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I would like to express my sincere gratitude to our Principal Prof. Aboobacker Kadengal for providing all the required facilities. It is with great pleasure that I place on record my indebtedness and gratitude to our H.O.D Mr. Shiju P.P for his valuable guidance, co-operation and encouragement. I am grateful to our Seminar Coordinator Mr. Rajesh Kumar M.V for his timely advice and guidance. I also thank Mrs. Sheeba k., Mr. Santo Mathew, Mr. Pramod P., Mrs. Shanthini K.S of Electronics and Communication Dept. for the support they have given me.
Dept. of ECE
Plasma Stealth Technology
Plasma Stealth technology covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar and other detection methods. It is not a single technology but is a combination of technologies that attempt to greatly reduce the distances that a vehicle can be detected at; in particular radar cross section reductions, but also acoustic, thermal and other aspects specifically.Here the concept is to absorb the incoming radar waves totally and to redirect the absorbed electromagnetic energy in another direction. Electromagnetic waves have been observed to be absorbed by or bend around plasma fields for decades. If a plasma cloud could be created around the outside of an aircraft, electromagnetic waves would be absorbed by the stealth instead of reflecting back to the radar antenna. Although stealth technology has not been much effective, the United States, Russia, China , India and several other nations are in the process to explore the unknown areas of stealth technology.
Dept. of ECE
(23) Disadvantages……………………………………………… (23) 10.... Conclusion…………………………………………………. 9.. (10) Plasma Stealth technology……………………………….. of ECE 3 LBSCE........ (5) History of Stealth aircraft………………………………….. 8. 4. 6. 7.. (24) 11.. Kasaragod ... Bibliography and Reference…………………………… (25) Dept. 5. 3. (15) Plasma and its’ properties……………………………… (18) Generation of Plasma on aircrafts……………………… (22) Advantages…………………………………………………... 2.. (4) Aircraft detection methods………………………………. Introduction………………………………………………….. (8) How does Stealth technology works....Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 INDEX CONTENTS PAGE 1...
Plasma stealth technology is what can be called as "Active stealth technology" in scientific terms. Creating this field requires energy and this energy comes from the radar signal. of ECE 4 LBSCE. It is a milestone in the field of stealth technology. This technology was first developed by the Russians. A device for generating plasma is called ‘Plasmatron’. electromagnetic waves would be absorbed by the stealth instead of reflecting back to the radar antenna. The generator is small and light whose power consumption ranges from kilowatts to tens of kilowatts. This device generates the so-called low-temperature plasma.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 INTRODUCTION Plasma stealth technology is the leading edge technology and is still under considerable research. The motivation to use plasma stealth is similar to that of radar absorbent materials. The more energy is used in this process the better it is for lowering the aircraft's RCS. The system developed is based on electromagnetic wave-plasma interactions. This field partially consumes electromagnetic energy of a hostile radar or causes it to bend around the aircraft. Dept. Kasaragod . Russian stealth plasma device creates a plasma field around an aircraft. Electromagnetic waves have been observed to be absorbed by or bend around plasma fields for decades. the aircraft injects a stream of plasma in front of the aircraft. If a plasma cloud could be created around the outside of an aircraft. Later the same engine was used to power the American Deep space 1 probe. thus making the aircraft difficult to detect. The technology behind this is not at all new. reducing the aircraft RCS by up to 100 times. The plasma thrust technology was used in the Soviet / Russian space program. Since plasma is electrically conductive an electromagnetic field will be formed in presence of external EM signal. In plasma stealth. The plasma will cover the entire body of the fighter and will absorb most of the electromagnetic energy of the radar waves.
