Chapter 21: Economic Advance and Social Unrest (18301850

)

1 Jan 2007
By 1830, Britain had already industrialized but the Continent soon was too. The protests and creeds that supported and criticized the movement emerged. These were years of uncertainty; even the most condent businessmen knew the trade cycle could quickly bankrupt them. For the proletariats and artisans, unemployment was a persistent reality. supply. Peasants were uncertain about food People This period culminated with continental revolution in 1848.

knew one mode of life was passing, but did not know what would replace it.

Contents

1 Toward an Industrial Society
1.1 1.2 Population and Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
3 4

2 The Labor Force
2.1 2.2 The Emergence of a Wage-Labor Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism

4
4 5

3 Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution
3.1 The Family in the Early Factory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 3.1.2 Concern for Child Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing Economic Role for the Family . . . . . . . . . .

6
6 6 7

4 Women in the Early Industrial Revolution
4.1 Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 Women in Factories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work on the Land and in the Home

7
7 7 8 8

Changing Expectations in the Working-Class Marriage . . . . . .

5 Problems of Crime and Order
5.1 5.2 New Police Forces Prison Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
9 9

1

6 Classical Economics
6.1 6.2 6.3 Malthus on Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ricardo on Wages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government Policies Based on Classical Economics . . . . . . . .

10
10 11 11

7 Early Socialism
7.1 Utopian Socialism 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.2 7.3 Owenism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saint-Simonianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourierism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16

Anarchism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marxism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 Partnership with Engels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sources of Marx's Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revolution Through Class Conict . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 1848: Year of Revolutions
8.1 Franec: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.3 8.4 . . . . . . . . The National Assemble and Paris Workers . . . . . . . . . Emergence of Louis Napoleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frenchwomen in 1848 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17
17 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted. . . . . . . . . . . . The Vienna Uprising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Magyar Revolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Czech Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rebellion in Northern Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Italy: Republicanism Defeated Germany: Liberalism Frustrated 8.4.1 8.4.2 Revolution in Prussia

The Frankfurt Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 In Perspective
1 Toward an Industrial Society

24

1. British industry produced greater quantity and quality of consumer goods than before known. 2. French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars destroyed French Atlantic Trade disrupt continental economy. 3. Latin American independence

open markets to British.

4. North America demand British goods. 5. British textiles worldwide network.

2

(a) American slaves for raw cotton (even though Britain try to end slave trade since 1807). (b) Textiles shipped by British-protected sea lines. (c) Wealth invested everywhere, esp. US. (d)

Economic foundation for British supremacy.

6. 1830sBelgium, France, Germany have steam engines. Coke replace charcoal. 7. Continent industry less concentrated. (a) Urban pockets: Lyons, Rouen, Lille; Liege. (b) Most manufacturing in countryside. (c) Slow pace

→ 1850, peasants/artisans more important politically than

proletariats.

1.1

Population and Migration
1850,

1. Continued 18th C population explosion.

1 1 2 British live in city; 4

France, Germany town. E. Europe still agrarian. 2. Pressure on city resources. Infrastructure, food insucient. (a) Slums, lth, disease (esp. cholera). (b) Crime increaseno other way to live. 3. Countryside just as bad. Enclosures, redistribution, serf emancipation

commercialized land. Peasants were conservative, novate and often not enough to support.

not enough land

to in-

(a) Germany, E. Europe, Russia: couldn't move freely to cities before emancipation. (b) Austria 1848; Russia 1861. (c) Even so, not simple. E. of Germany, very slow industrialization because slow ow of labor into city. 4. Bad harvests. (a)

Irish famine of 18457.

1 2 M Irish peasants no/little land starved.

(b) 100,000s migrated. 5. Revolution in landholding people into cities

and

greater productivity, uprooting of country

Europe

rest of world.

3

1.2

Railways
40s), Germany (1835).

1. 1830s40s railways England (1825, 30), Belgium (1835), France (1832,

2. More easily leave birthplace. 3. Cheaper, faster transport of raw materials and nished goods. 4. Railways represent

goods.

investment in capital goods at expense of consumer

Shortage of cheap consumer goods.

5. Railways themselves increase demand for iron, steel, skilled labor. (a) Metal capacity (b)

ironclad ships, iron machinery.

on itself.

Vast fortunes; investment into new industry.

