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Integrated Multi-band and Wideband

Reconfigurable Wireless Radios


Ankush Goel
Department of Electrical Engineering Electrophysics
University of Southern California
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
2
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
3
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Multi-functionality in Wireless Devices
GSM900
(1992)
Dualband GSM
(1999)
Triband GSM
Bluetooth
Quadband GSM
Bluetooth
WLAN
Quadband GSM
Bluetooth
WLAN
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
4
(1999)
(2000)
WLAN
(2004)
WLAN
Triband UMTS
GPS
(2008)
Multi-functional devices require multi-band operation.
Band (GHz) 0.85 0.9 1.575 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.4 5.0
Standards
GSM GSM GPS GSM GSM UMTS Bluetooth WLAN
UMTS UMTS WLAN
Multi-Functional Radio Operation Modes
Non-concurrent Concurrent
850 MHz
1.9 GHz
GSM
Bluetooth
GPS
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
5
900 MHz
1.8 GHz
Advantages
Reconfigurability
Eg. Quad-band cell phones
Less cost, power
Advantages
More functionality
Cell phones with GPS,
Bluetooth and WLAN
More bandwidth
Concurrent use of WLAN at
2.4GHz and 5.2GHz
Less cost, power
Conventional Approach
Robust
Simple
Large area
.
.
.
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
6
Large area
Large power
.
Conventional approach is brute force.
Multi-band Approach
Small area
Small power
Complex
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
7
Complex
Interference
This approach requires a multi-frequency synthesizer.
Multi-frequency Generation
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
8
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Multi-Frequency Generation
Using Multiple
VCOs
Using Frequency
Translation
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
9
Can we get multiple frequencies using one oscillator?
.
.
.
.
.
.
Conventional Single Frequency Oscillators
2.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
Frequency (GHz)
|
Z
|

(
k

)
R
p
p p
C L
f
2
1
o
=
1
=
p m
p p
R g
C R

Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010


10
Poincar-Benixdon theorem states that 2
nd
order
systems can only generate periodic waveforms (single
frequency and its harmonics).
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
0 10 20 30
time (ns)
v
o

(
V
)
1
p m
R g
Multi-Order Tank
Fourth-Order Third-Order
nth-Order
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
11
n independent
variables
nth-order tank has multiple resonance in its
magnitude response.
Special Case : Dual-Resonance Tank
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
|
Z
|

(
k

R
p1
R
p2
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
12
What happens if we connect a dual-frequency (4
th
order) resonator across a nonlinear active device?
0.0
0.1
1.0 3.0 5.0 7.0
Frequency (GHz)

p1

p2

Z
25.0
50.0
Transients at Start-Up
1 ) (
2 2
2

=
R f g
C R

2 2
2
2
1
C L
f =
25.0
50.0
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
13
-50.0
-25.0
0.0
25.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
time (ns)
v
1
,
2

(

V
)
During start-up (small-signal transient), oscillations at
both resonant frequencies grow exponentially.
1 1
1
2
1
C L
f =
1 ) (
1 1
1 1
1

=
R f g
C R

m
1 ) (
2 2
2

=
R f g

m
-50.0
-25.0
0.0
25.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
time (ns)
v
o

(

V
)
Linear
Decomposition
Possible Steady-State Solutions
Oscillations at
1
Oscillations at
2
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
time (ns)
time (ns)
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
14
Simultaneous asynchronous
(non-periodic) oscillations at

