Description
L. Sonneveldt
Control & Simulation Division
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Delft University of Technology
The Netherlands
Version 1.0, March 2010
Copyright c Control & Simulation Division, Delft University of Technology
All rights reserved L. Sonneveldt
1
Nomenclature
State variables:
V
T
= total velocity, m/s
, = angle of attack, rad
= angle of sideslip, rad
, , = Euler angles, rad
q
0
, q
1
, q
2
, q
3
= quaternion components
p, q, r = bodyaxis roll, pitch and yaw rates, rad/s
x
E
, y
E
, z
E
= aircraft position w.r.t. reference point, m
pow = power setting, %
Control variables:
th
= throttle setting, 0 1
e
= elevator deection, rad
a
= aileron deection, rad
r
= rudder deection, rad
LEF
= leading edge ap deection, rad
Additional parameters
b = reference wing span, m
c = mean aerodynamic chord, m
C
= Aerodynamic coecient of *
F
T
= thrust force, N
g
1
, g
2
, g
3
= gravity components, m/s
2
H
eng
= engine angular momentum, kg.m
2
/s
I
x
, I
y
, I
z
= moments of inertia kg.m
2
I
xz
= product moment of inertia kg.m
2
L,
M,
N = rolling, pitching and yawing moments, Nm
m = mass, kg
M = Mach number
p
s
= static pressure, Pa
q = dynamic pressure, Pa
S = reference wing surface area, m
2
T = Temperature, K
T
s/b
= Rotation matrix bodyxed to stabilityaxes reference frame
T
w/b
= Rotation matrix bodyxed to windaxes reference frame
u, v, w = bodyaxis velocity components, m/s
X,
Y ,
Z = axial, lateral and normal force components, N
x
cg
= center of gravity location, m
x
cgr
= reference center of gravity location, m
= ight path angle, rad
= air density, kg/m
3
2
1 Aircraft Dynamics
In this section the equations of motion for the F16 model are derived, this
derivation is based on [1, 2, 3]. A very thorough discussion on ight dynamics
can be found in the course notes [4].
1.1 Reference Frames
The reference frames used in this thesis are the earthxed reference frame F
E
,
used as the inertial frame and the vehicle carried local earth reference frame F
O
with its origin xed in the center of gravity of the aircraft which is assumed to
have the same orientation as F
E
; the windaxes reference frame F
W
, obtained
from F
O
by three successive rotations of , and ; the stabilityaxes reference
frame F
S
, obtained from F
W
by a rotation of ; and nally the bodyxed
reference frame F
B
, obtained from F
S
by a rotation of as is also indicated in
Figure 1. The bodyxed reference frame F
B
can also be obtained directly from
Figure 1: Aircraft reference frames: earthxed reference frame F
E
, bodyxed
reference frame F
B
, stabilityaxes reference frame F
S
and windaxes reference
frame F
W
F
O
by three successive rotations of yaw angle , pitch angle and roll angle
. All reference frames are righthanded and orthogonal. In the earthxed
reference frame the z
E
axis points to the center of the earth, the x
E
axis points
in some arbitrary direction, e.g. the north, and the y
E
axis is perpendicular to
the x
E
axis.
3
The transformation matrices from F
B
to F
S
and from F
B
to F
W
are dened as
T
s/b
=
cos 0 sin
0 1 0
sin 0 cos
, T
w/b
=
.
1.2 Aircraft Variables
A number of assumptions has to be made, before proceeding with the derivation
of the equations of motion:
1. The aircraft is a rigidbody, which means that any two points on or within
the airframe remain xed with respect to each other. This assumption is
quite valid for a small ghter aircraft.
2. The earth is at and nonrotating and regarded as an inertial reference.
This assumption is valid when dealing with control design of aircraft, but
not when analyzing inertial guidance systems.
3. The mass is constant during the time interval over which the motion is
considered, the fuel consumption is neglected during this timeinterval.
This assumption is necessary to apply Newtons motion laws.
4. The mass distribution of the aircraft is symmetric relative to the X
B
OZ
B

plane, this implies that the products of inertia I
yz
and I
xy
are equal to
zero. This assumption is valid for most aircraft.