Industrialism grow

2

The Labor Force
1. Varied composition/experience. (a) Some paid well, steady employment. (b) Laboring poor had jobs but subsistence wage. i. Women & children in Wales mines, nearly naked, shocking conditions in 1840 Parliamentary report. (c) Vary decade to decade, industry to industry. 2. Only textile industry fully mechanized, move to factory. (a) Artisans far greater workforce. control of trade. 3. Destruction of many traditional community social ties. Maintain value of their skills and

2.1

The Emergence of a Wage-Labor Force

1. Artisans and factory workers; of productions and trade.

proletarianization. Lose control

of means

2. Factory or machinery (mechanical printing press) displace skilled labor. 3. Submit to discipline: honor machines' needs. (a) Close gates and nes to late workers; (b) Dismissal for drunkeness; (c) Public scolding of faulty laborers.

4

4. Better than those who resisted factory. Hand-loomers screwed over. 5. Artisans enter factories slowly; machines no big part. Even prosper from factory: demand for metalworkers, carpenters, builders. material costs of clothing makers.

Threaten: guild system.

Reduced raw

(a) 18th C: labor for master. Apprentice, journeyman. (b) Master own workship and large equipment; others

own their tools.

(c) Workers exercise lots of control of recruitment, training, pace, quality, price. (d)

Liberal thinkers hate guilds.
of machine production.

Destroyed in French Revolution.

(e) Masters faced increased pressure from capitalized ventures/introduction

(f )

Confection:

goods produce in standard sizes/styles, not special order.

i. Division of labor: each artisan produced a small part for lower.

→ less skill.

ii. Masters lower wages. Pick up unskilled workers willing to work iii. Journeymen can't hope to be master. Became lifetime wage laborers.

2.2

Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism

1. Proud and frustrated artisans most radical.

Chartism.

2. 1836  William Lovett + radical artisans form London Working Men's Association. 1838

Charter with 6:

(a) Universal male surage; (b) Annual election of HoC; (c) Secret ballot; (d) Equal electoral districts; (e) Abolish property qualication; (f ) Salary HoC members. 3. Loosely organized; little progress. Presented to Parliament, petitioned. . . 4.

Northern Star Chartist newspaper.

5. Feargus O'Connormore important leader, orator. 6. Split between violence and nonviolence. 7. Locally, successful; controlled cities Leeds & Sheeld. 8. Late 1840s, economy returned. People left. 9.

Specic goals, large working-class leadership.
Points became law.

Model for Continent. Some

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3

Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution
1. Dicult to generalizeheterogenous everything, esp. Continent. 2. Many peasant families changed little in 19th. Little direct impact. 3. Know more about British; Britain foreshadow others.

3.1

The Family in the Early Factory System

1. Factories did not destroy working class family. 2. Machines brought into home: spinning jenny. 3.

Mechanization of weaving
economic life.

took father out to factory. Separate home from

4. Early factory, permit father to bring family as assistanttransfer traditional family roles (parental training and discipline) into factory. (a) Domestic system: wife earn as much or even more than husband. (b) Factory, wife less skilled work

pay less.

5. Major shift: England 1820s30: spinning and weaving under one roof, new machines with

unskilled

workers.

(a) Unmarried women and childrenlower wage, less likely to unionize. (b)

Skilled

adult males high enough to sent children to school and get

wife out. (c) Factory children often children of poor hand loomer. (d)

Traditional family links in textiles broken.

3.1.1

Concern for Child Labor
(a) Limit workday of 913 to 9hrs/day. (b) Require factory owner to pay 2hrs education/day. (c) Thouroughly break parental link: education at school, not home.

1. English Factory Act of 1833 forbid child below 9.

2. 12hrs for adults and older teenagers. 3. British workers demand shorter workdays to spend time with children. (a) 1847 10-hr workday. Allow together time: relationship as production unit ceased. 4. Mid 1840s: establish men role as breadwinner. 5. New view that women in home, not even agrarian work.

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3.1.2

Changing Economic Role for the Family
tion. and
consumption to

1. Family unit from unit of production

only consump-

2. Depend of sharing wages from dierent sources. 3. Less closely bound: children go away and remit. Move further away, break economic link. 4. Family settle in industrial city

encourage children to stay home. Wage

employment, accumulate enough money to marry and start household.

4

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution
1. Took most productive work out of house; allow families to live o father's wages. 2. Launched sharp gender roles. Children raised to conform. (a) Women domestic duties, unskilled cottage industries. (b) Men exclusively support family. 3. Previously spherical division only gentry and small upper middle class. 19th C, working class.

