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60 km/hr.com .100 inches. 5.1. Vehicle’s estimated total weight is 270kg. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Weight. and high performance off road vehicle. Hydraulic disc brakes with ethylene glycol are there.280 kg Ground clearance.6N-m at 2520 rpm 305cc 2. with 3 forward and 1 reverse gear connected with engine through a coupler. versatile. firstname.lastname@example.org m/s2 Turning radius. Ground clearance of 12 inches is provided. We are putting our full effort to make our vehicle perform best in every section of event. Anti-Ackermann steering geometry is provided along with adjustable steering mechanism for safety purpose of driver. simulate and manufacture a “fun to drive”. Engineering students are given a challenge to design. . ALTO’s tires in the front with 23 inches of diameter while BAJA Trax Tires with 25 inches of diameter in the rear.com 8. Engine of Briggs and Stratton engine with 10 HP OVH 305 intek model: 205432 Power Maximum Torque Swept volume 8 Kw or 10hp at rpm 18. Negative camber of 2 degrees is provided in front suspension.5. Dimensions: INTRODUCTION Baja is an international event sponsored by Mahindra and Mahindra. 9. Rear wheel drive using M & M champion gearbox 3.12 inches Stopping distance. Our team “MNIT Racetrack Raiders” consist of 25 members from mechanical engineering department of our college who are fully dedicated to there work. safe. Unlike convention two brake pedals are provided. durable. Suspension system of double wishbone and ALTO’s knuckle along with some modifications is used. one to operate only rear wheels and one to operate all the wheels. VEHICLE PERFORMANCE: Our main purpose behind making this vehicle is to achieve the following performance targets: Speed. 4.5m Deceleration. 7. 6.BAJA SAE INDIA DESIGN REPORT Team registration ID : 57920 Author : Upendra Yadav Co-Author : Kartikey Sharma Author’s Mail Id: uyadav1991@gmail. Our main focus was to improve the previous version and to put some innovation in it to make it perform more effective and efficient.
of weld joints = 61 Total Weld Length = 10. 1 inch and Thickness 0. Estimated Cost of Manufacturing = 25000 Rs.D.47 m Welding Equipment =7000 Rs. Miscellaneous = 3000 Rs.3D VIEW: ROLL CAGE Design consideration: Weight of roll cage = 7o kg Length of Material (including scrap) = 71 No.120 inch . Material used: 1018 Mild Steel tubes with O.
Which in our case comes out to be Ultimate tensile 446.20 0.05 (max) 98. Max stress obtained is 53851 We have applied a standard force of 10G.10 0.0 g/cc 205 GPa Modulus of 205 GPa elasticity Kg Weight / meter 1.30 0.6 0.083 inch) (thickness= 0.80-1.Factors Overall Cost Availability AISI 4130 Around Rs.40-0.8 MPa 1018 Mild Steel 365 MPa 440 MPa 15 % 0.12 inch) Other factors: . FEA results: Front impact – Material properties and selection criteria: Chemical properties (weight %) : Element C Mn P S Si Cr Mo Fe AISI 4130 0.60 0.8 =34300N.035 (max) 0.1 Kg (thickness= 1.25 1018 mild steel 0.26 Mechanical Properties: Property Yield strength AISI 4130 370.81-99.14-0.6-0.9 0.7-8. 25000 Not in North India.15-0.27-0. Maximum deflection obtained was 0.29 7.28-0. Very few dealers in Sout monopoly.30 7.33 0.04 (max) 0. Roll cage was constrained from the critical points of RRH and standard force was applied on the front portion of roll cage.15-0.722e-03.89 MPa strength 30 % Elongation % Poisson ratio Density 0.87 g/cc 10*350*9.04 (max) 0. Von misses stress diagram was obtained as shown.
