The Khmer Empire and the Malay Peninsula Author(s): Lawrence Palmer Briggs Reviewed work(s): Source: The

Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 3 (May, 1950), pp. 256-305 Published by: Association for Asian Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2049556 . Accessed: 12/06/2012 22:48
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THE

KHMER

EMPIRE

AND THE
PALMER

MALAY PENINSULA

LAWRENCE

BRIGGS*

Washington, D. C.
THE FUNAN

PERIOD, CA. 150 - CA. 550

A. The peninsula before the conquests by Funan. The first known contact of the Khmer Empire or any of its antecedents with what is now called the Malay Peninsula' occurred when Fan Shih-man of Funan conquered a considerable portion of that peninsula early in the third century;although it is believed, from the terms in which the account of his voyage are expressed, that Hun-t'ien, or Hun-shen (Kaundinya), who conquered the native queen, Liu-yeh (Willow Leaf), and founded the kingdom of Funan about the middle of the first century,came froman Indian settlementon the eastern side of that peninsula.2 The earliest known inhabitants of the peninsula were pigmy negritos, of represented today by the Semangs of the forests the northernpart of the bulb forming the southern part of the peninsula, and a Veddoid people, called Proto-Australoidby some anthropologists,of whom the Sakai of the A central part of the southern bulb are representative.8 people speaking a pre-Mon-Khmer Austro-Asiatic language seem to have occupied the mainland adjacent to the peninsula and, probably under pressure from the Mon-Khmers, flooded the peninsula, imposing their language on the Sakai.4 The Mons occupied the Tenasserim region but apparently never extended to the Isthmus of Kra.5
* Mr. Briggs is a specialist on the Indochinese Peninsula, especially Cambodia. He has published numerous articles in the Quarterly, Journal of the American Oriental Society, T'oung pao, and other scholarly journals. His book, The Ancient Khmer Empire, is to be published in the near future. 1 The term Malay Peninsula as used in this article means the peninsula from where it sets out fromthe mainland in about 15? 30' N. latitude. 2 Paul Pelliot, "Quelques textes chinois concernant l'Indochine hindouisee," Etudes asiatiques (Paris, 1925), 2:243-49 (hereafterEA). 3Fay Cooper-Cole, The people of Malaysia (New York, 1945), 4-5, 46-47; A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology (New York, 1923), 46-48, 486. ' Pater P. W. Schmidt considers the Sakai, like the Nicobarese of the near-by islands, as speaking an Austro-Asiatic language, earlier and less developed than Mon-Khmer; "Les peuples Mon-Khmers," Bulletin de l'Ecole Franpaise d'Extreme-Orient (hereafter BEFEO), 7 (1907), 213-63, and Die sprachfamilien und sprachenkreiseder erde (Heidelberg, 1926), 135-40. of rFor a discussion of the racial and language affinities the Semangs and the Sakai, see W. W. Skeat and C. 0. Blagden, Pagan races of the Malay Peninsula (London and New York, 1906), 1:19-31; 2:466-72.

256

THE

KHMER

EMPIRE

257

At the time of Fan Shih-man's conquests, there were already several important trading settlements on the peninsula. They were apparently Indian and did not depend too much on the local inhabitants. They were emporia of commerce - meeting places where traders from east and west met and exchanged commodities. Sometimes theywere terminalsof transit routes across the peninsula, to avoid the long and sometimes dangerous journey around the tip. which the Liang was Lang-ya-hsiu, One of the oldest of these settlements the beginning of the second century. Coedes, in his shu dates as early as recent book, seems inclined to identifythis kingdom with the Ling-ya-ssuchia of Chao Ju-kua (Chau Ju-kua) and the Langkasuka of the Malay and Javanese chronicles and to place it in the southern part of the peninsula,6 whereas, in an earlier article,he made a clear distinctionbetween the kingdom of the south on the one hand and the Lang-ya-hsiuof the Liang shu and Lang-chia (Kamalanka) of the Chinese pilgrims,7which he follows Pelliot in placing at the base of the peninsula.8 The author of this article thinks Coedes's firstopinion is the correct one and thinks the capital of Lang-chia was located in what is now the Mergui-Tenasserim region. He proposes to identifyit with Tun-hsiin (see Glossary at end of article). Takola, identifiedby Gerini and otherswith the modern Takua Pa,9 on the west side of the peninsula opposite Bandon (see map) was described as a great port and market by Ptolemy about the middle of the second century.More than a centuryearlier, it had been mentioned in the famous Pali text Milindapaiihai under the name of Takkola.10 It was doubtless the Chii-li (Chiu-chih) of the Liang shu mentioned below. Tdmbralinga, identified with modern Ligor, was mentioned in the famous Buddhist canon Niddesa of the second century as Tdmbalingam.11 Archaeological findsand inscriptionsin the vicinityof Kedah, while not certainly dated, indicate the presence of a considerable settlement in that vicinity at an early period.'2
George Coedes, Les etats hindouises d'Indochine et d'Indonesie (Paris, 1948), 72. "Le royaume de Crivijaya," BEFEO, 18, no. 6 (1918), 11-12. 8 Pelliot, "Le Fou-nan et les theories de M. Aymonier,"BEFEO, 4 (1904), 406-08. G. E. Gerini, Researches in Ptolemy's geography of Eastern Asia (Further India and the Malay Peninsula). Asiatic monographs, no. 1 (London, 1909), 92-93. '1 Gerini, 92. 11 Sylvain Levi, "Ptolemee, La Niddesa et la Brhatkatha," EA, 2:26; Coedes, "Le royaume de Crivijaya," 15-18. 'H. G. Quaritch Wales, "Archeological researches on ancient Indian colonization in Malaya," Journal of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 18, no. 1 (1940), 1-47, 67-68; Coed6s, Etats hindouises, 72-73.
6

7Coedes,

258

THE

FAR EASTERN

QUARTERLY

B. The conquests of Fan Shih-man: Tun-hsfin. The account of Fan Shih-man'sconquests is found in the Liang shu. The followingis translated from the French of Paul Pelliot:13 "(Fan)-man was brave and capable. Again by the force of his arms, he attacked and subdued the neighboring kingdoms. All acknowledged themselves his vassals. He took for himself the title,greatking of Funan. Then he had great ships built and, traversing all the Immense Sea, he attacked more than ten kingdoms, including more than Ch'ii-tu-k'un, Chiu-chih, Tien-sun. He extended his territory fiveor six thousand it.Then he wished to subdue the countryof Chin-lin (Frontier of Gold). But (Fan)-man fell ill."14 Of the first-named kingdoms, nothing certain is known. They seem to have been on the western coast of the peninsula; for Pelliot quotes later as texts15 saying that, going south from Chin-lin 3,000 li, one encounters four kingdoms, including Tu-k'un and Chii-li, which are believed to cortwo kingdoms in the Liang shu list. Tu-k'un is said to respond to the first be mentioned in other Chinese textsas being in the Malay peninsula, more than 3,000 1i south of Funan. Its identificationis not established.'6 Pelliot and Sylvain Levi long ago thinksChiu-chih is a false reading for Chii-li,17 proposed thatthe T'ou-chii-li, fromwhich the Funanese envoy Su-wu sailed for India in the third century,should be identified with Takola.18 Chinlin has generallybeen identifiedwith the Suvannabhami of Pali writersthe Thaton-Martaban region. Chin-lin and Tun-hsiin were in the Mon
"When French translations of Chinese are quoted in English, the Chinese names are transcribedaccording to the Wade-Giles system. "4Pelliot, "Le Fou-nan," BEFEO, 3 (1903), 266. Tien-sun is another orthographyfor Tunhsfun. 15Ibid., 266, note 2. "eG. H. Luce, "Countries neighboring Burma," Journal of the Burma Research Society (hereafterJBRS), 14. part 2 (1924), 144-45. The most probable identificationof Ch'fl-tu-k'un, or Tu-k'un seems to be Tun-hsfin,in spite of the mention of both in the same paragraph of the Liang shu. The Liang shu says that Tu-k'un is noted for its perfumes (hsiang). A Chinese work cited by Berthold Laufer says that only Tu-k'un produces a particular perfume called ho-hsiang (Journal asiatique, 115, no. 12 (1918), 26). Laufer cites other Chinese texts to show that the ho-hsiang is found at Tun-hsfin and shows how the name Tu-k'un could easily be a corruption of Tun-hsfin(ibid., 27-28). R. A. Stein (who calls it Ch'0-tu), froman intimate study of Chinese documents, identifiesit with Kattigara and locates it near Baria, on the coast of what is now Cochinchina (Coedbs, Etats hindouisis, 71; Briggs,review of Coed6s in Far Eastern Quarterly,8 [May 1949], 374-76. The author has not examined Stein's argument, but does not see how it can be reconciled with the statement of the Chinese that both Ch'0-tu-k'un and Tun-hsfin were 3,000 li south of Funan, and with other information. 17 Pelliot, "Le Fou-nan," 266, note 3. "I S. Levi, "Deux peuples m6connus: (1) Les Merundes," Milanges Charles de Harlez (Leyde, 1896), 177; Luce, 145-46; Pelliot, BEFEO, 4 (1904), 386.

THE

KHMER

EMPIRE

259

country,and the boundary between them was probably ill-defined; but from the limits prescribed to the latter, its northern boundary was probably not farabove the present Mergui-Tenasserim region. Tun-hsiin (see map) must have been a country of considerable importance. It seems to have occupied both sides of the peninsula; for,according to the Liang shu, its eastern coast was in relation with Tonkin, while on the west it communicated with India, Parthia, and other distant countries. It must have included the base of the peninsula and the region at the head of the Gulf of Siam, including at least a part of the Meklong-Menam delta; forthe Liang shu says it makes a curve and extends more than a thousand itinto the sea. (In the same paragraph it says that the countryhas not more than a thousand li.) A thousand 1i would bring it to the Isthmus of Kra, where it doubtless encountered the kingdom of Chii-li (Takola). The Liang shu continues that Tun-hsiin was on the southern frontierof Funan, at more than 3,000 li. The coast was rugged. The capital was ten it from the sea. It had five kings (kingdoms?). All were vassals of Funan. It was the meeting place of the East and the West, and many merchants came there to trade,everyday more than 10,000. "Rare objects, precious merchandise, thereis nothing that is not found there." The reason was that vessels could not cross the "Immense Sea" and coasted along the shores of Funan until theyreached this point.19Tun-hsiin thus became one of the earlier points It of transshipment. had the advantage of shorteningthe route of through more than any other port of transshipment.The early Mon settletraffic ments of the lower Meklong delta were adjacent to the eastern end of the A route.20 Roman lamp found at P'ong Tuk (Siam) hints that the band of Roman and Greek musicians and acrobats which reached China by sea in at 120 A.D. may have made the transfer Tun-hsiin, and the famous Roman embassay of 166 may have followed this route.21 These settlementscommunicated with their Mon kindred on the coast across the mountains by alternate routes: (1) over the Three Cheddis Pass to Tavoy, and (2) over the Three Pagodas Pass to Martaban.22 Another Chinese document, 23 quoted by Pelliot, says: "The king [of
"I Pelliot, "Le Fou-nan," 263. 20For the various trans-isthmian routes and modern Mergui-Tenasserim, see John Anderson, English intercoursewith Siam in the seventeenthcentury(London, 1890), 5-8. ' Coed&s, "The excavations of P'ong Tilk and their importance for the ancient history of Siam," Journal of the Siam Society (hereafterJSS), 21, part 13 (1928), 195-209; Wales, "Further excavations of P'ong Tuk," Indian arts and letters,10 (1936), 42-48. " Lawrence Palmer Briggs, "Dvdravati, the most ancient kingdom of Siam," Journal of the American Oriental Society (hereafterJAOS), 65 (1945), 99. "3Said to be of the fifth century; Luce, 149.

260 950 THE FAR EASTERN 1000 QUARTERLY 105? 1100 2V Tbaton The8Funanese MO. Empire under Fan Shih-man 0Simhapui-a 150 Ofl~ 0San~~ O SmaN5en vocanh+ PO Nagar 50 50~~~~~~~ 950 1000 110 105~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0 The Funanese Empire under Fan Shih-man .

This kingdom is nowhere mentioned among the conquests of that monarch. 25Pelliotthinks the term hu means merchants. he quotes Pelliot (BEFEO [1904]. They do nothing but read the sacred books of the heavenly spirits[Brahmanical works] and constantly offer to themwhite up vases of perfumes and flowerswithout ceasing day and night. When they are ill. The Liang shu says: "Kaundinya was originally a Brahman of India. or firstKaundinya." in R.27 C.an Indian Brahman who took the name of Kaundinya (II) arrived in Funan via P'anp'an. which. 169.' " Other formsof burial are by cremation and throwing the ashes into the sea. after conquering this region. P. "Le Fou-nan. 28 Luce. regent". theymake a vow to be 'buried by the birds. A supernatural voice said to him: 'You must go and reign in Funan. dynastyof Funan.probably about the beginning of the fifthcentury.THE KHMER EMPIRE 261 Tun-hsiin] is called K'un-lun. note 1. 1887). "Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca. They make wine of the sap of a tree which resembles a pomegranate. some time after 357 . and Fan Shih-man had been his great general before he succeeded him as king. the Liang shu mentions a kingdom in the Bandon region which the Chinese called P'an-p'an. 228-30). Rdst.to distinguish them from Brahmans. This is apparently true. means "king. two [hundred?] Buddhists and more than a thousand Indian Brahmans. The (people of) Tun-hsiin practise their doctrine and give them their daughters in marriage. Luce makes the very reasonable suggestion that. The people of Funan heard of 24Luce thinks K'un-lun here probably represents the old Khmer Kurung. but it scarcelyaccounts for the frequencywith which the king and people of this region are called K'un-lun. but it is probably the Chii-li mentioned in the early account and must have included Takola and the Takola-Bandon route and extended to the northern end of the Isthmus of Kra. 1:240. Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China and the Indian Archipelago (London. .28 P'an-p'an firstappears in the historyof Funan when.Nearly two centuries afterFan Shih-man's conquests." 279-80.26Other accounts say that Tun-hsiin produces many kinds of fragrantflowers. so. was chosen king. P'an-p'an was the name of the last king of the Hun. 2 W. -" Pelliot. P'an-P'an and its relation with Funan in the fifth century. Groeneveldt.including the ho-hsiang. where it bordered Tun-hsiin. Fan Shih-man may have named it after his formerchief and benefactor. and Indianized the country. he says. He reached P'an-p'an on the south.24 In this country there are five hundred families of Hu25 of India. many (of these Brahmans) do not leave.' Kaundinya rejoiced in his heart.

and the name Lang-ya-hsiuappeared for the firsttime in history. Etats hindouisgs.it was founded about 400 years earlier. Sometime before 484.according to Ma Tuan-lin: "This kingdom is in the southern sea. 464. Its first appeared at the court of China in 516. Little is known about the period between 424 and 484 in Funan. came to the throne. 1883). 1928). for the plot which put that monarch on the throne seems to have been hatched in P'an-p'an. Coedls. It is thirtydays march from east to west and twentydays fromnorth to south . but. Perhaps his immediate successors were not of his line. P'an-p'an was certainly partisan to Kaundinya (II).. Luce translates this sentence: "Aloes and camphor are especially abundant" (p. Its embassies to China ceased in 457-64 . . according to tradition. About the beginning of the sixth century. a strong king. soG. saysit joins P'an-p'an.whom Georges Maspero as calls Jayavarman. writtenlater. Its climate and products are much The Chiu like those of Funan. Lang-chia succeeds Tun-hsiin (about 500). during that period.97. Nothing further at is heard of it. In its place.3' D. The Liang shu says that. covering apparently all its territory.. aided by some Indians. Ethnographie des peuples etrangires ai la Chine. came to the throneof Funan and ruled until 514." 269. They came to him and chose him king.and did not begin again until the death of that monarch.but whose name Coedes transliterates Indravarman or Sreshthavarman30 was ruling in Funan. Le royaume de Champa (Paris.when a prince reof its historyuntil about the end of the fifth volted and. Kaundinya Jayavarman."32 T'ang shu.of the line of Kaundinya II."Le Fou-nan. 71.Tun-hsiin disappeared from history. Kaundinya II's reign is believed to have lasted until 424 or 430. The whole kingdom rose with joy.. 466."29 centurywere anomaP'an-p'an's relations with Funan during the fifth lous. a successor of Kaundinya . note 4. firstat embassy by least. 163). P'an-p'an sent several embassies to the court of China. for. `9Pelliot. The Liang shu says of this country. and P'an-p'an revolted.. mridionaux. Maspero. 32 Ma Touan-lin. It produces a great quantity of perfumes. traduit du Chinois par le Marquis d'Hervey de Saint-Denys (Paris. His successor became independent and sent an embassyto the court of China.which may mark the beginning of Kaundinya Jayavarman's reign . I" Ma Touan-lin. this same region was conquered by Funan and governed as the dependent kingdom of Tun-hsiin until the revolt mentioned above broke out as Funan began to decline. He changed all the rules according to the customs of India. beginning with 431. but nothing is known century.262 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY him.appears a countrycalled Lang-ya-hsiu the Chinese.But almost 400 years earlier.

