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CH.

19 ACIDS AND BASES


Big Picture Idea: 1. Acids and bases have many distinct properties that translate into both laboratory and real-life scenarios. Big Picture Question: 1. How does the strength and concentration of an acid or base relate to its conductivity, production of hydrogen gas in the presence of an active metal and its ability to titrate or neutralize? Suggested Resources Homework Assignments Classwork Assignments Laboratory Activities

Formative Assessments Textbook Chapter 19

Key Terms: 1. acid 2. base 3. indicator 4. neutralization reaction 5. salt 6. hydronium ion

7. amphoteric 8. self-ionization of water 9. pH/pOH 10. acid-base titration 11. equivalence point 12. end point 13. titration

Directions: Use this information as a general reference tool to guide you through this unit. Dont hesitate to ask your teacher for help! By the conclusion of this unit, you should know the following: 1. Acids and bases have a number of differentiating characteristics. 2. The strength of an acid or base is determined by the degree of ionization/dissociation. 3. The pH scale measures both the concentration of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution. 4. Different indicators are used to identify whether an unknown solution is acidic or basic. 5. Titration is a technique used to determine an unknown concentration of acid or base using the principle of a neutralization reaction. 6. Know the common strong acids and strong bases By the conclusion of this unit, you should be able to do the following: 1. Identify acids and bases based on physical and/or chemical properties. 2. Identify Arrheniius acids and bases and BronstedLowry acids and bases. 3. Write the equation for a neutralization reaction and know what products are always made. 4. Calculate pH, pOH, concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions given the necessary information. 5. Describe an acid base titration. 6. Solve titration (neutralization) problems to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base given information from a titration experiment. 7. Identify the ion concentrations in pure water 8. Describe the pH scale 9. Explain how indicators are used in titrations and how they are chosen(specifically know litmus and phenolphthalein) 10. Know the difference between an endpoint and an equivalence point

Properties and Common Reactions of Acids and Bases


ACIDS Strong Acids: HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI iodic acid HNO3 nitric acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid HClO4 perchloric acid

Weak Acids: HC2H3O2 - acetic acid (found in vinegar ) Acids always start with ______. Properties of Acids (acidic): ________ taste (think of sour patch kids) ________ pH, less than ____ The ___________ the pH the ___________ the acidity Corrosive Destroy the properties of a _______ (neutralization) Indicators- blue litmus paper turns ______ - red litmus paper stays ______ Are _____________________ (conduct electricity in water) React with metals to produce ____ gas : HCl + Mg Common Examples: Acetic acid (__________): major ingredient in vinegar Hydrochloric acid (______):stomach acid Sulfuric acid (________): most commonly produced chemical in the world Phosphoric (__________): found in Coke and major ingredient in Lime- Away Carbonic (________):found in carbonated water, cause of limestone caverns

Review of Formula Writing for Acids: binary acids: hydro___________ ic acid 3

ex: HCl: ___________________________ _____________________________ H2S: ___________________________ _____________________________ tertiary acids:

HBr: H3N:

ate-ic ite-ous (rememberic I ate it!) _________________________________

ex: sulfuric acid (sulfate)

nitric acid (nitrate) _________________________________ HC2H3O2 ex: sulfurous acid (sulfite) _________________________________ _________________________________

nitrous acid (nitrite)_________________________________ H3PO3 BASES Strong Bases: Group I Hydroxides (ex) NaOH) Group II Hydroxides (ex) Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 Weak Bases: NH3 Properties of Bases (called basic or alkaline): _____________ taste ________ pH, greater than ____ The ____________ the pH the _______ the basic or alkaline Corrosive Destroy the properties of an ___________ (neutralization) Indicators- blue litmus paper stays _______ - red litmus paper turns ________ Are _________________ (conduct electricity in water) _________________________________

Common Examples : 4

Sodium hydroxide (_________):lye, used in manufacture of soap ammonia (_________): used for cleaning when dissolved in water Magnesium hydroxide (_________): in suspension, forms milk of magnesia (used for indigestion or as a laxative) Sodium bicarbonate-(_________): baking soda, used for deodorizing, cleaning, antacid (not recommended), neutralizing acids

DISSOCIATION OF WATER (Self- ionization of Water): Two ___________ molecules reacto one loses an H+ ( proton) (making the _________ion = hydroxide) o one accepts a proton (making the __________ion = hydronium ion) H2O + H20 _______ + _______ No one molecule remains ionized for very long . o Few water molecules are ionized at one time. This gives a concentration of [ H3O+] of _________ and a concentration of [OH-] of _________. o So pure water is a (good / poor ) conductor of electricity due to few ions in solution.