This system invented during World War II. Depending on the material the object is made of. To get a proper overview of an area with RADAR. of ECE 5 LBSCE.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 2. AIRCRAFT DETECTION METHODS: The most common methods used today to detect an aircraft are: 2.2 Radar Cross Section (RCS) Dept. this echo is stronger or weaker.1. simply works by constantly sending bursts of radio waves of certain frequencies and measures the echoes of each burst.1) RADAR Currently the way to detect and even identify an aircraft is the use of RADAR (radio detection and ranging). but there is an echo. where it is in 3D space and also in what direction it moves. right-angled tail surfaces f) Right-angle wing design 2. Parts of the energy of radio waves are being reflected by objects. computers can calculate what it is that reflects the energy. Doppler shift is the phenomenon of apparent change in the frequency of the radio wave whenever there is a relative motion between the source and the object. Echo is the repetition of a note after the original note is dead. RADAR works on the principle of echo and Doppler shift. By measuring the reflected energy as a function of position and time.1 SOURCES OF RADAR REFLECTION: a) Gaps and breaks in surface b) Unshielded cockpit c) External weapons d) Exposed engines e) Large. Kasaragod . 2. the transmitting and receiving antenna should rotate in angles of 360 degrees.1.
Its size and shape. can be aligned to ensure that the energy that is concentrated into a few spikes. door gaps. etc. This will give the opposing radar one good return when the alignment is ideal. polarization of transmit and receive antennae. The RCS of an aircraft is determined by the magnitudes of two distinctly different contributions: 1. and constitution of the target.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 The Radar Cross Section of a target is the area intercepting that amount of power which. Contributions to RCS for a conventional aircraft: RCS depends on aircraft shape. Typically. control surfaces. Dept. but a much weaker return on subsequent sweeps. inlet lips. ratio of radar wavelength to target size. Kasaragod . aspect angle or orientation with respect to radar line of sight (LOS). for fighter aircraft. surface quality of target. The electromagnetic properties of airframe materials Aircraft shaping is useful over a wide range of radar frequencies but over a limited range of aspect angles. Leading and trailing edges of wings. a forward cone of angles is of greatest interest and hence. large returns can be shifted aircraft can be shaped to ensure that most radar waves will be scattered and not reflected back to the transmitter. of ECE 6 LBSCE. when scattered equally in all directions. both overall and in detail 2. produce an echo at radar equal to that from the target.
Sophisticated Laser controlled turbulence sensors. 2. Several systems have been designed in the meantime to reduce the sound of jet engine exhausts to a minimum. Also the color of the aircraft is an important factor. There are two significant sources of infrared radiation from air-breathing propulsion systems: hot parts and jet wakes. which can measure paths of disturbed air.. of ECE 7 LBSCE. generated by jet engines. which just passed.4) VISUAL DETECTION The exhaust of aircraft i.2) HEAT DETECTION Another way of detecting if an aircraft is flying somewhere is by measuring the heat it radiates.e.5) ACOUSTIC DETECTION A very obvious source of detection is the noise. generated by an aircraft.flying planes makes it easier to detect the aircraft even with the naked eye. the white line in the sky caused by high. Extreme aerodynamics keeps air turbulence to a minimum. Dept. 2. 2.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 2.3) TURBULENCE DETECTION Shape also has a lot to do with the ‘invisibility’ of stealth planes. Kasaragod . This is the same for the jet engine exhaust gases. By modern heat image sensors (Infrared sensors) the difference can be seen between a flying object itself and the surrounding cold air. Normally this heat is produced by the plane engines. making them harder to detect by just measuring sound waves.
Then in 1964. Kasaragod . the first F-117A (Fig 3.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 3. The first documented stealth prototype was built out of two layers of plywood glued together with a core of glue and sawdust. The Blackbird was developed primarily for the Cold War between the United States and the U. Fig 3. SR-71 Aircraft is shown in figure3. HISTORY OF STEALTH AIRCRAFT: With the increasing use of early warning detection devices such as radar by militaries around the world in the 1930’s the United States began to research and develop aircraft that would be undetectable to radar detection systems.S. which is how radar detection systems detect items in the air. The United States initially orders 170 of these aircraft from Northrop but cancelled the order after finding that the plane had stability Flaws. SR-71 the first Stealth airplane launched.R. This aircraft was built to fly high and fast to be able to bypass radar by its altitude and speed. The aircraft proved to be highly unstable and hard to fly due to design flaws. SR-71 BLACK BIRD Then in 1982. Jack Northrop built a flying wing in the 1940’s.S. This prototype’s surface was coated with charcoal to absorb radar signals from being reflected back to the source. It is world’s first Dept.1. of ECE 8 LBSCE. It is a jet black bomber with slanted surfaces.1. It is well known as ‘black bird’.2) was delivered. His plane was the first wave of stealth aircraft that actually flew.
