A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT
OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL and THERMAL COMFORT
OF OKE-OLA NEIGHBOURHOOD
ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE.
ARC 308 (climate and architecture)
PART 3, GROUP3 MEMBERS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE,OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE-IFE.
ARC A.O. ODUNOLA
LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS
NAME UDEZE ONYEMA D. ARANSI IDRIS ADERINKOLA SAHEED O. OSUMAH MARTINS ADENIJI MODUPEOLUWA K. AKEJU OLUWAYEMISI G. UKATTAH EMEKA OGUNTOKE PETER A. OLAGUNJU TOLULOPE F. REG. NO ARC/2008/053 ARC/2009/017 ARC/2009/007 ARC/2009/051 ARC/2009/005 ARC/2009/014 ARC/2009/059 ARC/2009/040 ARC/2008/039
This project is dedicated to our heavenly father, who gave us unending help, from the start to the finish of this project…
all through our effort to make this project a reality. Our profound gratitude goes to our parents. Our special appreciation goes to our supervisor: Arc Odunola. Our immeasurable gratitude goes to our lecturers. of all kinds. Thank you sir for your commitment and hard work in all you do. Our endless appreciation goes to all others who made this project easier for us.
. we really appreciate all your support.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Written words can never be enough to express our heartfelt gratitude. thank you sir for having been there for us patiently. especially the residents in Oke-Ola neighbourhood.
6 1.3 1.3 THERMAL COMFORT IMPORTANCE OF THERMAL COMFORT FACTORS DETERMINING THERMAL COMFORT 6 6
.1 2.5 1.TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE PROJECT TITLE LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS DEDICATION iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENT v i ii iii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.4 1.1 1.2 2.7 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY AIMS AND OBJECTIVES SCOPE OF THE STUDY METHODOLOGY LIMITATION
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS PERSONAL FACTORS OPERATIVE TEMPERATURE THERMAL SENSITIVITY OF INDIVIDUALS MODELS OF THERMAL COMFORT THERMAL COMFORT IN DIFFERENT REGIONS THERMAL COMFORT OF LIVESTOCKS RESEARCH THERMAL COMFORT EQUATIONS THERMOREGULATION VASOMOTOR SWEATING SHIVERING THERMAL ADJUSTMENT SYSTEMS CONCEPT OF HEAT TRANSFER PROCESSES OF HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL RESISTANCE THERMAL BALANCE
12 13 14 14 16 16 16 19
20 20 20 21 22 23
.11 2.13 2.4 2.8 2.10 2.15 2.7 2.12 2.6 2.20 2.16 2.5 2.19 2.18 2.14 2.17 2.
22 EQUATION OF HEAT BALANCE 2.4 3.1 3.26 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS THERMAL COMFORT IN ARCHITECTURE PROBLEMS ARCHITECTS FACE DESIGNING AND BUILDING FOR THE WARM HUMID CLIMATE
25 25 28 28 32
CHAPTER 3: THERMAL COMFORT AND THE CONTEXT OF THE AREA
CLIMATIC SITUATION IN THE MORNING IN THE AFTERNOON IN THE EVENING AT NIGHT
46 46 47 48
.24 2.6 LOCATION OF STUDY AREA THE STORY OF OKE-OLA DESCRIPTION OF ACCOMODATION OF THE STREET THE CLIMATE OF ILE-IFE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THERMAL COMFORT ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE OF ILE-IFE USING EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUILDINGS 33 35 35 36
CHAPTER 4 : ANALYSIS OF THE RESULT AND GENERAL DISCUSSION
4.3 3.5 3.2.23 2.2 3.25 2.
IMPACT OF CLIMATIC ELMENTS ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE FEELINGS IN THE ROOM DURING RAINFALL ODOUR DURING RAINFALL INDOOR FEELINGS DURING SUNSHINE DISTURBANCE BY THE WIND DISTURBANCE BY THE FLOOD
51 52 53 54 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 65 66 67 67
IN THE MORNING WINDOW OPENING CURTAIN DRAWING PUTTING ON THE FAN FEELING INDOORS IN THE AFTERNOON WINDOW OPENING CURTAIN DRAWING PUTTING ON THE FAN FEELING INDOORS IN THE EVENING WINDOW OPENING CURTAIN DRAWING PUTTING ON THE FAN FEELING INDOORS AT NIGHT WINDOW OPENING
SERVICE AVAILABILITY OF ELECTRIC SUPPLY FREQUENCY OF ELECTRIC SUPPLY TYPE OF WATER SUPPLY FREQUENCY OF PIPE-BORNE WATER SUPPLY CONDITION OF ROAD NETWORK FORMS OF TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES IN USE SATISFACTION LEVEL WITH THE TELECOMMUNIOCATION SERVICE FORMS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL IN USE
OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 70 LADSCAPE SATISFACTION REFUSE DISPOSAL SATISFACTION WITH THE REFUSE DISPOSAL SATISFACTION WITH IMMEDIATE OUTDOOR DRAINAGE QUALITY OF AIR LEVEL OF NOISE SOURCE OF NOISE 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 78 79 80 81 82 83
ENERGY USE APPLIANCES AVAILABLE IN THE HOUSE
. CURTAIN DRAWING PUTTING ON THE FAN FEELING INDOORS
68 69 70
00PM o 6-9.00PM o 3-6.1 CONCLUSION
.4.00AM o 9-12.00PM
86 87 88 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95
5.00NOON o 12-3.6
ON-THE-SPOT ASSESSMENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE LAST ONE HOUR TIME OF LAST MEAL TYPE OF CLOTH WORN FEELING OF AIR MOVEMENT FEELING IN THE BOBY RATING OF COMFORT LEVEL ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF FAN FEELING OUTSIDE THE ROOM LEVEL OF SWEATING PREFERENCE TIME FOR THE LIVING ROOM ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL CONDITION WITH TIME TYPE OF CLOTH PUT ON THERMAL CONDITIONS o 6-9.
REFERENCES QUESTIONNARE APPENDICES
106 113 88
The orientation of the building. rain and
solar radiation. Amongst other functional requirements of a building. Their aim is to provide maximum and total comfort which could mean a complete feeling of physical and mental well-being by the occupants of the building. Some other functional requirements are the support of the physiological state and social activities of each occupant.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Thermal comfort is an important consideration in determining the functionality and utility value of a building.CHAPTER 1
1. This involves the control of various factors playing decisive role in general atmospheric comfort. and public buildings. the optical thermo-
. ability to resist natural forces that act against it like force of gravity. educational buildings. the building form. seismic loads. The present day energy crisis has made it more important to passively control thermal conditions within buildings. thermal comfort is the primary requirement of the interior environment of non. This makes architects relate very closely with climate in providing buildings that satisfy the physical and emotional needs of occupants of these buildings.air conditioned buildings or naturallyventilated buildings like residential buildings. wind. outdoor temperature. weather and so on. The building envelope separating the indoor space from the outdoor environment has an important role in this passive control because it modifies the direct effect of climate variables like humidity.
solar radiation and so on.2 THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Research work has shown some violations of design principles in the design of buildings in regions of warm humid climate. For instance. building orientation with respect to air movement. all also play important role in affecting the thermal conditions within the building.physical properties of the building envelope. use of shading devices. Inadequate spaces between buildings.3 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY Majority of the buildings in the warm humid zones are free-running ones. correct or control (if possible) these factors. Inadequate or no analysis of climate data to determine various design modes including window size and location. They include: Poor or no cross-ventilation. not suitable for the climate zone. Improper zoning of residential districts in terms of bulk and height ratio. caused by provision of windows to only one side or inappropriate sides of habitable rooms. in cities. the abuse of high albedo façade material can cause reflection of heat. These violations are deign-based and/or material-based. hence the
. Parameters of building envelope also affect the external environment. where tall building density is in high rate. This can aggregate the effect of urban heat island and make it difficult to attain thermal comfort in the city area eventually. The use of improper building envelope.
1. 1. determine the factors that
influence these conditions. it’s therefore important to know the thermal conditions within the buildings.
1. Ile-Ife.6 METHODOLOGY In this study of thermal comfort in Oke-Ola. louvered windows. plastered on both sides and having asbestos ceiling boards and asbestos roofing sheet. The objectives are: To assess the physical characteristics of interior spaces in the study area To assess thermal comfort in these interior spaces To identify factors affecting thermal comfort of the interior spaces To analyse the climatic condition of the study area in relation to thermal comfort To analyse and determine various thermal conditions experienced by the occupants of the study area 1. The buildings are constructed of 225mm sandcrete block walls. the framework used is stated below:
.conditions. hence a building was used and the living room concentrated on. The buildings in Oke-Ola are physical. make them known and available to the people in these areas and to the architects for better design and provision of better thermal conditions in the future. 1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY The study is about thermal comfort of the interior spaces of living rooms at a free-running state of buildings.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This project is aimed at assessing the thermal comfort of residents of Oke-Ola.
like material. was used to show that there are some factors that affect thermal comfort (climatic and personal factors) Detailed description the buildings assessed was given. Mathematical models were also used to compensate for lack of equipment to take direct measurements.The climate data of Ile-Ife which shows air temperature (DBT). This treated and analysed. precipitation. assessing general conditions.. established from the recommendations obtained from the analysis and the use of Mahoney table. The comfort equation. dimensions. 1. level of thermal comfort of the occupants at different times of the day. and the accepted standards for good building practices. relative humidity. pictures of the building. These models include Givoni’s. orientation etc. was administered to the residents of the estate. and so on. Corresponding values of the wet bulb temperature (WBT) is obtained. physical characteristics. one of the thermal comfort equations formulated by Fanger in 1970. Borda-Daiz et al’s and Chand’s mathematical models and principles. and other relevant climatic elements was obtained from the meteorological station and past research works. The description includes site orientation of the building. Finally. A comparison is done between these parameters. immediate/on-the-spot conditions.7 LIMITATION
. This was used to study and determine the comfort conditions of the occupants/residents of the estate. a set of questionnaire.