1
and
2
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
time (ns)
O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
time (ns)
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
time (ns)
O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
What will be the
steady-state solution?
time (ns)
time (ns)
time (ns)
Amplitude and Phase Differential Equation
oscillations @
1
oscillations @
2
)) ( )cos( ( )) ( )cos( (
2 2 2 1 1 1
t t t a t t t a v
o
+ + + =
Quasi-harmonic Approximation
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
15
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 1
a a j
a a i a
a a h
=
=
=
&
&
&
) , , , (
2 1 2 1 1
a a g a =
&
Using Averaging Technique
Solution of amplitude and phase differential equations
will give the steady state output.
Possible Steady-State Solutions
oscillations
at f
1
simultaneous
oscillations at f
1
and f
2
(unstable
for this portrait)
a
1
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
16
oscillations at f
2
Stability of the steady-state solutions, in particular the
simultaneous oscillations, is a strong function of active
device nonlinearity and tank configuration.
no oscillations
a
2
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
17
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Desired Steady-State Solutions
oscillations
at f
1
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
18
Region of attraction and the initial condition decides
the frequency at which the oscillator will oscillate.
Region of
attraction
oscillations
at f
2
Switching between Steady-State Solutions
f
1
f
1
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
19
Temporarily modify the phase portrait so that the
system goes to the desired stable point (by increasing
its region of attraction).
f
2
f
2
Increased region of attraction
Oscillator Implementation in 0.18m CMOS
0
.
9
5

m
m
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
20
A. Goel and H. Hashemi, JSSC07.
0.74 mm
0
.
9
5

m
m
2.0
2.0
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
37 39 41 43 45 47
Transients During Mode Switching
time (ns)
O
u
t
p
u
t

(
V
)
S
w
i
t
c
h

P
u
l
s
e

(
V
)
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
9 11 13 15 17
O
u
t
p
u
t

(
V
)
S
w
i
t
c
h

P
u
l
s
e

(
V
)
time (ns)
f
1
f
2
f
2
f
1
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
21
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
9 11 13 15 17
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
37 39 41 43 45 47
Switches are used only during frequency switching.
They are off during regular operation. Hence, do not
degrade oscillator performance.
time (ns)
S
w
i
t
c
h

P
u
l
s
e

(
V
)
4ns
S
w
i
t
c
h

P
u
l
s
e

(
V
)
time (ns)
4ns
Measured Oscillator Spectrum
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
1 3 5 7 9
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
1 3 5 7 9
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
@ f
1
@ f
2
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
22
-90
-70
-50
-30
-10
2.39348 2.39848 2.40348
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
-90
-70
-50
-30
-10
4.72833 4.73333 4.73833
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
23
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Desired Steady-State Solution
Have to make
this a stable
solution
oscillations
at f
1
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
24
Proper tank configuration and nonlinearity of the
active device can make simultaneous oscillations at f
1
and f
2
stable.
oscillations at f
2
no oscillations
Dual-Frequency Colpitts Oscillator
( ) 0
2 2 2 2 2 2 4
= + + +
s p c s p

) cos( ) cos( ) (
2 2 2 1 1 1
t a t a t v
o
+ + + =
of solutions are and
2 1

Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
25
Colpitts oscillator with a forth-order resonator can
generate two stable frequencies, simultaneously.
p s
p
s s
p
p p
p
C L
,
C L
,
C L

1 1 1
2 2 2
= = =

C C
C C
C
p p
p p
p
2 1
2 1
+
=
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
a
2

(
V
)
Calculated Simulation
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
a
1

(
V
)
Calculated Simulation
Steady State Amplitudes (1)
@ f
1
@ f
2
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
26
0
0.1
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9

0
0.1
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9

In general, the amplitudes are decreasing function of


the transformer ratio ().
@ f
2

2 1
1
p p
p
C C
C

+
=
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1

(
V
)
Calculated Simulation
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
2