Kasaragod .3. F-117A NIGHT HAWK Then world’s most advanced Stealth fighter. Fig 3. HOW DOES STEALTH TECHNOLOGY WORK? Dept. of ECE 9 LBSCE.2.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 operational aircraft designed to exploit low observable Stealth Technology. Fig 3. A B-2 Spirit multi-role bomber is shown in figure 3. B-2 delivered by 1988. B-2 SPIRIT MULTI-ROLE BOMBER 4.3.
They need to reduce the turbulence. They need to reduce the imprint on the radar screen. Turn down the heat of its infrared picture. 2 The airplane can be covered in materials that absorb radar signals. They need to reduce muffling noise. Making the plane less visible. 2. Kasaragod . 5. 6. Stifle radio emissions. 4. 3. and with that information can tell how far away the object is. There are two different ways to create invisibility: 1 The airplane can be shaped so that any radar signals it reflects are reflected away from the radar equipment.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 The idea is for the radar antenna to send out a burst of radio energy. and this makes it easy to find and track airplanes with radar equipment. which is then reflected back by any object it happens to encounter. The metal body of an airplane is very good at reflecting radar signals. of ECE 10 LBSCE. The goal of stealth technology is to make an airplane invisible to radar. REQUIREMENTS TO BE STEALTHY: To make a stealthy aircraft. designers had to consider six key ingredients: 1. The radar antenna measures the time it takes for the reflection to arrive. Dept.
1 Scattering The airplane can be shaped so that any RADAR signals it reflects are deflected away from the RADAR equipment. some of the signal gets reflected back: Fig 4. but it also creates a very efficient radar reflector. Stealth Aircraft-Radar signal reflect away at an angle In addition. Kasaragod . When a radar signal hits a stealth plane. The round shape means that no matter where the radar signal hits the plane.1) RADAR ECHO REDUCTION 4. surfaces on a stealth aircraft can be treated so they absorb radar energy as well. The overall result is that a stealth aircraft like an F-117A can have the radar signature of a small bird rather than an airplane.2. on the other hand. is made up of completely flat surfaces and very sharp edges. like this: Fig.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 4.1. of ECE 11 LBSCE.4. the signal reflects away at an angle. Most conventional aircraft have a rounded shape.3).1 Conventional Aircraft-Very efficient radar reflector A stealth aircraft (fig3. The only Dept. This shape makes them aerodynamic.
there are two currently used kinds of absorbers . Various kinds of materials can be made to absorb microwave energy by impregnating them with conducting materials such as carbon and iron. Iron effectively dissipates radar waves and has been used in aircraft paint. Addition of carbon products in an insulating material introduces electric resistance and changes the electrical properties. thin and of adequate strength to withstand loads and an abrasive environment. RAM is intended to reduce the scattered signal by absorbing some part of the incident radiation.there will often be a moment when one of the panels of the plane will perfectly reflect a burst of radar energy back to the antenna. separated from a conductive ground plane by a low dielectric foam core. Radar Absorbent Material (RAM) As its name implies. Some important RAM’s used today are: (a)Salisbury Screen: Its construction consists of a conductive carbon coated “lossy”fabric. It is quite effective against the high frequency radars used in modern fighters. Radar Absorbent Material (RAM). of ECE 12 LBSCE. Nevertheless. its thickness does rob volume from volume limited aircraft. Magnetic RAM uses iron products such as carbonyl iron and iron oxides called ferrites.2 Reduction by RAM: A second way of stopping RADAR reflections is by coating the plane with material that soaks up Radar energy. which effectively drain the energy of the radar signal. Hence carbon-based absorbers are called dielectric RAM. For example. Microwave energy is converted into heat energy with hardly any noticeable temperature rise because the energies involved are extremely small. coatings designed to suck in and dissipate the electromagnetic energy of radar wave instead of reflecting it back to the source. 4. The most familiar examples are pyramidal absorbers found in anechoic chambers. Kasaragod .1. Mainly. magnetic RAM is compact. (b)Foam Materials: Dept. Radar absorbing coatings can be applied to the surface of the body. Unlike dielectric RAM. Dielectric RAM is usually too bulky and fragile and not attractive where space is limited and severe mechanical vibrations exist.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 exception is when the plane banks -. called di-electric RAM and magnetic RAM.