. Readers. climatic data of Ile-Ife for the year 2009 was obtained from a meteorological station. know the various factors that affect the thermal comfort and also the building practices that can influence thermal comfort in residential buildings in warm-humid regions. should be able to. hence. the study was based on monthly measurements as against daily measurements. through the documented work.Due to lack of equipment to carry out direct measurements. at the end of this design work.
temperatures in the winter than in the summer due to larger difference created between
. Also. 2. It has been long recognised that the sensation of feeling hot or cold is not just dependent on air temperature alone. The occurrence of symptoms increased much more with raised indoor
indoor and outdoor temperatures. increased worker symptoms. convection. even within the recommended thermal comfort range.2 IMPORTANCE OF THERMAL COMFORT Thermal comfort is very important. and in turn disturb their performance and productivity. Any heat gain or loss beyond this generates a sensation of discomfort. The US EPA BASE study found that higher indoor temperatures. thus maintaining thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Thermal comfort is maintained when the heat generated by human metabolism is allowed to dissipate. Maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC design engineers.CHAPTER 2
2. Thermal comfort is affected by heat conduction. it can affect the distraction levels of people. thermal discomfort has been known to lead to Sick Building Syndrome symptoms. radiation and evaporative heat loss.1 THERMAL COMFORT Human thermal comfort is defined by ASHRAE as the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment (ASHRAE Standard 55).
Air temperature should always be considered in relation to other environmental and personal factors.3 FACTORS DETERMINING THERMAL COMFORT The most commonly used indicator of thermal comfort is air temperature – it’s easy to use and most people can relate to it. But although it’s an important indicator to take into account. but together contribute to thermal comfort.2. air temperature alone is neither a valid nor an accurate indicator of thermal comfort or thermal stress. The six factors affecting thermal comfort are both environmental and personal. Environmental factors: Air temperature Radiant temperature Air velocity or air movement Humidity
Personal factors: Clothing insulation Metabolic heat Acclimatization
. These factors may be independent of each other.
Air velocity Humidity
although this may be reduced by wearing reflective clothing. Radiant heat may be present if there are heat sources in an environment.
. Radiant temperature Thermal radiation is the heat that radiates from a warm object. Radiant temperature has a greater influence than air temperature on how we lose or gain heat to the environment.4 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Air temperature This is the temperature of the air surrounding the body. It’s usually given in degrees Celsius (0C) or degrees Fahrenheit (0F). Our body absorbs almost as much radiant as a matt black object.
cookers. steam rollers. without any change in air temperature. Relative humidity is the ratio between the actual amount of water vapour in the air and the maximum amount of water vapour that the air can hold at that temperature. Humidity If water is heated and it evaporates to the surrounding environment. so air velocity may be corrected to account for a person’s level of physical activity. Small air movement in cool or cold environments may be perceived as draught. Still or stagnant air in indoor environments that are artificially heated may cause people to feel stuffy. because people are sensitive to it. walls in kiln. ovens. the resulting amount of water in the air will provide humidity. hot surfaces and machinery. It may also lead to a build-up in odour. Air velocity or air movement This describes the speed of air moving across the worker and may help cool the worker if it is cooler than the environment. Moving air in warm or humid conditions can increase heat loss through convection. it will significantly increase convective heat loss. dryers. If the air temperature is less than skin temperature. molten metals etc.
. furnaces. fire.Examples of radiant heat sources include: the sun. Air velocity is an important factor in thermal comfort. Physical activity also increases air movement. electric fires.
humidity is usually kept between 40-70% because of computers. in work places which are not air-conditioned.) where steam is given off. humidity is important because less sweat evaporates when humidity is high (80%+).) the humidity within the microclimate of the garment may be high. If an employee is wearing this type of PPE (e. Humidity in indoor environments can vary greatly. However. by its very nature. Thermal comfort is very much dependent on the insulating effect of clothing on the wearer. relative humidity may be higher than 70% on warm or hot humid days. In some offices. When vapour –impermeable PPE is worn.g. The evaporation of sweat is the main source of heat loss in humans. If clothing does not
. High humidity environments have a lot of vapour in the air. the humidity inside the garment increases as the wearer sweats because the sweat cannot evaporate. asbestos or chemical protection suits etc. which prevents evaporation of sweat from the skin. or where the climatic conditions outdoors may influence the indoor thermal environment. Wearing too much cloth or too much protective equipment (PPE) may be a primary cause of heat stress even if the environment is not considered warm or hot. 2. interferes with our ability to lose heat to the environment.Relative humidity between 40% and 70% does not have a major impact on thermal comfort. laundry etc. In hot environments.5 PERSONAL FACTORS Clothing insulation Clothing. and may be dependent on whether there are drying processes (paper mills.
. the more heat produced. Clo units can be converted to R-value in SI units (K/(W/m2) or RSI) by multiplying Clo by 0. Work rate/ metabolic heat The work or metabolic rate is essential for a thermal heat assessment.provide enough insulation.10C) is equal to one Clo. such as in a classroom.155 RSI). It may also be necessary to evaluate the level of protection that any PPE is providing – can or other PPE be used? The amount of clothing is measured against a standard amount that is roughly equivalent to a typical business suit. This standard amount of insulation required to keep a resting person warm in a windless room at 700F (21.155 (1 Clo = 0. the more heat needs to be lost. in cold conditions. Clothing is both a potential cause of thermal discomfort as well as a control for it as we adapt to the climate in which we live and play. (In imperial units. shirt. The impact of metabolic rate on thermal comfort is critical. or remove layers of clothing if you feel warm. You may add layers of clothing if you feel cold. The more physical work we do. It describes the heat that we produce inside our bodies as we carry out physical activity. and undergarments. Activity level is compared to being seated quietly. It is important to identify how the clothing may contribute to thermal comfort or discomfort. so we don’t overheat. 1 Clo corresponds to an R-value of 0. the wearer may be at risk from cold injuries as frost bite or hypothermia. the more heat we produce.88 0F ft2hr/Btu).
For example. little variation in the radiant temperatures from different directions in the room. the suggested temperature is between 23. A person’s physical characteristics should always be borne in mind when considering their thermal comfort. 2. age.5 and 25. as factors such as their size and weight. a single office in a building has an occupancy ratio per meter square of 0. In addition. humidity and air velocity are all constant. and air flow velocity of 1. In the summer.5 0C.When considering these factors. This
. there should be low air velocities and no ‘drafts’.0 0C with an air flow velocity of 0. fitness level and sex can an impact on how they feel. 2. The operative temperature intervals vary by the type of indoor location. in the winter.6 OPERATIVE TEMPERATURE The ideal standard for thermal comfort can be defined by the operative temperature.15m/s.0 and 23. even if other factors.7 THERMAL SENSITIVITY OF INDIVIDUALS The thermal sensitivity of an individual is quantified by the descriptor F S which takes on higher values for individuals with lower tolerance to non-ideal thermal conditions.1. This is the average of the air dry-bulb temperature and of the mean radiant temperature at the given place in a room. They also vary by the time of the year. it is also essential to consider a person’s own physical characteristics. and humidity within a comfortable range. ASHRAE has listings for suggested temperature and air flow rates in different types of buildings and different environmental circumstances. the recommended temperature is between 21. such as air temperature.8m/s.
Gender differences While thermal comfort preferences between genders seem to be small. there are two different models that can be used: these are the static model and the adaptive model. and will find the temperature too hot or too cold before many men would. Restaurant employees often have the air-conditioner temperature to suit themselves.group includes pregnant women. rather than the resting clients or incoming new customers from the temperature outside the building. Existing literature provides consistent evidence that sensitivity to hot and cold surface declines with age and that there is also a gradual reduction in the effectiveness of the body in the thermoregulation after the age of 60. But while females were more sensitive to temperatures. as well as individuals whose age is below 14 or above 60 – which is considered the adult range. sociological and vocational activities of the persons. Females are also more likely to be uncomfortable with the room temperature. 2. males tend to be more sensitive to relative humidity levels.