(
V
)
Calculated Simulation
Steady State Amplitudes (2)
@ f
1
@ f
2
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
27
0
0.1
0.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
I
bias
(mA)
a
1
0
0.1
0.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
I
bias
(mA)
a
2
The amplitudes vary linearly with I
bias
for small I
bias
.
Hartley Dual-Frequency VCO
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
28
Dual-frequency Hartley oscillator behaves similar to
Colpitts oscillator but is more parasitic insensitive.
Measured Dual-Frequency VCO Spectrum
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
29
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
Measured VCO Tuning Characteristic
f
1
(
G
H
z
)
V
cntrl1
(V) V
cntrl2
(V)
@ f
1
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
30
Oscillation frequencies depend on both control voltages.
f
2
(
G
H
z
)
V
cntrl1
(V)
cntrl2
(V)
V
cntrl1
(V)
V
cntrl2
(V)
@ f
2
Dual-Frequency Phase Locked Loop
V
cntrl1
LPF
f
ref1
AMP
a
1
cos(2f
1
t +
1
) + a
2
cos(2f
2
t +
2
)
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
31
V
cntrl2
LPF
f
ref2
AMP
A dual-loop PLL can lock both frequencies of the
dual-frequency oscillator to two references,
independently.
Measured Dual-Loop PLL Locking Range
(
G
H
z
)
PLL
Locking
VCO
Tuning
Range
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
32
f
1
(GHz)
f
2
(
G
H
z
)
Locking
Range
-80
-60
-40
-20
4.93 4.95 4.97 4.99 5.01 5.03
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
-80
-60
-40
-20
2.28 2.3 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
Measured PLL Locked Spectrum
Free Running
@ f
1
@ f
2
Free Running
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
33
-80
-60
-40
-20
4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
-80
-60
-40
-20
2.28 2.3 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
Frequency (GHz)
Frequency (GHz)
Locked
Locked
@ f
1
@ f
2
Dual-Frequency VCO and PLL
1
.
2

m
m
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
34
Implemented in a 0.18m SiGe BiCMOS technology.
A. Goel and H. Hashemi, Concurrent dual-frequency oscillators and phase locked loops, submitted
to IEEE MTT, July 2007.
1.0 mm
1
.
2

m
m
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
35
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Outline
Introduction
Multi-frequency generation
Fourth-order oscillators
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
36
Non-concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
Concurrent dual-frequency oscillator
0-6GHz Reconfigurable Wireless Receiver
Conclusion
Conclusion
Multi-functional radio requires multi-band building
blocks.
A multi-frequency oscillator using high order tanks
can generate either of its resonant frequencies,
individually, or concurrently.
A wideband reconfigurable receiver can be used as
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
37
A wideband reconfigurable receiver can be used as
a part of SDR, spectrum analyzer or broadcast
receiver
An intelligent receiver architecture and frequency
planning can reduce the detrimental effects of large
blockers lying in the wide bandwidth of operation of
the receiver
Other Projects
Dual-frequency Coupled Oscillators A 1.2-1.8dB Noise Figure 0-6GHz LNA
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
38
Feedforward Cancellation of
Oscillator Phase Noise
Architecture and Theory
Phase Noise in Synchronous Dual-
frequency Oscillators
-150
-140
-130
-120
-110
-100
-90
-80
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Offset Frequency (MHz)
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Before Cancellation After Cancellation
-150
-130
-110
-90
100 1000 10000 100000
Frequency Offset (kHz)
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

@

f
1

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Measured
Calculated
Reference
Free Running
-150
-130
-110
-90
100 1000 10000 100000
Frequency Offset (kHz)
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

@

f
2

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Measured
Calculated
Reference
Free Running
Thank You
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
Appendix
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
Non-concurrent Dual-Frequency
Oscillator Phase Noise
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
Oscillator Noise
Time Response
(Jitter)
Frequency Response
(Phase Noise)
t
1/f
0

0 00 0

dBc
flicker noise
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
42

\
|

+
(
(

\
|
+ =

P
FkT
L
s

1
2
1
2
10log ) (
2
0

0 00 0
carrier power quality factor
phase noise
Most oscillator noise results are valid for 2
nd
-order systems.
flicker noise
factor
Oscillator Behavior Close to Resonance
2
2
0 stored
2
2
stored
2
2
V
E
V
L
V
E
C
eq
eq
=
=
L C
@ resonance
R
P
dissipated
E
stored
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
43
dissipated
2
2P
V
R
eq
=
L
eq
C
eq
At resonance, any high-order resonator can be
modeled as a second-order resonator.
Use developed results in second-order systems for
close-in phase-noise with above transformations.
R
eq
Quality Factor of a General Resonator
total energy stored in one oscillation cycle
total energy dissipated in one oscillation cycle
Q= 2
{ } { }
|
|