The Ion Product of Water Kw =[ H3O+] [OH-] Kw is the concentration of ____ions times the concentration of ___ ions [ ] means the ___________ (molarity) of that substance in solution Kw =[ H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10 -14 M at 25 C When [ H+] = [OH-] the solution is _________ If the concentration of one increases, the other must _____ to keep the product equal to 1.0 x 10 -14 M

pH SCALE pH = -log [H+] pH + pOH = 14 10-14 M pOH = -log[OH-] [H+] x [OH-] = 1.0 x

Acids: pH < 7 Bases: pH > 7 Neutral: pH = 7 Try: Solution 0.010M HCl 0.00010M HNO3 1 x 10-6M HI 0.0010M NaOH Windex Lemon Juice Sprite Ammonia Milk 12 3 4 2 8

Acid or Base?

[H+]

[OH-]

pH

pOH

ACID/BASE (NEUTRALIZATION) REACTIONS:


In aqueous solutions, acids increase the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. On the other hand, bases increase the hydroxide ion (OH ) concentration. When an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution the H+ and OH- ions combine to form water. These ions thus "neutralize" one another: Acid + Base Salt (Ionic Compound) + Water Examples of neutralization reactions: a. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)

b. H2SO4 + 2 NH4OH (NH4)2SO4 + 2 HOH Practice: Write and balance the following neutralization reactions 1. ___HNO3 + ___KOH _________ + __________

2. ___ H3PO4 + ___ NaOH _________ + __________

3. Lithium hydroxide + sulfuric acid

4. Barium hydroxide + phosphoric acid

5.

Acetic acid + sodium hydroxide

TITRATION

An acid-base titration is the experimental set-up of a neutralization reaction. It is used to determine the concentration of an acid or base by exactly neutralizing the acid/base with an acid or base of known

Phenolphthalein Endpoint Titration Calculations: Examples. # Hs in solution = # OHs in solution Formula for solving NEURTRALIZATION (TITRATION) PROBLEMS (#H+in the acid)(M of acid)(Volume
of acid

) = (#OH-in the base)(M of base)(Volume base)

of

1. If 25 mL of 1.5 M of HCl is required to completely neutralize 35 mL of NH4OH, what is the concentration of the ammonium hydroxide? ( )( )( )=( )( )( )

2. How many mL of 0.5 M NaOH is needed to neutralize 16 mL of a 0.35 M H2SO4? 8

)(

)(

)=(

)(

)(

# Hs in solution = # OHs in solution Formula for solving NEURTRALIZATION (TITRATION) PROBLEMS (#H+in the acid)(M of acid)(Volume (Volume of base) Guided Practice: a. What volume of 0.15M sodium hydroxide solution is needed to react with 12.2mL of 0.350M hydrochloric acid? ( )( )( )=( )( )( )
of acid

) = (#OH-in the base)(M of base)

b. What volume of 0.250M nitric acid is needed to react with 20.5mL of 0.10M lithium hydroxide? ( )( )( )=( )( )( )

You Try It: c. Find the molarity of an unmarked hydrochloric acid solution of 14.51mL of the solution reacts completely with 12.24mL of 0.030M sodium hydroxide solution.

d. Find the molarity of a nitric acid solution if 10.4mL of the solution is needed to react with 25.0mL of 0.45M barium hydroxide.