Which in our case comes out to be 5*350*9. Max stress obtained is.8 = 17150N. Standard force was applied on the front top portion of roll cage at an angle of 45 degrees from the vertical. Von misses stress diagram was obtained as shown. Max stress obtained is 37955 Front and rear bump test- .678-03.8 = 17150N.00505. von misses stress diagram was obtained as shown. Roll over— We have applied a standard force of 5G .Which in our case comes out to be 5*350*9. Maximum deflection obtained was73709.Side Impact— We have applied a standard force of 5G . Maximum deflection obtained was 0. Standard force was applied on the SIM and lower frame of roll cage.
It is most compact. Steering is made adjustable so that driver can adjust it according to his comfort during endurance tests. Also this posture requires less space since an inclined leg occupies less length than a fully stretched one. comfort is attained on the area of legs between hips and toes. Brakes and clutch paddles are at a distance of 42 inch from centre of driver’s seat. Geometry We chose to have Ackerman steering geometry.Hence we performed multiple trial-and-error tests to find the optimal angle in such a way that the terrain is visible to driver along with maximizing the comfort to the driving. The intention of Ackermann geometry is to avoid the need for tires to slip sideways when following the path around a curve. 2. The objective is to predict the postures that people will choose as a function of comfort to the occupant. Exact calculation shows the geometry is nearly Ackerman. STEERING DESIGN REPORT Design Rack and Pinion Steerin g Feedback 9 Ease of 8 Operation Maintenanc 9 e Cost 10 Equitablene 10 ss Total 46 Recirculati Electron Hydraul ng Ball ic Power ic Steering Steering Power Steering 8 8 8 9 10 43 9 10 8 6 9 42 10 9 5 7 7 38 Static 2. Continues members are there as far as possible. When the wheels are steered to left or right. The key advantage of this approach over alternatives is that it provides optimal accuracy for the most important aspects of posture for vehicle design. typically hip and eye locations. The more it is simple more it becomes easy to fabricate symmetry. This industry-proven steering method is reliable and was chosen to ensure the safety of the driver.5G force is applied on front and rear suspension support.5 inch. This system was properly machined and was centered as per the dimensions of our vehicle. We have kept the dimensions to minimum simplicity. Design iterations: 1. The geometry is closely achieved by a trapezoidal arrangement. Also the seat is been off-setter from RRH minimizing the heat conduction through firewalls. Lower base and upper base of roll cage are kept almost mirror image of each other so it is easy at the same time applying sheets would be easier. the asymmetry causes inside wheel to steer Driver seat is inclined at an angle of 15 degrees from vertical. The position of the steering rack was carefully positioned for movement over the suspension's entire arc to avoid any bump steer. Seat is itself provided with Head-rest whose thickness being 3. By placing the driver's seat in inclined position. A 14 inch rack and pinion system with a steering ratio of 14. track width. 3. we chose to use a rack and pinion system. 4. Driver Ergonomics: Development of posture-prediction models for vehicle occupants is an important component of driver ergonomics research. human effort at steering wheel and the desired response of steering system. While designing the steering system the constraints that we possessed were centre alignment of steering system. Based on our decision matrix. .5 : 1 (that of maruti alto) was selected for the steering of the vehicle.