All its known vassal states except Chenla (which was contiguous to it and above it on the Mekong) were on the sea. the second year of Rudravarman's reign. the empire began to fall apart.. Chenla's.. 530. It sent its firstembassy to the Chinese court in 515." The Hsin T'ang shu continues: "Their ministersare called [a series of names beginning with K'un-lun] and Ku-lung. At least his distant maritime vassals seem to have exercised a degree of independence. I Ma Touan-lin. 463-64. The countryis conterminous with Lang-ya-hsiu.probably a maternal grandson .They all learn p'o-lo-men (brahmanical) writingsand pay great reverence to the Buddha's law.. -There are temples of Buddhists and Taoist priests. The sound of ku-lung is similar to that of k'un-lun. The Dissolution of the Funanese Empire (550?-627+). Rudravarman..who had just come to the throne of the vassal kingdom of Chenla.and his reign seems to have been accompanied by unrest. The Buddhist priests eat fleshbut do not drink wine. He was succeeded by an illegitimate son. s4Luce. who reigned until about the middle of the century. Other embassies were sent in 523 and 531. When Chenla replaced Funan about the middle of the sixth century. come fromIndia to profit by his munificence. whose allegiance to Funan seems to have been fitful. Funan was a great maritime empire. The Taoist priests '34 are called t'an. Decline of the Funanese Empire under Rudravarman (515-50?). 464. but there seems to be no evidence that any of them ever paid homage to Chenla. The provinces are governed by functionarieswith titleswhich correspond to prefectsand '35 subprefects. Kaundinya Jayavarmandied in 514..7. To the north it is parted fromLin-i by a small sea. Pan-p'an. Some of the distant maritime vassals seem to have continued their loyalty to Funan for some time. . The empire was held together by the "great ships" inaugurated by Fan Shihman.THE KHMER EMPIRE 263 E.it was first of the Liang (502-573) and later in those of the Tang. They are much in favor with him. Rudravarman probably reached the throne by violence and departed in the same manner.it sent embassies in the fifth mentioned in the dynastichistory century. as previouslystated. sent embassies to the court of China in 527.. theytake neither wine nor flesh.. and 532. The Chiu T'ang shu saysof it: "Pan-p'an kingdom lies to the south-westof Lin-i (Champa) in a cornerof the sea.' Ma Tuan-lin adds: "At this [the king's] court there are many Brahmans. It was at this time that Lang-ya-hsiumade its appearance. s Ma Touan-lin.33Although. when he was succeeded by Bhavavarman I . 170-71.' F.

of the arrival of their embassies at the Chinese court. mMa Touan-lin. most of its distant maritime vassals began to renew or to establish relations with the court of China. "The kingdom contained 30 cities [provinces]. the states on the periphery of that empire began to regroup themselves into new independent units and to look to the Chinese Empire for protection. 1886). The Sui shu (589-618) says: "In the years Ta-yeh (605-16). 635). Aymonier. 41 Pelliot. 465. Our earliest knowledge of these states is the record.''41 Of these newly-formed states. 477. seems to have been a great organizer and to have initiated the custom of annexing his conquests and incorporatingthem into his kingdom. the envoysof Po-li-lo-cha (Dvdravati) came to court. it is nowhere mentioned among Funan's conquests and 3" Ma Touan-lin. even before its final absorption by Chenla. an embassy from Pan-pan arrived.40Envoys fromTo-yuan arrived between 644 and 647 (see Section B below). When the ties that held the empire of Funan together began to weaken. Lang-ya-hsiu(Tun-hsiin) sent an embassyin 568.38In 60607 an imperial embassywent to the court of Ch'ih-t'u (see next section) to establish relations. with those of Lin-i. Even Funan. At present.. Les peuples orientaux connus des ancienne chinois (Paris. for the firsttime.264 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY greatking. which had continued on as a vassal after its conquest by Bhavavarman I. Some time between 627 and 649. Isanavarman (ca. "Le Fou-nan et les theories of M.37 During the period 605-17."36 After the defeat of Funan. embassies arrived from Ch'ih-t'u and Kalasapura. Although the Sui shu says it is a colony of Funan ("issue of Funan") and that its customs resemble those of Funan. The appearance of new kingdoms: (1) Ch'ih-t'u. Hereafter little is heard of vassal states. 37 . the more important were Ch'ih-t'u and To-lo-po-ti (Dvdravati). 471-75.39As a consequence." 389. "Le Fou-nan et les theories de M.and each ruled by a governor. 610-ca. Ch'ih-t'u seems to have been located in the region facing the coast between the present ports of Singora and Patani. !9Ibid. Aymonier. 198. in Chinese dynastic histories. more than ten kingdoms of the southern frontiersbrought tribute.each peopled by many thousands of families. but many (accounts) of these events have been lost and are no longer heard of.The titles of the functionariesof the state are the same as those of Lin-i.there are no longer notices on more than four kingdoms. seems now to have been annexed and to have become an integralpart of Chenla. 40 Leon de Rosny. Pelliot. THE CHENLA PERIOD (ABOUT 550-802) A."405.

aftertwenty days and nightsof navigation. and a briefreview of the question may enable the novice to avoid pitfalls. Ma Tuan-lin gives the account of the voyage: The two envoysembarkedwith theirsuite at the port of Nan-hai [Canton] and.theysaw in the distancein thewest. and were granted an audience by the king. we are subjects of the Great Kingdom. is Po-lo-la kingdom.themountainsof thekingdomof Lang-ya-hsii [hsiu]. . Passing to the southwest. with a wealth of gold plate and ornament. the great superior said to Ch'ang Chun: "Now. Luce. with a favorablewind. where they were lavishly entertained. The Sui shu gives a long account of it. to Ch'ih-t'u to enter into relations with that and neighboring kingdoms. Ho-lo-tan may be Ho-ling in Java. The chief minister came. the Emperor Yang-ti. skirting island of Chi-lungon thesouth. with music of shells and drum.it touches the great sea. The color of the earth of the capital is mostlyred. 471-75. Then.44 Ch'ih-t'u is one of the ancient countries of southeast Asia whose location was long disputed. To the east. they were accompanied by the chiefminister.who was given high honors by the Chinese emperor.Continuingtheir route towardthe south. The other places mentioned are not identifiedand are probably not on the peninsula.afterleaving Shih-tzu-shih [Lion Rock] behind. and they were escorted. they passed a continuousline of rocks. Going by water for over a hundred days. 173-75. 205-12.they arrivedat Chiao-shih-shan (Burnt Mountain). which Luce translatesin part as follows: "Ch'ih-t'u kingdom is another tribe of Fu-nan. 43 44 Ma Touan-lin. The land is several thousand 1i in extent. Rosny.theyreachedtheshoresof Ch'ih-t'u. He says the cult of Fo (Buddha) is more ardent here than elsewhere. It is in the southern sea.Aftertwo or threedays more. 469.THE KHMER EMPIRE 265 does not appear in historyuntil after the close of the Funan period. to the king's palace. with two caparisoned elephants and parasols of peacock plumes. to the north. Ma Touan-lin. hence the name. is Po-lo-so kingdom. 173." On the return of the envoys to China.J. they anchoredat theisland of Ling-ch'ieh-po-pa-to (Lingaparvata).43 In 607. of the Sui dynasty. Ch'ang Chun and Wang Chiin-cheng. the The king sent a Brahman with thirtybarks to meet the Chinese mission. We are no longer of the little kingdom of Ch-ih-t'u. to the west. B. is Ho-lo-tan kingdom.sent two mandarins. although Rosny (199. one reaches it. On this occasion.which facesLin-i [Champa] to the west. Abel-Remusat thought Ch'ih-t'u was in the Menam 42 Luce."42 Ma Tuan-lin gives a long description of the capital cityand of the customsof the people.on the top of which thereis a temple. to the south. and the vessel on which they came was moored with a chain of gold. note) suggests Kelantan.

where riversnavigable for small craft lead into the red earth of the interior. 254. G. 197-221. '0 Chhabra." Asiatic Society of Bengal. Chau Ju-kua (see note 88). 2:78.commemoratesthe giftsof a sea captain named Buddhagupta. Wales. 1938). where the oldest archaeological and epigraphical vestigeson the peninsula have been found. New kingdoms: (2) Po-li-lo-cha.and. 1937-38). 4" R. "Notice chronologique sur le pays du Tchin-la. Rosny was so certain In it throughout his account of that country. 16-20.45 1912. To-ho-lo (Dvaravati). at first.Le Cambodge (Paris. Q. 231. To-lo-po-ti."48This inscription and the description of Ch'ang Chiin's voyage fixes the location of Ch'ih-t'u in this region beyond a reasonable doubt.which is the Sanskrit equivalent of the Chinese Ch'ih-t'u. 1904). "Deux itineraires de Chine en Inde a la fin du viii siecle. Majumdar.. A concise historyof Buddhist art in Siam (Cambridge.50 B." 272. Abel-Remusat. note 2. Chhabra. 1. E.it is reasonable to think that it extended across the peninsula and that it included much of the present Kedah. 4 (1904). Kern hinted this when he read this inscription in 1884. Hirth and Rockhill translatedCh'ih-t'u as Siam.266 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY Pelliot . note.seems to have accepted this valley and Aymonier ." in Nouveaux melanges asiatiques (2 vols. Luce. S. 82-83. 18. Such conditions are found at Patani. B.49It is now. R. 7 See especially the recent archeological findsof H. C. 89. Etats hindouises. 82. as evidenced by the inscription. and Pelliot in 1904 called attention to Kern's opinion and pointed out the objections to the former opinion. and that its capital was on the east coast. While the account of the great extent of this kingdom need not be taken too literally. Majumdar would put Raktamrittika in India. 8. "Le Fou-nan. Coedes. 1 (1935). 178. on an eastern affluantof the Menam. note 12. "Red Earth. 3: 349. Reginald Le May thought Ch'ih-t'u might have been SrIdeb.47One of these inscriptions. which he himself had shared. Emperor T'ai-tsung) when the annals of the T'ang dynastyrelated that envoys from 45J. that Ch'ih-t'u was Siam that he so translated location." BEFEO. who it says was a native of Raktamrittikd. in fifth-century characters. Rosny. Even as late as 1938. the writer believes. ' Pelliot. no. with an approach from the north. Pelliot. Hirth and Rockhill.46 But the account of Ch'ang Chiin's voyage makes it quite clear that Ch'iht'u could not have been in the Menam valley but must have been in the peninsula. Suvarnadvipa (Calcutta. 252. Ch. Majumdar. mention of any name in this region which could be transcribed The first as DvdravatI occurred during the Cheng-kuan period (627-49. Paris. journal and proceedings. "Expansion of Indo-Aryan culture during Pallava rule. 89-90. generally accepted. 1829). Le May. 55-56. Aymonier. . 8 B.

53 The customs of To-ho-lo. which the Sui shu placed to the west of Ch'ih-t'u. indicate that this region-or at least the southeast part of it-had probably been absorbed by Chenla. for we are told that its east-westextent was one and a half times its north-southextent. who went and returned by land (629-45). on the west it borders the ocean." It sent embassies to China in 638 and 649. 352-58). note 1. 180.are like those of Ch'ih-t'u and Ko-lo.the island of Tan-ling and To-yuan (also called Nou To-yuan) in (on?) the sea southwestof Champa. but did not include that region. Po-li-lo-cha was naturally placed in the Meklong valley to the west of it. The presumed mission from Po-li-lo-cha during the period 627-49 was probably identical with that from To-ho-lo in 638. and (2) To-yuan. He did "This name does not occur elsewhere. Anther Chinese text says the people of Tu-ho-lo are K'un-lun. 221) that Ma Tuan-lin abridged his Po-li-lo-cha to Po-lo-cha. except that Chia-lo-she-fu given instead of Chia-lo-she-fo."360. The Chiu T'ang shu had a notice on To-yuan.two celebrated Chinese pilgrims made visits to the Buddhist holy lands of northern India and wrote accounts of their voyages and of the lands theyvisited or inquired about. and as they all thought Ch'ih-t'u was in the Menam valley.THE KHMER EMPIRE 267 Po-li-lo-cha5lcame to the Chinese court with those of Lin-i. which extended south along the peninsula on the east coast to Pan-p'an and included the Meklong basin and the coastal strip to the west of it north of the present Tavoy (which Funan seems never to have held). Pelliot.that it was conquered by To-ho-lo. The Hsin T'ang shu gives the same boundaries for To-ho-lo.54 Thus. 52Rosny.It adds that Tois ho-lo is also called Tu-ho-lo. 5 Luce. two kingdoms were formed at the head of the Gulf of Siam. to the border of Funan. north of the Chantabun (Chanthaburi) region. or at least the northernpart of it. on the north Chia-lo-she-fo.52The names To-lo-po-ti and To-ho-lo are also used by the T'ang annals. sayingit adjoined To-ho-lo on the southeast. the east Chen-la (Camon bodia). partlyfromthe old empire of Funan: (1) To-ho-lo (po-ti). The first these pilgrimswas Hsiianof tsang (Hsiian-chuang). But three inscriptions early in the seventh centuryone of which mentions IhAnavarman of Chenla (about 610-635)-found near Chantabun (BEFEO [1924]. which seems to have become Khmer. it says. before 647. Rosny thought (p. Pelliot has pointed out (BEFEO [1904]. that it is noted forrhinoceros and had two dependent kingdoms . note 3. 5 Luce. which possibly extended to the boundary of Funan. In speaking of the latter. Chinese Buddhist pilgrims and the Mon country. . 398) that Aymonier thought this might be the Po-lo-sa. 55 Lang-ya-hsiu probably included the Chantabun (Chanthaburi) region.the Chiu T'ang shu says (according to Luce): "On the south it adjoins P'an-p'an. 179-80.During the seventh century. and that it sent embassies to China in 644 and 647. "Deux itineraires. 198.55 C.

including Hsiian-tsang'saccount. de Crivijaya et de . His Record was writtenthere and sent to China in 692. a seaport in eastern Bengal. still to the east is the kingdom of To-lo-po-ti (Dvaravati). 1894). Takakusu. Luce. It is an account of the religion as practiced in these regions and does not say much of the countries. 57J. with the adjacent ThatonMartaban coast and the eastern part of the Sittang-Irrawaddydelta. he mentions a youth from the Annamite countrywho was taken with his parents to Tu-ho-lo-po-ti(Touho-louo-po-ti). we come to the countryof Kia-mo-lang-kia(Kdmalangkd).61 and the inhabitants 6Samuel Beal.59The Hsin T'ang shu mentions a Chuan-lo-p'o-t'i among the vassals of Burma. which is the same as Lin-yi"56The second of these pilgrims was I-ching. using all available data. e Pelliot. 1884).268 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY not visit Indochina but made inquiries about it from Samatata. possibly earlier. Of the countries beyond SrIkshetra(Prome in Burma). 9. makes some comments. and the Buddha is believed to belong to the Dvdravatl school of art. Recueil des inscriptionsdu Siam: (2) Inscriptions de Dvdravati. 69 and note. who translated and edited it. after Funan became subordinate to Chenla. as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A. had always been predominantly the Mon country. 179. "Deux itindraires. These data lead to the belief that.57Later. Memoire composd a l'epoque de la grande dynastie T'ang sur les religieux eminents qui allerent chercher la loi dans les pays d'occident. he wrote his Memoir58 of some sixty pilgrims "who went to search the law in the countries of the west. The inscription and image of the Buddha carved on the wall of a grottonear Rdjaburi are believed to be of the sixth-seventh century. A record of the Buddhist religion. by I-Tsing (Oxford. 1896). Coedes. Takakusu. par I-tsing (Paris. Hsiian-tsang's Kdmalangkd he calls Langkasu. 8Edouard Chavannes. This region.on the borders of the ocean. 671-695)."222-23. still to the east is the country of Mo-hochen-po (Mahdchampa). translated from the Chinese of Hsuen Tsiang (London.To-lo-po-ti is perhaps the best English transcription . who made the voyage both ways by sea. His voyages fell between 671 and 695. Mon inscriptions of the eighth century. he says: "Further to the southeast. 6 Chavannes. He spent fourteenyears in India and visited gri Bhoga (Arivijaya)twice-in 671 and 691.Rdmanyadesa.60 All these Chinese forms. but J. which he says is sometimes called To-ho-lo-po-ti. Buddhic records of the Western world." In this Memoir. Su-yu-ku. but he gives no Chinese equivalent of Dvdravati.with traces of both Mon and Khmer influence. 2:200.D. some changes took place in the upper end of the peninsula and the lower Menam-Meklong delta.have been identifiedwith the Sanskrit form Dvdravatl. have been found at Lophburi (Lopburi).

