooperative Education & Career Services. 26 July 2006. 24 October 2006 <http://www.rit.edu/~964www /student/stu_alum_pdfs/CareerOverviews/PrintingUndergradCO.pdf>. Romano, Frank. ―A Status Report on Printing Industry Demographics.‖ RIT Printing Industry Center. 25 April 2003. 26 October 2006 <www.print.rit.edu/pubs/romano_april2503ppt.pdf>. ―Understand the Changing Landscape for NEW VALUE Propositions.‖ Raine Media. 2005. 24 October 2006 <http://www.rainemedia.com/print/index.asp>.

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