Initially. Effective braking performance in minimum distance Reduce braking effort Resistant to abrasion and brake fade Should work effectively even in hostile conditions of track 5. The turning radius of the vehicle as calculated was found. simplicity and efficiency were given prime importance.to a greater angle than the outside wheel. 2 tandem master cylinders. 4 calipers. Therefore the vehicle turns around a common center and a common radius. meaning that the brakes may not be able to grip and braking may not occur. Braking system be vacuum assisted to reduce the braking effort. Drum brakes are not as easily service as the Disc type. brake lines and proportional valve. Inside wheel turns at lower radius and outside wheel traverse a greater radius. which can cause the shoes to distort and cause vibration to the entire braking system. BRAKE SYSTEM DESIGN DETAILS: . Differential steer from a trapezoidal tie-rod arrangement We will be using dual circuit tandem master cylinder. 3. 2. Overheating can also cause brake fade. Because dual circuit master cylinder will ensure the application of brake in the case of leakage of brake line. Front axle dynamic load = W1+ (a/g)*(H/L)*W Rear axle dynamic load = W2− (a/g)*(H/L)*W BRAKE DESIGN REPORT DESIGN COSIDERATIONS: To retard the vehicle To have the proper control of vehicle. static and dynamic normal forces were calculated using the weight of the vehicle and the relationship of the centre of gravity to the overall length and width of the vehicle. While designing the brake system. Debris and stones can restrict the smooth working of drum brakes. These forces were multiplied with coefficient of friction to obtain brake force. The main aspects in brakes design are-+ 1. diagonal split braking system. The ackerman turning geometry diagram Ackermann steering geometry is a geometric arrangement of linkages in the steering of a car designed to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn needing to trace out circles of different radii. thus causing the vehicle to turn about a common center of rotation of all four wheels. The heat from the braking can cause the shoes to lose their gripping abilities. To bring it to standstill. We have decided to use disc brakes operated hydraulically on all four wheels best suited for our vehicle due to the various problems associated with drum brakes as discussed below: Drum brakes are apt to overheat. Light in weight Apparatus used: 4 Disc Rotors. Two independent diagonal lines are used. in order to provide braking in case of failure of one line. Drum brakes on the other hand are a much heavier brake type than disc brakes. 4.
= 16.67)/2 m= mass of vehicle (kg) = 50000 J v= velocity of vehicle (m/s) Brake balance: Front axle load = W1 + (a/g)*(H/L)*W Rear axle load = W2 – (a/g)*(H/L)*W = 120 + 0.23 Wb = wheelbase Braking force: BF = Mag BF = braking force = 360*0.350/1.8*0.67 m/s 5.5*9.4 N A = deceleration (g units) G = acceleration due to gravity Dynamic axle load: Mf = ((1-ψ) + (Xa)) M :ψ = Mr/M = 240/360 = 2/3 Mr = static rear axle load Mf = 165.525 H = vertical height of COG to ground (m) = 0. We complete this objective by . Of friction between road and tire Stopping distance: Aa = V/((v/a) + 0.88 m/s2 225 225 0.3g) Aa = average deceleration for whole stop = 0.55*9.08 30 29 kgf/cm2 60km/hr.67*16.8 G = acceleration due to gravity = 1300 N µr = coeff.2 = 166.e.54 Kg M = total vehicle mass A = deceleration (g units) M = total vehicle mass Mf = dynamic front axle load Wheel lock force: F =Mf*g*µr Mf = dynamic axle mass = 165.8 M = mass of vehicle = 1940. 60 km/hr Heat dissipation: H = (m*v*v)/2 H= heat dissipated = (350*16.55*(14/60)*360 = 240 – 46.2 kg = 193.Relative height of COG: X = H/Wb X = relative height of COG = 0.5 V = test speed A = deceleration S = v*v/2gAa G = acceleration due to gravity = 28 m S = stopping distance CALCULATIONS: Input Data Master Cylinder Diameter (mm) Caliper Piston Diameter (mm) Knee Pressure Maximum velocity assumed Deceleration Front Disc Radius (mm) Rear Disc Radius (mm) Coefficient of Friction disc/pad Weight of Vehicle (kg) Wheelbase (mm) Pedal ratio Height of COG from ground (mm) Coefficient of friction tyre/road COG from front wheel centre (mm) COG from rear wheel centre (mm) 19.6 360 1225 4:1 350 1020 510 All the calculations done assuming the speed to be highest i.8 kg SUSPENSION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: The overall purpose is to provide c u s h i o n i n g a c t i o n t o t h e driver by absorbing the shocks from the road and also help the tires to maintain good traction.