Under the above assumptions the motion of the aircraft has six degrees of free
dom (rotation and translation in three dimensions). The aircraft dynamics can
be described by its position, orientation, velocity and angular velocity over time.
p
E
= (x
E
, y
E
, z
E
)
T
is the position vector expressed in an earthxed coordinate
system. V is the velocity vector given by V = (u, v, w)
T
, where u is the longitu
dinal velocity, v the lateral velocity and w the normal velocity. The orientation
vector is given by = (, , )
T
, where is the roll angle, the pitch angle
and the yaw angle, and the angular velocity vector is given by = (p, q, r)
T
,
where p,q and r are the roll, pitch and yaw angular velocities, respectively. Var
ious components of the aircraft motions are illustrated in Figure 2.
The relation between the attitude vector and the angular velocity vector
is given as
=
_
_
1 sin tan cos tan
0 cos sin
0
sin
cos
cos
cos
_
_
(1)
Dening V
T
as the total velocity and using Figure 2, the following relations can
be derived:
V
T
=
_
u
2
+v
2
+w
2
= arctan
w
u
(2)
= arcsin
v
V
T
4
Figure 2: Aircraft orientation angles , and , aerodynamic angles and ,
and the angular rates p, q and r. All angles and rates are dened positive in the
gure.
Furthermore, when = = 0, the ight path angle can be dened as
= (3)
1.3 Equations of Motion for a Rigid Body Aircraft
The equations of motion for the aircraft can be derived from Newtons Second
Law of motion, which states that the summation of all external forces acting
on a body must be equal to the time rate of change of its momentum, and the
summation of the external moments acting on a body must be equal to the time
rate of change of its angular momentum. In the inertial, Earthxed reference
frame F
E
, Newtons Second Law can be expressed by two vector equations [4]
F =
d
dt
(mV)
_
E
(4)
M =
dH
dt
_
E
(5)
where F represents the sum of all externally applied forces, m is the mass of
the aircraft, M represents the sum of all applied torques and H is the angular
momentum.
1.3.1 Force Equation
First, to further evaluate the force equation (4) it is necessary to obtain an
expression for the time rate of change of the velocity vector with respect to
earth. This process is complicated by the fact that the velocity vector may be
rotating while it is changing in magnitude. Using the equation of Coriolis in
appendix A of [1] results in
F =
d
dt
(mV)
_
B
+ mV, (6)
where is the total angular velocity of the aircraft with respect to the earth
(inertial reference frame). Expressing the vectors as the sum of their components
5
with respect to the bodyxed reference frame F
B
gives
V = iu +jv +kw (7)
= ip +jq +kr (8)
where i,j and k are unit vectors along the aircrafts x
B
, y
B
and z
B
axes, respec
tively. Expanding (6) using (7), (8) results in
F
x
= m( u +qw rv)
F
y
= m( v +ru pw) (9)
F
z
= m( w +pv qu)
where the external forces F
x
, F
y
and F
z
depend on the weight vector W, the
aerodynamic force vector R and the thrust vector E. It is assumed the thrust
produced by the engine, F
T
, acts parallel to the aircrafts x
B
axis. Hence,
E
x
= F
T
E
y
= 0 (10)
E
z
= 0
The components of W and R along the bodyaxes are
W
x
= mg sin
W
y
= mg sincos (11)
W
z
= mg cos cos
and
R
x
=
X
R
y
=
Y (12)
R
z
=
Z
where g is the gravity constant. The size of the aerodynamic forces
X,
Y
and
Z is determined by the amount of air diverted by the aircraft in dierent
directions. The amount of air diverted by the aircraft mainly depends on the
following factors:
the total velocity V
T
(or Mach number M) and density of the airow ,
the geometry of the aircraft: wing area S, wing span b and mean aerody
namic chord c,
the orientation of the aircraft relative to the airow: angle of attack and
side slip angle ,
the control surface deections ,
the angular rates p, q, r,
6
There are other variables such as the time derivatives of the aerodynamic angles
that also play a role, but these eects are less prominent, since it is assumed
that the aircraft is a rigid body. This motivates the standard way of modeling
the aerodynamic force:
X = qSC
XT
(, , p, q, r, , ...)