352-58. Pierre Dupont.under the names of Tun-hsiin and Lang-yahsiu . 65Beal.was a satellite of Ch'ih-t'u. note 33. . whose territory. 610 .was a part of the empire of Funan. Hervey de Saint-Denys thought Po-li-lo-chaas he called it . Thus. 1-4. Inscriptions early in the seventh century show the presence of Khmers in the Chantabun region at that time.ca. which was on the coast.THE KHMER EMPIRE 269 of the Tenasserim region were and always had been predominantly Mon.2:200. which had never belonged to Funan.thought it was just the Sanskrit Lava (Bangkok. 220-21.64Beal (1884) confused it with a name sometimes applied to Sandoway.. early orientalistssearched elsewhere fora location forDvdravati. and this part of Rdmanyadesa seems to have remained free. apparently because Ma Tuan-lin placed Ch'ih-t'u and its satellites in the lower Menam valley. 17-19. The upper part of the peninsula . The locations given by Hsiian-tsang and the T'ang annals seem to be explicit. "La extension du Cambodge vers la sudouest au vii siecle. and. including apparently Tavoy). the eastern coast of the peninsula south to P'an-p'an and east to Chenla." Bulletin de la Commission Archeiologiquede l'Indo-chine (hereafterBCAI). by the middle of the seventh century. which were coming into prominence. the according to Hsiian-tsang reached great king of Chenla. 51. (2) the early Mon settlements of the Meklong delta. but.at least of Funan. (5) T'o-yiian. for the Liang shu says that the east-westextension of Lang-ya-hsiuwas one and a half times its north-southextension.63and Isanavarman (ca. in the Chantabun region. like Ch'ih-t'u.65 Chavannes (1894). "Art siamois les 6coles. " The Mons of Burma are called Talaings. 1929). 24(1924). the kingdom of Dvdravati seems to have been formedof the following elements: (1) To-lopo-ti. 33.e. the eastern part of Lang-ya-hsiu.62 It will be recalled that Fan Shih-man did not conquer Chin-lin (the Thaton-Martaban region. Dvdravat! in the Menam valley. to the west of it. 635). was sometimes used to designate Siam as a whole. " Rosny. 03Coedes. to include the Lophburi and Korat regions.i. which it conquered after 647. 1931-34. finding the name Dvdravat! in that of Ayuthia (Ayutthaya). which had existed since the second centuryand may have been one of the ten kingdoms conquered by Fan Shih-man and one of the five subordinate kingdoms of Tun-hsiin. (3) its expansion to the northeast. On the east. (4) the Tavoy region and a stripof coast to the northward. Leon de Rosny accepted this explanation and thought it. Lang-ya-hsiuprobably extended to the boundary of Chenla (north of Chantabun)." BEFEO. 15. probably annexed the Chantabun region to Chenla.

attempted at first show that Beal's contention was impossible and 66 Chavannes. Recueil des inscriptionsdu Siam. arrivingafterfifteen days. Etats 131-32." Journal Asiatique. . "Dvaravat!. grouped its sculptures into a DvdravatI School." Ars asiatica. 229-30.67Gerini (1910) believed it was located at Ayuthia and was an alternate capital with Lophburi. see Coedes. which came into prominence on the fall of that empire.68 Pelliot placed it at Lophburi. 31. where he remained two months. 2:1-4. 19-36." JSS. probably at Nagara Pathom (Nakhon Pathom).in his voyage to India. where he studied forsix months (671-72). Another fragmentof the formerFunanese Empire. thought Chiehch'a was Kedah. "which is the southern frontier of eastern India. 105 (March-April 1903). 70 Briggs. It was Coedes who translatedthe Mon inscriptions of this region. Ko-lo. for the Siamese custom of incorporating the name of a capital into that of the succeeding capital. in more than half a month. 105. Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo. 176. a colony of DvdravatI. he reached Tdmralipta (673). Then he went to Maldyu (Jambi). One came fromMaldyu. Etats hindouises. New kingdoms: (3) Chieh-ch'a. Coedes. he sailed from Tdmralipta and again stopped at Chieh-ch'a on his way to Fo-shih. 72Chavannes. then changed his course." Far Eastern Quarterly.7' D. Beal. "The excavations at P'ong TUk. hindosuisds. Chiehch'a seems to have been an important stop between Arlvijayaor Maldyu and India. Briggs.69which had been the capital of Louvo.Kalasapura (Kedah). 203. 7 (August 1948). he went north. I-ching says that. was called Chieh-ch'a by Iby ching. going in a northwest direction. From there. studied the remains at P'ong Tiik and other places.270 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY name of that Siamese capital. "The Hinduized states of Southeast Asia: a review. basing his view on similarityof names. "Deux itineraires. 125. Ko-lo and Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo the Hsin T'ang shu and Kalasapura by Indian legend. 390-91. I-ching mentions other pilgrimswho visited Chieh-ch'a. From there. "Les collectiones archeologiques du Musee National de Bangkok.70 or one of the earlycities."Dvaravati. 12 (Paris. and located the center of the earliest Dvdravat! in the Meklong-Menam delta. 158. Another died at Chieh-ch'a."227. 117-21. and in ten days he arrived at the country of naked men (Nicobars). 195-210. 1928). 144." On his return. Then he changed his direction to go to the country of Chieh-ch'a. and Briggs. 69 Pelliot." 103. 369. Coedes. 8Gerini.72Thus. he sailed west from Canton to Fo-shih ([Srl] Vijaya). Coedes. no. basing his view on the geographyof the voyto ages. n Coedes. sailed west and after thirtydays reached Nagapatam in southern India. Aymonier (1903) placed its capital at Ayuthia. part 3 (1938)." 106."Le Siam ancien.66 For the same reason. Chavannes. 67 Aymonier.

it is now generally agreed. 77 Wales. Leaving Pulo Condor . Then.) This gigantic work is said to have disappeared without leaving any trace (E.. P'an-p'an.." It was an enormous product. From north to south. In a long and magistral article. was ordered by the emperor to make a general map of China."372-73.76 Ko-lo. At the northwestof Ko-lo is the kingdom of Ko-kou-lo [Ko-ku-1o]".. On the southern shore. which is on an island. in a form perhaps a little abridged. Pelliot used and commented on the two to India (Pelliot. which lies at the base of the historical geography of all the countries of Southeast Asia. including Singapore Strait at its entrance. toward the west. 74A few years ago.75 Chih is evidently the Strait of Malacca. called.."after fivedays' sailing. 349. Central Asia. "Deux itineraires.2. note 12. Pelliot discussed two itineraries prepared during the Chen-yiian period (785-804) by Chia Tan.. "A map of China and the barbarians within the seas." BEFEO. They were dated 1137 A. "Archeological researches. "Les deux plus anciennes specimens de la cartographic chinoise. ibid. This memoir is in the formof a series of itinerariesfrom China to Korea. On the northern shore is the kingdom of Ko-lo. In 801. one arrives at a strait which the barbarians call Tche [Chih].He found that. 244-45). "Deux itineraires.. at the end of the eighth century. a short geographical memoir prepared by Chia Tan."2. "the most celebrated cartographerof the T'ang dynasty"(Chung-kuo jen-ming ta tz'u-tien [1933]. . is the kingdom of Lo-yue [Lo-yiieh]. Fo-shih here probably means all the coast of Sumatra along the was probably an straitincluded in the empire of rilvijaya. that it is southeast of P'an-p'an and is a kingdom of twenty-four pre78Ibid. 3[1903]. Chavannes.D. later. it seems to have extended along the coast to. he made an inquiry into the development of Chinese cartography. 1331. 105. under the name of Kaldh. The latterset out fromCanton. The Hsin T'ang shu says the name Ko-lo is also written Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo. separated from the northwest corner of Fo-che [Fo-shih]. it is 100 Ii. he completed his work. a seaport somewhere north of the present Penang. was Kedah.THE KHMER EMPIRE 271 favored Achen. says he was Prime Minister). settingout from the strait. (A Chinese foot at that time is said to be equivalent to 10 inches. India and Baghdad. 76 Pelliot suggestsone of the Brouwers' islands."131-132).77 the Chieh-ch'a of I-ching.74 These itinerariesran fromChina to India. is the kingdom of Fo-che [Fo-shih]. Chavannes made use of a part of the itineraryto Central Asia. and probably including. But the Hsin T'ang shu has preserved.one arrives at the kingdom of Ko-ko-seng-tche [Ko-ko-seng-chih].. Ko-ko-seng-chih island off the coast of Sumatra.Pelliot quotes fromthe Hsin T'ang shu .. in northwesternSumatra. probably on what was then a peninsula at the base of Kedah Peak. On the northernshore. 76 Pelliot. 30 feet long and 33 feet high. Chavannes edited and published the two oldest Chinese maps.Chia Tan. As a preliminary to this work. one by land and one by sea.73 but later he came to agree with Beal.

itineraires.writtenfromvarious sources 78Pelliot. (2) the transcriptionof if Kora = Ko-lo. . 237."360. 9Groeneveldt. Gerini identifiedit with the Ko-li of Ptolemy and located it at Kelantan. 183-84." JA. 234. Now.Ko-lo (Kedah) is furthereast than any part of the west coast of of P'an-p'an. 115 (1919). 241.is north of To-ho-lo (see Section B above). G. Pelliot thus thinks that Kalasapura may be a seaport as far north as the mouth of the Sittang. there are some weighty objections: (1) it is not in accord with the itineraryof Chia Tan. 82Ibid.84He gives reasons for his opinion that the statementof the Hsin T'ang shu that Kalasapura is northof To-holo.82 and (3) if P'an-p'an extended across the peninsula . or Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo. moreover agrees with the reading of another Chinese text. however. south of P'an-p'an. very far in the seas to the south and that it joins P'an-p'an on the southeast. Thus. 179-80.79a village on the west coast. Ferrand thought the Chinese might have known two seaports of this name .85but Luce wisely observes that more probably the Chinese texts. 414-16. Ferrand. is said to be unsatisfactory.272 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY fectures. 84 Pelliot. or Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo. It sent an embassy to the court of China between 650 and 656. 369) identifies Kora Besar with Malacca.78Groeneveldt translated it as Kora Fusara (Great Kora) and identified it with Kora Besar. 8 Gerini. But Ferrand calls attenis tion to the statementof Ma Tuan-lin that Ko-lo. 8Luce. the T'ang annals seems to be identical with the Chieh-ch'a of I-ching. note 1.. 237. sent an embassy to the Chinese court in 608. Groeneveldt (241) says its customs were like those of Ch'ih-t'u. or Ka-la. Gustav Schlegel (T'oung pao [hereafter TP].by transposingthe thirdand fourthcharacarrived at an exact transcriptionof Kalasapura.one at the north and one at the south. Luce points out that Ferrand. is an error forwest of To-ho-lo. "Le Kouen-Louen et les anciennes navigations interoceaniques dans les mers du sud. and Pelliot saysit is the same as the Chia-lo-she-lowhich. according to the Sui shu. 185.Its customs are said to be like those of Ch'ih-t'u and To-ho-lo. Luce says they were like those of Ch'ih-t'u and To-ho-lo. "Deux itineraires. "Deux 86 Ferrand. Ma Touan-lin.which theorywe have accepted . Luce. the Chiu T'ang shu says that Chia-lo-she-fo which Luce says is also a transcription of Kalasapura . 9[1898]. Thus.3 ters of Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo. Ko-lo. 182.80Ferrand agreed with Gerini thatit must be on the east coast and proposed to locate it at Patani. not impossible. which. celebrated in later Indian legend as a great trading center on the coast between north Indian ports and Suvarnadvilpa (Sumatra?). 105-06." 350.81 To this latter solution.

is not surprising.88 The name Kowith Kedah. toward the north. "Le royaume de grivijaya. who probably first thought Kalasapura (Kedah) was west of it. including Ko-ku-lo.90 A Chinese document of the K'ai-yiian period (713-41) says the white cardamon comes from the country of Ch'ieh-ku-lo (Kie-kou-lo) and that in the language of that countryit is called to-kou.000 1i fromthe sea.is 5. It is a meeting-place for merchants. the name of the country is doubtless the same. He thought Ko-ku-lo was certainly meant.86 That Kedah should send an embassyin 608 as a consequence of the visit of the Chinese embassy to its neighbor. if Lo-yiieh were even 50 ii fromthe sea. it could not be a meeting place formerchants.THE KHMER EMPIRE 273 may have erred. 87 Pelliot. but that the direction was wrong. Chia Tan's itinerarymentions two ports on the west coast of the peninsula Ko-lo. whose early relations with it are ill-understood.000 1i here is impossible. 12 (1912). and not well integrated. 34 (1896). and Chia Tan's informationwas sometimes inaccurate.who come and go. In 1912. 186-87. 455.89 ku-lo to designate an important commercial country seems to have continued until the tenthcenturyat least. Pelliot placed Ko-ku-lo definitelyon the which has already been identified west coast of the peninsula above Ko-lo. Review of Hirth and Rockhill's translation of Chau Ju-kua's Chu-fan chi. So Pelliot thinks the Qaqola of Ibn-Batutah and other Arabic writers may 86Luce. Qaqola (Takola). Ch'ih-t'u. says that a Chinese pilgrim going to the Indies was given passports for various countries he was to visit. fromdifferent sources. A Chinese document of 983. the Chinese. not an actual voyage. thought the statementof the Hsin T'ang shu that Kala~apura was southeast of P'an-p'an was an error for southwest (but see above). but. The Hsin T'ang of shu says: "Lo-yiieh. 'OReview of the historyof religion."232. that it might well be an error for 50 1i and that. 89 Coedhs. The customs are the same as To-lo-po-ti (Dvdravati). Luce. Each year (some of the people) go on junks to Canton. 51-52." 15. 88Pelliot. and Ko-ku-lo to the west of it."87 Pelliot points out that 5. . As the Arabic name for cardamon is qdqulah. There is another mention of Ko-ku-lo. "Deux itineraires. Coed's seems to endorse this identification. quoted by Chavannes. 183. TP. To its southwest is Ko-ku-lo. as Chia Tan considered the penwe insula as running east-west.that at different dates withoutmuch attemptat integration. came in contact with To-ho-lo at Pan-pa'n. can understand that Ko-ku-lo was north or northwest Ko-lo. E. This itinerarywas a sailing direction. New kingdoms: (4) Ko-ku-lo. Ch'ieh-ku-lo.