(e)PIFRAM (Poly Crystalline Iron Fibre RAM): It is the only electromagnetic Radar Absorbing Material that may be retrofitted to existing material because of its low weight and very low thickness. 4. of ECE 13 LBSCE. Normally uses either aramid or fiberglass honeycomb core and applies a lossy coating to it. which produces significant radar reflections.Plasma Stealth Technology Different foam materials are: a) single layer foam b) multi layer foam-made of 3 single layers c) reticulated foam d) weather proof foam Seminar Report-‘06 (c)Magnetic Absorbers: The magnetic absorbers are electrometric moulded sheets loaded with magnetic filler. Different magnetic absorbers are: a) tuned frequency magnetic absorbers b) surface wave absorbers c) multiband absorbers (d)Core Material: Core material is a broadband microwave absorbing honeycomb core. Kasaragod . canceling out any radar reflections.2) ECHO CANCELLATION Metal component such as the engine. can be shielded using a metal and plastic sandwich whose layers are spaced in such a way as to create a standing wave.3) HEAT RADIATION REDUCTION Dept. 4. The use of the magnetic filler provides the best performance at the minimum thickness.
and the jet plume can be a most significant factor.5. Kasaragod . can be kept to a minimum. of ECE 14 LBSCE. This way it becomes harder for the very special laser equipment to detect the trail and trace it back all the way to the plane which created it. the eye visible turbulence trail in the air. 4. the plane is given a special medium gray color. The engines are buried deep in the fuselage These have got shallow ‘platypus’ exhausts. The main body of the airplane has its own radiation. One of the chemicals used for this was chloro-fluoro-sulphonic acid. Low level aircraft can go undetected by most radar systems. 4. To avoid this.5. Tests have been done using exotic chemicals to be inserted in to the engine outlet gases to modify infrared signature as well as to force water molecules in the exhaust plume to break up in to much finer particles.4) TURBULENCE DETECTION REDUCTION By optimizing the aerodynamics of the stealth plane. Dept. 4.1 Hiding smoke contrails (jet wake) Reducing smoke in the exhaust is accomplished by improving the efficiency of the combustion chambers.5. thus reduce or even eliminate contrails. particularly in after burning operation.3 Low Level Flight Another technique used by aircraft to avoid radar is to fly at very low levels where there is a great deal of ‘ground clutter’…radar reflections given off by buildings and other objects. heavily dependent on speed and altitude.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 Infrared radiation (heat) should be minimized by a combination of temperature reduction and masking.2 Low Visibility An aircraft at low to medium altitudes tends to be a black dot against the background of the sky.5) VISUAL DETECTION REDUCTION 4. when combined with light scattering at low to medium altitudes ensures about as low observability as can be possible or a reduction to 30% in visibility. which cool and deflect the exhaust gases upward to minimize heat emissions. 4. The gray.