. females will prefer higher temperatures. the disabled. Females are much more likely to be sensitive to thermal conditions. This is mainly due to more sluggish response of the counteraction mechanisms in the body that are used to maintain the core temperature of the body at ideal values. there are some differences.8 MODELS OF THERMAL COMFORT When discussing thermal comfort. psychological. Many times. Situational factors include the health.
causing a need for efficient thermal comfort. Researchers are now looking into ways to heat and cool buildings in China for lower costs and also with less harm to the environment. in relation to thermal comfort has become a large issue in China in the last several decades due to rapid economic and population growth.The adaptive model states that there is an optimal temperature for a given indoor environment. It takes into account that humans can adapt and tolerate different temperatures during different times of the year. 2. depending on the outdoor air temperature. urbanisation is causing a phenomenon called urban heat islands (UHI).9 THERMAL COMFORT IN DIFFERENT REGIONS In different areas of the world. field studies are performed in these areas to see what the majority of people would prefer as their set-point temperature indoors at different times of the year. the static model states that the indoor temperature should not change as the seasons do. This is taking a more passive stand that humans do not have to adapt to different temperatures since it will always be constant. In China. On the other side. The optimal temperature for a given time is determined by looking at the mean outdoor temperatures of each month of the year. there should be one set temperature year-round. thermal comfort needs may vary based on climate. UHI’s
. Also. rather. In tropical areas of Brazil. Energy conservation. These are urban areas which have risen over the thermal comfort limits due to a large influx of people and only drop within the comfortable range during the rainy season. there are hot humid summers and cold winters.
as well as for better living and production. They are very large open buildings which are used only intermittently making it hard to ventilate them properly. The stack effects also come into play due to their large layer of hot air above the people in the mosque. 2. since the buildings are used only for short periods of time. Perceived comfort was found to be a complex
development and refinement of ASHRAE Standard 55 and were performed at Kansas State
. Many of these studies led to the
University by Ole Fanger and others.are caused by surface and atmospheric modifications from the overcrowding of people in an already-hot climate. These two bodily functions were reduced by the hot temperatures offering insight that thermal comfort levels are important to livestock productivity. New designs have placed the ventilation system lower in the buildings to provide more temperature control at ground level. which tested rumen functions and diet digestibility of ewes chronically-exposed to a hot environment. Also new monitoring steps are being taken to improve the efficiency. In the hot humid regions of Saudi Arabia. the needs of livestock must be met. The large size requires a large amount of ventilation but this requires a lot of energy. the issue of thermal comfort has been important in mosques where people go to pray. 2. Some mosques have the issue of being too cold from their HVAC systems running for too long and others remain too hot.10 THERMAL COMFORT OF LIVESTOCK
Although thermal comfort of humans is the main focus of thermal comfort studies.11 RESEARCH
These factors were explored experimentally in 1970s. The Department of Animal Production in Italy produced a study on ewes.
Bedrooms are of importance because they need to accommodate different levels of clothing and also different metabolic rates of people asleep or awake. This observation could be expressed statistically as the % of individuals who expressed satisfaction by the comfort conditions and the predicted mean vote (PMV) This research is applied to create Building Energy Stimulation (BES) programs for residential buildings. New airventilated garments are being researched to improve evaporative cooling in military settings. As the range of values deviated progressively from the ideal.
. It was found that the majority of individuals would be satisfied by an ideal set of values. Some models are being created and tested based on the amount of cooling they provide. Residential buildings can vary much more in thermal comfort than public and commercial buildings. much research effort has been devoted to developing indices predicting thermal comfort. the variations in clothing worn. fewer and fewer people were satisfied.12 THERMAL COMFORT EQUATIONS
Over the last 50 years. Thermal comfort research in clothing is currently being done by the military.interaction of these variables. The main rooms of concern are bathrooms and bedrooms. This is due to their smaller size. Bathrooms need to be at a temperature comfortable for a human with or without clothing. 2. and different uses of each room. Three main indices are currently used.
e. what we actually sense is skin temperature and not air temperature.should be at appropriate level of comfort. For thermal comfort need: Thermal balance – Rate of heat loss = Rate of heat production Mean skin temperature .FANGER’S COMFORT EQUATION Thermal comfort (according to Fanger’s basic assumption) is defined in terms of the physical state of the body. Sweating – comfort is a function of a preferred sweating rate. The Fanger’s comfort equation contains terms which relate to: Functions of clothing: 1clo = clothing insulation in clothes Fcr = ratio of clothed/nude surface area Functions of activity: H = metabolic heat production (w/m2) M = metabolic free energy production [external work] (w/m2) Environmental variables: Ta = Air temperature (0C) Tr = Mean radiant temperature (0C) V = Relative air speed (m/s)
. rather than that of the environment i. which is also a function of activity and metabolic rate.
58) – 0.0275) x [6. Therefore.7 – Pa) – 0. However. Tcl.4 – 0.Pa = Vapour pressure of water vapour (mb) H – 0.0275H – 0.31 Pa + 0. Fanger developed PMV = mean vote.42(H – 58) – 0.01dT) Tcl – Tr) – HcFcl (Tcl – Ta)] SKIN WETTEDNESS EQUATION W = (H – 58)/(4.4-0.0.57 + 0.42 (H .036H) + 0.0017M (58.07H – Pa)] + 0.06 When W is too high.31 (57.13Fcl (1 + 0.7 .Ta) = 3. upper limits of W depend on metabolic rate and therefore limit is estimated using W: 00012m + 0.15 Subjective temperature (SUBT)
.6Hc (57.461 + 0.9 x 10 – 8 Fcl [(TCL + 273) 4 – (Tr + 273) 4 FclHc (Tcl – Ta)] Where the clothing surface temperature. on ASHRAE scale.0017HPa + 0.0014M (34 .Pa).0014HTa – 4.4 – 0.0017M (58. is given by Tcl = 35.7 – 0.31 (57.07H. leading to discomfort.074 – Pa) – 0.0014M (34 –Ta)] The problem with Fanger’s equation is that when people are not satisfied. this is not a measure of how uncomfortable deviation is.1551clo [H – 0.Pa) – 0. PMV can be predicted from Fanger’s equation thus: PMV = 4 + (0.303 exp (-0.
56 (square of 10v) 2.70C).14 VASOMOTOR All skin needs some blood supply to make it alive.70C.44 + 0.The problem with Fanger’s equation and SET is that both are complex and have to be evaluated by computer.13 THERMOREGULATION Thermoregulation is the process through which human body tries to maintain its body temperature (usually 36. a simpler. This is McIntyre’s SUBT: SUBT = temperature of a uniform enclosure with Ta = Tr. There are various modes of thermoregulation. but skin blood flow can be increased many times above this basic level. practical index based on physical variables which gives a good approximation of comfort has enormous value. If there is a change in environmental temperature that may necessitate change in body temperature. the body tries to maintain the temperature by trying to revert to the temperature of about 36. Consequently.1m/s and RH = 50% Based on this. V = 0. it’s possible to simplify Fanger’s equation: SUBT = 0. they are: 2. Increasing skin blood flow raises skin temperature and
increases heat transfer to the environment and cools the core.44 Tr + 0.56 (5 – (square root of 10v) (5 – Ta)) 0.
palms of hands.16 SHIVERING When skin blood flow is minimal. and increases heat production (300-400%). 2. This is why hands and feet frequently feel cold first. back. armpits – protein-containing sweat. max.). 2. there may be excessive heat loss from the core by conduction through cell tissues. Eccrine: water sweat from all other skin areas (latent heat of water is 600cal/gm.15 SWEATING As skin temperature approaches core temperature. continued total sweat rate = 1 litre/hour. Changes in skin blood flow are most marked at the extremities of limbs (hands and feet) and less marked in the trunk and head. thereby improving heat from the core. transferring heat from the core to the skin becomes increasingly difficult in hot environments.17 THERMAL ADJUSTMENT SYSTEMS
. Maintenance of core temperature requires an increase in heat production. short-term = 10 – 15 litres per 6 hours. the evaporation of sweat from the skin surface cools this. and shivering is disorganised muscular activity which has this effect. Max. 2. There are basically two types of sweat Apocrine: forehead. always 650ml/day.Decreasing skin blood flow cools the skin and reduces heat transfer to the environment and warms the core.
or radiation (Peter Burberry
1979). Sweating begins. If warming of the body continues eventually. Transfer of heat can be by conduction. Core temperature falls but with continued exposure.18 CONCEPT OF HEAT TRANSFER Heat will flow in a solid object. core temperature falls. then large areas of the skin will receive blood and sweating will occur. producing hypothermia (heat stroke). the following mechanisms are brought into operation: a) Changing from a warm to a cold environment entails the following: Skin becomes cool Blood is routed away from the skin to the core. convection. b) Changing from a cold environment to a warm one entails the following: More blood is rooted from the core to the skin surface thereby raising the skin temperature. then eventually. If cooling continues. core temperature rises. producing hypothermia which may result to death. Shivering and goose flesh may occur if the body stabilizes. Core temperature rises slightly. where it is warmed before flowing back to the skin.When the body changes from one thermal environment to another. and then falls with prolonged exposure. until the temperature is equal.
. rises again. 2.
If the body stabilizes. then large areas of the skin will receive little blood. in liquid or gas or between them.
the greater the speed of transfer. Heat is conducted through the solids part of the wall. to another. Convection Convection is the transmission of heat in fluids and gases by circulation.2. all three methods of transference are used. The rate of conduction. The greater the movement. Metals have a high conductivity. Meanwhile. floor. that is. For this reason. air movement in insulating cavities must be avoided. it will impart some of its heat to anything on its path. wood has low and gases have less conductivity. through space. When radiant energy reaches an opaque body. In doing so. It
. When a liquid or gas is heated. it’s displaced by the colder. more dense liquid or gas round it and tends to rise.19 PROCESSES OF HEAT TRANSFER Conduction This is the direct transmission of heat through a material. The conductivity (k) is the amount of heat in wall that passes through 1m2 of the material of 1m thickness for 10C difference in temperature of inner and outer surface. Radiation Radiation is the transference of heat from one body of radiant energy. conductivity depends partly upon the material. part of it is reflected and the remainder absorbed and converted into heat. the temperature of the body defines the wavelength and rate of emission depends upon the temperature and the nature of the surface. All bodies emit radiant energy. when heat is passed out of a building through a structure. or roof.
is radiated across cavities and from the outside surface. b) The resistance of a corrugated surface can be about 20% less than a plain surface of the same material because of its larger area. At normal temperature. but this may be nullified if convection takes place as (a) above. m 0C/w) of a given thickness of the material is the inverse of the conductivity. d) When surface is radiating to an area of very low temperature. the resistance of the surface can be decreased considerably. but also of the resistances to heat flow of the external surfaces and any cavity in the construction. this is 1/1c and the resistance (R. Surfaces can lose heat by convection. The main effects of these factors on the resistance of a surface are therefore (Peter Burberry 1979): a) Cooling wind across external surface will reduce its resistance.20 THERMAL RESISTANCE Building materials present resistance to the flow of heat. i. (temperature and wind speed). the emissivity and the absorptivity of a surface are the same and the surface the same amount of absorbed heat. c) Surfaces of low emissivity. as to clear sky in very cold. The overall resistance of an element of construction is composed not only of the sum of the resistance of the materials. 2. calm weather. The sensitivity (r.