Y = qSC
YT
(, , p, q, r, , ...) (13)
Z = qSC
ZT
(, , p, q, r, , ...)
where q =
1
2
V
2
T
is the aerodynamic pressure. The air density is calculated
according to the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) as given in Section
B. The coecients C
XT
, C
YT
and C
ZT
are usually obtained from (virtual) wind
tunnel data and ight tests. Combining equations (11) and (12) and the thrust
components (10) with (9), results in the complete bodyaxes force equation:
X +F
T
mg sin = m( u +qw rv)
L = qSbC
lT
(, , p, q, r, , ...) (20)
M = qS cC
mT
(, , p, q, r, , ...)
N = qSbC
nT
(, , p, q, r, , ...)
Combining (18) and (19), the complete bodyaxis moment equation is formed
as
L = pI
x
rI
xz
+qr(I
z
I
y
) pqI
xz
M rH
eng
= qI
y
+pq(I
x
I
z
) + (p
2
r
2
)I
xz
(21)
N +qH
eng
= rI
z
pI
xz
+pq(I
y
I
x
) +qrI
xz
.
1.4 Gathering the Equations of Motion
1.4.1 Euler Angles
The equations of motion derived in the previous sections are now collected and
written as a system of twelve scalar rst order dierential equations.
u = rv qw g sin +
1
m
(
X +F
T
) (22)
v = pw ru +g sin cos +
1
m
Y (23)
w = qu pv +g cos cos +
1
m
Z (24)
p = (c
1
r +c
2
p)q +c
3
L +c
4
(
N +qH
eng
) (25)
q = c
5
pr c
6
(p
2
r
2
) +c
7
(
M rH
eng
) (26)
r = (c
8
p c
2
r)q +c
4
L +c
9
(
N +qH
eng
) (27)
=
q sin + r cos
cos
(30)
8
x
E
= u cos cos +v(cos sin sin sin cos )
+ w(cos sin cos + sin sin) (31)
y
E
= u sin cos +v(sin sin sin + cos cos )
+ w(sin sin cos cos sin) (32)
z
E
= u sin +v cos sin +wcos cos (33)
where
c
1
= (I
y
I
z
)I
z
I
2
xz
c
4
= I
xz
c
7
=
1
I
y
c
2
= (I
x
I
y
+I
z
)I
xz
c
5
=
IzIx
Iy
c
8
= I
x
(I
x
I
y
) +I
2
xz
c
3
= I
z
c
6
=
Ixz
Iy
c
9
= I
x
with = I
x
I
z
I
2
xz
.
1.4.2 Quaternions
The above equations of motion make use of Euler angle approach for the orienta
tion model. The disadvantage of the Euler angle method is that the dierential
equations for p and r become singular when pitch angle passes through
2
.
To avoid these singularities quaternions are used for the aircraft orientation
presentation. A detailed explanation about quaternions and their properties
can be found in [3]. With the quaternions presentation the aircraft system
representation exists of 13 scalar rst order dierential equations:
u = rv qw +
1
m
_
X +F
T
_
+ 2(q
1
q
3
q
0
q
2
)g (34)
v = pw ru +
1
m
Y + 2(q
2
q
3
+q
0
q
1
)g (35)
w = qu pv +
1
m
Z + (q
2
0
q
2
1
q
2
2
+ q
2
3
)g (36)
p = (c
1
r +c
2
p)q +c
3
L +c
4
(
N +qH
eng
) (37)
q = c
5
pr c
6
(p
2
r
2
) +c
7
(
M rH
eng
) (38)
r = (c
8
p c
2
r)q +c
4
L +c
9
(
N +qH
eng
) (39)
q =
_
_
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
_
_
=
1
2
_
_
0 p q r
p 0 r q
q r 0 p
r q p 0
_
_
_
_
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
_
_
(40)
xE
yE
zE
q
2
0
+q
2
1
q
2
2
q
2
3
2(q1q2 q0q3) 2(q1q3 +q0q2)
2(q1q2 +q0q3) q
2
0
q
2
1
+q
2
2
q
2
3
2(q2q3 q0q1)
2(q1q3 q0q2) 2(q2q3 +q0q1) q
2
0
q
2
1
q
2
2
+q
2
3
u
v
w
(41)
9
where
_
_
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
_
_
=
_
_
cos /2 cos /2 cos /2 + sin /2 sin/2 sin/2
sin /2 cos /2 cos /2 cos /2 sin/2 sin/2
cos /2 sin/2 cos /2 + sin /2 cos /2 sin/2
cos /2 cos /2 sin/2 sin /2 sin/2 cos /2
_
_
Using (40) to describe the attitude dynamics means that the four dieren
tial equations are integrated as if all quaternion components were independent.