4.1

Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment

1. Factory spinning: men displace women. 2. First generation of machines: high male cotton-factory wages allow many married women not to work/work in supplement.

4.1.1

Women in Factories
ers.

1. 1820ssecond generation of machines, umarried women majority of work-

2. Less skill than men or home in previous era. 3. Marry ties).

male enough money to get woman out of factory or owner kick

them out (married women pregnant, inuenced by husbands, home du-

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4.1.2

Work on the Land and in the Home

1. At 1850, majority of women still work on land. 2. England: domestic servants. 3. Cottage industry: lace making, glove making, garment making, needlework. Low wages, low skills, no protection from exploitation. 4. Charwomanhired on daily basis to clean or washplight of working women. 5. Prostitution/exploitation not new, but economic transformation exacerbate and made women especially vulnerable.

4.2

Changing Expectations in the Working-Class Marriage
role.

1. City: wider marriage opportunity, more premarital cohabitation, less parental

2. Mean: women stop working, live o husband. May improve situation, but if husband ill or died, must reenter unskilled labor at old age. 3. Early occupation: domestic service, like before. 4. Factory: supervised dormitory. Convinced parents daughters safe. 5. City life more precarious. Fewer family/community ties. 6. Men more mobile (no longer apprenticeship). Fleeting relationships; illegitimate births; less likelihood of marriage after birth. 7. Marriage not economic partnership. (a) Wage economy dicult to combine economic and family work. (b) Usually only work in nonindustrial sector. (c) Children, not wife sent to work.

Births economic asset.

(d) Work outside home only when needed. 8. Domestic duties essential to family wage economy. (a) Homemaking: home life organized separately from work life. (b) Wife in charge of nances. (c) Longer period of home life for working children strengthen familial bonds. (d) Working class imitate upper class separate spheres of Rosseau and popular culture.

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5

Problems of Crime and Order
1. Elite concerned about order. threat to life and property. 2. Industrialization increase crime. City associated with crime, esp. against property. 3. Crime rate increased steadily from 180060, but plateaued. Nobody knows why; question dicult to research. Early revolutions make them paranoid of

5.1

New Police Forces

1. Elites want better police and prison reform. 2. Paid, professional law-enforcement protect, investigate, apprehend. 3. Deterrence: visibility of police reduce crime. 4. In theory, no political role but practice often ignored. 5. One or largest groups of municipal employees. 6. Did not exist until early 19th C. 7. 1828Paris. 8. 1829Britain, bill sponsored by Sir Robert Peel. Known as ers. 9. 1848Berlin, after revolution. 10. Guns on continent, not Britain. 11. Early, suspicious, esp. Britain: threaten traditional liberties. But at end of century, most people regard as protector. 12. Upper/middle class feel property secure. Working class feel lives and property secure and went to police for aid in emergency.

bobbies, Peel-

5.2

Prison Reform

1. Before 19th, local jail, state prison, prison ship (

hulks ).

2. Wretched conditions; men, women, children housed together. Minor offenses housed with serious. 3. British: most serious

transportation

New South Wales in Austrailia.

Alternative to execution. Until mid-19th, when colonies began objecting. 4. Long-term prisoners in public works prisons.

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5. John Howard, Elizabeth Fry in England; Charles Lucas in France expose horrendous conditions. and lack of sympathy. 6. 1840sbold reforms. See crime as character aw Demand change. Reform slow, because expense

rehabilitate. Repres-

sive systems according to cutting edge science. Followed US models. (a)

Aubrun system

after Auburn prison in New York. Separate during

night; associate while working during day. (b)

Philadephia system

separate always. Esp. Pen-

(c) Individual cell, long periods of separation and silence. prisoner. i. Serious self-reection and repudiation. ii. Relaxed laterintense isolation

tonville Prison near London: never allowed to see or speak to another

mental collapse. Sup-

(d) France repressive; follow Pentonville and policy of isolation. posed to be trained in a trade in prison. i. Recedivism

French transportation sharply increase in 1885:

Devil's Island o South America. 7. On balance, successful. Orderly society.

Purge nation.

6

Classical Economics
1. Smith's domination;

laissez-faire;

mechanism of marketplace.

2. Most government action mischievous and corrupt. Government maintain sound currency, enforce contracts, protect property, low taxes and taris, leave economy to private. Assume enough army/navy to protect economic structure. 3. Appeal to middle class: thrift, competition, personal industriousness.