. it’s also convected from the outside surface by wind passing across that surface. so the resistance of the outside surfaces is governed by climate. bright metallic surfaces will have a high resistance.e. m20Cw) of a given thickness of the material is the product of its resistivity and the thickness in meter.
e) The surface of a horizontal surface will depend upon whether the transfer of heat is upwards or downwards. Reflected radiation from the sky Reflected radiation from surfaces Conduction from warmer surfaces
. this heat gives rise to thermal exchange between the human body and thermal environment.21 THERMAL BALANCE A human being carrying out his habitual activities will tend to arrive at an overall dynamic balance with his surroundings. as convection will assist to take the heat away above and to keep it near the surface below. Components of thermal balance The two groups of thermal balance are: Heat gain and heat loss Heat gain Heat is gained by human body through some or all of the following means: Direct solar radiation Metabolism or body processes Conduction from warmer air assisted by air flow and convection. The term ‘dynamic’ being used as emphasis that ‘a steady’ is not being normally achieved. A healthy human continuously produced waste heat. this needs to be dissipated to maintain the body temperature. 2.
Radiation from surfaces
Heat loss To attain thermal balance. heat gained must be dissipated to the surrounding (Peter Burberry. Heat is lost to the surrounding through the following processes: Conduction to cooler surfaces Conduction to cooler air assisted by air flow and convection Radiation to surfaces Radiation to spaces Perspiration Respiration
2. 1979).22 EQUATION OF HEAT BALANCE The equation of heat balance is given by the formula: M + Cd + Cv + R – E = 0 Where M = metabolism rate Cd = conductive heat gain or loss Cv = convective heat gain or loss R = Radiative heat gain or loss E = Evaporative heat loss
The interiors of the buildings in temperate zones in the winter therefore provide without any heat input. The means of achieving the interior conditions include the active building services and the active and passive role of the building envelope. The design of the interior environment of a building should be related to the requirements of the occupants and the functions they have to perform in the building. This contrasts the behaviour of the building in relation to wind or light. solar radiation will contribute to a general rising of internal temperatures. apart from the fact that several factors are involved. it cannot avoid contributing to the interior conditions.2. The active role of the envelope occurs when it allows light and ventilation to enter in a controlled way and when it interacts with changing heat loads to provide a reduced and delayed heat input. particularly for occupants near the external walls. Although the main function of the building envelope is to protect the interior from external conditions. The cooling effects of on occupants. In admitting radiant energy and allowing the transmission of conducted heat one way or the other. improved thermal conditions. The envelope acts passively when it separates the interior from external environment by insulation against heat or sound. by its opacity and providing shelter against the wind and rain.23 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS The interaction of building and thermal conditions is complex. the building envelope plays a part in establishing the thermal environment.
. of wind and radiation to the cold night sky are clearly reduced inside building during winter. the fabric of the building itself reacts to thermal changes and does so over a period of time. or in the store immediately under the roof.
It can be expressed in terms of volumetric heat capacity of the material or heat capacity of the wall. Reflectivity (r): this is the rate at which a surface reflects incident radiant heat.The thermal properties of the building materials are described by the following terms: Thermal conductivity: this determines the heat flow in unit time by conduction through unit thickness of a unit area of the material across a unit temperature gradient. It is one of the factors that affect the relationship between the outdoor and indoor conditions
. reflectivity and emissivity are the three properties that determine the behaviour of an opaque material. absorptivity. Time constant: this is the product of the thermal resistance and capacity of the wall. with respect to radiant heat exchange. It’s represented by k and its unit is w/m20C/m. Thermal resistivity: this is the reciprocal of thermal conductivity. Heat capacity: heat capacity of a wall refers to the amount of heat required to elevate the temperature of a unit area of the surface by one degree. Hence. it’s independent of the size and thickness of the building element. Thermal diffusion (α): this is the ratio between the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity. Emissivity: this is the relative power of the material to emit radiant heat. Absorptivity (a): this is the rate at which a surface or building material absorbs radiant heat that is incident on the surface.
. architects can’t come to an appropriate assumption of clothing.25 PROBLEMS ARCHITECTS FACE Some problems architects face in comfort and climate study are: Undefined conditions of buildings This can be expressed in terms of human factors. they combine these strategies to design in sketch and other steps. activities. daily or hourly data is not used because of very much time they need to be processed. Then climate-responsive architects analyse this data using some approximate comfort data (winter and summer zones). Below is a table that shows steps in design process in architecture: In this process. climatic factors and building factors Human factors In many cases. climate studies are the first in which the architect needs to study the climate of the area using mostly meteorological data outside or inside the boundaries of the city. 2. cultures and other human factors. if other issues such as economical and/or aesthetical considerations allow them.when the external factors like air temperature and solar radiation are only directly operating in the external surfaces. At the same time. Almost the information is the average monthly data. behaviours. 2. Usually. looking at the passive heating/cooling strategies.24 THERMAL COMFORT IN ARCHITECTURE There is no hard and fast rule of design process.
Even if there is a station. water surfaces. ‘climatic considerations in buildings and urban design’ mentioned. then it might consider these facts. So these prophecies gained from some reference books like ASHRAE or CIBSE. surrounding elements of a building such as materials. it’s not easy to obtain climatic conditions near the building. getting correct climatic data of a region is not easy. there are many factors affecting urban climate such as urban density. So. As Givoni in his book. there is no exact data about materials. the station is in different microclimate from the design site (open space vs.
. architects could have access to building materials characteristically easily or producers give the information. urban design space). but in many cases. streets. colours. So if a comfort or climatic model wants to be useful for architects. unless in a developing country. traffic and so on. creating small special microclimates. properties such as U-value. could have considerable effect. but is the U-value for brick mentioned in these books the same with bricks produced in other countries? The above points show a story about the approximate data available for architects and building designers. As an example. there are many cities without meteorological stations. Also.Climatic factors Still in many countries. one might use nearer station. green spaces etc. sometimes 100km away. parks. which are not countable yet. hard to define. Building factors Although in developed countries. In such condition. most of the time.
thermal mass. passive heating and cooling materials etc. instead of numbers. Understanding the above points.Some points which help comfort models to achieve architects’ needs are mentioned below: a) Easy process (comfort zone + climatic analysis) b) No long calculation c) Giving direct design guidelines for different steps of design. according to information of 1st part. ventilation. simplifies design. such as site design. In part A.) b) Defining the comfort zone (monthly-daily) c) Gathering the climate design advices (shading-thermal mass-evaporative coolingthermal insulation-suitable orientation…) d) Designing the project (a climatic building).
. and then C. designer should be able to fully understand the climate and comfort needs as well as all architectural main issues related to the project. it could be divided to four main parts: a) Study of the design subject (Climate-activities-clothing etc. it’s tried in the following parts to find a solution. window sizing. some clear design advices could be derived from previous studies to give directions for each issue in building. d) Giving knowledge instead of just data. form. the monthly or daily comfort zone should be defined. Simplified design procedure To define climatic design process according to comfort zone. together with looking to most known comfort models. solar gains. In part B.
The Ar and Aw climatic types generally
. 2.Finally D. Up to now. and so on. B and C can be covered with good climatic design model.Fanger. Some of them . defining comfort zone). Nicol – mostly aimed at part B (i. while others tried to cover parts B and C (climate design advices). Nicol. Humphreys.
occur on either sides of the equator and extend outward from the equator about 200 North
tropical wet and dry (Aw).e. and subtropical humid (Cf).26 DESIGNING AND BUILDING FOR THE WARM HUMID CLIMATE The warm-humid climate is a composite of three related climatic types: tropical wet (Ar). The figure below shows the process. many scientists worked on different models such as Fanger.
Defining of design subject
Definition of comfort zone
Climatic design advices
Procedures for climate-responsive buildings
Parts A and D would be done by an architect. Olgay. Humphreys. an architect can be able to form a climate responsive building. Givoni.
Alternatively. and frequent periods of fog and heavy dew. quite humid natural environment. a substantial cloud cover.or South. The fundamental characteristics of these climatic types are that they offer warm air temperatures. slight air movement. high humidity and extensive rainfall. The major challenge faced in maintaining thermally comfortable conditions is the overheated.
. the subtropical humid climate is found in the latitude of 25 0 to 400 North and South.