Electromagnetic waves also tend to bend around the plasma formation.1) HISTORY OF PLASMA STEALTH TECHNOLOGY For a number of years Russia has conducted a research and development effort aimed at utilizing non-conventional hypersonic technologies to achieve a significant breakthrough in hyper sonic flight. the phenomena are not understood. The experiments have verified two major Russian claims: (1) that plasmaaerodynamic effects can cause "anomalous relaxation" of a bow shock wave. of ECE 15 LBSCE.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 5. and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation. has the goal of building a Mach 12 or greater aircraft based on the integration of three novel subsystem technologies: plasma-aerodynamic shockwave modification. large-scale way. and the shock wave amplitude to dissipate. or produce a number of false echoes that make it extremely difficult to determine the speed of the aircraft and its location. The waves are partly absorbed by the plasma as they interact with the charged particles in the cloud and transfer some of their energy to them.1 Russian made Plasma stealth aircraft 5. and (2) that plasma effects can cause the speed of a shock wave to increase. there is potential for high-payoff. the same plasma system could offer a fundamentally different type of stealth technology. In addition to reducing drag. The Russian program. the integration of these technologies into the development of a hypersonic vehicle would revolutionize air and space flight. If successful. Several phenomena occur as the plasma cloud interacts with the electromagnetic waves. the shock structure to disperse. Fig:5. resulting in a major reduction in drag. known as Ajax. endothermic fuel conversion. Although verified experimentally. Both these phenomena cause either a sharp decrease in signal reflection. both commercially and militarily. It may be possible that aircraft can be made invisible to radar by creating plasma clouds around them.2) HOW PLASMA RESISTS RADAR? Dept. PLASMA STEALTH TECHNOLOGY: 5. Kasaragod . If these effects can be controlled and made to occur in an efficient.
electromagnetic wave tends to pass around plasma cloud. Such systems significantly complicate determination of actual aircraft's speed. Thus.3) ABSORPTION OF EM RADIATIONS BY PLASMA Dept. since during plasma penetration it interacts with plasma charged particles. unachievable to conventional Stealth technology. Both of these phenomenas results in dramatic decrease of the reflected signal. the weight of the systems developed in Russia do not exceed 100 kg. several phenomenas are observed when the cloud interacts with electromagnetic waves radiated by enemy radar. pass onto them a portion of its energy. Without interfereing with technical characteristics the artificially created plasma cloud surrounding the plane guarantees more than hundred times decrease in its observability. The first generation devices. Furthermore. The physics of plasma protection can be described as following. Second. but also producing some false signals) was discovered. its location and leads to development of completely new approaches to LO provision. If an object is surrounded by a cloud of plasma. aerodynamical characteristics of the plane itself do not suffer. Static and flight experiments proved the effectiveness of this technology. of ECE 16 LBSCE. and power consumption ranges from kilowatts to tens of kilowatts 5. producing plasma field surrounding an aircraft and decreasing reflected signal were created in the Center. Kasaragod . due to specific physical processes. an absorption of electromagnetic energy occurs in the cloud. and fades. They proposed to create a plasma formation around protected object. Later. a possibily of creating second generation advanced systems (capable of not only decreasing reflected signal and changing its wavelength. which prevents radars from seeing it.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 Russian scientists approach the issue from the other direction. First.
During this encounter. Plasma surrounding an aircraft might be able to absorb incoming radiation. because low-frequency radio signals bounce between the Earth and the ionosphere and may therefore travel long distances. and this is the key to plasma stealth. A plasma might also be used to modify the reflected waves to confuse the opponent's radar system: for example. Radars which can flexibly change their transmission frequency might be less susceptible to defeat by plasma stealth technology. the plasma aids in absorbing the radar signals. Most military airborne and air defense radars. frequency shifting the reflected radiation would frustrate Doppler filtering and might make the reflected radiation more difficult to distinguish from noise. propagate into a conductive plasma. or transferred into to other wave types by mode conversion or nonlinear effects. The central issue here is frequency of the incoming signal. however. or the magnetic field. including the ionosphere. The absorption takes place when the electromagnetic waves encounter a charged particle. ions and electrons are displaced as a result of the time varying electric and magnetic fields. absorb or trasmit the radiation (the use of microwave communication between the ground and communication satellites demonstrates that at least some frequencies can penetrate the ionosphere). such as radar signals. but some energy may be permanently absorbed as heat by processes like scattering or resonant acceleration. As mentioned previously. Early-warning over-the-horizon radars utilise such low-frequency radio waves. Like LO geometry and radar absorbent materials. and therefore prevent any signal reflection from the metal parts of the aircraft: the aircraft would then be effectively invisible to radar. at least in principle. of ECE 17 LBSCE. A plasma will simply reflect radio waves below a certain frequency (which depends on the plasma properties). This aids long-range communications. absorb all the energy in an incoming wave. plasma stealth technology is probably not a panacea against radar. The wave field gives energy to the particles. The particles generally return some fraction of the energy they have gained to the wave. Kasaragod . in order to effectively defeat different types of radar systems. and it may be necessary to dynamically adjust the plasma density. where many plasmas. a portion of the electromagnetic wave’s energy is transferred to the charged particles.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 When electromagnetic waves. operate in the microwave band. A plasma can. Dept. temperature or composition. Control of plasma properties is likely to be important for a functioning plasma stealth device.