ground clearance at the time of testing and finalized Adjustable suspension arms that is variable length of arms allows us to manually adjust camber and toe angles SLA(short long arms suspension .performing different test like: Ball joint play test.6inches Front Upper Suspension Arm Front Lower Suspension Arm REAR SUSPENSION SPECIFICATION: Rear upper suspension arm .7 1.unequal length double wishbone suspension) due to this suspension there is no excessive tire scrubbing SPECIFICATIONS: FRONT SUSPENSION SPECIFICATIONS: Double wish bone upper arm length Lower arm length Roll centre height Motion ratio(suspension travel/wheel travel) Suspension frequency Total wheel travel Shocker travel Front 13inches 15.5inches 6inches . spring succumb test and choosing unequal parallel arm double wishbone suspension for both front and rear.8 mm Reason: Wishbone suspension give more movement of the tires and hence the vehicle for the same movement of the spring Independent suspension In double wishbone suspension force is distributed at 5 points on roll cage unlike at 1 point in Mc person strut(used at rear suspension last year) It can be slightly adjusted for different parameter of suspension tuning like camber angle. Bounce test Stress Analysis. Ground clearance required. and space limitation Spring constant(k) Caster Camber King pin Scrub radius Toe 19N/mm +5degree -2degree 12degree . The shocks will be set to provide the proper dampening and spring coefficients to provide a smooth and well performing ride.5inches - Weight of vehicle Driver with accessories Total weight with driver Sprung masses Unsprung masses Ground clearance 270Kg 80Kg 350Kg 280kg 70kg 12 inches or 304. CONSTRAINTS and DESIGN SELECTION CRITERIONS: Weight.1hz 8inches 5.
Spring Rate=18 Wheel rate = (.1 hz Rear Motion Ratio=0.5inches 5.75 N/mm Suspension frequency = 187.75/78) = 75.5inches . Spring rate calculation Motion Ratio= (d1/d2) 1 d1Distance from spring centre line to control arm inner pivot center (in) or (mm) d2Distance from outer ball joint to control arm inner pivot center (in) or (mm) SF = (187.8√ (6. Angle of inclination=10˚.78 cpm = 1.5inches 3.1inches 26N/mm 10degree - Sprung Weight.265 hz Suspension Arms’ FEAs: . Spring Rate=26 Wheel rate = (0.6) 2 (18) (Cos 10˚) = 6.Angle Correction Factor Front Motion Ratio=0.265hz 4.38/52) = 65.38 N/mm Suspension frequency = 187.Vehicle corner weight less unsprung weight *cpm= cycles per minute Suspension frequency in hertz= SF/60 WR = (MR)2 (C) (ACF) 3 WRWheel Rate (lbs/in) or (N/mm) CSpring Rate (lbs/in) or (N/mm) MRMotion Ratio ACF.9 cpm = 1.7.7)2 (26) (Cos 40˚) = 12.8√ (12.Calculations: 1. Angle of inclination=40˚.6.7 1.8) √ (WR/sprung weight) SFSuspension Frequency (cpm)* WRWheel Rate (lbs/in) or (N/mm) 2 Rear Lower Suspension Arm Specifications: Double wish bone upper arm length Lower arm length Roll center height Motion ratio(suspension travel/wheel travel) Suspension frequency Total wheel travel Shocker travel Spring constant(k) Caster Camber King pin Scrub radius Toe Rear 12inches 13.
3. Joints and Output Shaft Angularities: Machined axles of Piaggio Three Wheeler. 1000xG Some of our calculations for normal orientation are tabulated in the table below: Hence for maximum speed of 60 km/hr. Axles and C. Joints Shaft angularities:25 degree.8 litres.v. Maximum torque produced by the engine is 18. To find the speed of the vehicle corresponding to different gear ratios. The differential and gearbox are housed in a single housing and universal joint have been provided inside the differential itself. Coupler: A customized coupler to link the output shaft of Briggs and Stratton engine provided by BAJA SAE INDIA.1. our estimations show that when rpm varies from 2140 to 2900. Four forward gears and a reverse gear with a gear lever having wired linkage. the torque produced by engine is nearly constant and is around 18N-m.6N-m at 2520 rpm. Fuel Tank: Inbuilt fuel tank of capacity 3.V. Transmission: We have decided to use rear wheel drive with rear engine. Specification of Gearbox: It is a M&M champion gearbox: . the maximum speed of the vehicle is 60 km/hr as it is the maximum allowable speed of the vehicle as per the BAJA SAE rulebook. We are using the gear box in normal orientation. Further. 2. we selected tires of 25 inch outer diameter as rear wheels. the formulae used is : Velocity on road = 2π×N×R×60 POWERTRAIN DESIGN Mountings: Piaggio Three-Wheeler Rubber Mountings. Maruti 800 C. A sequential transmission is used instead of manual transmission which uses ‘H’ pattern.