Map of osun state showing the study area
.1 LOCATION OF STUDY AREA Oke-Ola is located off ondo road in Ife central local government.CHAPTER 3
THERMAL COMFORT AND THE CONTEXT OF THE AREA
3. It is bounded by Omole estate and Modakeke.
Map of Nigeria state showing the various states
Map of Nigeria state showing Osun state in relation to other states
2 THE STORY OF OKE-OLA According to Mr Adeyemi. Most of the occupants in that area now are the students of the educational institutions nearby. while some came back to stay in their respective buildings. thus.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMODATION OF THE ESTATE The building typology or structures found in Oke-Ola are mainly storeys and bungalows. After a long time. the occupants were forced to flee the area for the fear of being killed.3. most of the occupants sold out their landed properties. the area was formerly occupied by mixed ethnic groups from Modakeke and Ife. Most of them that came back accommodated both the students of Obafemi Awolowo University and the polytechnic of Ife. land-buildings are still being sold and rented out. 3. They did this because they had the feeling that the students were severely affected during the warring times as most of them are from far (and nearby) ethnic societies. From that time on. There are situations where you find 4-5 bungalows in between two storeys. there are other cases where you find 2-3 storeys alongside each other…
Plate1: Bungalow(s) in between storeys
. but as a result of the IfeModakeke war. the area presently gains from the security provided for the Omole estate because of its nearness to the estate. a civil servant and a resident of Oke-Ola.
as the city has been experiencing consistent moderate temperature. Ile-Ife is located between Latitude 70N 28’5’’N and Longitude 4035’5’’E covering an area of about 1846km2. It is characterized by thick cloud and excessive heat. The short rainy season
.4 THE CLIMATE OF ILE-IFE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THERMAL COMFORT The temperature of Ile-Ife varies only slightly. The real period known as ‘August break’ is generally observed in the last two weeks of August. Hence. rainfall distribution over space and time becomes the most important factor differentiating the seasons. The short dry season This occurs for 3 to 4 weeks in August.Plate 2: Storeys alongside each other
3. Humidity is 85%. It falls within the zone of warm-humid climate. The four seasons which influence thermal comfort perceptions are: The long varying season This begins in March and ends at the end of July with peak period in June.
but could also range between 55 and 100% Precipitation This is relatively high throughout the year. an average maximum temperature of about 32.680C. It is the period that follows the August break. from September to mid-October. The two periods of rainy intensity in Ile-Ife gives the double-maxima phenomenon of the rainy season characteristics of tropical Nigerian climate. though it may exceed 370C. with its peak period between early December and late February. Humidity This is high.
also characterised by light wind and long period of still air (1. This is the period when the harmattan occurs. fairly cloudy throughout the year.70C. but fairly-distributed daily rainfall is about 130-300mm. It is
temperature of about 26. The long dry season Begins in late-October and lasts till early March.5-5m/s). It has intense solar radiation of about 1. and it is most times about 75%. with a cover of about 60-90%.97cal cm2 min.
Climate data obtained over a long period of time Dry bulb temperature (DBT): Usually at maximum during the day: 270-370C. The rainfalls are not usually as heavy as those in the long rainy season. it ranges between 210 and 270C. Annual rainfall varies between 2000-5000mm.This has its peak period at the end of September. It also has an average
. At night.
effective temperature values were computed for the year 2007. The obtained values for the effective temperature. temp Avg.50 27.25
33. the value of wet bulb temperature (WBT) was obtained using the psychometric chart.50
33 58 26.00 27.75 28. for the year 2007 (for both minimum and maximum value) are tabulated below:
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
DBT (max) RH (min) WBT ET (min)
33 49 24.25 29.00
31.5 49 24.25 27.50
.5 72.00 28.5 88 28. temp Air Min.25 27.50
30 82 27.Jan Feb Air Temp Air Max.5 28.75 27. Raining days 0 0 76 75 82 89 83 92
Mar 85 92
Apr 83 89
May 82 88
Jun 79 85
Jul 77 82
Aug 77 82
Sep 78 83
Oct 79 85
Nov 81 89
Dec 81 90
The climatic data
32. From the climate data obtained from the meteorological station (see appendix I).00 29.5 90 29.5 82 26.75
30.5 80 28.5 71 28.50
29.00 26.5 68 25.25
28 54 25.00
32.5 ANALYSIS OF THE CLIMATE OF ILE-IFE USING EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE As part of the analysis of Ile-Ife climate.75 27.
2 5 21.5 0 20.2 5 ET (min) 19.0 0 16.5
Oct 25.0 0
20.5 0 21.0 0
Sep 20.0 0
14. as well as the determined WBT were used to determine the above values of the effective temperature.2 5 23.5 0 25.0 0
21.0 0 19. the velocity of air for Ile-Ife could be taken as 0.Jan DBT (max) RH (min) WBT 19.0
Nov 22.2 5 20.0 0
19.7 5 21.6m/s.0 0
DBT (max) = maximum dry bulb temperature RH (min) = minimum relative humidity WBT = wet bulb temperature ET (max) = maximum effective temperature According to the meteorological station.7 5 82 21.0 0
19. the velocities of air along with the given value of DBT.0
Jun 22.7 5 19.0
May 22. As such.2 5 19.
6 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUILDINGS The buildings in the street vary.00C throughout the year. Each building is far enough from the other such that a vehicle can conveniently pass through and also allows for enough ventilation. followed by September (26. The minimum effective temperature (night value) varies between 16. 3.00C (in December) and 25.250C) with its greatest value (29.50C and 29. The pictures below highlight on the remaining notable points about the neighbourhood:
. Two walls are completely on the external wall of the building.The effective temperature varies between 25. They are constructed of 225 sandcrete block walls plastered on both sides with some painted (white on the outside and cream on the inside). it has the least value in December. The approach and rear of the buildings are well-spaced. but most are oriented on the East-West axis. The range of effective temperature shows slight differences in temperature throughout the year. Each living room is rectangular in shape. and part of a third wall is also on the external wall of the building (making cross ventilation and natural lighting in the room convenient).00C (in February).00C) in April.
Plate 1: They employ transparent fencing method
Plate 2: The frontages are not well-landscaped
Plate 3: There is no well-maintained road networks
Plate 4: There’s no adequate setback for their buildings
Plate 5: One access road serves the neighbourhood
Plate 6: An optimal drainage system in the neighbourhood
Plate 7: Entrance to the neighbourhood’s hospital
Plate 8: An aerial view showing a part of the neighbourhood
Plate 9: Interior of a bedroom
Plate 10: Interior of a living room
47. 23.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.9 47. 5.9
In the morning
50.1 5. In the morning
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold number 0 0 4 3 1 8 1 percentage (%) 0.CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND GENERAL DISCUSSION
1.5% feel slightly warm. 5. habitats of the area do not feel hot nor warm.0 10.9% feel neutral.0 23.1% feel cool.5 17.0 40.0 30.0 20. 17.0 0.0 0.6% feel slightly cool.9% feel cold
.6 5. CLIMATIC SITUATION (Feelings in the outdoor environment)
1% feel hot.1 5.3 5.0 hot warm slightly slightlyneutral cool warm cool
Comment: from observation. none neither feel cold nor cool.0 10.3% feel slighhly cold. 5.0 0.1 42.0 30.B.
.0 20.0 0. In the afternoon
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold percentage (%) 42. 42.0 40.0
number 8 8 1 1 1 0 0
In the afternoon
50.3% feel slightly warm. 42.3 0.3 5. 5.1% feel warm.
. 6. both for warm.8 6.8 18.3% feel cold. and cool.0 5.8 18. slightly cool. 18.8% feel so for each.neutra. In the evening
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold number 0 3 3 3 3 3 1 percentage (%) 0.C.0 15. none feel hot.8 18.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.8 18.3
In the evening
20.0 18.0 10. slightly warm.
26.D.3 26.0 15.6% feel cold.0 15. 5.
.0 5.0 25.0 0.0 10. no one feels slightly warm.3 31. 15.0 20.8% feel warm.0
Comment: from observation.0 21.3% feel cool.3% feel neutral.0 30. At night
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold percentage (%) 0. no one feels hot. 31.1 5. 21.6
number 0 3 0 4 1 5 6
35.8 0.1% feel slightly cool.
0 20. 64. 29.4 5. no one feel slightly cool.0 cold cool warm slightly cool
Comment: from observation.0 60. Feelings in the room during rainfall
Indoor environment cold cool warm slightly cool percentage (%) 64.
number 11 5 1 0
70.7% feel cold.0 0.9 0.9% feel warm.4% feel cool. 5.0 30.0 10. IMPACT OF WEATHER AND CLIMATIC ELEMENTS ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT A.7 29.0 40.2.0 50.
8% perceive odour when raining.B.2
number 7 12
yes 37% no 63%
Comment: 36. while 63.
. Odour during rainfall
odour during rainfall yes no percentage (%) 36.8 63.2% do not.
0 cool slightly warm warm percentage (%)
Comment: from observation. Indoor feelings during sunshine
Indoor environment cool slightly warm warm hot percentage (%) 15.8 15.0 20. 15.5 57. 10.5% feel warm.9
number 3 3 2 11
Feelings for sunshine
60.8% feel slightly .C.8% feel cool.0 0.0 50.0 30.8 10.0 10.9% feel hot
.0 40. 15. 57.warm.
Disturbance by the wind
disturbance by the wind yes no number 0 19 percentage (%) 0. all the inhabitants are not affected by the wind.D.
From observation.0 100.
3 94.7% of the inhabitants are not. 5.3% of the inhabitants are disturbed by the flood. 94.7
number 1 18
From observation. Disturbance by the flood
disturbance by the wind yes no percentage (%) 5.
. 36. In the morning I.8%% don't.8 47.8
number 7 9 3
not opened 16% fully 37%
Comment: from observation. window opening
window opening fully partly not opened percentage (%) 36.8% fully open their windows.4 15.2A. 15.
number 5 13 1
not drawn 5% fully 26%
Comment: from observation. 5. Curtain drawing
window opening fully partly not drawn percentage (%) 26.4% partly draw their curtain.3% don't draw their curtain
.26.4 5.3 68. 68.3% fully draw their curtain.
III. 42.3 15.0 40.1% sometimes.0 0. 15.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.0 30.1 15.8 42.8 0. none never make use of fan
.8% frequently.8% seldom.0 10.3% always. 15. 26.0 20. Putting on the fan
window opening always frequently sometimes seldom never percentage (%) 26.0
number 5 3 8 3 0
use of fan
36.8 15. 21.0 10.0 30.
.8% feel cool.0 0.8 21.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.8 36. 15.0 20. Feeling indoors
window opening hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold percentage (%) 0.3 5.3% feel warm.3% feel slightly warm.IV.1% feel cold. 5.1
number 0 1 1 3 3 7 4
Feelings in space
40.0 5.8% feel neutral.3 15. none feel hot.8% feel slightly cool. 5. 15.