6.1

Malthus on Population

1. Complicated, pessimistic ideas about working class. 2. Nothing can improve working class. 3. 1798

Essay on the Principle of Population

haunted world ever since.

4. Population grow geometrically; food arithmetic. 5. Avert: late marriage, chastity, contraception (regarded as vice; took 75 years to be socially acceptable). 6. More money

more children

vicious cycle.

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7. Later in life, suggested if working class be persuaded to adopt higher standard of living, spend money on goods, not children.

6.2

Ricardo on Wages

1. 1817

Principles of Political Economy

more children

Malthus

→ 

iron law of wages.

2. Raise wage

expand labor market

lower wage

fewer children 3.

raise wages.

Wages tend to minimum.

4. Press spread ideas to public in 1830s.

6.3

Government Policies Based on Classical Economics

1. Working class resented economists; government embraced them. 2. Louis Philippe and François Guizot told French to get themselves rich. Work

won't be poor. Middle class did that. many capital-intensive projects: raods,

(a) July Monarchy (183048): canals, railways. (b) Little done about poverty.

3. Germany, less classical economics inuence because of enlightened absolutists' tradition. (a)

Zollverein free trade union of major German states excluding Russia in 1834.

(b) Friedrich List argue for state direction of economic growth. 4. Britain home to and widely accepted economists. (a) Bentham popularize based on utility. i. 1776 ii. 1789

utilitarianism.

Sought to create scientic law

Fragment on Government The Principles of Morals and Legislation apply

utility to

overcome irrational special interests of privileged groups. Existing legal system burdened with tradition that harm people law should serve. Apply utility to clear up clutter. (b) Increased inuence of classical economics. Many inuential followers. i.

1834 reformed HoC pass Poor Law his followers prepared.
workhouses. Life in workhouse consciously worse than outside: bad food, demeaning work, separate husband and wife.

ii. Stigmatized poverty; made it the worst thing. Poor relief only in

11

iii. Presuppose people no work because they lazy. iv. Working class called workhouses new bastilles. (c) 1846 repeal of Corn Laws. Anti-Corn Law League organized by manufacturers seek for 6 years. i. Abolish tari

cheaper food

allow lower wages.

ii. Also, manufactuered good prices increase to strengthen competitiveness. iii. Actual reason of repeal was Irish famine. Had to open ports to feed Irish and realized Corn Laws could not be reimposed. iv. Accompanied with measure to modernize and increase eciency of British agriculture.

7

Early Socialism
1. 19th C, socialism advocates lacked meaningful following and doctrines confusing to contemporaries. 2. Early ideas appear on European margins; came to assume great importance. 3. Applaud productivity of industrialism but deny capitalism's ability to distribute goods. 4. Capitalism: mismanagement, low wage, misdistribution, suering. 5. Society as community, not conglomerate of selsh individuals.

7.1

Utopian Socialism

1. Utopian: visionary ideas, advocate creation of ideal communities. 2. Socialist: question values of capitalism. 3. Discussion/practice of radical ideas of sexuality and family. People sympathetic to economy ideas were not sympathetic to free love and open family.

7.1.1

Saint-Simonianism
eral French aristocrat. (a) Fought in American Revolution; welcomed French Revolutionmade and lost a fortune. (b) Napoleonic time: career of writing, social criticism.

1. Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simonearliest socialist pioneer; young lib-

12

2. Rational managementprivate wealth and enterprise administered by someone other than owner. 3.

Ideological factor of technocracy. redistribution.

Management

of wealth by experts, not

4. Persuaded few, but Saint-Simon centers lively places of discourse. (a) Earliest debates of feminism. (b) Advocate extramarital sex. (c) Many disciples became French railway industry leaders.

7.1.2

Owenism
→ change

1. Robert Own, self-made cotton manufacturer. 2. Believed Lockean environment psychology: change environment character. 3. 4.

No incompatability between humane workplace and prot.

New Lanarkideas to practice.
agement.

Good quarters for workers, recreational

facilities, education for children, churches. Rewards for good work. Profitable. Visitors from all over Europe wanted to see his enlightened man-

5. Pleaded for reorganization based on his model. 6. Sold New Lanark; went to States to establish New Harmony, Indiana. Failed due to arguments between members. 7. Return to Britain; promote Grand National Unionfederalize all British trade unions. Collapsed with all other labor organizatiosn in 1830s.