109D 1.38 ft3/min or ACFM Where.Normal orientation : Gear Number Final Gear Speed Ratios (km/hr) Max. reactive type muffler is used. on floor and to cover the essential parts.65D 1. Reinforced Nylon CI CI Hard Steel Cast Iron Steering 2 Tie Rods3U-JointsSteering ColumnAdjustable steering attachmentSteering WheelPower Train CouplerAxlesGear LeverDifferential and Gear BoxGearsAccelerator PedalClutch PedalDrip PanDrain PipeBumper Pipes8 Tabs2 ShockersMisc SeatVehicle Top TetrahedronSeat Belt- Mild Steel Cast Iron Mild Steel Mild Steel Polymer We are using aluminium sheets on sides.45:1 18.70:1 11.38 ACFM Calculation: Maximum emission = (Vs * max. Continuous silencer Due to low frequency. Speed (km/hr) D=25 inch 14 23 38 59 05 First Second Third Fourth Reverse 31.38D 2 Brackets 2 spacer2 brake pedals2 master cylinder2 Reservoir BottleBrake pipes` 4 Callipers4 Disc RotorsSuspension Bushes40 TabsSuspension armsKnuckle Modification attachmentShockerWheel assembly Tyres4 Hubs4 Knuckles4 Bearings4 Knuckle Pin- Cast iron Cast iron Cast iron Hard steel Plastic Aluminium Hard steel Hard steel Nylon Cast iron 1018 Mild Steel Pipes Cast Iron Alloy steel Exhaust: Maximum emission: 19. rpm of engine)/2 = 305 * 3600/2 = 549000 cc/min = 19.82D 2. a helmet is included in its dress. BODY PANEL AND SAFETY EQUIPMENTS: Hard Steel Hardened Steel Cast Iron Mild Steel Mild Steel Aluminium Cast Iron Tin Rubber ENGINEERING BILLS OF MATERIALS: Roll cage – TubesStrips for mountingsBody panelBrake system1018 Mild Steel Mild steel Aluminium sheets 1018 Mild Steel Mild Steel Alloyed Steel Rexene and Rubber Aluminium Sheets Fire resistant polymer . On sides we are using two layers of aluminium sheets between those we will be doing wiring of brakes and clutch separately.08:1 0.35:1 55.40:1 7. A fire extinguisher will be there on the vehicle considering safety in case of any hazard.82D 0. on RRH. Vs = Swept volume Type of muffler used: Reactive or reflective type muffler with reverse flow. 5 harness seat belt will be provided to driver which will prevent our experienced driver from any kind of jerk along with this a fire proof suit.
S. RATAN Automobile Engineering – R. Now we can proudly say “yes.B. Design of Machine elements – V. Due to this project we have started appreciating mechanical engineering and its wide area. JAZAR A Field Guide to Automotive Technology – ED SOBEY. I would also like to express my gratitude towards our Mechanical Engg Department and my college for supporting us and believing in us.com www.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The designing of this kind of vehicle is not a one man task and our team is the best of example of show team work. I would also like to thank BAJA for providing us such an excellent opportunity for learning and enhancing our skills and showcasing a real life project. I want to thank my team for helping me during difficult times and suggesting me the best ways. GILLESPIE Vehicle Dynamics – REZA N.B. SUSPENSION DYNAMICS – Wm. we are the automobile engineers” and this is all due to BAJA. REFERENCES Advanced Vehicle Technology – HEINZ HEISLER Race Car Vehicle Dynamics – MILLIKEN AND MILLIKEN Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics –THOMAS D.BHANDARI. GUPTA www.wikipedia.com . my college and my team(the best team I ever worked with).google. C. Mitchell Design of Machines – S.
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