Therefore, the normalization condition q =
_
q
2
0
+q
2
1
+q
2
2
+q
2
3
= 1 and the
derivative constraint q
0
q
0
+ q
1
q
1
+ q
2
q
2
+ q
3
q
3
= 0 may not be satised after
performing an integration step due to numerical roundo errors. After each
integration step the constraint may be reestablished by subtracting the dis
crepancy from the quaternion derivatives. The corrected quaternion dynamics
are [6]
q
= q q, (42)
where = q
0
q
0
+q
1
q
1
+q
2
q
2
+q
3
q
3
.
1.4.3 Wind Axes Force Equations
For control design it is more convenient to transform the force equations (34)
(36) to the windaxes reference frame. Taking the derivative of Eq. (2) results
in [3]
VT =
1
m
(D +FT cos cos +mg1) (43)
= q (p cos +r sin ) tan
1
mVT cos
(L +FT sin mg3) (44)
= p sin r cos +
1
mVT
(Y FT cos sin +mg2) (45)
where the drag force D, the side force Y and the lift force L are dened as
D =
X cos cos
Y sin
Z sincos
Y =
X cos sin +
Y cos
Z sinsin
L =
X sin
Z cos
and the gravity components as
g
1
= g (cos cos sin + sin sin cos + sincos cos cos )
g
2
= g (cos sin sin + cos sin cos sin sin cos cos )
g
3
= g (sin sin + cos cos cos )
2 Control Variables and Engine Modeling
The F16 model allows for control over thrust, elevator, ailerons, and rudder.
The thrust is measured in Newtons. All deections are dened positive in
10
the conventional way, i.e. positive thrust causes an increase in acceleration
along the x
B
axis, a positive elevator deection results in a decrease in pitch
rate, a positive aileron deection gives a decrease in roll rate and a positive
rudder deection decreases the yaw rate. The F16 also has a leading edge ap,
which helps to y the aircraft at high angles of attack. The deection of the
leading edge ap
LEF
is not controlled directly by the pilot, but is governed by
the following transfer function dependent on angle of attack and static and
dynamic pressures:
LEF
= 1.38
2s + 7.25
s + 7.25
9.05
q
p
s
+ 1.45
The dierential elevator deection, trailing edge ap, landing gear and speed
brakes are not included in the model, since no data is publicly available. The
control surfaces of the F16 are driven by servocontrolled actuators to produce
the deections commanded by the ight control system. The actuators of the
control surfaces are modeled as a rstorder lowpass lters with certain gain
and saturation limits in range and deection rate. These limits can be found in
Table 1. The gains of the actuators are 1/0.136 for the leading edge ap and
1/0.0495 for the other control surfaces. The maximum values and units for all
control variables are given in Table 1.
Table 1: The control input units and maximum values
Control units MIN. MAX. rate limit
Elevator deg 25 25 60 deg/s
Ailerons deg 21.5 21.5 80 deg/s
Rudder deg 30 30 120 deg/s
Leading edge ap deg 0 25 25 deg/s
The LockheedMartin F16A is powered by an afterburning turbofan jet engine,
which is modeled taking into account throttle gearing and engine power level lag.
The thrust response is modeled with a rst order lag, where the lag time constant
is a function of the current engine power level and the commanded power. The
commanded power level to the throttle position is a linear relationship apart
from a change in slope when the military power level is reached at 0.77 throttle
setting [5]:
P
c
(
th
) =
_
64.94
th
if
th
0.77
217.38
th
117.38 if
th
> 0.77
. (46)
Note that the throttle position is limited to the range 0
th
1. The
derivative of the actual power level P
a
is given by [5]
P
a
=
1
eng
(P
c
P
a
) , (47)
11
where
P
c
=
_
_
P
c
if P
c
50 and P
a
50
60 if P
c
50 and P
a
< 50
40 if P
c
< 50 and P
a
50
P
c
if P
c
< 50 and P
a
< 50
1
eng
=
_
_
5.0 if P
c
50 and P
a
50
1
eng
if P
c
50 and P
a
< 50
5.0 if P
c
< 50 and P
a
50
1
eng
if P
c
< 50 and P
a
< 50
1
eng
=
_
_
_
1.0 if (P
c
P
a
) 25
0.1 if (P
c
P
a
) 50
1.9 0.036 (P
c
P
a
) if 25 < (P
c
P
a
) < 50
.