plasma temperatures range from close to absolute zero and to well beyond 109 kelvins (for comparison. the temperature and density of the plasma. electrons. The use of plasmas to control the reflected electromagnetic radiation from an object (Plasma stealth) is feasible at higher frequency where the conductivity of the plasma allows it to interact strongly with the incoming radio wave. Plasmas cover a wide range of values in both temperature and density. of ECE 18 LBSCE. many different wave modes can be excited which might interact with radiation at radar frequencies. and therefore possess a net charge). corresponding to a dynamic compression of the electrons. and its response to low frequency electromagnetic waves is similar to that of a metal: a plasma simply reflects incident low frequency radiation. most notably. Plasmas support a wide range of waves. from fluorescent lighting to plasma processing for semiconductor manufacture. and plasma may contain less than one particle per cubic metre or be denser than lead. Plasmas have many technological applications. Dept. liquids and gases are uncommon away from planetary bodies. plasma is electrically conductive. For a wide range of parameters and frequencies. Kasaragod . the most relevant are the Langmuir waves. PLASMA AND ITS' PROPERTIES: A plasma is a quasineutral (total electrical charge is close to zero) mix of ions (atoms which have been ionized. Plasmas can interact strongly with electromagnetic radiation: this is why plasmas might plausibly be used to modify an object's radar signature. and neutral particles (possibly including unionized atoms).Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 6. but for unmagnetised plasmas. Interaction between plasma and electromagnetic radiation is strongly dependent on the physical properties or parameters of the plasma. tungsten melts at 3700 kelvins). but the wave can be absorbed and converted into thermal energy rather than reflected. Almost all the matter in the universe is plasma: solids. Not all plasmas are fully ionized. For magnetised plasmas.
The degree of ionization.1 Degree of ionization For plasma to exist. ions and neutrals.e. of ECE 19 LBSCE. plasmas are classified as thermal or non-thermal. the plasma temperature. The degree of ionization of a plasma is the proportion of atoms which have lost (or gained) electrons. they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. 6. or cold if only a small fraction (for example 1%) of the gas molecules are ionized (but other definitions of the terms hot plasma and cold plasma are common).Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 6. This is especially common in weakly ionized technological plasmas. 6. the density and the magnetic field in the plasma region. for example due to UV radiation. respond to magnetic fields and be highly electrically conductive). Non thermal plasmas on the other hand have the ions and neutrals at a much lower temperature (normally room temperature) whereas electrons are much "hotter". plasma ionization is determined by the electron temperature relative to the ionization energy (and more weakly by the density) in accordance with the Saha equation. Even a partially ionized gas in which as little as 1% of the particles are ionized can have the characteristics of a plasma (i. Some of the most important plasma parameters are the degree of ionization. Temperature controls the degree of plasma ionization. In particular. energetic particles. A plasma is sometimes referred to as being hot if it is nearly fully ionized. Based on the relative temperatures of the electrons.2 Temperatures Plasma temperature is commonly measured in Kelvin or electron volts. Because of the large difference in mass. and then describe how plasmas interact with electric and magnetic fields and outline the qualitative differences between plasmas and gases.1) PROPERTIES Plasma properties are strongly dependent on the bulk (or average) parameters. For this reason the ion temperature may be very different from (usually lower than) the electron temperature. the electrons come to thermodynamic equilibrium among themselves much faster than they come into equilibrium with the ions or neutral atoms. ionization is necessary. Even in Dept.1. α is defined as α = ni/ (ni + na) where ni is the number density of ions and na is the number density of neutral atoms. and is controlled mostly by the temperature. even when there is a significant deviation from a Maxwellian energy distribution function. Kasaragod .1. or strong electric fields. In most cases the electrons are close enough to thermal equilibrium that their temperature is relatively well-defined. and is (roughly speaking) a measure of the thermal kinetic energy per particle. where the ions are often near the ambient temperature. We explain these parameters. Thermal plasmas have electrons and the heavy particles at the same temperature i.e.