42. Window opening
window opening fully partly not opened number 11 8 0 percentage (%) 57.1% partly. 57.0
not opened 0% partly 42% fully 58%
Comment: from observation.2B.9% fully. none doesn't open their window
.1 0. In the afternoon I.9 42.
window opening fully partly not drawn percentage (%) 21.3% draw their window
. 5. 21.1 73. 73.II.1% fully.3
number 4 14 1
not drawn 5% fully 21%
Comment: from observation.3% partly.7 5.
0 5.3 5. 21. Putting on the fan
use of the fan always frequently sometimes seldom never percentage (%) 36.8 21.1 26. 10.3% seldom.0 15.0 25.3 10.0 30.0 20. 36.0
Comment: from observation.5
number 7 4 5 1 2
Use of fan
40.3% sometimes.5% never make use of fan
.0 35.III. 26. 5.0 0.1% frequently.0 10.8% always.
. Feeling indoors
feeling in space hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold percentage (%) 36.0 0.0 10.0
number 7 7 2 0 0 3 0
feelings in space
40. 36.8 10.8 36. 15.0 15.5% feel slightly warm.0 20. and none feel cold.5 0.0 30.8 0.8% feel warm.0 0.8% feel hot. none feel neutral and slightly cool. 10.IV. 36.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.8% feel cool.
and 15.2C.9% partly.9 3 15.8
not opened 16%
Comment: from observation. 57. In the evening I.3 11 57.3% fully. Window opening
window opening fully partly not opened percentage number (%) 5 26.8% don't open their windows
and 26.8 57.9 26. Curtain drawing
window opening fully partly not drawn percentage (%) 15. 57. 15.8% fully.9% partly.3
number 3 11 5
not drawn 26% fully 16%
Comment: from observation.3% don't draw their curtains
0 0.3% always.3% never make use of fan
.8 5.0 5. 15.8 31.III.0 20. 26.0
Comment: from observation.8% seldom. 31.3
Use of fan
35.8% frequently.15.6 15.3 15.0 15.0 25.0 30.6% sometimes. Putting on the fan
use of the fan always frequently sometimes seldom never number 5 3 6 3 1 percentage (%) 26.0 10. and 5.
21.0 15.0 20.1% feel warm.0 10.1 15. 5. 21.0 21.8% feel slightly warm.1 5.0 30.1% feel slightly cool.3 31.8 21. 15. none feel hot.6% feel cool.0
Comment: from observation.6 5.0 5.3
number 0 4 3 4 1 6 1
feelings in space
35. 31. Feeling in space
feeling in space hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold percentage (%) 0. and 5.3% feel neutral.IV.0 25.0 0.3% feel cold
number 3 9 7
not opened 37% fully 16%
Comment: from observation.8 47. At night I.4% partly.8% don't open their windows
. Window opening
window opening fully partly not opened percentage (%) 15.4 36.2D. 47. 15. 36.
6% partly.3 10 52. 5.52. Curtain drawing
window opening fully partly not drawn percentage number (%) 1 5.1
fully 5% not drawn 42% partly 53%
Comment: from observation.6 8 42.1% don't draw their curtains
. 42.3% fully.II.
0 30. Putting on the fan
use of the fan always frequently sometimes seldom never number 3 5 6 4 1 percentage (%) 15.3% frequently.0 10.0 20.1% seldom.0 25.3% never make use of fan
.0 0. 5.6% sometimes.3 31.0
Comment: from observation.8% always.8 26.3
use of fan
35.0 5. 31. 26. 15. 21.6 21.1 5.0 15.III.
5 10.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.5
number 5 5 2 3 0 2 2
feelings in space
30. 15. and 10. 26.3% feel hot.0 15.8% feel slightly cool.0 5.8 0.0 20. none feel neutral.5% feel cold
.0 10.3 26. 10.5% feel cool.5% feel slightly warm.0 0.0 10.3 10. 10.0 25.IV.3% feel warm. 26.5 15. Feeling indoors
feeling in space hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold percentage (%) 26.
landscape satisfaction yes no percentage (%) 78. OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS I.1% are not. 78.9% are satisfied with the landscape.3. while 21.1
number 15 4
satisfaction with landscape
Comment: from observation.
52. 42.6% dispose in the dustbin.0 in the dustbin public gutter refuse collector free range
Comment: from observation.II.0 40.0 10.0 20.1 5.0 0.6
number 0 10
42.0 50. Refuse disposal
refuse disposal in the gutter dustbin public refuse collector free range percentage (%) 0.3
60.0 52. none dispose in the gutter.3% dispose free range
.1% dispose in the public refuse collector. and 5.0 30.
10. Satisfaction with the refuse disposal
percentage number (%) 8 42.1
satisfacton satisfactory fairly satisfactory not satisfactory
10. 42.III.5 % are fairly satisfied.1% are satisfied.5
47. while 47.4% are not satisfied
satisfaction with refuse disposal
not satisfactory 47%
fairly satisfactory 11%
Comment: from observation.
while 31.8 31.IV. 31.6
satisfaction with drainage system
not satisfactory 32% satisfactory 31%
fairly satisfactory 37%
Comment: from observation.6% are satisfied.6% % are not satisfied
.8% are fairly satisfied. Satisfaction with immediate outdoor drainage
satisfacton satisfactory fairly satisfactory not satisfactory number 6 7 6 percentage (%) 31. 136.6 36.
V. Quality of air
quality offensive neutral pleasant percentage number (%) 2 13 4 10.5 68.4 21.1
offensive 11% pleasant 21%
Comment: from observation, 10.5% find the air offensive, 68.4% find it neutral, while 21.1% find it pleasant.
VI. Level of noise
percentage (%) 0.0 31.6 57.9 10.5
classification very noisy noisy silent very silent
number 0 6 11 2
60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 very noisy noisy silent percentage (%)
Comment: from observation, none classify it as very noisy, 31.6% classify it as noisy, 57.9% as silent, 2% as very pleasant
VII. Source of noise
source traffic generating plants/ machines others number 0 percentage (%) 0.0
generating plants/ machines 33%
Comment: from observation, none chose traffic, 33.3% chose generating plants/ machines, while 66.7% chose other sources.
4. SERVICE I. Availability of electric supply
percentage (%) 100.0 0.0
availability yes no
number 19 0
availabilty of alectric supply
Comment: from observation, they all have electric supply.
21.0 very stable stable erratic percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.9 10.0 30.9% stable.0 0. 5.0 40.5 5. 57.3% not erratic
.0 50.1% have very stable supply.0 20.II.1 57.0 10. frequency of electric supply
frequency very stable stable erratic not erratic number 4 11 2 1 percentage (%) 21.3
frequency of electric su[pply
60. 10.5% erratic.
10. but none has spring water
.4% have well water.0 0.0 pipe-borne water well water bore-hole water
Comment: from observation.0 20.0 50.4
10.0 40. 68.1 68.0
70. Type of water supply
type pipe-borne water well water bore-hole water spring water
21. 21.5 0.0 10.0 60.5% have bore-hole water.III.0 30.1% have pipe-borne water.
5% has fairly.0 0.IV.5 0 0. and none has bad supply.0 20.5% has erratic.0 frequently fairly erratic
Comment: from observation. 75% has frequent pipe-borne water supply.0 40.5 1 12. 12.0
pipe-borne water supply
80. Frequency of pipe-borne water supply
Frequency frequently fairly erratic bad
percentage number (%) 6 75. 12.0 60.0 1 12.
and 36.5% good. Condition of road network
condition very good good fair bad
number 3 2 7 7
percentage (%) 15.0 very good good fair percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.8
40.8% bad roads
.8 10.0 0.0 30. 36. 15.0 10.8 36.8% have very good road.0 20.V. 10.5% fair.5 36.
7% use mobile gsm.VI. while 26.3% use phone
device mobile gsm phone
number 14 5
mobile gsm 74%
Comment: from observation. 73.7 26. Forms of telecommunication devices in use
percentage (%) 73.
satisfaction yes no
number 18 1
satisfaction with telecommunication service
Comment: from observation.3% are not. satisfaction level with the telecommunication service
percentage (%) 94.7% are satisfied.VII. 94.7 5.
Forms of sewage disposal in use
percentage (%) 57. while 21. 57.1% dispose on the floor.9% use gutter.1% dispose along the road
form gutter on the floor along the road
number 11 4 4
forms of sewage disposal
along the road 21%
on the floor 21%
Comment: from observation.9 21. 21.VIII.1 21.
6 21. 21. Microwave. and none did hard work
. Tv. Boiling ring.0 30.0 rest light work moderate work
Comment: from observation. Fan.0 10.0 20.5. 52. Others 6A. Blender.0 0. ENERGY USE Appliances available in the house:
Electric cooker. Iron.1% did moderate work.1 0. 26.0 40. Bulb.3 52.6% did light work. Physical activities in the last one hour
percentage (%) 26. ON-THE-SPOT ASSESSMENT I.0 50.0
type rest light work moderate work hard work
number 5 10 4 0
physical activities in the last one hour
60. Stove. Computer. Radio.3% rested.
Time of last meal
time less than 30 mins ago more than 30 mins ago number 5 14 percentage (%) 26. while 73.7% ate more than 30 mins ago
.3% ate less than 30 mins ago. 26.7
time of last meal
less than 30 mins ago 26%
more than 30 mins ago 74%
Comment: from observation.3 73.II.
number 2 6 11 0
60.9 0. Type of cloth worn:
Skirts.9% feel mderate movement.III.5 31. shirts.0 0.0 50. Feeling of air movement
air movement none slight moderate strong percentage (%) 10. 10. naked.0 30.0 40.6 57. while none feel strong movement
.5% feel nothing. 31.0 none slight moderate percentage (%)
Comment: from observation. to mention but a few. singlet. IV.0 20.0 10.6% feel slight movement. trousers. boxers.