The engine thrust data is available in a tabular form as a function of actual
power, altitude and Mach number over the ranges 0 h 15240 m and
0 M 1 for idle, military and maximum power settings [5]. The thrust
is computed as
F
T
=
_
T
idle
+ (T
mil
T
idle
)
Pa
50
if P
a
< 50
T
mil
+ (T
max
T
mil
)
Pa50
50
if P
a
50
. (48)
The engine angular momentum is assumed to be acting along the x
B
axis with
a constant value of 216.9 kg.m
2
/s.
3 Geometry and Aerodynamic Data
The relevant geometry data of the F16A can be found in Table 2. The aero
dynamic data of the F16 model have been derived from lowspeed static and
dynamic (force oscillation) windtunnel tests conducted with subscale models
in windtunnel facilities at the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers [5].
The aerodynamic data in [5] is given in tabular form and is valid for the following
subsonic ight envelope:
20 90 degrees;
30 30 degrees.
Two examples of the aerodynamic data for the F16 model can be found in
Figure 3. The pitch moment coecient C
m
and the C
Z
both depend on three
variables: angle of attack, sideslip angle and elevator deection.
The various aerodynamic contributions to a given force or moment coecient
12
20
0
20
40
60
80
20
0
20
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
beta (deg)
alpha (deg)
C
m
(
)
(a) Cm for e = 0
20
0
20
40
60
80
20
0
20
3
2
1
0
1
2
beta (deg)
alpha (deg)
C
Z
(
)
(b) C
Z
for e = 0
Figure 3: Two examples of the aerodynamic coecient data for the F16 ob
tained from windtunnel tests.
are summed as follows.
For the Xaxis force coecient C
XT
:
C
XT
= C
X
(, ,
e
) +C
XLEF
_
1
LEF
25
_
+
q c
2V
T
_
C
Xq
() +C
Xq
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
where
C
XLEF
= C
XLEF
(, ) C
X
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
For the Yaxis force coecient C
YT
:
C
YT
= C
Y
(, ) +C
YLEF
_
1
LEF
25
_
+
_
C
Y
a
+C
Y
a
LEF
_
1
LEF
25
___
a
20
_
+ C
Y
r
_
r
30
_
+
rb
2V
T
_
C
Yr
() +C
Yr
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
+
pb
2V
T
_
C
Yp
() +C
Yp
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
where
C
YLEF
= C
YLEF
(, ) C
Y
(, )
C
Y
a
= C
Y
a
(, ) C
Y
(, )
C
Y
a
LEF
= C
Y
a
LEF
(, ) C
YLEF
(, ) C
Y
a
C
Y
r
= C
Y
r
(, ) C
Y
(, )
13
For the Zaxis force coecient C
ZT
:
C
ZT
= C
Z
(, ,
e
) +C
ZLEF
_
1
LEF
25
_
+
q c
2V
T
_
C
Zq
() +C
Zq
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
where
C
ZLEF
= C
ZLEF
(, ) C
Z
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
For the rollingmoment coecient C
lT
:
C
lT
= C
l
(, ,
e
) +C
lLEF
_
1
LEF
25
_
+
_
C
l
a
+C
l
a
LEF
_
1
LEF
25
___
a
20
_
+ C
l
r
_
r
30
_
+
rb
2V
T
_
C
lr
() +C
lr
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
+
pb
2V
T
_
C
lp
() +C
lp
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
+C
l
()
where
C
lLEF
= C
lLEF
(, ) C
l
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
C
l
a
= C
l
a
(, ) C
l
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
C
l
a
LEF
= C
l
a
LEF
(, ) C
lLEF
(, ) C
l
a
C
l
r
= C
l
r
(, ) C
l
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
For the pitchingmoment coecient C
mT
:
C
mT
= C
m
(, ,
e
) +C
ZT
_
x
cgr
x
cg
_
+C
mLEF
_
1
LEF
25
_
+
q c
2V
T
_
C
mq
() +C
mq
LEF
()
__
1
LEF
25
_
+C
m
() +C
m
ds
(,
e
)
where
C
mLEF
= C
mLEF
(, ) C
m
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
For the yawingmoment coecient C
nT
:
C
nT
= C
n
(, ,
e
) +C
nLEF
_
1
LEF
25
_
C
YT
_
x
cgr
x
cg
_
c
b
+
_
C
n
a
+C
n
a
LEF
_
1
LEF
25
___
a
20
_
+ C
n
r
_
r
30
_
+
rb
2V
T
_
C
nr
() +C
nr
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
+
pb
2V
T
_
C
np
() +C
np
LEF
()
_
1
LEF
25
__
+C
n
()
14
where
C
nLEF
= C
nLEF
(, ) C
n
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
C
n
a
= C
n
a
(, ) C
n
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
C
n
a
LEF
= C
n
a
LEF
(, ) C
nLEF
(, ) C
n
a
C
n
r
= C
n
r
(, ) C
n
(, ,
e
= 0
o
)
4 MATLAB/Simulink script les
Descriptions are included in the les. Most les are based on or copied from the
F16 models by R. S. Russell [7] and Y. Huo. The Sfunctions
F_16dyn.c
and
F_16dynam.c
both contain the aircraft dynamics, they only dier in the use of quaternions
vs. Euler angles. the
runF16model.m
script le allows the user to trim the aircraft model for steadystate ight con
ditions.