independent of the question of how it can be measured.4 Potentials Since plasmas are very good conductors.3 Densities Next to the temperature. 6. A common quantitative criterion is that a particle on average completes at least one gyration around the magnetic field before making a collision (ie. has only negative charges. 6. The ion density is related to this by the average charge state . This results in the important concept of quasineutrality. which is of fundamental importance for the very existence of a plasma. If an electrode is inserted into a plasma. or it must be very small. But the existence of charged particles causes the plasma to generate and be affected by magnetic fields. The potential as it exists on average in the space between charged particles.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 a "cold" plasma the electron temperature is still typically several thousand degrees. is called the plasma potential or the space potential. such as the generation of plasma double layers. It is. The density of a non-neutral plasma must generally be very low. The dynamics of plasmas interacting with external and self-generated magnetic fields are studied in the academic discipline of magneto hydrodynamics.1. An electron beam. Kasaragod . The degree of ionization is ni / (n0 + ni). greater than the Debye length). its potential will generally lie considerably below the plasma potential due to the development of a Debye sheath. In astrophysical plasmas. which says that it is a very good approximation to assume that the density of negative charges is equal to the density of positive charges over large volumes of the plasma . Due to the good electrical conductivity. of ECE 20 LBSCE. In a hot plasma this is small. the most important property is the density.5 Magnetization A plasma in which the magnetic field is strong enough to influence the motion of the charged particles is said to be magnetized. that is. possible to produce a plasma that is not quasineutral. for example. The word "plasma density" by itself usually refers to the electron density. Debye screening prevents electric fields from directly affecting the plasma over large distances (ie. otherwise it will be dissipated by the repulsive electrostatic force.1. Plasmas utilized in plasma technology ("technological plasmas") are usually cold in this sense. The third important quantity is the density of neutrals n0. an object that separates charge over a few tens of Debye lengths. ωce / νcoll > 1 where ωce is the "electron Dept. of course.1. the electric fields in plasmas tend to be very small. This can and does cause extremely complex behavior. 6. electric potentials play an important role. but may still determine important physics. the number of free electrons per unit volume.
Magnetized plasmas are anisotropic.2) PLASMAS ON AERODYNAMIC SURFACES Plasma layers around aircraft have been considered for purposes other than stealth. V is the velocity. It is often the case that the electrons are magnetized while the ions are not. Dept. of ECE 21 LBSCE. In particular. However. and B is the magnetic field). While electric fields in plasmas are usually small due to the high conductivity. the electric field associated with a plasma moving in a magnetic field is given by E = -V x B (where E is the electric field.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 gyrofrequency" and νcoll is the "electron collision rate"). There are many research papers on the use of plasma to reduce aerodynamic drag. and is not affected by Debye shielding. electrohydrodynamic coupling can be used to accelerate air flow near an aerodynamic surface. meaning that their properties in the direction parallel to the magnetic field are different from those perpendicular to it. Kasaragod . It considers the use of a plasma panel for boundary layer control on a wing in a low speed wind tunnel. it is not clear whether the plasmas generated in these aerodynamics experiments could be used to reduce radar cross-section. 6. This demonstrates that it is possible to produce a plasma on the skin of an aircraft.