Its first court of China in 644-45. Chhabra. 91 Pelliot. Coedes.91 F. 136-39. Malhyu had been conquered by Arfvijaya). Coedes. Srivijaya.274 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY be the Ch'ieh-ku-loof the T'ang writersand the Ko-ku-lo of Chia Tan and is probably equivalent to Takola. 31(1931).93 early as 767 Review of Chau Ju-kua's Chu-fan-chi. 2:20-40. The Supremacy of ?rivijaya under the ?ailendra Dynasty. 31-37. . conquests in Java at this time. Suvarnadvipa. 103-15. was dedicated to a Sivalinga. 233-54. 1922).the Malays . Memoire . Majumdar. B. according to the Hsin T'ang shu. Its first Mo-lo-yu). L'empire sumatranais de 7rivijaya (Paris: Paul Geuthner. 29-80. In the latter part of the seventh century. Coedes. an embassy arrived from Shih-li-fo-shih(Arivijaya). in Southeast Asia.were forming kingdom seems to have been Maldyu (Chinese.." 324 ff.supposed to As have been driven there by the Mahayanists of West Java. C. On his return. 1933).92 about Srivijaya's Little is known. dated 732. "Deux itineraires. a little to the south of Jambi. indicate that Srivijaya was in possession of all these regions and was about to undertake an expedition against Java. We have seen that I-ching passed that way on his voyage to India (671-95).two at (i. 119. which had not yet submitted to it. 92 Ferrand. 123-27. In the period 670-78.according to the T'ang annals and the inscription of Dinaya (760) . whose capital of the same name was located on the site of the present Palembang. 1931). "Deux itineraires. 152-61. xxv. N. A branch of the Sivaite dynasty of Changal appeared in East Java some time between 742 and 755 . par I-tsing.454-55. J. one in the old Jambi region and one on the neighboring island of Kota Kapur . Etats hindouises. Embassies fromSrivijaya to the court of China continued until 742. 10-11." BEFEO. 157-62. Hindoe-Javaansche geschiedenis (The Hague. dated 683-86. seems to have been Vishnuite and the inscription of Changal. and spent some time at both places.whose center was Jambi in the lower valley of the river of that embassyappeared at the name near the southeast coast of Sumatra. 102-09. "Inscriptions malaises de C~rlvijaya. Etats hindouises. R. A Mahayanist dynastyappeared at Ho-ling in West Java before 665. Chavannes. Krom. 125. chieflyHinayanist.e..he says the Maldyu countrywas then the country of ArIBhoga Four inscriptions. although considerable has been written. Chatterjee. Early settlementsin western Java visited by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims are believed to have been strongholdsof Buddhim. So many conflictingelements enter into the events of that island during the firstthree-quartersof the eighth century that its historyduring that period is uncertain and even confusing.in Old Malay language. The kingcenturyhave dom of Taruma. 141-48.. 93Takakusu.a new people . where several inscriptionsof about the fifth been found. India and Java (Calcutta."225. Pelliot. R. xlvii. Pelliot.

records the erection there of several Buddhic stupas by order of the king of Srivijaya. In this inscription. 629-37. and the Mon occupation of it. 2:35-39. Receuil des inscriptionsdu Siam. " J." There has been a lively controversyas to the origin of this dynasty. "Het Koninkrijk grivijaya.THE KHMER EMPIRE 275 and 774.the Khmers ceased to exercise any form of political control over the Bandon region." It appeared again in the inscription of near-byKelurak in 782. P.perhaps even from the fall of Funan more than two centuries earlier . . people fromJava raided the Chinese province of Tran-nam (the present Tonkin) and Champa. Vogel. Majumdar. This region now began to be Malay for the first time. How and when the region to the south. including Ch'ih-t'u and Kedah. From this time . the ruler is called "Maharaja" and "ornament of the Sailendra dynasty. land. 150-52.94 By whom were the Sivaites of Changal driven east and by whom were these raids made? By the Mahayanists of Ho-ling (central Java).95 This shows that SrIvijaya was in possession at this time of the Bandon region." whom it calls "chief of the Sailendra family" and "Maharaja. Still less is known of Srivijaya's conquest of the Malay peninsula and its union with the Sailendra. "kings of the mountains" . came into the hands of Srivijaya. About this time a new and powerful dynasty the Sailendra. It first appeared in the inscription of Kalasan. probably newly arrived from the Kalinga coast? By Srivijaya which. Ligor .96About this time it appeared in the Bandon region as unexpectedly as Srivijaya had appeared there a few years earlier. including apparently what had been Tdmbralinga and P'an-p'an . An inscription carved on the opposite side of the stele of Ligor sounds the praises of "this supreme king of kings.we have no exact knowledge. Champa. discouraged the spread of Malays in that direction.to Chenla. 97-104. was preparing an expedition to Java at the end of the seventh century?By the Sailendra dynasty."Bijdragen tot de taal-. which appeared 9' G.if any .en volkenkunde van Nederlandisch-Indie (hereafterBKI) (1919). but this region seems to have been considerably affectedby Khmer cultural influence. as has been seen. in central Java. Perhaps the narrowness and ruggedness of the peninsula northof the Bandon region constitutingLang-chia and To-lo-poti. 9 Coedls. Suvarnadvtpa.suddenly dawned on Southeast Asia. whose earliest known appearance in Java is 778? These questions are more easily asked than answered. which seemed at that time to owe only nominal allegiance .sometimes wrongly known as the inscription of Vang Srah dated 775. Maspero.the partly Khmerized section. The Sanskritinscriptionof Wat Sema Muang. in 778.

the Chinese say that the kingdom of Chen-ch'ang (dynastyof Indrapura) was reigning in central Champa. beheaded its king and ordered a new king to be chosen. 349-50. C. the beginning of the Khmer Empire. coming in ships. says that Jayavarman. After ruling in several places. took the Khmer capital by surprise." BEFEO.a Khmer prince who was either carried offby the Maharaja or made a visit of homage to his court. 33 (1933). offendedby a report which had reached him. which corresponds to the early Chenla-Funan. 6 (August 1947)." They may have held southern Champa in subjection for some time."A sketch of Cambodian history. " Briggs. "Les rois gailendras de Suvarnadvipa. According to the storywhich an Arab traveler picked up on the coast of Southeast Asia in the middle of the next century. The coming of the Sailendra dynastyseems to have done nothing to check the swarming of the Malays all over the coasts of Southeast Asia. which corresponds approximately to the present Laos (including Siamese Laos).) However. Chenla had been divided into Land (or Upper) Chenla. It was the Khmer declaration of independence. whose relations during this period were mostlywith China.99 The Khmers did not long remain subject to Java.nearly a century later. whatever its origin.the Mahraija." This occurred in 802. apparently as a vassal. which had begun some years before. for we hear no more of the Huan Wang kingdom or dynastyin southern Champa and when Champa next appears in history. (Perhaps this dynasty. about twenty miles northeast of Angkor. dated two and a half centuries later. During nearly all the eighth century.97 but. 98 See note 94. Majumdar.276 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY so suddenly and gained such complete ascendency in Southeast Asia.after the known arrival of the Sailendra in Java -a temple of Siva in southern Champa was burnt by "the armyof Java.whose first historicalappearance was in Java. Then he sent for a Brahman versed in magic science and invited him to make a ritual "so that Kambujadesa should no longer be dependent on Java but should have a chakravartinsovereign. and Water (or Maritime) Chenla. flat-toppedsandstone mountain. a Cham inscription says that in 787 . returned fromJava and began to rule. that may be. 120-46.was responsible forthe earlier raids also. . a low."Far Eastern Quarterly. he established his capital at Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen). it seems shortlyafter775 either to have put itself at the head of the empire of Srivijaya or to have conquered central Java and the Malay Peninsula from that empire.98 The Khmers were not spared. set out fromhis capital. 97R. A Sanskritinscription of Cambodia.

which are all inhabitable. This king possesses more varieties of perfumes and aromatics than any other king. The empire of Zdbag and the island kingdoms of Zabag. (2) The island kingdom of Zdbag. which was ruled by a Mahara-ja. There seems little doubt that the capital of the empire of Zdbag at this time was Srivijaya (Palembang). was. the earliest of these writers. whose settlements were often referred to as islands and kingdoms. describes the capital.. who wrote in 955 when the empire had reached its height. but it may also have had a capital in Java. at its footis a cool springof potable water. cubebs. seems to have resided until about the middle of the ninth century. He says it was located on an estuary. At that time the empire of Zdbag seems to have consisted of the 100 Ferrand. which it is impossible to approach. which it seems to have conquered at the end of the seventh century and even fora while central Java. Ibn Hordadbeh (844-49)." Among the principal island kingdoms of the empire. in two years. 52-63. (3) Sulayma-n(851) whose account was published later by Abfi Zayd Hasan. said: "The Empire has an enormous population and innumerable armies. which was also called Zdbag.THE THE KAMBUJA KHMER OR ANGKOR EMPIRE PERIOD 277 - (802 1431) A. L'empire sumatranais.a few years embassy fromSan-fo-ch'i(see Section afterthe Chinese mentioned the first B below). Abfi Zayd Hasan said it was veryextensive and very fertile.with the swiftestvessel. The island kingdom of Zabag seems then. in Sumatra. Before the middle of the ninth century. One cannot. Sribuza and Kalah.'00 Sribuza was firstmentioned by Abfi Zayd Hasan in 916 .cardamoms. according to Ibn-al-Fakih (902). camphor. in which the Maharaja resided. (1) It was the great Empire of the Maharaja. . cloves. where at least a branch of the Sailendra dynasty. His lands produce.near a freshwater lake and that it faced China. Sribuza and Kalah..He says it had a surface of 900 (square) parasangs and was in the same longitude as the Khmer country. Masudi. but it may also have included the western part of Java. They seem to have used the term Zdbag in three senses. which came to comprise most of the islands of Southeast Asia and also part of the Malay Peninsula. Abfi Zayd Hasan (916) enumerates Zdbag.Arab writersbegan to tell wonderful tales about a country they called Zdbag..if not the Maharaja of the empire. to have been equivalent to the ancient kingdom of Srivijaya. aloes. in the ninth century at least. the last of the islands (to the south). explore all these islands. nutmegs. santals.said: "The King of Zdbag is called the king of the islands of the eastern sea and Mahara-ja". He says that near by is a volcano.

278 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY kingdomsof Zdbag. It seems to have been Kedah . Other Arab writersspeak of ships calling at Kaldh and Zdbag .of which detailed mention would be too long. the kingdom of Sribuza seems to have corresponded to the early kingdom of Zdbag. the maritime country of Kaldh = Kera.and. There was apparently transshipmentof cargo between ships.as Zabag was of Shih-li-fo-shih (Srivijaya). Sribuza and Rdml.it seems that Zdbag .all probably in what is now Sumatra .as Kaldh was the peninsular side. It is to this port that ships fromOman now go and it is from this port that ships leave for Oman.and with Zabag (and later Sribuza) to have controlled the Straits of Malacca.the old itineraries of I-ching and Chia Tan. seems to have been roughly the Arab equivalent of San-fo-ch'i. or Kra.meant the Sumatran side of the strait. on the west side of the Malay peninsula. 50. Abfi Zayd Hasan says: "The city of Kaldh is the market where is centralized the commerce of aloes. later Sribuza . has extended its domination over all the sixth sea.and Kalhh on the Malay peninsula. 103 Ferrand. the Arabs applied the term Kalah to the whole western coast of the peninsula from Kedah to Kra including both. To the Arabs of the tenth and eleventh centuries. Masudi says the empire of the Maharaja. or Ra-min!.Ferrand identifiesthe Kalh of the Arabs with Kra. But Kedah was not favorably located for such transportation. all kinds of aromatics and other products. camphor.102 The island kingdom of Kaldh was mentioned by Sulaymdn as the port of call coming fromthe Nicobars. it seems to have been north of the kingdom of Zdbag.10' Sribuza had an area of 400 parasangs and is often mentioned for its export of camphor. approximately that of Palembang (Ferrand.Iching's Chieh-ch'a of two centuries earlier ." . This was the tin region of the peninsula and many Arab writerssay that Kaldh was as celebrated for tin as Sribuza was for camphor. for Ibn Said says its area was 160 by 400 miles and gives its latitude as 30 40'.103 It seems that afterthe Malay conquest of the Bandon region. Alberuni says (about 1030) that the equator crosses [the empire of ?] Zdbag between Sribuza and Kaldh. note 1. Brazilwood. which is Sribuza. and there was probably some transportationof passengersand light cargo across the peninsula. The name Sribuza came later to be applied to the empire also and. Sulaymdn (851) and Ibn-al101 Twenty-five years later (943). santal. ivory. as such. see also Masudi's statement in the paragraph above. Kalah is said to have a surface of 80 parasangs. 102 In the middle of the thirteenth century." This and the statementthat Kaldh was situated halfway between China and Arabia suggest that it was the great trade emporium between the east and the west. or sea of Champa.tin. ebony. Masudi says (943) thatgold and silver were found in the vicinityof Sribuza and Kaldh. From what has been said. 70-71). "(Kaldh-bar) = literally. thus suggesting their proximity.

if not the control of. and by embassies to China. "Deux itin6raires. on the plain of Kedu near modern Jokyakarta(Jogjakarta). Then the Sivaite successorsof the old kings who carved the inscription of Changal in 732 and who had been ejected toward the east. central Java. the Sailendra family continued to rule in central Java. She-p'o) and built the monuments of the Prambanan group. probably by the Sailendra. . says Bdldputra was a great warrior and king of Suvarnabhfimi (Sumatra) and that his grandfather was king of Yavabhfimi (Java) and "an ornament of the sailendra dynasty. 104 Coedls. Pelliot. Coedls. probably now Sailendra) was dated 818. The charter governing this gift. 183-86. it was establisha ing its power irnSumatra.During part at least of the ninth century.'05 It was 105 Lawrence Palmer Briggs. The return of the Sivaites to central Java is attested by an inscription near Prambanan dated 863." to appear in JAOS. as several Arab writers say each of the island kingdoms had its own maharaja. 214-20. The ?ailendra in Java and Sumatra: San-fo-ch'i.which Coede's thinkswas in 850-60. Etats hindouis~s. "The origin of the gailendra dynasty. A lively controversygrew up among Dutch scholars as to which of these islands was the original seat of the Sailendra dynasty."The Sailendra seems to have been established in Srlvijaya (Palembang) early in the ninth century (811?).Present state of the question.104 But while the sailendra was suffering decline in Java. B. began their resurgence and during the ninth and tenth centuries. The last embassy from Ho-ling (Buddhist.Coedes suggests that the Sivaites returned under the protection of the Sailendra at firstand gradually regained power. embassies from She-p'o (Sivaite) appeared in 820 and were numerous after860. June 1950.THE KHMER EMPIRE 279 Fakih (902) say that Zdbag and Kalh were governed by the same king.But the first record in Sumatra was Baldputra who built a monastery at Natlandd in north India. to which the Pdla king offeredmany villages in the thirtyninth year of his (Bdldputra's) reign . We know the Sailendra imposed its authority over SrIvijaya in the peninsula and in central Java in the latter part of the Sailendra king of which we have any certain eighth century.theyregained at least a foothold in. but continued to maintain a foothold in central Java. where they revived the old kingdom of Sanndha and Sanjaya under the name of Matardm (Chinese. This may not have meant the maharaja of Zdbag. There is other evidence that the Sailendra were ruling in central Java at this time and for some time afterward. ibid.Later studies have made it clear that the firstcertain appearance of the Sailendra in Southeast Asia was at central Java. recorded in a copper-plate inscription."286.