0 10.0 20.3 10.4% warm.0 30.5% cool and none feel cold
.3% slightly warm. 10.5 0.3% feel hot. 5.0 0.0
50. 26. 47.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation. none feel neutral. 10. Feeling in the body
body feeling hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold number 1 9 5 2 0 2 0 percentage (%) 5.5% slightly cool.5 0.4 26.0 10.0 40.V.3 47.
0 10.VI.2% feel uncomfortable.0 50.0 0.0 40.0
Comment: from observation.0 20.5% feel very comfortable. 63.0 30.
. while none feel very uncomfortable.0
70.5 26.3 63.2 0. 26. 10.3% feel comfortable.0 60. Rating of comfort level
comfort level very comfortable comfortable uncomfortable very uncomfrtable percentage number (%) 2 5 12 0 10.
9% can do without a fan.1% cannot. while 42. Alternative to the use of fan
alternative yes no number 11 8 percentage (%) 57.9 42.1
Alternative to the use of fan
no 42% yes 58%
Comment: from observation. 57.VII.
0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.1 0.1% uncomfortable. 21. Feelings outside the room
percentage number (%) 2 6 7 4 0 10. 36.5% will feel very comfortable. 10.VIII.0 30.6 36.8 21. 31. but none very uncomfortable
.0 10.0 20.5 31.0 0.0
feeling very comfortable more comfortable indifferent uncomfortable very uncomfortable
40.6% more comfortable.8% indifferent.
Level of sweating
level of sweating no sweat on face only on body clothing wet with sweat percentage (%) 63. were none's clothing was wet with sweat.0 30.0 10.2 31.2% were not sweating.0 50.3% were sweating on body.0 60.3 0.0
number 12 6 1 0
70.6 5.0 no sweat on face only on body clothing wet with sweat
Comment: from observation.
. 63.IX.0 20.0 40.0 0. 5.6% were sweating only on face. 31.
X. Prefence time for the living room
time range morning afternoon evening night none of the above
percentage number (%) 2 6 4 2 5 10.5 31.6 21.1 10.5 26.3
Time preference for the living room
35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0
Comment: from observation, 10.5% prefer morning, 31.6% prefer afternoon, 21.1% prefernight, while 26.5% none.
6B. ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL CONDITION WITH TIME
I. Type of cloth put on
clothing type underwear light clothing thick clothing
percentage number (%) 3 15 1 15.8 78.9 5.3
thick clothing 5% underwear 16%
light clothing 79%
Comment: from observation, 15.8% are putting on underwear, 78.9% light clothing, and 5.3% thick clothing.
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold
number 0 4 0 3 6 6 7
percentage (%) 0.0 15.4 0.0 11.5 23.1 23.1 26.9
Thermal condition: 6-9.00am
30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0
Comment: from observation, none feel hot, 15.4% feel warm, none feel slightly warm, 11.5% feel slightly cool, 23.1% feel neutral, 23.1% feel cool, 26.9% feel cold
0 10.0 0.00noon
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold
number 2 5 8 2 1 1 0
percentage (%) 10.3% feel neutral.0 40.0 20.II.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation. 5.3 5.3% feel warm.1% feel slightly warm. 42.5% feel slightly cool.5 26.5 5. 9-12. 10.5% feel hot.0
Thermal condition: 9-12.1 10.0 30.3% feel cool. 10.B.3 42. 26. 5.3 0. none feel cold
0% feel cool.0 0.II.0 20.0 10.0
Comment: from observation.C.0 30.0 20. 12-3.0 0.0 40. 5.0 10.0 50.00pm
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold
number 12 4 1 2 0 1 0
percentage (%) 60. none feel neutral. 20. 60.0% feel slightly warm. none feel cold
.0% feel hot.0 5.0% feel slightly cool.0
Thermal condition: 12-3.0 5. 10.0 0.0% feel warm.00pm
5.5 3 17.00pm
80.6 1 0 0 0 0 5. 76.00pm
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold
percentage number (%) 13 76. and cold respectively
.0 0. neutral. 17.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.0 0.0 60.0 20. 3-6.9% feel slightly warm. while none felt cool.II.5% feel hot.0 40.0
Thermal condition: 3-6.0 0.9 0.0 0.D.6% feel warm. cool.
2% feel slightly cool.1% feel neutral.1% feel slightly warm. 11. 38. and 11.6 11.1 38.0 20.00pm
climatic situation hot warm slightly warm slightly cool neutral cool cold
number 0 1 2 4 2 7 2
percentage (%) 0.0 percentage (%)
Comment: from observation.2 11.1
40.1 22.9% feel cool.E. 6-9.9 11.0 10.0 0.1% feel cold.0 5.0 30. 11. 22.
. 5. none feel hot.II.6% feel warm.
are thermally comfortable. These factors. Hence.
. window/wall ratio. Physical and climatic factors like mean radiant temperature. it is safe to conclude that the residential buildings in Oke-Ola neighbourhood. relative humidity. From the study. personal and psychological factors like colour. it can be seen that the buildings fall within the specification for thermal comfort in warm-humid climate zone. air velocity and so on. It can also be seen that occupants expressed optimal satisfaction with their thermal environment.1 CONCLUSION
This study of residential buildings in Oke-Ola neighbourhood has helped us observe the factors important to obtaining thermal comfort in the design of residential buildings in the warm-humid climatic regions. clothing and so on. sizes of space. it is highly important to use passive controls and rely less on energy-based installations for thermal comfort. will help reduce the need for artificial means for thermal comfort. air movement.CHAPTER 5
5. are some of these factors. especially when considering the living rooms. if well integrated into the design of buildings in these regions. window/floor ratio. activities. For functional and economic reasons.
Use of well-ventilated ceiling spaces to extract heat built up within ceiling spaces by the effect of solar radiation can also be adopted.5. to ensure high air exchange rate per unit time. like use of materials that can store large amount of thermal energy (concrete) should be encouraged.2 RECOMMENDATION
For designs in warm-humid climatic regions. Buildings should be single-banked. Buildings should be oriented in such a way to prevent exposure to East-west sun path. Passive building techniques. Cross-ventilation should be encouraged. the following are recommended: Heavy external and internal walls should be used for thermal storage. Light insulated roofing should be used.
. Windows that allow for 100% ventilation should be used to allow for maximum ventilation.
Georgia U. Nigeria: A University on the move.S. Leong G.A. O.
. and Morris E. Princeton University press. 991. and Szokolay S.. (1963): Estimation of the Effects of Climate on man: developing a new thermal index. (1972): Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife. London UK. Sept.G. 1975: Prague BRE. Oxford University Press. Kuala Lumpur. Climate and Architecture. New Jersey. Ingersoll T. Fanger (1972): Thermal comfort. Asia.C. Singapore. Fergus Nicole (2001): Journal architectural research. (1963): Design with climate. Applied Science Publishers. Lagos. Climate and Energy. BGA Communications.A. Markus M. Givoni B. (1973): Manual of Tropical Housing and Building Climatic Design. Longman Inc. (1971): Certificate of Physical and Human Geography...1004 Olygay V.F.N. and Humphrey M. ASHRAE Transaction 104 (1) pp.H. Mayhew A. Pitman publishing Ltd. P. London UK.A. (1998): Understanding the Adaptive Approach to thermal comfort. Humphreys M.V. Nigeria. Pitman publishing Ltd. Teknion.A. Richard O. (1980): Building. Haifa. Nicol J.REFERENCES
Givoni B. Koenisberger. McGraw Hill. (1976): Man.O. (1975): Field studies of thermal comfort compared and applied symposium on physiological requirement of the micro climate. USA.
(New York: McGraw Hill. 2nd ed. J. OPI printing press.. Sports Med. Thomas (1978): ventilation of buildings. 1990. 56th ed.D. Maresh: The induction and decay of heat acclimation in trained athletes.W. CT 06269-111 USA Armstrong L.E. E-204 to E-208 and E-247. U. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Jenkins and H. Armstrong. 1991. (1980): Human comfort Indices.K. (1964): Thermal discomfort in a tropical environment. Great Britain. Lawrence E.E. Nature vol. Tromp S. (Cleveland: Chemical Rubber Publ. London. Sci. and R. White: Fundamentals of Optics. Webb C. and C. pp. De Luca. Med. Co. pp. Pp. and Exercise Science University of Connecticut Storrs. Leisure. Department of Sports. Armstrong L.
. 104-111 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Ozone ACTION. 1950). 22: 36-48. Hubbard: Time course of recovery and heat acclimation ability of prior exertional heat stroke patients.A.Olygay (1976): Comfort in Endoclimate.W. R. 1975). 12: 302-312. F. 11931194. Ph.G. Biometeorology Hayden International.E. 202. Sports Exerc.M. Technical University of Denmark.P. Morris group.
B. Marriott (Ed.M.: National Academy Press. Armstrong. Moore. R. Indianapolis: Benchmark press. Pandolf. Curtis. and R..
. K. Washington D. and exercise-heat tolerance in: Human Performance Physiology and Environmental Medicine at Terrestrial Extremes. Sawka. Mathew. M. P.Armstrong L. L.R. 199-226 Francesconi. pp. B.W. and K.E.C. Hubbard.C. and E. N. Askew: endocrinological responses to dietary salt restriction during heat acclimation in: Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments.P.N. 1998. W. 1993.).M.W. Gonzalez (eds.C.J.T. Pandolf: Physical training. 259-276.). Leva. cardiorespiratory physical fitness. R. pp. R.B. Szlyk.E. W.