correspondingly. of ECE 22 LBSCE. minimal magnetic interactions between electrons.1) PLASMATRON-THE SIMPLE METHOD Plasmatron is a perfectly new plasma device fit out with a special oxide cathode to incorporate such features as high performance characteristics and simplicity of design. Prevention of the pinch effect is possible due to minimal rate of movement of electrons in plasma of arc discharge and. This results in formation of wide anode spot (not a thin beam of electrons) on the surface being heated (up to 40 mm in diameter at current of 250-750 A). The plasmatron is very simple in design and does not need any special installation that makes it highly reliable. easy and convenient in use. The device uses no consumable electrodes capable of preventing the pinch effect by scattering electrons in plasma of arc discharge. Kasaragod .Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 7. Figures of plasmatron devices Dept. GENERATION OF PLASMA ON AIRCRAFTS: 7.
it is likely to be difficult to produce a radar-absorbent plasma around an entire aircraft traveling at high speed. These left over ions will neutralize later creating a visible path that points directly to the plane.Another shortcoming with plasma stealth technology is that the plasma layer that would surround the plane would also block the pilot’s radar. Dept. of ECE 23 LBSCE. the plasma itself emits EM radiation. 9. 2) Second. Another drawback is that when the ions neutralize they will give off light and not all ions will neutralize either. DISADVANTAGES: Plasma stealth technology also faces various technical problems. According to the designers of the Russian SU-35 tested a plasma generator similar to the one mentioned previously. The plasma trail shown is normal to space shuttle reentry. This means that the cost and maintenance of RAM coatings are avoided. plasmas (like glow discharges or fluorescent lights) tend to emit a visible glow: this is not necessarily compatible with overall low observability. Secondly. This visual path is called a plasma trail and can also be used to lock on planes but this can be overcome by either flying very high or by operating only during the day. this exact technology is being implemented in the Russian “AJAX” hypersonic aircraft project.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 8. Probably the best solution to this problem is to use a different type of stealth technology on the antenna itself and eliminate the presence of plasma around the radar antenna. the plasma cloud would smoothen airflow across the fuselage of the aircraft making it more aerodynamic. Kasaragod . This gas then neutralizes behind the space shuttle and gives off light. plasma clouds also provide a heat shield that separates the plane from super heated air. For example. Furthermore. In this model the generator switched frequently to let its own radar out at a set interval. 3) Lastly. Disadvantages aside. It is caused by the super heating of air around the space shuttle which ionizes the surrounding gas. ADVANTAGES OF PLASMA STEALTH TECHNOLOGY: Plasma stealth technology has three major advantages. 1) The first is that the RAM painting is not necessary when a plasma cloud is used.
Looking from above. But likewise the F-117. the surface appears to match the terrain. and the surface takes on a green like hue. in one particular instance having the aircraft continually modifying top and bottom like a magician’s mirror box making the aircraft totally invisible.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 CONCLUSION Imagine you can electronically change the color of a given surface in such a way it can match the terrain below it. in fact several military fiction writers have already come up with the idea. but then think of the LCD display of notebooks and it may not seem so far fetched all of a sudden. A cloudy day adds clouds to match what sensors see underneath and the aircraft becomes a chameleon and disappears. This may sound like science fiction. we may not hear about that until the first smart bomb coming out of nowhere has made a successful hit! The advancements in the field of stealth technology has seen staggering heights. Plasma Stealth technology is just one of the advancements that we have seen. Dept. Fly over forest. Kasaragod . In due course of time we can see many improvements in the field of military aviation which would one-day even make stealth technology obsolete. More technologies are currently under development and will be closely monitored. of ECE 24 LBSCE. This is not a new idea.
org www. Electronics for you.airforce-technology.aeronautics. Cranfield University. of ECE 25 LBSCE. Introduction to Radar systems. 3. Designing For Stealth in Fighter Aircraft. www.f-22raptor.com www.Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCE 1.air-attack.milnet.com Dept. 2. Merril l Skolnik.com www. Kasaragod . Ray Whiteford.ru www.
of ECE 26 LBSCE. Kasaragod .Plasma Stealth Technology Seminar Report-‘06 Dept.
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