7.1.3

Fourierism
intellectual
counterpart to Owens. Never attracted same kind of attention.

1. Charles Fourier, French

2. Wrote books and articles; waited for a patron but none came. 3.

Industrial order ignore passions of humans; social discipline crush normal pleasures. Phalanxes communities, liberated living replace dull industry.
(a) Agrarian, not industrial. (b) Free sex, late marriage. (c) Rotate tasks. Happier and more productive.

4.

5.

Boremdomisolated a key diculty of modern economic life.
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6. Saint-Simon, Owen, Fourier expected existing government to execute transformation. Didn't see political problems. 7. Others pay more attention to politics: 1837 Louis Blanc. (a) End competition, not new societypush political reform that give working class vote. (b) Empowered to turn politics to their advantage. (c) In time, workshops replace private enterprise, industry organize to ensure jobs. (d) Recognized power of state of improve lives of poor.

The Organization of Labor

by

7.2

Anarchism

1. Reject industry ists. . .

and

government dominance. Do not exactly t in social-

2. Both violence and non-violence advocated. 3. Auguste Blanqui (180581) favor terror; spent most of adult life in jail. (a)

Professional revolutionary vanguard to attack capitalist society.

(b) Foreshadow Lenin. 4. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (180965) favor peace. (a) 1840

What is Property

attack banking systemrarely extend credit

to small-property owners or poor. (b) Expand credit to allow these people to engage in legitimate enterprise. (c) Mutualism: small businesses, cooperation. quired labor. (d)

cooperative

enterprises with peaceful

Exchange goods based on mutual recognition of re-

State as protector of labor unnecessary.

(e) Favor community of individual, essential fairness in exchange. (f ) Inuenced French labor movement.

7.3

Marxism

1. Permeate to major continental socialist parties. 2. Dominate SU after 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, E. Europe, revolutionary movements in (post-)colonial world.

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3. Not linear path with triump of Marxism. socialist ideas. 4. Marxism diered: (a) Claim to scientic accuracy; (b) Reject reform;

Had to compete with other

(c) Call to revolution, though character of revolution not well dened. (d) Put proletariats in context of world historical development. 5. Karl Marx (181883) born in Prussian Rhineland. Jewish but father convert to Lutheranism. Judaism no impact. 6. University of Berlininvolved in Hegelian philosophy, raidical politics. (a) 1842, 3 edited radical

Rhineland Gazatte.

(b) Prussian authorities kicked him out. (c) Exile in Paris, Brussels, London.

7.3.1

Partnership with Engels
in Manchester.

1. Friedrich Engelsyoung middle class German; father own textile factory

2. 1845Engels publish

The Condition of the Working Class in England 

devastating picture of industrial life. 3. 1847asked to write pamphlet for new and short-lived secret Communist League. 4. 1848

The Communist Manifesto.

Communist more self-consciously radi-

cal than socialist: abolition of private property, not rearrangement. Merely a political tract at time of publication. 5. Marx had no impact on 1848 revolutions.

7.3.2

Sources of Marx's Ideas

1. German Hegelianism, French utopian socialism, British classical economics. 2. Apply Hege's clash of thesis/antithesis to concrete historical, social, economic developments. 3. Conict between dominant and subordinate groups lead to emergence of new dominant group. Repeat. 4. French utopian socialists raise issue to redistribution and problems of capitalist society.

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5. Economics produce analytical tools of scientic examination of capitalist society. 6. Put new industrial work force as single most important force of contemporary history: (a) Existence of classes attributed to phase in development of production; (b) Class struggle necessarily leads to dictatorship of proletariat; (c) Dictatorship transitory; lead to classless society. 7. Equate fate of proletariats with fate of humanity. (a) Proletariat liberation from capitalist bondage amount to human emancipation. (b) This drew him support despite failure of his predictions materializing.

7.3.3

Revolution Through Class Conict
survival.

1. History is record of mankind's struggle to produce goods necessary for

2. Basic productive process determines structure and values of society. 3. Historically, always conict between owners of means of production and subordinates. 4.

Necessary conict is engine for developmentnot Piecemeal reforms cannot eliminate inherent evils.

accidental byproduct.

5. Capitalism makes radical transformation inevitable. 6. Class struggle simplied to bourgeoisie and proletariat. 7. Character of capitalism sharpen struggle: steadily increase in proletariat ranks. Competition squeeze out smaller bourgeoisie. Competition among remaining giants lead to intense oppression. Finally,

revolution.