Other les:
tgear.m
trim_fun.m
lofi_f16_aerodata.c
hifi_f16_aerodata.c
engine_model.c
ISA_atmos.c
mexndinterp.c
15
References
[1] J. H. Blakelock. Automatic Control of Aircraft and Missiles. John Wiley &
Sons, 2nd edition, 1991.
[2] M. V. Cook. Flight Dynamics Principles, pages 1129. Butterworth
Heinemann, 1997.
[3] B. L. Lewis and F. L. Stevens. Aircraft Control and Simulation, pages 1
54,110115. John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
[4] J. A. Mulder, W. H. J. J. van Staveren, J. C. van der Vaart, and
E. de Weerdt. Flight dynamics, lecture notes ae3302. Technical report,
Delft University of Technology, 2006.
[5] L. T. Nguyen, M. E. Ogburn, W. P. Gilbert, K. S. Kibler, P. W. Brown,
and P. L. Deal. Simulator study of stall poststall characteristics of a ghter
airplane with relaxed longitudinal static stability. Technical report, NASA
Langley Research Center, 1979.
[6] K. Refson. Moldys Users Manual. Department of Earth Sciences, May
2001.
[7] R. S. Russell. Nonlinear f16 simulations using simulink and matlab. Tech
nical report, University of Minnesota, 2003.
16
A F16 Geometry
Table 2: F16 parameters.
Parameter Symbol Value
aircraft mass (kg) m 9295.44
wing span (m) b 9.144
wing area (m
2
) S 27.87
mean aerodynamic chord (m) c 3.45
roll moment of inertia (kg.m
2
) I
x
12874.8
pitch moment of inertia (kg.m
2
) I
y
75673.6
yaw moment of inertia (kg.m
2
) I
z
85552.1
product moment of inertia (kg.m
2
) I
xz
1331.4
product moment of inertia (kg.m
2
) I
xy
0.0
product moment of inertia (kg.m
2
) I
yz
0.0
c.g. location (m) x
cg
0.3 c
reference c.g. location (m) x
cgr
0.35 c
engine angular momentum (kg.m
2
/s) H
eng
216.9
B ISA Atmospheric Model
For the atmospheric data an approximation of the International Standard At
mosphere (ISA) is used [4].
T =
_
T
0
+h if h 11000
T
(h=11000)
if h > 11000
p =
_
_
_
p
0
_
1 +
h
T0
_
g
0
R
if h 11000
p
(h=11000)
e
g
RT
(h=11000)
(h11000)
if h > 11000
=
p
RT
a =
_
RT
where T
0
= 288.15 K is the temperature at sea level, p
0
= 101325 N/m
2
the
pressure at sea level, R = 287.05 J/kg.K the gas constant of air, g
0
= 9.80665
m/s
2
the gravity constant at sea level, = dT/dh = 0.0065 K/m the temper
ature gradient and = 1.41 the isentropic expansion factor for air. Given the
aircrafts altitude (h in meters) it returns the current temperature (T in Kelvin),
the current air pressure (p in N/m
2
), the current air density ( in kg/m
3
) and
the speed of sound (a in m/s).
17