NAME: ____________________________________

PERIOD:____

CHAPTER 19 ACIDS AND BASES HOMEWORK PKT

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HOMEWORK #1: Acids and Bases Preview


Use your textbook or internet to find the answers to the following questions. 1. What is an acid? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is a base? _______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the pH of an acid? _________________________ of a base? ___________________ 4. What does a concentrated acid feel like on the skin? ________________________________ What does an acid taste like? _________________________________________________ 5. What does a concentrated base feel like on the skin? ________________________________ What does a base taste like? _________________________________________________ 6. Fill in the table below: Acidic 2 foods 2 household items other than food 7. Do acids and bases conduct electricity? ________________________________________________ 8. Acids and bases are said to be corrosive or caustic. What does this mean? ____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. A _______________________ reaction occurs when an acid and a base react with each other. The products of this type of reaction are ________________ and __________________. 10. What does it mean if an acid is strong? Give 2 examples of strong acids. ____________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Basic

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11. What does it mean if an acid is weak? Give 2 examples of weak acids. __________________________________________________________________________________

HOMEWORK #2: Naming and Properties of Acids & Bases


1. Complete the chart below: NAME hydroiodic acid hydrophosphoric acid phosphoric acid H3N HC2H3O2 HClO3 2. Write the equation for the dissociation of the following acids in water: HCl H2SO4 HNO2 (weak!) 3. Write the equation for the dissociation of the following bases in water KOH Ba(OH)2 4. Label the properties below as characteristics of acids (A) or bases (B), or both (AB) ______ tastes sour _____ slippery _____ contains more H+ than OH_____ contains more OH- than H+ _____ solution conducts electricity _____ turns red litmus blue _____ reacts with metal to release H2 _____ tastes bitter _____ ionizes in water _____ turns phenolpthalein pink 12

FORMULA

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HOMEWORK #3: pH
Complete the chart below:

Substance [H+] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.00001 M KOH 10-11 M HBr 0.0001M NaOH 0.01M HNO3 0.00001 M HCl 10-5

pH 5 4

[OH-] 10-9

pOH 9

Acidic or Basic? Acidic

11 12

13 6

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HOMEWORK #4: Acid-Base Titration


1. A 25.0 mL sample of HCl was titrated to the endpoint with 15.0 mL of 2.0 NaOH. What is the molarity of the HCl solution?

2. A 10.0 mL sample of H2SO4 was exactly neutralized by 13.5 mL of 1.0 M KOH. What is the molarity of the H2SO4?

3. How much 1.5 M NaOH is necessary to exactly neutralize 20.0 mL of 2.5 M H3PO4?

4. How much of 0.5 M HNO3 is necessary to titrate 25.0 mL of 0.05 M Ca(OH)2 to the endpoint?

5. What is the molarity of a NaOH solution if 15.0 mL is exactly neutraluized by 7.5 mL of a 0.02 M HC2H3O2 solution?

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HOMEWORK #5: Acids and Bases Review


1. Place an A next to the statement if it describes an acid or a B if it describes a base. _____ a. turns red litmus blue _____ b. [H+] > [OH-] _____ c. pH = 10.00 _____ d. reacts with active metals to release hydrogen gas _____ e. turns phenolphthalein pink _____ f. often a component of detergents _____ g. tastes sour _____ h. feels slippery 2. What is the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid? Why is a strong acid considered a strong electrolyte?

3. Any substance that can act as either an acid or a base is called _____________________________ 4. Calculate the pH given: [H+] = 0.000010 M _______ [H+] = 1.0x10-1 M [OH-] = 1.0 x10-9 M _______

_______ [OH-] = 8.0x10-13 M _______

5. Calculate the [H+] given: pH = 2.0 pH = 3.0 ______ ______ pOH = 2.0 ______ pOH = 9.0 ______

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6. If a solution of HI is 0.00010 M, what would its pH be? ________

7. ***If a solution of H2SO4 is 5.00x10-9 M, calculate its pH. ________

8. What type of reaction is the basis of a titration? _______________________________________

9. The general form of this reaction is: _________________________________________________

10. The instrument used to perform a titration is called a ____________________________________

11. A titration is used to ______________________________________________________________

12. If 25.0 ml of 0.250 M sodium hydroxide was used to titrate 65.0 ml of hydrochloric acid, what was the concentration of the acid? RXN: ___________________________________________________

17. What volume of 0.045M sodium hydroxide is needed to tritrate 10.25mL of 0.050M carbonic acid? RXN: ____________________________________________________

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