an ambassador arrived with tribute.108 centurythe San-fo-ch'iof the Chinese seems to Thus. it is henceforthoutside the province of this study. have been equivalent to the earlier empire of Shih-li-fo-shih the Zdbag of the Arabs.he returned to China in the spring of 992 and asked that San-fo-ch'ibe placed under the protection of China.107In 988.the peninsula seems to have consisted of three fairlydistinct political and cultural regions: (1) The lower portion up to Kedah. receiving unfavorable reports. Java?). 14. As the Khmers seem no longer to have exercised control over this region (if they ever did). 162-68. he learned at Canton that his country had been invaded by a king of east Java (remnant of the old dynastyof Matardm). The firstof these embassies appeared in 904 or 905. About the beginning of the tenthcentury. Sumatra. So he remained in Canton fora year and then went as far south as Champa. W. cit. but the capital of the kingdom of Malayu (Jambi).280 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY just at the time Bdldputra was reigning in Sumatra that the Arabs began to speak of a great empire of Zdbag. was becoming predominantly Malay. equivalent to Srivijaya (S. with Indian tin-mining settlements in the interior and Indian seaports along the coast. The Malay Peninsula during the tenthcentury. Bdldputra. C. The ninth and tenth centuries saw the now-certainly-SailendraEmpire of Srlvijaya at its height. and was ruled by the Sailendra king. 17-22.. (9rivi107 San-fo-ch'i was apparently a later Chinese name of the empire of Shih-li-fo-shih jaya). 106In 904-07. op. Whereas previouslyit had been known chiefly a halting-placefor Chinese Buddhist pilgrims on the way to their holy lands in north India. L'empire sumatranais. according to Chau Ju-kua's Chu-fan-chi.Chinese dynastichistoriesbegan to record that a kingdom called San-fo-ch'i was beginning to send embassies to the imperial court.During the tenthcentury. . the coming of the Arabs gave it great commercial importance. with its capital on the island of Zdbag. 17). On his attempt to return home two years later. The embassy of 962 said San-fo-ch'i was also called San-liu (Sanlieou). which Ferrand thinksis an errorfor Ma-liu (Maldyu).106 They appeared again in 960-62. may at times have been at the head of the empire of San-fo-ch'i. in 905. as well as to the Suvarnadvipa of Indian writers. particularly in the west. according to the Sung shih (Ferrand. where. and quite regularly thereafter. in the ninth-tenth (Srivijaya). instead of that of the state of grivijaya (Palembang). 108 Ferrand. The location of Srivijaya (Palembang) made it a meeting place for travelers between India and as China.

in its turn. 110 The inhabitants of Chenla (not Funan) are said by their legends to have been the real Kambuja.Batalung. 109 Tamil inscriptions.which open directlyon Kra and Kedah respectively. and KedahSingora. and by Coedes. Burma) seems to have been generally the nominal head and which now dominated at least the delta and what is now the Tenasserim easternpart of the Irrawaddy-Sittang coast. Trang . They have been noted by Aymonier(Le Cambodge. known to the Arabs as Kalah .THE KHMER EMPIRE 281 (2) The central portion. as well as the kingdoms of Dvdravati.of which Sudhammapati (Thaton. In the time of Hsiian-tsang. This route doubtless continued to be used fortrade between north Indian ports and Burma on one hand and. the peninsula was split into Lang-chia and To-lo-po-ti (Dvdravati). 147-63. seems to have been absorbed by Dvdravati. or Kamalangka. or Khmers (Coedes.dated by Coedls in the 5-6th and 7-9th centuries and in the epoch of the Chola dynasty. The exact relationship between these Mon kingdoms at this time is not clear. From the beginning of these trade routes. 1-3. (3) The part north of the Isthmus of Kra had probably always been Mon. 49-50. have been found at or near the ancient sites of Tambralinga and Takola. The early inhabitants seem to have spoken a pre-Mon-KhmerAustro-Asiaticlanguage. "La site primitifde Tchen-la." BEFEO. [1912]. 2:76). Louvo and Haripunjai.1"0 This region is celebrated for its tin mines and its transisthmianroutes: Kra . which names soon disappear from the Chinese histories. the growing Mon settlementsof the MeklongMenam delta and the Khmer Empire and China. Takua Pa . extending by this time to the upper Mun valley. 2:55. but it had lost much of its trade with the ports of south India and points to the west. had become the kingdom of Louvo which. . Lang-chia. but they all seem to have been members of the loose Mon confederacyof Ra-manyadesa. probably not greatlydifferent from that of the Funanese.had founded the kingdom of Haripunjai on the Meping River. This region was probably chieflyKhmer from the earliest times of which we have any knowledge of it.Chumphon (Xumphon). 57-59). The Mon settlementsin the lower Menam.'09 still continued was also becoming Malay. who translated them into French (Inscriptions du Siam. with strongIndian influencein the populous old Tun-hsiin . 157-61). on the other.once Khmer and where Khmer influence.Langchia region at the base of the peninsula. 18[1918]. who thought they were Sanskrit. as both ends of a transisthmian trade route tend to come under the same rule.impregnated with Tamil.Chaiya. by Finot (BCAI [1910]. Khmer settlementsundoubtedly existed there. since vessels had learned to cross the Indian Ocean directly by the routes north and south of the Nicobar islands.

Maspero's map places Nankasi. As the southern boundary of Cambodia.D. Georges Maspero attempted. writtenabout 1225 by Chao Ju-kua (translated as the chilh. written in 1178 by Chou Ch'ii-fei from notes probably taken in Canton. Maspero. Maspero. '-' G. writtenby T'o T'o in the middle of the fourteenth century. (4) the section devoted to foreign countries in the Sung shih. it places Chen-li-fu. 484-85.. for diplomatic relations between Cambodia and China were broken offearly in the ninth centuryand were not resumed until 1116. Lang-chia.writtenabout 1300 by Ma Tuan-lin. on the east.all written two centuries or more after the period of which he was writing: (1) the Ling-wai-tai ta. op. he gave Chia-lo-hsi(Kia-lo-hi). formingthe presentboundary between Siam and the Tenasserim division of Burma. 80.113 Maspero took as his westernboundary of Cambodia the mountain range east of the Salween. to depict the political geography of Cambodia for 960.and above it Louvo. "La geographie politique de l'Indochine aux environs de 960 asiatiques. which formsthe central ridge of the peninsula of Indochina and continues down into the Malay peninsula until it runs out at Victoria Point. inspector of foreign trade at the port of Ch'iian-chou in Fukien province (he depended largely on oral information furnished by Chinese and foreign traders and ship captains but sometimes quoted at great length from Ling-wai-tai ta).112 and the new dynastyhad no freshinformationon the subject. So Maspero had to depend for his informationon four texts. he draws most of his data from texts about this region. (3) the Wen-hsien t'ung-k'ao.1"' This particular year has no special for Cambodia or its relations with its neighbors and.without taking cognizance of the factthat the revolutionaryconquests of Suryavar1'' G. Time and research have invalidated most of the opinions of Maspero place. who made use of the preceding and other works." Etudes . A. (2) the Chut-fan Chu-fan-chiof Chau Ju-kua by Hirth and Rockhill).in about 100 or 11? north latitude. or To-lo-po-ti on the north. cit. In the first published at least two centuriesafterthe period of which he wrote. with no mention of To-lo-po-ti or Dvdravati. 2:79-125. the year of the bein ginning of the Sung dynasty China. significance marks a period in which we are specially lacking in direct informationon the subject. On the western side of the dividing line. in fact.This was the old boundary between P'an-p'an or Kaldh on the south and Tun-hsiin. a dependency of San-fo-ch'i. in a special article. 112 Ma Touan-lin. These were said to be dependencies of Cambodia in 960.282 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY A few years ago.

4-6). The close 14 Briggs's review of Coedes's historyof the Hinduized states of southeast Asia. 487-88. Petersburg. Chenserim.entitled Chu-fan-chi (St. 524." 173. "Siamese attacks on Angkor before 1430. Chau Ju-kua: his work on the Chinese and Arab trade of the twelfthand thirteenthcenturies. note. Coedes has shown that Louvo and Haripunjai were independent Mon kingdoms and not Khmer. Far Eastern Quarterly.117Hirth and Rockhill think also that Po-ssu-lanmay be the Pa-ssu-li. 1948].which Chou Ta-kuan says was one of the ninety vassal governmentsof Cambodia. Rockhill.115 but as neither the Menam valley nor any part of the Malay peninsula belonged to Cambodia at that time. Chantabun may have been an integral part of Cambodia. 2 (1902). 377. "MWmoiressur les coutumes du Cambodge. which mentions it as a dependency of Chenla. Hirth and W. "6 Gerini. but in 960.which probably was never in currentofficial li-fuseems to have first appeared in Ling-wai-tai ta. The name Chia-lo-hsiseems to have appeared first the Chu-fan chih in in 1225. bordered on the south by Po-ssu-lan and on the southwest by Teng-liu-mei (Tdmbralinga). 1002-49) had completely changed the political geography of that region." BEFEO. who translated and annotated the Chu-fan chih. 11 Ma Touan-lin." 105-06.which Hsiian-tsangspoke of apparently as an independent kingdom in the seventh century and which appears not to have come under Cambodian rule until the conquest of the Menam valley by Sfiryavarman I and his father. Coedes also located and precised Dvdravati. 56. and Briggs. note 10." Far Eastern Quarterly 8[Nov. Pelliot. 7 (August 1948). W. which is exactly where Gerini. par Tcheou Ta-kouan. 1911). 117 Pelliot. where the statementfrom the Ling-wai-tai ta appeared. formed by the union of To-lo-po-ti and Lang-chia. It is doubtful if thatname was known in 960.116 Hirth and Rockhill. it seems to have been a dependency. Consequently. has placed it. Nankasi is an old Mon name forTenasnor popular use. seems to have occupied the Malay peninsula down to Kalah. 125. Ma Tuan-lin says it was on the southwestern of frontier Chenla. which Chou Ta-kuan said was a cityof Cambodia. with an abundance of reasons. but it was probably taken fromthe Ling-wai-tai ta (1 178). which it seems to have remained until the Siamese conquest of the lower Menam (Briggs. the westernboundaryof Cambodia was not the central ridge mentioned above but was somewhere east of the Menam valley.114 Dvdravati. . accepted Gerini's location. A prince of Timbralinga seized the throne of Cambodia and conquered the Mons of the Menam and the peninsula (1002-50).18 D. "Dvdravati. the above direction would place Chen-li-fuin the vicinity of Chantabun (Chanthaburi). They equated it with Chan-li-p'o. "8F.THE KHMER EMPIRE 283 man I (ca. "Mmoires. In 1178.

Coedes. several petty kings were strivingfor supremacy. I" Ma Touan-lin. . which is said to be a of possible transliteration Sujita. 400-04. 11 (1911). and 17. In 991-92 a king of East Java sent an expedition against Maldyu (San-fo-ch'i). Etats hindouises. but he seems to have married a Cambodian princess of the celebrated familyof Saptadevakula. 231. of the maternal line of Indravarman I. a king called Sujita and Varardja by Siamese annals and Sivaka by the Pali chronicle Camadevivamsa." BEFEO. 122Coedes." BEFEO. Chola.121 To them was born Su-ryavarman. A new naval power.284 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY relations between Kambujadesa and the Bandon region are historic. as the Arabs called it). 1926) 34-35. For some time before 1001. "Etudes cambodgiennes: 5. decrees of the government of Bali were issued in the name of Mahendradattd. 25 (1925). In Java. whose Malay ruler seems to have divided his time between Kaldh and Sribuza. After that conquest.subject to the suzeraintyof San-foch'i (or Sribuza. Little is known of Sujita. 584. st 10. st 1. 1885]):15. and her consort Uddyana. Lovek. Tdmbralinga) sent its first embassyto the imperial court in 1001. with the transpositionof the last syllable. to which also Prtna. Maldyu (possibly now the seat of the empire of San-fo-ch'i[Arlvijaya])seems to have begun again to dispute the position of the kingdom of Arlvijayaas the head of the empire.119Ma Tuan-lin says Chou-mei-liu (Tcheou-mei-lieou. 121A. Prea Kev A. C. wife of Rdjendravarman 11 (944-68) bewho thus had a vague claim of longed.122 I' Coedes. Inscriptions sanscrites du Cambodge (Acadimie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres: Notices et extraitesdes manuscrites [Paris. eligibility to the throne of Cambodia. 158 (hereafter"Laos occidental"). Un inscription d'Udayddityavarman. In Sumatra. 23-25.Southeast Asia seems to have been in great disorder. soon to begin its raids on the Malay Peninsula. "Docuinents sur ihistoire politique et religieuse du Laos occidental. the region fromKra to Kedah seems to have been known to the Arabs as Kalah. and theyseem to have spoken fundamentallythe same language. During the last few years of the tenth century. Notton. chronique de La-p'un (Paris. was rising into prominence on the Coromandal coast of India. said to be of a daughter of a king of east Java. with a capital at Kedah. 80. Barth. The Bandon region was under the domination firstof Funan and then of Chenla fromthe beginning of the third centuryuntil it was conquered by Srivijaya in the latter part of the eighth.120 The Chinese called this king To-hsi-chi. While San-fo-ch'i was thus engaged. The basic populations of the two regions seem to have been essentially the same. Annales du Siam. while the old partly-Khmerized kingdoms of the Bandon region retained their identity. seems to have made himself an independent king in Tdmbralinga.

Airlangga (see the author's The ancient Khmer Empire.which appears to have been the last port of call on the way to Tdmbralinga fromChina. They seem to have governed the island jointly from989 to 1001.125 For some time the Khmers seem to have been slowly pressingtoward the southwest. "L'extension du Cambodge vers le sudouest au vii si&le.123 Assertinghis claim to the Cambodian throne.when thrones were to be had for the snatching." BEFEO. A recently 123 Coedes.Siryavarman seems to have landed along the Mekong end of the empire and to have foughthis way eastward to the capital. succeeded that king in 1002 and defended the throne for eight or nine years. seems to have been restive. Some time near the beginning of the tenth century or earlier. It was in the midst of this turmoil . 352-58.124One Jayaviravarman. but who seems of to have been a supporter of Udayadityavarman I." BEFEO. became the father of a son. that after he abandoned that throne he returned to Bali and again ruled that island from 1011 to 1022 (Bosch. helped his brotherregain his throne and." BKI [1948]. D. K. who was to become one of the great kings of Java. under the name of Norottama. whom little is known. when the death of Jayavarman V called him to the throne of Cambodia. he too returned to Bali.that JayavarmanV of Cambodia died (1001) and was succeeded by UdayddityavarmanI. apparently under the suzerainty of Mahendradattd's father. in what is now the southern part of Battambang. where her sons grew up and the younger married Mahendradattd. the infant Narapativiravarman and the unborn Udayddityavarman. fordirectionswere given fromthat port. 43 (1943). Uddyana ruled Bali from 889 to 1001. the eminent Dutch scholar. Khmers seem to have begun to replace Mons in the lower Menam delta. Nothing has been known of either Udayadityavarman or Jayaviravarman before they came to the throne of Cambodia nor of their ultimate fate.their mother fled to East Java about 970.THE KHMER EMPIRE 285 famousroyal line. In a recent study. probably lay in the Chantabun (Chanthaburi) region where several inscriptions show the presence of Khmer colonistsas earlyas the seventhcentury. son of a sisterof his wife. . The dependent kingdom of Malyang. has advanced the very reasonable theory that Udayadityavarman was Udayana of Bali. another dependent kingdom. 420-27. 72. west of the Great Lake which had been conquered by Jayavarmann II. became the great minister of his nephew. F. 24 (1924). soon to appear). 34 (1934). apparently after the conquest of Louvo.126 Po-ssu-lanlay on the coast southeast of Chen-li-fu. 541-71). Sfiryavarman took I the capital in 1006 but seems not to have completed the conquest of the countryuntil 1011. Airlangga. The writer of this article believes that Jayaviravarmanwas Narapativiravarman and that after his defeat I by Sfiryavarman in 1010 or 1011. epigraphie. "De laatste der Pandawa's." BEFEO. "La dislocation du Chenla et la formationdu Cambodge angkorien (vii-ix siecle). "Ta Kev: 3. Dr. that through fear for her sons. Bosch. Chen-li-fu. but apparentlya local prince of Bali. 12 Pierre Dupont believes Sfiryavarman'scampaign against Yagodharapura (Angkor) was made from Korat. 12" Coedes. that with Mahendradattd.

south to Kaldh. 1 (1944). his son.dated 937. In 12Coedes. and then with the Cholas of Tanjore.128he and his fatherdecided to conquer the Mon kingdoms of the Menam valley. pt.35.''130 This is the last mention of Sujita.why should the king himself with so large an expedition be so far from his capital in such troublous times? Be that as it may. which invaded Sumatra in 992 (see Section B above). Recueij du inscriptionsdu Siam. called "Kambojardja" in the chronicle. 25 (1925). '-`9The term gri Dharmardja nagara was not applied to Tdmbralinga until the inscription of Rama Khamheng in 1292. 73-76.. E.127 Apparently after Sfiryavarman had established himself on the throne I of Cambodia. attempted to take Haripunjai. suggests that a Khmer dynastymay have been ruling in that region for some time before that date. although gri Dharmaraja was applied to Chandrabhanu in the inscriptionof Jaiya of 1230 (Coedes. The author of this article prefersthe formerview. a later Pali chronicle of northwest Laos says Sujita "came from Aridhammarajanagara129 with a large army and many ships and seized Labapura.131Although the chronicle is explicit in saying it was Sujita who seized Louvo. The struggle between San-fo-ch'iand the Cholas (1006-1119). otherwise.000 islands. it was clearly Sfiryavarman who retained possession of it. but was driven back to his capital (apparently Lavapura)." Journal of the Thailand Research Society.in Khmer. "Laos occidental" BEFEO. Possibly Sujita of Tdmbralinga. the Pali chronicle containing the above account is dated 1516. found at Ayuthia (Ayutthaya). surprised by one of these raids or fleeingbefore it. San-fo-ch'iwas engaged . . which resulted in the invasion of Sumatra by the latter in 991-92. Both Louvo and Tdmbralinga seem to have been held hereafter as dependencies of Cambodia. 80. San-fo-ch'i was able to send an embassy to the court of China without hindrance. 128 The conquest of the Menam valley is placed after that of Cambodia by this writer.first with east Java. who several inscriptionsof 1007 say destroyed many ships and captured 12. was of shortduration. Dupont thinksthis inscriptionrefersto the dynastyof Bhavapura. who presumably were vassals of Cambodia ruling in the upper Mun valley (Dupont. 46). "Une nouvelle inscription d'Ayuthya. The struggle between San-fo-ch'iand Java. In 1003. 23-25.286 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY discovered inscription. About this time. Stiryavarman I seems also to have inherited the throne of Tdmbralinga fromhis father. 130 Coedes.chiefly because the Pali chronicle relating the account of it says Sfiryavarman was called Kambojaraja "because of his previous exploits (deeds?)" (see note 131). '31 Ibid. 159. I The conquest of Louvo and Dvaravat! seems to have given the Khmers possession of the upper part of the peninsula. decided to join his son in an attack on the lower Menam. Three years later. 2:41-43).