8. Workers organize means of production on proletariat dictatorship, eventually giving way to propertyless and classless communist society. 9. Dier from past: culmination of proletariat and bourgeoisie is new society.

Victorious proletariat by its nature could be not an oppressor.

10. 1840s condition Marx's analysismuch unemployment and deprivation. 11. Later, capitalism did not collapsemiddle class not proletarianized. Industry beneted more and more. 12. Nevertheless, Marxism capture imaginations of socialists and workers. Appeared to be based empirically. Scientic claim garnered appeal. At core, attraction was

utopian vision of human liberation.
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8

1848: Year of Revolutions
1. Series of liberal and nationalist revolutions across Continent. factor; similar conditions everywhere. 2. Not working class; bourgeoisie liberals. 3. Repeal of Corn Laws, peaceful Anti-Corn Law League encourage. 4. Appeal to working class, but ideals contradictedworking class didn't want liberal government. Shook order, then allies ght. 5. Nationalism powerful factor outside France. Austria most endangered. 6. Stunning: never before so many uprising in one year. 7. No single

False:

failed to establish genuinely liberal or national states. Conservative

order stronger than anyone expected. 8. Liberal activists discover no longer could push reform w/o social reform. Isolate selves from working class

easy prey for reactionary armies.

8.1

Franec: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon

Opponents of corrupt Louis Philippe and Guizot organize banquets. 1. Criticze government; demand admission for them and bourgeoisie supporters in political process. 2. Poor harvests of 1846, 7 bring proletariat support. 3. 21 Febgovernment prohibit banquet; large one scheduled for 22. 4. 22 Febworkers parade through streets demand reform and kick out Guizot. 5. 23 Febmore crowds; Guizot resign afternoon. guard. 6. 24 Feb 1848Louis Philippe abdicate and ee to England. Barricade, clash with

8.1.1

The National Assemble and Paris Workers
visional government.

1. Alphonse de Lamartine (17901869) leader, liberal opposition poet . Pro-

2. Intend for election for assembly fo rrepublican constitution. 3. Louis Blanc demand social revolution, representation in cabinet. 4. Provisional government organize national workshops to provide work and relief for 1000s.

17

5. 23 AprilElection universal male surage new National Assembly. (a) Dominated by conservatives, moderates. (b) In provinces, many resent radicals. (c) Church, local nobles considerable inuence. (d) Peasants fear socialists conscate their farms. (e) Little sympathy for expensive National Workshops

ceived socialist.

incorrectly per-

6. May, troops and workers ght kick out many already in.

deny new admission into workshops and

7. 24 JuneGeneral Louis Cavaignac with conservative countryside troops destroy barricades and quell revots. Over 3.400 killed.

8.1.2

Emergence of Louis Napoleon
property.

1. June days conrm dominance of conservative. Want state safe for small

2. Late 1848 elect Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (180873), 3. Adventurer living outside France. Monarchy twice.

nephew

of emperor.

Attempted to lead coup against July

4. Little Napoleon doom second Republic; care more about ego than republic. (a) First dictator to play with unstable politics. (b) Claim he represent will of people, not National Assembly. (c) 1851NA refused to amend constitution to allow incumbent president to run. (d) 2 DecAnniversary at Austerlitz, Louis Napoleon seize power. Troops disperse assembly, new elections. i. 200 killed. ii. 26,000 arrested throughout country. iii. 10,000 transported to Algeria. 5. 21 Dec Plebiscite7.5 M support him; 600,000 resist. 6. Dec 1852Empire,

Emperor Napoleon 3

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8.1.3

Frenchwomen in 1848
form.

1. Major feminist activity. Seize collapse of July Monarchy to demand re-

2. Joined many clubssome emphasized women's rights. 3. Some tried unsuccessfully to vote 1848. 4. Both bourgeoisie and proletariat women. 5. Most radical called Vesuvians. Demands of women erupt like lava. (a) Full domestic equality; (b) Right for women to serve military; (c) Similar dress. (d) Conducted street demonstrations. Radical ates. 6. Use new liberal freedoms for their cause:

→ lose support of moder-

Voix des femmes

newspaper.