Assessment of Environmental and Thermal Comfort in core Ife town This research is being conducted to study the factors affecting thermal comfort in your immediate environment both internal and external. Ile-Ife.QUESTIONNARE
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
Obafemi Awolowo University. Introduction: Please.
CLIMATIC SITUATION How do you feel in the outdoor of this environment? In the morning (a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold In the afternoon
. Osun State. fill in or tick as appropriate. GENERAL INFORMATION Questionnaire number: Date of interview: PERSONAL INFORMATION Age of respondent (1) 16-20 (2) 21-25 (3) 26-30 (4) 31 and above
Respondent’s Address: Building type: Floor type: (1) basement (2) Ground floor (3) First floor (4) Second floor (5) Third floor
How many people in a room: Occupation:
how do you feel in your room? (a) Cold (b) Cool (c) Warm (d) Slightly cool Does your outdoor environment smell during rainfall? Yes or No How do you feel in the environment when it is sunny? (a) Cool (b) Slightly warm (c) Warm (d) Hot Are you disturbed by the wind? Are you disturbed by flood? Yes or No
Yes or No
[A] In the morning i.(a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold In the evening (a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold At night (a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold
2. How do you open the window?
. How do you usually feel in your room in the morning? (1)Hot (2) Warm (3) Slightly warm (4) Slightly cool (5) Neutral (6) Cool (7) Cold [B] In the Afternoon i.
IMPACT OF WEATHER AND CLIMATIC ELEMENT OF THE INDOOR
ENVIRONMENT During the rainfall. How do you open the window? (1) Fully (2) Partly (3) Not opened. iii. ii. How do you draw your curtains? (1) Fully (2) Partly (3) Not drawn How often do you put on the fan? (1) Always (2) Frequently (3) Sometimes (4) Seldom(5) Never iv.
How do you draw your curtains? (1) fully (2) partly (3) not drawn How often do you put on the fan? (1)always (2) frequently (3) sometimes (4) seldom (5) never iv. How do you usually feel in your room in the afternoon? (a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold (3) i. OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Are you satisfied with the landscape feature of this area? Yes or No How do you dispose your refuse? (a) In gutter (b) Dustbin (c) Public refuse collector (d) Free range
. How do you draw your curtains? (1) fully (2) partly (3) not drawn How often do you put on the fan? (1)always (2) frequently (3) sometimes (4) seldom (5)Never iv. ii. How do you open the window? (1) Fully (2) Partly (3) Not opened. How do you usually feel in your room in the evening (a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold (D) In the Night i. ii. iii.
How do you draw your curtains? (1) Fully (2) partly (3) not drawn How often do you put on the fan? (1) Always (2) frequently (3) sometimes (4)
seldom (5) never v.ii. How do you open the window? (1) Fully (2) Partly (3) Not opened. How do you usually feel in your room in the afternoon? (a)Hot (b) Warm (c) Slightly warm (d) Slightly cool (e) Neutral (f) Cool (g) Cold
(C) In the Evening i. iii. ii. iii.
iii. noisy (b) Noisy (c) Silent (d) Very silent
If (a) or (b) above is your option.
How satisfied are you with the available refuse disposal? (a) Satisfactory (b) fairly satisfactory (c) not satisfactory
iv. how often is it being supplied? (a) Frequently (b) Fairly
(c) Erratic (d) Bad v. (a) Traffic (b) Generating plants/machines (c) Others.
What do you feel about your immediate outdoor drainage system (a) Satisfactory (b) fairly satisfactory (c) not satisfactory
v. What is the condition of the road network? (a) Very good (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Bad Which form of telecommunication devices do you use? Mobile GSM ( ) Phone ( ) Are you satisfied with the telecommunication service? Yes or No
. How do you classify the noise level in your immediate outdoor environment? (a) Very vii. specify_________________
(4) i. vi. Neutral
What is the quality of air in your immediate outdoor environment? (a) Offensive (b)
(c) Pleasant. what then is the source.
If pipe borne water supply. vi.
SERVICE Do you have electricity supply? Yes or No How stable is your electricity supply? (a) Very stable (b) Stable (c) Erratic (d) Not
Which type of water supply is available in this area? (a) Pipe borne water (b) well water (c) Bore-hole water (d) spring water
iv. erratic iii. vii. ii.
Which form of sewage disposal do you use? (a) Gutter (b) On the floor (c) Along the
Tick appropriately the appliances you have in your house Electric cooker ( ) Iron ( ) Microwave ( ) Boiling ring ( ) Blender ( ) Stove ( ) Computer ( ) Radio ( ) TV ( ) Fan ( ) Bulb ( ) Others ( ) (6) (a) ON THE SPOT ASSESSMENT i.
Can you do without a fan in this space? Yes ( ) or No ( ) How will you feel the outdoor if you go out of this room? Very comfortable ( ) More comfortable ( ) Indifferent ( ) uncomfortable ( ) Very uncomfortable ( )
. ago ( ) iii. What type of clothing are you wearing now? What time did you have your last meal? Less than 30 min. How do you feel in your body now? Hot ( ) warm ( ) Neutral ( ) slightly cool ( ) Cool ( ) Cold ( ) slightly warm ( ) Do you feel any air movement now? None ( ) Slight ( ) moderate ( ) Strong
vi. ago ( ) More than 30 min
__________________________________ iv. Physical activities in the last one hour: Rest ( ) Light work ( ) Moderate ( ) Hard
work ( ) ii.
How do you rate the level of your comfort now? Very comfortable ( ) Comfortable ( ) uncomfortable ( ) Very uncomfortable ( )
vii. viii. ( ) v.viii.
When do you prefer most to be in the sitting room? Morning ( ) Afternoon ( ) Evening ( ) Night ( ) none of the above ( )
ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL CONDITION WITH TIME Please indicate the type of the clothing you are putting on? Underwear ( ) Light clothing ( ) Thick clothing ( )
Thermal Conditions Hot Warm Slightly warm Neutral Slightly cool Cool Cold
Comment by the Respondent
.00am 9-12noon 123.
Indicate the level of your sweating now: body ( ) Clothing wet with sweat ( )
No sweat ( ) on face only ( ) on
General comment ____________________________________________________________
0 190.0 21.0 22.5 31.0 23.0 22.0 86.5 70.5 32.0 88.0 86.5 25.0 21.5 30.5 22.0 3.0 58.APPNDIX I: CLIMATE DATA OF ILE-IFE
Monthly Weather data for Ile-Ife (2007) Minimum temperature (0C) 21.5 18.0 317.5 28.5 368.5 165.0 85.0 85.0 24.0 32.0 2.5 0.0 69.40
Minimum RH (%) 49.0 88.5 33.5 30.0 75.0 82.5 31.0 195.3 137.38
Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Annual value
Rainfall (min) 0.0 88.0 86.0 86.0 29.0 33.5 80.1 1473.25
Irradiation Watt/m2 4417 4862 4862 4862 4834 4230 3750 3667 3750 4417 4695 4417 4397
.5 31.0 86.54 Maximum temperature (0C) 33.0 84.0 83.5 22.0 20.5 30.0 22.0 49.0 86.0 72.0 84.0 69.21
Maximum RH (%) 82.0 90.0 69.5 28.
5 30.0 9.5 25.0 10.0 22.0 10.5 5.0 Monthly mean range (0C) 11.5 31.5 30.5 10.5 31.0 13.5 8.0 21.0 21.5 33.5 8.5 22.0 32.0 33.5 Monthly mean min (0C) 21.0 20.5 9.5
Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
.5 30.5 32.5 18.APPENDIX II: MAHONEY TABLE
Table 1: Air temperature Monthly mean max (0C) 33.0 29.0 8.5 22.0 5.5 28.5 28.0 22.0 23.
3 137.0 86.0 86.0 88.0 58.0 84.0
Rainfall (mm) 0.0 24.0 82.0 86.5 80.0 84.0 83.5 165.1
Wind Primary Secondary
3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3
.5 0.0 55.0 85.0 72.0 88.0 3.0 84.3 83.0 88.0 68.5 62.0 82.APPENDIX III
Table 2: Humidity.0 190. Rain and Wind
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Monthly mean max (0C) 82.5 70.0 72.0 86.5 368.0 41.0 80.0 71.0
Monthly mean Avg 49.0 5.0 78.0 65.0 317.0 88.0 77.0 2.0 49.0 90.0 195.0 69.0 87.
0 21.5 30.5 33.APPENDIX IV
Table 3: Diagnosis
Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Humidity group 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3
Temp 0 ( C)
Monthly mean max 33.5 28.0 21.0 22.0 21.5 31.5 32.0 27 21. 23.5 30.0 27 21.0 17.0 21.5 25.0 27 21.0 21.0 17.5 18.0 21.0 21.0 23.0 22.0 27 21. 29 23.5 22.0 29.0 29 23.0 32.0 17.0 23.5 28.0 17.0 17. max.0 17.0
Night comfort max.5 30.5
Day comfort min.0 17. min.0 21.0 21.0 27 21.0 17. 21.0 17.0 21.0
Thermal stress Day Night H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
.0 21.0 17.0 27 21.0 33.5 22.0 17.0
Monthly mean min.5 31.0 27 21.0 17.0 29 23.0 23.0 27 21.0 20.0 27 21.
Table 4: Indicator
Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Totals
H1 Air movement (essential)
H2 Air movement (desirable)
H3 Arid (rain protection)
A1 (thermal stage) / /
A2 (outdoor sleeping)
A3 (cold season probable)
/ / / / / / / / /