Their first recorded relations with San-fo-ch'iwere friendly. 167-90. Takola.134These spectacular raids seem to have had no lasting consequences. the Chola king. K. Lankasuka.it seems. Nilakanta Sastri. 22 (1933-34). N.In a later inscription. 1-16. 241-42.133 kings of Katdha (Kedah) and Arivijaya (in Tamil = Kedara and were building at Na-gapatam. Subramanya Aiyer. a great catastrophe overwhelmed East Java in which the king lost his life and his palace was destroyed.But the rivalryof these two powArlvisaya). especially 7. ers soon broke into hostility. An inscription of 1069-70 . R. According to the Tamil inscriptionof Tanjore (1030-31).Sangrdmavijayathungavarman. 213-66. Rajendrachola seems to have raided the states of San-fo-ch'ion the Malay peninsula in 1017 and 1025.which Chiddmanivarman and his son. Etats hindouises. 134K. Maldyu.with varying fortunes.A. Mdravijayottuftgavarman. It is not known that San-fo-ch'i was directlyconcerned with this disaster. Suvarnadvipa. Coedes. Under the name of Chu-nien (Chu-lien of Hirth and Rockhill) their embassies began to appear at the court of China in 1015. sent by kings whose names correspond to those given above. including San-fo-ch'i. 244-45. Etats hindouises. "Le royaume de grivijaya. 18. 242. 1:142-290. The Sung shih mention embassies fromSan-fo-ch'i in 1003 and 1008. in 1007. The Colas (Madras. J. It is believed that some Javanese princes took advantage of the situation to begin a revolution. the king of Kaddram (Arlvijaya= San-fo-ch'i). in 1006. 280-85. no. op. C." BEFEO. granted the revenues of a village for the maintenance of a vihara (monastery). This unrest ended in 1019 in the coronation of the deceased king's son-in-lawAirlangga (10 19-49) as king of East Java. 136 Coedes.says thatking conquered Kaddram but restoredit afterthe king of that country Coedes.000 islands.and most of his strongholdson the peninsula and in Sumatra.135 The war between San-fo-ch'iand the Cholas continued intermittently throughout the eleventh century." BEFEO. 6 (1918). "?ri Vijaya.were conquered. V. and Pdnduranga. See Coedes.." Epigraphia Indica. Majumdar. for an embassy from San-fo-ch'iwas able to appear at the Chinese court in 1028. cit. "The larger Leyden plates of Rajaraja I.132 Meanwhile the Cholas had conquered all the countries of southeast India and had invaded Ceylon.the year of Chola Vlrara-jendradeva'sreign .Rdjendrachola (101244) boasted that. 1"2 '33 . Sastri. 1935).According to the Sanskritand Tamil copper-plate inscriptions known as the Greater Leiden Grant (or Charter). Krom. as well as other strongholds. Rdjardja (985-1014).was carried off. Hindoe-Javaansche geschiedenis. 40 (1940).THE KHMER EMPIRE 287 1006-07. 5. the Cholas conquered more than 12. Tdmbralinga and Kedah and even Kdmalankd. Pegu.

three years before the beginning of Jayavarman VII's reign. Groeneveldt. the two rivals seem to have enjoyed a period of peace. The Chu-fanchih contains a chapter on Chenla (Cambodia). the south. the first 136 Hultzsch. S. . 108-9. ProfessorS. Ins. 137 Ma Touan-lin. As it is known that the Chola king at that time was Rdjendra-Deva-Kul6ttunga.138 The envoy from San-fo-ch'i (San-bo-tsai) to China in 1067 was a high official." Journal of Indian history. 586. a regular succession of embassies fromSan-fo-ch'iappeared at the Chinese court during the twelfthcentury until 1178. the Smaller Leiden Grant (of Kul6ttunga-Chola). 317-69.140 After this reign. Krishnarvamin Aiyangar. Chia-lo-hsijoined what had been Dvdravati. pt 1. "`ri Vijaya. 139Majumdar. 183-87. called Ti-wa-ka-la by the Chinese. which is said to have been taken from the Ling-wai-tai ta. 2:1-160. had just come to the throne of the Cholas. 18Aiyer. K. for a strong king.e. Suvarnadvtpa. Now. L'empire sumatranais. the peninsula seems to have been free from Chola aggressions. '14 a"Hirth and Rockhill.137 This seems scarcely probable. "The smaller Leiden plates of Kul6ttunga I.139 During the reign of Kul6ttuhga-Chola (1070-1119). Meantime.. at the Isthmus of Kra. 44-45.a dependency of San-fo-ch'i. no. (1922-23). of Rajendrachola.141 F. 37.Of the twelve "foreign" named six in localities mentioned as dependencies of Cambodia. The Colas." 289. or Louvo.136 the other hand. Aiyangar has pointed out that the Chola king who sent a mission to the Chinese emperor in 1077 was called Ti-wa-ka-lo by the Chinese. 52-57. South Indian inscriptions: Tamil inscriptions of Rdjardja. "Rajendra. a later Chinese docuOn ment says that during the period 1068-77. conquered by Sujita or Sfiryavarman.288 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY acknowledged his sovereignty. Rdjendra may have conquered Kaddram (San-fo-ch'i). and others. During the reign of this monarch.and sent the embassy of 1067. 190-91.ruled there temporarily. The peninsula during the reign of Jayavarman VII (1181-1215+). 267-84. Aiyangar suggests that before he became king of the Cholas. in the Rdjardjesvara temple at Tanjavur (Tanjore). the Chola kingdom began to decline. for. in Tamil." Epigraphia Indica. the Gangakonda Chola. 2 140 8astri. Ferrand. says the king of Kaddram asked and received exemption from taxation for the village granted to the Chfidamanivarma vihara (monastery). Kul5ttunga-Chola (1070-1119). 2. Rijendrachola E. 22 (1933-34). 20.142published in 1178 . Chu-nien (Chu-lien) was a vassal of San-fo-ch'i. on i. It says that Cambodia is bounded by Chia-lo-hsi. in its twentiethyear (1088-90). 8astri.

53.and Ma-lo-wen (Ma-lo-w6n). The other San-lo. 103-08.145 Ma-lo-wenis doubtless the Malyang of the inscriptionof Palhal.and it seems more than probable . who had then been reigning 20 years. on seem to have fallen to Sfiryavarman the demise of his fatherand to have been governed by Cambodia as the dependencies of Louvo and Tambralinga. Hirth and Rockhill think it may be the same as the Pa-ssu-li. "'Pierre Dupont. Ma Touan-lin. Inscriptions du Siam. via ChenCambodia li-fu.As Chia-lo-hsi (apparently. 14 Hirth and Rockhill. but the conquest seems to have been temporary. Lo-hu. There is strong evidence of Khmer culture there before its conquest by Sujita.144 Sujita conquered the kingdom of Louvo of the Menam valley. Ma Tuan-lin mentions Possu-lan and says it bounds Chen-li-fuon the southeast.he made Tdmbralinga independent of grivijaya before that date. His statementthat its king. Chen-li-fu is probably definitelyidentified as the region of Chantabun (Chanthaburi). Jayavarman VII of Cambodia. 56. Along with the other settlementsof the peninsula. It was not unusual. Hirth and Rockhill say it was northwest of of Po-ssu-lan. Po-ssu-lan (Po-ssi-lan). "Le Buddha de Grahi et Icole de C'aiya. to say that two countries bounded each other when a body of water intervened. Chen-li-fu(Chdn-li-fu).Ma Tuan-lin saysit was on the southwestfrontier Chenla and was bounded on the southeast by Po-ssu-lanand on the southwestby Tengliu-mei. part of Kaldh) interin vened between Teng-liu-mei and the conquered territory the peninsula.is a doubtless Tdmbralinga. and he and/or Sfiryavarmanseems to have extended the conquest down the peninsula as faras Chia-lo-hsi. Tdmbralinga was probably sacked by the Cholas in the early years of the eleventh century. 2:45. said to be west of Chenla and southwest of Chen-li-fu.. hence the directions given.THE KHMER EMPIRE 289 order are Teng-liu-mei (Tbng-liu-mei). including Tdmbralinga. which was subdued at the beginning of the reign of Jayavarman II and -4aIbid. proper communicated with Teng-liu-mei only by sea. Coedbs.All these conquests. 487-88.which Chou Ta-kuan mentions as a vassal of Cambodia without locating it. . may well have referred to its suzerain. 42 (1942). Teng-liu-mei." BEFEO. Po-ssu-lan was not located by the Ling-wai-tai ta.143 six are believed to have been northwestand north of Cambodia proper and hence do not concern this study. If Sujita was the To-hsi-chi who sent the embassy to China in 1001 .as the inscription of Tanjore says it was.sent an embassy to China in 1200. in giving these directions. It was formerly dependency of Funan and was conquered by grivijaya before 775.

12-15.148In 1178. The Sung shih mentions Lo-hu and Lo-hua as twenty-five stops northeast of Tan-mei-liui (Pelliot. no. "Memoires. apparently as an independent state. Lo-hu has been identified by Pelliot and others with the kingdom of Louvo." 241-43. .290 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY which was in revolt again at the beginning of Jayavarman VII's reign. 485. "The appearance and historical usage of the terms Tai. Pelliot. Aymonier says . "La stele de Palhal."212 and note 7. which Aymonier does not locate. 3. Briggs. 441.147 It has been located in southern Battambang. 11. pt. and.on what authorityit does not appear . 13. an inscription in Khmer language but in characters resemnbling Kawi the 146 Coedes. "Quelques suggestions stir la methode a suivre pour interpreterles bas-reliefsde Bantay Chmar et la galerie inttirieure du Bayon. it retained for a long time its identity. Its exact relations with the Malay peninsula are not always clear. 6 (1913). The case of Teng-liu-mei (French: Teng-lieou-mei) is not so clear. R.14'3 The old Ts'an-pan. the Khmer Empire reached its greatestextent. "Deux itin6raires. 1927). 203. San-lo is believed by Hirth and Rockhill to have been an early Chinese attempt to transcribethe name of the countryor the people of the upper and central Menam.150 and the VII subjugation of that region in the early part of the reign of Jayav~arman may be the event referred to by Aymonier. most of which were brought into the Khmer Empire by Sfiryavarman were probably brought into closer relations by Jayavarman I. Majumdar.that in 1195 this king seems to have subjugated some little states in the peninsula which had formerly been his allies. "Deux itineraires. seems to have been a predecessorof Malyang in what is now southern Battambang. Chen-li-fu has already been located. note 48. it seems to have included the old Dvdravat! region. 15 Ma Touan-lin." BEFEO. The six vassals mentioned above." BEFEO. 172-73.which Chou Ta-kuan cited as one of the 90 vassal kingdoms of Cambodia. 37 (1937). '47 Pelliot. 1935). The fact that it was rated as a dependency at the beginning of JayavarmanVII's reign seems to indicate that up to that time it had not formedan integral part of Cambodia. as it probably never did (Even after the Tai overran the Menam valley late in the thirteenthcentury. Although the Ling-wai-tai ta lists it as a dependency of Cambodia in 1178. Chen-li-fuand Teng-liu-mei. Coed~s. Under JayavarmanVII. VII. 72." BEFEO. which Khmer inscriptionshad called Syam and which the Chinese were soon to call Hsien and Hsien-lo.Le Cambodge. and he mentions Ts'an-pan." JAOS (1949). 80.146 It is believed to be the same as Mu-hiang. 49 Aymonier. 71. it sent embassies to China under the name of Lo-hu). Un grand roi du Cambodge: Jayavarman VII (Phnom Penh. Thai. "Deux itineraires. C. 2 (1902). note 1. Siamese and Laotian."233). Champa (Lahore. 148 Pelliot. extending south to Chialo-hsi. Coed&s. 3:528.

153 Pelliot. "Geographical notes" TP (1901). Receuil des inscriptionsdu Siam. 68. '6 Ma Touan-lin.THE KHMER EMPIRE 291 of Java. "Deux itineraires."233. 583-85. while they think Tan-ma-ling may be an independent kingdom located at the mouth of the Kwantan river in modern Pahang. "Deux itineraires.which identifiesit with the Chinese Chia-lo-hsi. is confronted by the statementof the Chu-fan chih that it was a neighbor of Langkasuka (probably near Kedah). while still subordinate to the Khmer Empire may have been also in some sort of vassalage to the dominant to Malay power.'56 Pelliot points out that the proposal of Schlegel to locate Tan-ma-ling in Sumatra or even that of Hirth and Rockhill or Gerini to place it in Pahang. as well as the Chou-mei-liu of Ma Tuan-lin.152 Tambralinga seems to have been a dependency of the Khmer Empire during all the reign of JayavarmanVII. The Chufan chih lists Tan-ma-ling as a dependency of San-fo-ch'i but devotes a separate chapter to Teng-liu-mei. dated 1183. 156Pelliot. 195-96). 151 Coedes. 601. The Sung shih gives an account of it under the name of Tan-mei-liu.157 Coedes seems to identifyTan-ma-ling prettydefinitely 152 Majumdar protests-with some reason. it seems to this author-that these names and titles are not necessarilyexclusive to Malayu and that it cannot be assumed that this king was of a Malayu line simply because a Malayan king of the same name existed a centuryor more later (Suvarnadvipa. whence it can be reached by sea in six days and with also by land. which Coedes seems to think indicates that Maldyu had succeeded grivijaya as the dominant Malay power and that Tdmbralinga. 45-47.154 Ma Tuan-lin's account is said to be an exact reproduction This of that of the Sung shih. 2:6. Gerini. Hirth and Rockhill.155 inversion led Pelliot to identifythe Tan-ma-ling of the Chu-fan chih with the Tan-mei-liu of the Sung shih and the Teng-liu-mei of the Ling-waitai ta. l'4 Hirth and Rockhill.15' The name and titles of this king resemble those of a line ruling a little later in Maldyu. 53. but the use of a Malay title alone is not sufficient create the presumption of the conquest of this region fromCambodia during the reign of a strongking like JayavarmanVII. Schlegel. in the southern part of the peninsula. 56.the region in which it is located) records an order to the governor of Grahi (who has also the title of mahdseniipati)by a king who bears the titles of kamaraten ain (Khmer) and maharaja (Malay). at the modern city of Chaiya = Jaiya (called Grahi in the inscription. 157G. which Hirth and Rockhill place at the modern Ligor (the site generally assigned to Tdmbralinga)."233. with the name changed to Chou-mei-liu. . 130. 67-68.'5' The Ling-wai-tai ta lists it as a dependency of Cambodia under the name of Teng-liu-mei.