(a) Improvements for men not necessarily improve women. (b) Society with same name. (c) Many women participated in Saint-Simonian or Fourier groups. (d) Relatively conservative feminists. i. Cooperate with male political groups. ii. Urge family and delity. iii. Embrace maternal role

→ use to hilight need: motherhood, childrearing so important; thus women receive better education, economic security, equal rights.

iv. No legislation even though some assembly members support group. v. Emphasis on family defense to prevent conservatives from accusing advocates from destroying marriage. 7. Fate similar to proletariats: defeated. (a) Close workshops block an outlet. (b) Conservative crackdown on political clubs devastate. (c)

Voix de femmes

attempt to organize workers' groups.

i. Jeanne Deroin, Pauline Roland arrested. ii. Deroin left france; Roland transported to Algeria. 8. 1852feminist movement eradicated.

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8.2

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted.
across national lines.

1. Vulnerable to every kind of revolution: reject liberal institution, serfdom,

2. In 1840s, even Metternich urge reform, but none coming. 3. 1848confront rebellion in Vienna, Prague, Hungary, Italy.

8.2.1

The Vienna Uprising
Hungarian independence and demand responsible ministry under Habsburg dynasty.

1. Louis Kossuth, Magyar nationalist, member of Hungarian diet call for

2. Inspired students led disturbances. Army failed; Metternich resigned and ed. 3. Feeble Emperor Ferdinand promise moderate liberal constitution. 4. Radical students form democratic clubs, unsatised. 5. 17 MayEmperor and court ee to Innsbruck. committee of 200 proletariat symapthizers. 6. Fear serf uprising most. Already, some invade manors and burn property records. 7. Mar 1848emancipated serfs almost immediately after Vienna. Smother; serfs little reason to support urban revolutions. Vienna government in

8.2.2

The Magyar Revolt
wanted privileges guaranteed against Vienna government.

1. Embolden Hungarians; Magyar leaders liberal, supported by nobles who

2. March Laws, passed by Diet, demand: (a) Equality of religion; (b) Jury trials; (c) Election of lower chamber of diet; (d) Relatively free press; (e) Nobility pay taxes. 3. Ferdinand approve because he couldn't stop it. 4. Separate Hungarian state: local autonomy but Ferdinand still emperor. (a) Attempt to annex Transylvania, Croatia, eastern territories.

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(b) National groups resist imposition. Believe Habsburg rule better for their interest. (c) Late March: Vienna send Count Joseph Jellachich to aid national groups resisting Magyarization.

and nationalism.

Exemplify clash between liberalism

8.2.3

Czech Nationalism

1. Bohemia, Moravia autonomous Slavic state similar to Hungary. 2. Conict immediately between Czechs and Germans in region. 3. 1st Pan Slavic Congress (led by Francis Palacky, Poles, Ruthenians, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes, Serbs) meet in Prague in June. (a) National equality of Slavs. (b) Protest repression of Slavs under Habsburg, Hungarian, Germany, Ottoman. (c) Slavic nation or federation from Poland to Ukraine. Russian interests dominate. (d) Concept became important. Russia use Pan-Slavism to gain support and pressure Habsburg Empire and Germany. (e) 12 JunCongress close. Radical insurrection; General Price Alred Windischgraetz's wife killed by stray bullet; moved troops. Germans approved smothering nationalism; Prague bourgeoisie happy to see radicals suppressed.

8.2.4

Rebellion in Northern Italy

1. 18 Marchrevolt in Milan. 2. Austrian General Count Radetezky retreated. 3. Rebels aided by King Charles Albert of Piedmontwanted to annex Lombardy (province of Milan). 4. Austrians lose until July, with reinforcements; Radetezky suppress revolt.

Held Austrian position.

5. Vienna, Hungary recaptured in summer. (a) New assembly write constitution; radicals stil press for concessions. (b) Octobernew insurrection

bombard Vienna crush revolt.

6. 2 Dec.Ferdinand, too feeble to govern, abdicate in favor of nephew Francis Joseph. (a) Prince Felix Schwarzenbergreal power. Intend to fully use army.

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(b) 5 Jan 1849troops occupy Budapest. (c) Marchmilitary rule over Hungary, repeal constitution. (d) AugustMagyar nobles one last revolt. Austrians aided by 200,000 soldiers under Tsar Nicholas 1 crush Hungarians. i. Welcomed by Magyarization resistants. ii. Habsburg survive because of divisions among enemies and willingness to use force.

8.3

Italy: Republicanism Defeated
Italy. Defeat disappointed.