\
|
+
c i
Q Max
1
Q Max
1
Q
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
44
Cant achieve a higher Q compared to the maximum
Q of components (independent of resonator)
{ } { }
|

\
capacitors all
c
inductors all
i
Q Max Q Max
Phase Noise Comparison
2
nd
Order
Tank
C
1
L
1
C
2
L
2
4
th
Order
Tank
C
1
L
1
C
SW
L
SW
2
nd
Order Switch
Capacitor/Inductor Tank
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
45
L
2
Q
tank
Q
tank
Q
tank

>
Loss and nonlinearity
of the switches
PN
osci
PN
osci
PN
osci

<
Measured Phase-Noise at Both Modes
-140
-120
-100
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Switch open Switch close

f
2
=4.7GHz
Switch Open
Switch Close
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
46
Phase noise of an oscillator with forth-order resonator,
while generating one frequency, is always better than
a oscillator that switches between second-order
resonators (switch loss + nonlinearity).
-160
0.1 1 10 100
Offset Frequency (MHz)
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
-140
-120
-100
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Switch open Switch close

Measured Phase-Noise at Both Modes
f
1
=2.4GHz
Switch Open
Switch Close
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
47
-160
0.1 1 10 100
Offset Frequency (MHz)
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Phase noise of an oscillator with forth-order resonator,
while generating one frequency, is always better than
a oscillator that switches between second-order
resonators (switch loss + nonlinearity).
Concurrent Dual-Frequency
Oscillator Phase Noise
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
Dual-Frequency Oscillator Phase Noise (1)
C
s
L
s
L
p
R
1 R
2
V
CC
) )sin( ( ) (
1 1
1 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 1 1 1
t t i
C a
1


, , a , a h
n
p
s
2
+

+ =
&
Using quasi-harmonic analysis as
discussed before
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
C
p1
C
p2
I
bias
V
bias
i
n
deterministic
stochastic
Stochastic term is what contributes to the
phase noise.
Dual-Frequency Oscillator Phase Noise (2)
) )sin( (
1 1
1 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
STOCHASTIC 1,
t t i
C a
1

n
p
s
+

=
&
Let us consider only the stochastic term
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( t i t qI t i
w E n
= ) ( ) , (
2 2 1 1 STOCHASTIC 1,
t i t t
w
+ + =
&
v
o
(t) I
E
(t) (emitter current) (t)
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
n
1
m
2
component of (t) will mix with white noise
causing spectral spreading of oscillators output at the
two frequencies.
v
o
(t)
doubly periodic
I
E
(t) (emitter current)
doubly periodic
(t)
doubly periodic
(t) has tones at
n
1
m
2
Phase Noise Mechanism
Small offset
frequency
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
S
w
()
n
1
- m
2
S
1
()
0
S
2
()
0

S
v
()
0

1

2
Due to integration
-112.00
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

@

1
M
H
z

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Calculated Simulation
Phase Noise Simulation and Calculation
@ f
1
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|

=
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
10log ) (


L C a
R qV
PN
s
p p
T

2 1
1
p p
p
C C
C

+
=
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
-124.00
-120.00
-116.00
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9

P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

@

1
M
H
z

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
The least phase noise is obtained when C
p1
= C
p2
.
@ f
1
-110.00
P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

@

1
M
H
z

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
Calculated Simulation
Phase Noise Simulation and Calculation
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|

=
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
10log ) (


L C a
R qV
PN
s
p p
T
@ f

2 1
1
p p
p
C C
C

+
=
Ankush Goel, USC Apr 19, 2010
-125.00
-120.00
-115.00
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9

P
h
a
s
e

N
o
i
s
e

@

1
M
H
z

(
d
B
c
/
H
z
)
The least phase noise is obtained when C
p1
= C
p2
.
@ f
2