158All these termsseem to referto the same place. which it remained until after the death of JayavarmanVII. Arivijayawas a kingdom whose capital of the same name was located at the present Palembang. and Chao Ju-kua seems to have been confused when he separated Tan-ma-ling and Teng-liu-mei and placed the formeramong the dependencies of San-foch'i (grivijaya) in 1225."16. K." BEFEO. The purported raid of the Mau Shans as far as Junk Ceylon (below Tdmbralinga) may have contributed to the weakening of the power of grivijaya at this time and thus have enabled Chandrabhdnu to seize the throne of Tdmbralinga. and (2) that the list of dependencies of San-fo-ch'igiven by Chao Ju-kua in 1225 agrees in many respectswith the names of parts of the empire of ArivisayaKataha given in the Chola inscription of Tanjore (1030-31). ?rivijaya. San-fo-ch'iand Maldyu. Arivijayaset out on an expedition to subdue Java and seems to have gained a foothold in the western part of that island. at least it can be asserted that none of them has been satisfactorily located elsewhere.may have begun at this early period. 273."srl Vijaya.159 Nevertheless.At that time. whose capital was probably Jambi and which Arivijayaseems to have conquered in the latter part of the seventh century. if so. Then it may have been seized and held temporarily by grivijaya.292 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY Tambralinga. A. which later was to bear fruit. The friendship of Chandrabhdnu and the Tai leaders." In support of this statement. "Le royaume de C~rivijaya. It was a neighbor of Maldyu. N.he cites (1) that Chfiddmanivarman in and his son are called kings of Arlvisaya-Katdha the Leyden grant (Section E above) and kings of San-fo-ch'iin the annals of the Sung. when it was conquered by Sujitardja and became a dependency of the Khmer Empire. ui9 Sastri. Sastri says: "Historically. this statement needs some explanation in point of time. Originally. but. About the same time or a little later it secured a foothold in the Bandon region of the Malay peninsula and thus controlled both sides of the Strait of Malacca. If these identifications can be accepted. it and Jaiya were liberated by Chandrabhdnu some time before 1230. G. If it cannot be established that all these terms referto Tdmbralinga. .Coedes. San-fo-tsi [San-fo-ch'i]is the exact counterpartof AriVijaya in the Chinese annals. The rise of Chandrabhanu seems thus to have been a part of the dissolution of the Khmer Empire afterthe death of JayavarmanVII. These were the beginnings of the empire of '. 40 (1940). the historyof this small state seems to have been as follows: It was conquered by grivijayabefore 775 and was part of the empire of 8rlvijaya (San-fo-ch'i also after 900) until some time before 1001.

" in which sense it seems to have been equivalent to Srivijaya in its widest sense. Briggs."to appear in JAOS. according to Sulaymdn (851). for (1) he was the fatheror elder brother of Bdldputra."Sailendra dynasty. the Sailendra dynastywas ruling in central Java and the Bandon region.which seems." Just when this dynastyimposed to itselfon Arlvijayain any particular region. At the middle of the ninth century. This ruler must have been Bdldputra. is difficult precise.THE KHMER EMPIRE 293 Arivijaya. and (2) the king of Yavabhfimi (Java) then ruling. Abfi Zayd Kasan (916) . the Arabs used the term Zdbag in three senses: (1) as the "Empire of the Maharaja. June 1950. but as they were both Buddhists of the Mahayanist faith. to have comprised several kingdoms. and (3) Jayavarman II caused an elaborate ceremony to be performed and established a state religion to free Cambodia from the domination of Java. and the inscription of Sdak Kak Thom says JayavarmanII returned fromJava (apparently from a visit of homage to the Maharaja's court.Inscriptions show that in the latter part of the eighth century.Ibn-al-Fakih (902).160but the Java branch seems to have been in appeared in Java about a the ascendant. As has been seen. the merger probably presentedno great difficulties. The exact relationship between and even these two branches at this time has been a subject of controversy now is not perfectlyclear. was the ancestoror elder brotherof the king of Suvarnabhfimi(Sumatra). This was the "Empire of the Maharaja. 279-80). at this time. inasmuch as (1) this dynastyfirst centuryearlier. Several Arab writers. each under its own ruler. The Arabs applied the term Zdbag to this empire -Arivijaya ruled by the Sailendra .when the Arab accounts begin was ruling in central Java and another one branch of the Sailendra dynasty branch in Sumatra and on the peninsula. . who was called Bdldputra (younger brother) (pp. consisting of the present Palembang region and leoL. P. In the middle of the ninth century. Ibn Rosteh (903). (2) as the island kingdom of Srivijaya. and (2) the inscriptions of Champa and Chinese documents say the Malays who ravaged the coast of Annam and Champa came fromJava. subsequent to being chosen king in accordance with the Maharaja's instructionsafter the beheading of his predecessor). the kingdoms of Zabag and Kaldh were governed by the same ruler.say that the great king of Zdbag is called Maharaja. but the "Maharaja of Zdbag" seems at that time to have resided in Java. but Masudi says (955) that the king of each kingdom is called maharaja.which seems to have been the most southerlyof the early island kingdoms of Sumatra.

71-72.and different given to them.294 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY probably part of Java. the kingdom of Zabag and Sribuza are several times locations and characteristics spoken of in the same paragraph. which was probably also at times the capital of the Maharaja. Mvaldyu sent an embassyto the imperial court under the name of Chan-pei. Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'iby the Chinese. century. note 18. The island kingdom on the other side of the straitstretchingfrom the Chieh-ch'a of I-ching to the Ithmus of Kra . Jambi had neighbor and ancient rival. as noted above. but some kingdoms like Teng-liu-mei (Tdmbralinga?) and (Lahgkasuka) had separate articles devoted to them. . About the beginning of the tenthcenturysome changes took place. or possibly to Jambi. Not only was Jambi not included San-fo-ch'iin Chao Ju-kua'slistin 1225.of Srlvi jaya (Palembang) the capital was losing its place at the head of the empire of San-fo-ch'i(Zabag) to its (Jarnbi).162 It has already been noted that the name and titles of the suzerain mentioned in the Khmer inscription of 161 162 Hirth and Rockhill. and (3) as capital of the kingdom of Srlvijaya (Palembang). and Zabag and Sribuza by the Arabs. or to the capital of Sribuza. while Tan-ma-ling (Tambralinga?) was included. but his son or younger brother. for instance.it appeared evident that About the beginning of the thirteenth . but this identitydoes not apply to the kingdoms and capital cities which bore those names.which the Arabs called Sribuza. The capital of the empire seems to have changed from Java (probably at first part of the kingdom of Srlvijaya) to the city of Srlvijaya (Palembang. 66.the Arabs called Kaldh. All identical in meaning as applied to the empire. About the same time the Chinese began to apply the term San-foch'i to the countrysending embassies from the new capital. To the north of the kingdom of Srlvijaya was another island kingdom of Sumatra . in Sumatra became independent as the result of a revolt. which it seeming to indicate that it wvas already berepeated in 1085 and 1088.As early as 1079. Hirth and Rockhill. for there these termswvere could be only one such empire in Southeast Asia at one time.161 as a vassal of coming independent.or that part of Sumatra lying along the strait. and Ling-ya-ssu-chia it is specificallymentioned that Kampar (Chien-pi). 65. does not seem to have been the great Maharaja. These two kingdoms seem at this time to have been governed by the same ruler who. Bdldputra. also in the kingdom of Srlvijaya).and probably the island kingdom . The "Empire of the Maharaja" was called Srivijaya in the inscriptions.

after Jayavarman's death (before 1220). Chandrabhdnu. dated 1183. Grahi) of 1230 Coedls. at least was not dependent on the 8ailendra dynasty of San-fo-ch'i. The Chinese emperor ordered the ambassadors not to come to court hereafter but to make an establishment at Ch'iian-chou. Jdvaka and the invasions of Ceylon (ca.(AfterTdmbralinga was made independent of San-fo-ch'iby Sujita. It is true that the last embassyto the court of China recorded in the Sung shih appeared in 1178. after Ta-shih (the Arabs) and She-p'o (Java).164This might indicate that San-fo-ch'i was declining in importance. in Sanskrit. as the Ling-wai-tai ta specifically says it was.there is no sufficient reason to think it was ever again subject to that power. who is reputed to have pushed Cambodian boundaries to their greatestextent in nearly every direction. if not completely independent. Inscriptions du Siam. dated 1230. 1230-1270). shows that. except perhaps temporarily.) The mention of Md-damdlingam and other places on the peninsula in the inscription of Tanjore evidently refers to a raid rather than to a conquest or occupation of any length. but. the Ling-wai-tai ta records that San-fo-ch'i was a great center of commerce between China and the west and ranks it third in commerce and wealth. San-fo-ch'imay have seized this part of that monarch's crumbling empire for a brief moment (before 1225). then. These seems. this little kingdom. if so. Another inscription at Grahi. 164 Groeneveldt. no good reason to doubt that. The Chandrabhanu of the inscription of Jaiya (Chaiya. this did not necessarily imply the decline of Arivijaya (Palembang) to the advantage of Maldyu (Jambi).fromthe liberation of that kingdom by Sujita (Section D above) to the end of the reign of Jayavarman VII (1181-1215+) Tdmbralinga was a dependency of Cambodia. it should require positive evidence to establish that it was lost during the reign of Jayavarman VII. 45. at that time. But although a change of leadership was taking place in the empire of San-fo-ch'i(Zdbag). 2:6. in the province of Fukien.THE KHMER EMPIRE 295 Grahi (modern Chaiya = Jaiya). 1e6 Hirth and Rockhill.165 H.who was king of Tdmbralinga. which begins with a eulogy of 8r! Dharmardja Chandrabhdnu of the Padmavamsa dynasty. 23. It is possible that. but. about the beginning of the eleventh century. If Tdmbralinga was a dependency of Cambodia in 1178. it was liberated as already noted by Chandrabhanu before 1230.163 bore a resemblance to those of from one to three centuries later in Maldyu. 1"' .191. in that same year.

being the more recent part of the Mahavamsa (London.296 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY seems to have been the king of that name who twice invaded Ceylon.166 to H. J.Serie A. Grahi). l69 G. p. . as a consequence. 88.D. Several years later Chandrabhdnu invaded Ceylon again." whose equivalence with grivijaya he had In just established. under the pretext that they were friendly("We too are Buddhists"). 1929). during the reign of Parakramabdhu 111. Kern. thus making Chandrabhdnu a king of grivijaya. Kern was the first comment on these passages of the Mahavamsa." BKI. edited by him and dated 1183. C. Rouffaer." 172-73." BKI. 259-604. with a great army from the Pdndya and Chola countries and some Tamil soldiers. "Twee krijgstoehtenuit des Indischen Archipeltegen Ceilon. The Mahavamsa (Ceylon. 58 (1925). 2:151-52. ch. tried to get possession of the country. . 83. W. ch.The Mahavamsa (a chronicle of Ceylon) says Chandrabhdnu landed with a Jdvaka army in the eleventh year of the reign of Pardkramabahu and. P. Krom. 46 (1896). 305-06. 77 (1921). grivijaya was forced to give way to Malaya about 1280. "De ondergang van f:rIvijaya. and these two invasions may have had something to do with the later capture of Tdmbralinga by the Tai. "Was Malaka emporium voor 1400 A. He thought Chandrabhanu was killed and that.170 In criticismof Krom's thesis. translatedJdvaka as "Malay" and gave the dates of Pardkramabdhu's reign as 1240-75. 240-45. 17 H.because it is no longer believed that Chandrabhanu had anything to do with Arivijaya. as formerlybelieved. Geiger. although it is doubtful that. He translatedJdvakaas "Javanese" and thought the last invasion occurred This was correctedby Rouffaer. C.168 interpreted Jdvaka as "Zdbag." Mededeslingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen-afdeeling letterkunde. who made the translation and established the chronology in 1889. Nijayasimka]. and was again driven out by Virabahu. Wijesinha. pp. genaamd Malagoen. 149-69.169 a more ambitious study. 1889). Culdvamsa. "L'empire sumatranais.Coedes approved of his placing the beginning of the decline of grivijaya a centuryearlier than previously believed and proposed to set it back another century earlier than Krom's date. . Wijesinha [L. 282. a centuryearlier than the date popularly given for the fall of grivijaya.167 who went back to the chronologyof Wijesinha and fixed the dates of these Ferrand accepted Rouffaer'sdates and invasions at 1251 and about 1255. it hastened the downfall of grivijaya. but theywere driven out by the regent Virabahu. Ferrand.Krom accepted Rouffaer'schronologyand Ferrand's belief that Chandrabhdnu was a king of grivijaya and placed the second invasion in 1264. This he justified (1) by calling attention to an inscription of Jaiya (Chaiya. 118F. 170N. in which a king of Malay name and 1 L.

But he notes several circumstances foreshadowingthe end of the influence of Malhyu at Tambralinga. completely different Padmavamsa dynasty. but an independent sovereign. He translated Jdvaka as meaning the "Malays. The latter date thus agrees with that of the Pali account of a visit of Rocaraja.and (2) that Malayu is not mentioned as a vassal of San-fo-ch'iin 1225. 48). he counters with the observations (1) that the data of the Chu-fan chih is not always current." common to Sumatra and Tdmbralinga.D. L'empire sumatranais.) of the reign of JatdvarmanVira-Pdndya (a Pdndya king of south India) that that king took "the crown and the crowned head of the Sdvaka (Javaka) king" (Ferrand. and that (Tamil for Kedah. "Srivijaya no longer possessed Kaddram. He advances two very good arguments in support of this thesis: (1) the title of Sri Dharamardja. a king of Malayu appears at Jaiya. in the inscription of Jaiya dated 1183. . dated 1230. he placed the dates of Pardkramabdhu II's reign at 1225-60 and the dates of the two invasions at 1236 and 1256. based on a study of the epigraphy of the presidencyof Madras. while Palembang is so mentioned." says Coedes. "If in the middle of the thirteenthcentury. it no longer had complete masteryof the strait and the decadence had already commenced. But the presence of an inscription of Chandrabhanu at Jaiya shows that he conquered the Bandon region. it is because Malayu had already displaced Srivijaya there. That this conclusion is in conflictwith the testimonyof Chao Ju-kua's Chu-fan chih." If. theyconquered and decapitated the king of Kaddram171 This is strengthenedby another inscription which states that a Kaldh).. and Indian epigraphy (Pdndya inscriptions of 1264 and 1265) seem to show that in 1264-65 the Cholas conquered Ceylon. making the corrections.THE KHMER EMPIRE 297 title seems to be reigning at Tdmbralinga. he argues. (2) Chandrabhanu belonged to the fromthe Sailendra of Srivijaya. and (3) San-fo-chi'slast embassy appeared at the court of China in 1178. Tai prince of Sukhothai. viz. and (2) by showing that the Chandrabhdnu mentioned in the inscription of Jaiya. Pdndya king (of south India) took Ceylon between 1254 and 1269. he concluded that for the end centurythe dates of Wijesinha's chronologyare about fifteen of the twelfth years too high and. At the instance of Jouvreau-Dubreuil. is peculiar to Tdmbralinga. Thus. was not a king or vassal of Srivijaya. to the court of Ari Dhamma nagara of Thmbralinga. these two expeditions to Ceylon have nothing to do the wvith decline of Srivijaya to the profitof Maldyu. Chandrabhdnu being an independent king. which appears in the inscription of 1230 for the first time. 11 The belief that Chandrabhhnu was killed rested on the statement of the inscription of the tenth year (1264 A.