1. Italians hoped King Charles Albert of Piedmont drive Austrians and unify

2. Liberal, nationalist hopes shift to Pope Pius 9. (a) Liberal reputation, reformed Papal States. (b) In Rome, radicalism rise. (c) Democratic radical assassinated Count Pellingrino Rossi, liberal minister of Papal States. radical ministry. (d) Pius 9 ee to Naples. (e) Feb. 1849radicals proclaim Popular demonstrations force Pope to name

Roman Republic.

Republican naGiuseppe

tionalists go to Rome, hope to unify Italy from there. Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi two most prominent.

3. Mar. 1849Piedmont radicals force Charles Albert to continue patriotic war against Austria. (a) Battle of Novaraalmost immediate defeat. Victor Emmanuel 2 (r. 184978). (b) Defeat King abdicate to son

Roman Republic defend itself.

(c) French troops restore pope to Rome. French prevent rise of strong unied state on their southern border. Protect pope good domestic policy for Louis Napoleon. (d) June 1849 end, Roman Republic dissolved. Garibaldi attempt to lead army north against Austria, defeated. (e) 3 JulyRome fall to French forces; stayed until 1870 to protect pope. 4. Pius 9 renounce liberalism. Became an arch conservative.

8.4

Germany: Liberalism Frustrated
King Ludwig 1 abdicate in favor of his son.

1. Insurrections for German unity in Wurtemburg, Saxony, Hanover, Bavaria

2.

Major revolution in Prussia.
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8.4.1

Revolution in Prussia
spiracy; refused to use troops against Berliners, announce limited reforms. But several citizens killed 18 Mar at square near palace.

1. 15 Mar.disturbances in Berlin. Frederick William 4 believe foreign con-

2. Still hesitant to use force; government divided and confused. 3. King called Prussian assembly to write constitution. 4. Made further concessions, imply Prussia help unify Germany.

Prussian monarchy fallen.
spected moderate liberal.

In practice,

5. Appointed cabinet led by David Hansemann (17901864)  widely re-

6. Prussian constituent assembly radical and democratic. King, conservative supporters ignore it. Liberal ministry resigned; conservative one replaced it. 7. April 1849Assembly dissolved; monarchy proclaim own constitution. Three-class voting: all adult males vote, but based on ability to pay taxes. (a) Largest taxpayers 5% of population but 1918. (b) Ministry answer to king alone. (c) Army and ocers swear loyalty to monarch.

1 3 of assembly. Prevail until

8.4.2

The Frankfurt Parliament
Paul's

18 May 1848representatives from every German state gather in St. Church in Frankfurt to revise German Confederation.

1. Intend to write moderately liberal constitution for united Germany. 2. Anlienate conservatives and proletariats. Beginning of profound split between liberals and proletariats. (a) Sept.

Conservatives play on this division.

1848Frankfurt Parliament call troops to suppress radical

insurrection. Want nothing to do with radicals threatening property. 3. Split on unication:

grossdeutsch favor Austrian inclusion; kleindeutsch
Looked to Prussia for leadership.

exclusion. Prevail because Austria reject German unicationtoo many other nationality problems.

4. 27 March 1849constitution. Oered crown of united Germany to Frederick William 4, but rejected: man. (a) Frankfurt Parliament began to dissolve. rule by grace of God, not permission of

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(b) Troops drove o remaining members. 5. Liberals prove hisitant, awkward, unrealistic, dependent on army of monarchy. 6. Revolutions tended franchise in some German states and established conservative constitutions. Far cry from March 1848 hopes.

9

In Perspective
Family New concern about

The industrial revolution brough profound social change to Europe. patterns and the roles of women dramatically changed.

crime brough police forces, social order, and prison reform. The proletriat class became a salient factor of urban social and political life. The new business cycle increased anxiety for everyone. From 18481850, liberal revolutions beginning in 1789 ended. Both liberals and nationalists discovered argument and small insurrections would not engender change. The conservative order reasserted change; henceforth, nationalists were less romantic. Commerce, force, and devious diplomacy would be the new means of unication. The proletariats wold turn to unions and political parties. Most importantly, the bourgeosie class ceased to be revolutionary and more concerned with protecting its property against radicals. The 1848 revolutions changed conservatism. Metternich's policies failed to prevent 1848. Conservatives would nd new ways to adapt the new forces of politics to their ends, embracing their own nationalism and even forms of democracy to ensure their dominance.

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