Abstract - Aerial Infrared Thermography

ng Thermal Mapping as an Asset Management Tool for Universities, Large Campuses, Buildings
Questions, Comments or Suggestions to: Matthew Reuter (267)738-5816 Email: airs@comcast.net

This is a mosaic infrared (IR) image a ~ 1000-acre campus

Aerial Infrared Imagery

agery is imagery that shows heat. It is often in the form of a grayscale picture whose shades of gray indicate the differences ivity of objects in the image. Typically, objects in the image that look lighter are warmer and those that look darker are cts are the warmest in the images. Black objects are the coolest. Any object with a temperature above absolute zero ( 0 Celsius) emits infrared radiation. An infrared picture only shows objects which emit infrared wavelengths in the 3000-5000 in visible light wavelengths of 400 to 700 nanometers are detected, but only because they also emit heat. An example of eet light that can be seen in the IR imagery. The image may be modified in a number of ways to enhance its value to the end alse-color image or adjusting the brightness and contrast of a grayscale image. The digital images are captured directly to on a CD-ROM.

Aerial IR imaging using fixed-wing aircraft

orts with high-angle, straight down infrared images, which reflections and capture large areas at once, making the imagery and the report less expensive to produce.

captured straight-down or ‘plan view’, the report is clear, concise and easy to understand because infrared images, visual CAD® drawings are reconciled. Used are high-resolution infrared imagers and digital recording equipment.

Typical installations of infrared imaging and digital data systems

Aerial Infrared Steam System, Hot Water and Chilled Water Line Imagery

are almost always readily visible with infrared imaging, even when no notable problems exist. This is due to the fact that no lation, there is always heat loss from the lines which makes its way to the surface. Problem areas are generally quite evident, signatures that exceed the norm. Steam line faults normally appear as an overheated line or as a large hotspot in the form of the line. Overheated lines often occur when the steam line is located in a conduit or tunnel. If there is a leak in the line it will t with escaping steam. If a steam line is buried directly in the ground with an insulating jacket, a leak will usually saturate it largely ineffective and will begin to transfer heat into the ground around the leak, producing the classic bulge or balloone line. Finally, some leaks may show up as an overheated manhole or vault cover. Manholes or vaults that contain steam which are leaking will often heat the covers to warmer than normal temperatures.

e a little misleading, unless one understands and interprets the relative brightness and temperature of a given line correctly. ame temperature from one end to the other that passes under different surfaces and materials can exhibit a variety of or example, five different apparent temperatures will result from the same temperature line that runs under a grass-covered ot, a concrete loading dock, a gravel-covered area and bare earth pathway.

ter (HTHW), medium temperature hot water (MTHW) and low temperature hot water (LTHW) lines benefit similarly to ndensate return systems, with an associated degree of difficulty in surveying because of the declining temperature difference water supply (CHWS) and Chilled water return (CHWR) lines are usually cooler than the surface temperature and can be and leaks as well.

Example of mosaic thermal and visible image (red area box shown on next slide)

Example of mosaic thermal and visible image (steam line leaks)

Steam and condensate return lines heat the ground above the line (insulation failures)

Steam and condensate return lines heat the ground above the line (steam line leak)

Steam line leak and heated water leaking upward, to the ground surface

Buried chilled water line cools the surface above the line

Aerial Infrared Roof Imagery

ontamination often manifest themselves as warmer (lighter colored) areas that may be nebulous in shape and sometimes though they are commonly found in linear or puddle-like shapes. The linear shapes many times follow low areas, drainage ams. Puddle-like round or oblong shapes often form around roof penetrations such as mechanical equipment, standpipes, t areas are lighter in color because the latent heat (from daylight sunshine) in the trapped water mass is greater than in the n or roof substrate. After sunset when the roof structure cools down, wet areas of roof insulation and other materials allowing our sensitive infrared cameras to detect the sources of heat and record them for later analysis.

moisture surveys while standing on the roof is not the best method because imagery from a walk-on survey is not as useful me laws of physics apply to both aerial IR and on-roof IR. A dry roof, low winds and no rain are needed on the night of the ndow" when the roof is radiating heat differently from wet and dry areas is longer with aerial infrared because slight over large areas are recognizable. A high angle of view and high resolution are needed to produce usable imagery.

Example of mosaic thermal and visible image (red area box shown on next slide)

Example of entrained roof moisture in roofs

Example of 4” GRE thermal image of a roof

Example of thermal image, visible image and CAD drawing

Photograph

Thermograph

CAD Drawing

Example of mosaic visible image of a low-sloped roof

Example of mosaic thermal image of a low-sloped roof

Example of CAD drawing of a low-sloped roof

Example of mosaic visible image of a low-sloped roof with CAD drawing overlay

Example of mosaic thermal image of a low-sloped roof with CAD drawing overlay

Aerial Infrared Imagery of Waterways Systems

lines, storm water drain discharges and illegal taps into storm water drainage lines can often be identified by their thermal g certain times of the year. As these sources of pollution leak, seep or empty into creeks, streams, rivers and lakes, their rom their surroundings and they can be pinpointed accurately from the air. Cool temperatures (lower than 40 degrees F) and hours) conditions are required. As a general rule, the lower the ground surface and the water surface temperatures, the more

rway will exhibit near homogenous temperature patterns except for areas where another liquid has joined the flow. This flow s warm as compared to the surface water in a creek, stream, river or lake - particularly during cooler times of the year, due the ground a short distance below the surface. Leaks from nearby lines often come to the surface through lateral transfer to a ke bed, or to a slope leading down to the surface of the water. These leak areas and the warm plume of liquid joining and h the body of water are visible in the thermal infrared spectrum due to the difference in temperatures of the two liquids. Late ng are well suited to this type of inspection because of the cooler water temperatures (ground and surface waters) and o view by foliage is minimized. Ground water seeps and outfalls of all types are also easily distinguishable for similar

IR image of a storm drain outfall (expanded view shown on next page)

IR image of a storm drain outfall

IR image of a storm drain outfall

ein are trademarked and copyrighted (1988-2007). All data, images or any other documentation is the exclusive property of Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc. (SITS). The hic Services, Inc. ,” “SITS,” and other trade names, trademarks, service marks, logos and other commercial symbols (collectively the “Marks”) are hereby protected. All content, images, pecifications, standards, procedures, software or other technology, whether patented, licensed, or designated by SITS, are and shall be the sole property of SITS. User shall have no right xpress written consent of SITS.