land. 176 8astri. Chandrabhknu and Vira-Pdndya. king of Kaddram." BKI. and (3) the flourishing state of Hinayanism at Tdmbralinga as shown by the inscription of Rdma Khambeng (1292) indicating an alliance of Chandrabhdnu with the Tai against the Mahayanism of Maldyu. 3 and Appendix. Majumdar173 doubts that Coedes is justified in assuming that the maharaja of the inscription of 1183 was necessarilyof a Maldyu line because an inscriptionof a century or more later. Coedes. He thinksthe revoltsof Chien-pi and Tdmbralinga mentioned in the Chu-fan chih (Tdmbralinga is said to be a vassal. in the middle of the thirteenthcentury.note 152). bk.175 scriptionsof the Pdndya country.298 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY (1) the Pali influenceof the inscriptionof 1183. A.see note 171) and felthimselfstrongenough to send two expeditions against Ceylon discounts Coedes's view of the decline of 8rivijaya before that time. 2. R. 1929). 173 Majumdar. . 459-72. at tion of the empire of San-fo-ch'i. but with its own king) are evidence of the beginning of the disrupcentury. the beginning of the thirteenth Majumdar seems to interpret the inscriptions referred to by Coedes to mean that Chandrabhdnu was dethroned and beheaded. applied in the tenth century to the Maharaja of 8rivijaya. "A propos de la chute du royaume de grivijaya. In a book published ten years later. gives a king of the same name and title (see infra." Tijdschrift voor Indische taal-. found in Maldyu. As historian of Pdndya. Nilakanta gastri. C. Nilakanta Sastri begins by questioning Coedes's reasons for thinking that Chandrabhdnu must have been in control of Kaldh (Kaddram) and that 8rivijaya was no longer in control of the straits.Sastri maintained that taking "the crown of the Sdvakan [Jdvaka] king togetherwith his crowned head" does not mean the decapitation of that king. 172G. He questions that the inclusion of Palembang in the list of dependencies of San-fo-ch'i (1225) and the omission of Maldyu from that list meant that Palembang had lost precedence to Maldyu.172 Coedes's article ultimately drew replies from two eminent Indian historians.77 (1937) 251-68. but only his submission in open as174 K. designated. A. "`rivijaya.a king of the Malay freshfrom a study of the Tamil inpeninsula. The Pdndyan kingdom (London. ch.en volkenkunde. but that he was the last great ruler of the 8ailendra and that the fact that he was called king of the Sdvakas (= Jdvaka. (2) the religion motive of Chandrabhdnu's mission to Ceylon. 1937). Suvarnadvipa (Dacca. In an able article in a Dutch journal in the same year (1937).'74 K.He says the title. for he says that the inglorious end of Chandrabhdnu gave Java its opportunityin Sumatra and the peninsula. 83 (1927). He thinks Chandrabhdnu was not only a ruler of 8rivijaya.

pp. Sastri thinks there is not sufficient evidence that the invasion of Ceylon started from the Malay Peninsula. He thinks that.do not exist. He also says that the prasasti of all Vira Pdndya's inscriptions. There is no reason to think that a Pdndyan invasion of Ceylon coincided with either of these dates.Thus the theoryof the identityof the Savakan (Jdvakan) king and the king of Kaddram is destroyed. Sastri reiterates his views as given above and expresses the belief that "neither the Grahi [Jaiyaj Buddha inscription of 1183 nor even the inscription of Chandrabhdnu . Sastri thinks the Jdvaka settlement may have been earlier than the firstinvasion and may have been a cause of either or both of these invasions. In his article on 8rivijaya published in 1940. possibly under a son of Chandrabhdnu.THE KHMER EMPIRE 299 sembly. Sastri thinksthe Geiger chronologydoes not interferewith the connection of Chandrabhdnu with the two invasions of Ceylon. account of the reign of this ruler [Pardmakramabdhu II] must be treated as an elaborate piece of pious whitewashing" (p. 466-67). after the firstinvasion. mention this list of tributarycountries in a more or less set form. and the Pdndya campaign took place in the interval between the two invasions of Chandrabhdnu. Sastri points out that the chronologyof the Geiger translation (note 166). after the fourthyear of his reign. "If the Pdndyan inscriptions of the period are allowed to contain any element of truth. He says that the significant differencesbetween the two Pdndyan inscriptionsof 1264 and 1265. He thinks the enumeration of Kaddram in the last of tributaries of King Vira Pdndya. fromthe standpoint of South Indian historyand is much more satisfactory epigraphy. in the high-flown court poetry of the prasasti. the Javakas could have established strongholdson the near by mainland. a Jdvaka settlement was established in Ceylon.the Mahdvamsa. and one cannot be certain that it even refersto the same campaign as does the Pdndyan inscriptions. The Mahavamsa says nothing of a Pdndyan invasion. He dates them as 1263 and 1264 and says that both inscriptions speak of the conquest of the Sdvakan (Jdvakan) king and the second also mentions the king of Kaddram as a vassal (Sastri. the dates of the two expeditions would be 1247 and about 1270. He thinksthat. 257-58. Against Jouveau-Dubreuil's correction of Wijesinha's chronology. 264). has no great historical significance. Coedes as in note 172. On this basis. He cites a Ceylonese document which would make Chandrabhdnu a ruler of Madras. which places the dates of Pardmakramabdhu II's (of Ceylon) reign at 1236-79. quoted by Coedes one of which mentions the king of Kaddram and the other the Sdvakan king in such a manner as to assure their identity.between the two expeditions.

40 (1940) 297-98... published in 1948. basing his opinions largely on the disastrous campaigns in Champa and Annam in 1216 and 1218. "Les origines de la dynastie de Sukhodaya."176 In his recent book. Coedes accepts the conclusions of Sastri regarding the Ceylon campaigns. extended across the peninsula at this time. 6 (August 1947). 353. Some time early in the thirteenthcentury. Recent investigationsof Coedes lead him to fix the date of his death at 1218 or 1219. The author of this article adds another argument to support the belief that fromabout this period. 1920. The Tai appeared in the Menam valley. as an organized people." India antigua (Leyden. the center of gravity of the empire of the Maharaja at the expense of Palembang. in his "A sketch of Cambodian history. Thai.Coedes. 71. about the middle of the twelfthcentury. 177G.gri Vijaya. i.or Indrdditya.300 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY of 1230..but Coedes.D. is seen to contain any tangible evidence of the decline of 8r! Vijaya" and that "there is no evidence to show that Chandrabhdnu was the ruler of Kaddram [Kedah]. 17' Briggs. Siamese and Lao.and had been given the title of Indrapatindraditya. The Tai overrun the Malay Peninsula (thirteenthcentury).granted this title to the other and swore him in as The date of this event has generally been the firstking of Sukhothai.''177 I. which seems to imply that Grahi.e. thinks Jayavarman VII died about 1215. always recognizing the sovereigntyof the government of the Khmer Empire. 301.Coedes thinks of JayavarmanVII . By the beginning of the thirteenthcentury. Etats hindouises." JAOS (1949). 1947).'78 After the death of Jayavarman VII. 80 Probably the governorof the old dependent state of San-lo. 83-87."Far Eastern Quarterly. A. Etats hindouises. "L'annee de la Lilvre.two of these local Tai chiefs overthrewthe commander of the Khmer garrison at Sukhothai on Tai kingdom established the upper Menam'80 and founded there the first within the boundaries of what had been the Khmer Empire. from 1178 or 1183. 1219."The appearance and historical usage of the terms Tai. upon the basis of his recent investigations. 8rivijaya was not completely in control of the west coast of the Bandon region: The Ling-wai-tai ta (1178) says Chenla was bounded on the south by Grahi. But he reassertshis opinion that. 309-11." JA (13). he accepts the Geiger chronology for the dates of the two invasions..179 the Khmer Empire began to fall apart. 233-45." BEFEO. which was in the hands of Chandrabanu in 1230. 81 Coedes. One of these chieftains.who had married the daughter of a Khmer emperor .181 given as a little before the middle of the thirteenthcentury. 1247 and 1270. .thinks it occurred somewhat 176 8astri. 318-19. 178 Briggs. Coedes. "Maldyu (Jambi) became. they had established several semi-independent principalities there. and thinks the Jdvakas established a colony in that island at the time of the first invasion and that the Pdndyas established their suzerainty there in 1258 and again interferedabout 1263.

He also says that this expedition was contemporarywith the Tai expedition which Mon documents allude to before 1280 (ibid. 87-102. Bradley. which Rocardja brought back to Sukhothai. Sam Lung-pha. "The oldest known writingin Siamese. . The inscription of Rdma Khamheng. pt."This last remark seems to indi182 183Briggs.. etc. sawbwa of Mogaung. The Pali document mentioned above says that Rocardja." 67. His earliest known date is 1283.'82 According to semilegendary Shan'83 documents (in Pali). 187 Coedes thinks the latter part of the inscription. Straits branch. where the king greeted him and persuaded the king of Ceylon to send him a statue of Sihing. "Laos Occidentales. 25-26. dated in 1292. Coedes. The same document says his son Rdmaraja ruled afterhim at Sukhothai. C. 338. B." BEFEO. This is said to have occurred in 1256. 0. 6. before he established the Tai kingdom of the Ahoms in Assam in 1229. Inscriptions du Siam. 1(1909). 1876).332).86 when he seems already to have been reigning for some time. 2 (1927). 188 Coedes. 81[1920] 25). "utp to the sea which marks the frontier. "Tai. "The origins of the Sukhodaya script. in his inscription of 1292. The date of his accession has been generally placed at about 1270 or 1275. the Mau Shan Prince.'85 No date is given for the accession of Ra-ma Khamheng. says that monarch was the third son of Indraditya and succeeded him afterthe reign . quoting Dutch documents. 18 Coedes. 184 Coed&s. taking advantage of the decline of Srivijaya. pt. 17-20.THE KHMER EMPIRE 301 earlier." JSS. with a large army. 98-99.'88for.184 Rocaraja must be identified with Indrdditya. descended by the Menam and the sea to Sri Dharmma nagara (Tdmbralinga). C. may have been a postscriptadded a little later than the rest of the inscription and that all these conquests may not have taken place before 1292. Petchaburi. Burnay and G. This purported influx of armed Tai at this time may have had something to do with the establishmentof the Tai kingdom of Sukhothai. Rdma Khamheng lists among his conquests Rdjaburi. 328). in 1275.Coedes is inclined to place it a little earlier.21. says that.of an elder brother.which must have been short. (Calcutta. Thai. Some time between the date of his accession and 1292 or a little later'87 Sukhothai got possession of the peninsula as far south as Tdmbralinga at least. and Sri Dharma nagara (Tdmbralinga). raided the Menam valley and the Malay peninsula as farasTawi (Tavoy) and Yansaleng (Junk Ceylon?). Ney Elias. "The empire of the Maharaja. 186J. Kritinagara of Singhasari (Java) sent an expedition which established Javanese suzeraintyover Malayu and some places in the Malay peninsula (Etats hindouisds. but in the light of his recent investigations. Blagden. the date on which he reduced the Siamese language to writing.enumerating the regions conquered." JSS. 1:44. Introductorysketch of the history of the Shans Coedes now thinks Indrdditya came to the throne about 1220 (Etats hindouisds. 25 (1925)." JRAS.

both 8rivijaya and Maldyu had ceased to exist as anything but local states of Sumatra.'93 and the inscription of Rama Khamheng does not mention Louvo among that monarch's conquests. "Deux itineraires. says the country had been completely devastated by the Siamese. Thus Maldyu seems to have become temporarily dominant over 8rlvijaya in this region'94 until its control was dissipated by the expeditions of Java and the Tai.'9' but the capital seems to have been spared."242-44. whose settlements there at this time seem to have been called by Ma-li-yii-erh the Chinese." 192 Pelliot. 193Pelliot. the annals of the Yuan (Mongol) (Yuan shih) says that in 1295 an imperial order was directed to the dynasty Hsien (Sukhothai). the eight states of Sumatra (which he calls Java Minor) which he enumerates each had a king of its own. 338-41. and no part of Kambujadesa proper was alienated at this time.'89 Thus it seems that. who. When Marco Polo passed through this region he says 1'9 Coedes. 189 190 Briggs. of which there seems to be other evidence. By the end of the thirteenth century. by the end of the thirteenthcentury.'90 had prettydefinitely and the entire peninsula.Tdmbralinga to Chandrabhdnu before 1230 and the upper end of the peninsula to Rama Khamheng before 1292. Etats hindouiseds. in 1296 and after." 72. 3-6. which had once formed part of Dvdravati-and probably Louvo. 131. "Memoires. 1948). Chou Ta-kuan.302 THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY cate that the Tai conquered the entire peninsula at that time."242. "Tai. before the conquest of that region Iby Sfiryavarman seems now to have fallen into the hands of Sukhothai.. "Siamese attacks on Angkor before 1430. for. Sukhothai seems to have conquered the lower part of the peninsula from Maldyu. whom the Chinese called Hsien (Sien) and who were beginning overrun the Menam valley to call themselvesThai. forit sent embassies to China under the name of Lo-hu. writingof Cambodia in 1296. Briggs. Thus the Khmer Empire seems to have lost its last footholdson the Malay peninsula . it says. "Deux itineraires.'92 The partly Khmerized dependent kingdom of Louvo seems to have become independent. but the upper part of the peninsula. the Tai of Sukhothai. etc. 191Pelliot. . 8 (Nov. Thai." Far Eastern Quarterly.had been engaged for some time with the (Maldyu) asking the Hsien to keep their promise not to harm Ma-li-yii-erh theirneighbors.

) 444Mil. possiblyHo-ling in Java Hsien (Sien) or Hsien-lo (Sien-lo) = Syam = Sukhothai. occupied what is now Annam. The sign = does not always mean an exact equivalent. Chon-li-fu) probablyChan-lip'o = presentChanthabumiarea of Siam Chia-lo-hsi (Kia-lo-hi)= Grahi = modernChaiya Chia-lo-she-fo = Kalasapura (fu) Chieh-ch'a (Kie-tch'a). WE (9) 3 (IpiJ. see Lin-i Chan-li-p'o. Palembang. see also Ko-ku-lo Chou-mei-liu(Tcheou-mei-lieu).probablyKelantan in Malaya. successorto Fu-nan in Cambodia = Chen-li-fu (Tchen-li-fou. or French othercommon Romanization givenin parentheses is afterthe standard Wade- . Malacca = Ko-ku-lo(Ko-kou-lo) = Ch'ieh-ku-lo Qaqola = earlier Chiu-chih= Takola near modern Takua Pa Giles English Romanization.a kingdomin Java.see Chen-li-fu Chan-pei (Tchan-pei) = Djambi (Jambi) in Sumatra. first important kingdomin Cambodia Grahi = modernChaiya (Jaiya) on Bandon Bay Ho-ling(Ho-ling).see Ko-lo Ch'ieh-ku-lo(Ki'e-kou-lo). first Tai kingdom of Siam Kadaram = Tamil forKedah and Kalah Kalah = Arab forKra and coast to Kedah = Kalasapura = Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo Chia-lo-she-fo. probably SW to Kedah Chin-lin(Kin-lin) = Suvannabhuimi Thaton-Martaban = area of Burma Chiu-chih(Kieou-tche)= Chiu-li T'ou-chui-li Takola = = near modernTakua Pa.THE GLOSSARY OF CHINESE KHMER AND OTHER EMPIRE ANCIENT PLACE NAMES* 303 AM& )%*1 *5gtz *- (A) IL*t $4+IJ~ JBUR. The text of the article should be consulted for more complete and qualified identifications.see To-lo-po-ti = = Fo-shih(Fo-che) = Shih-li-fo-shih San-fo-ch'i Zabag = kingdomand cityof 8rivijaya. see Mo-lo-yu.The glossaryhas been prepared by the editor.see Ko-ku-lo Chien-pi (Kien-pi) = Kampar on coast of Sumatra Chih (Tche) = Straitsof Malacca Ch'ih-t'u (Tch'e-t'ou) = Patani-Singoraarea. Malayu Chen-la (Tchen-la).9f :E:65 Champa.see Tan-mei-liu Chii-li(Kiu-li). Tun-hsiin Dvdravati.sometimes capital a Ho-lo-tan(Ho-lo-tan).Sumatra Fu-nan (Fou-nan). see Chiu-chih Ch'ii-tu-k'un see (K'iu-tou-k'ouen). probably Kedah island in Straits of Ko-ko-seng-chih (Ko-ko-seng-tche).

possiblyPo-ssu-lan see (Po-li-lo-tchah). see Ling-ya-ssu-chia Lin-i (Lin-yi)= earliestkingdomof Champa = Ling-ya-ssi-kia) Lang(Ling-ya-sseu-kia. see Ko-ku-lo and = (San-fo-ts'i) Sribuza. A PC a 'RIM tg (P) J{j(g) *k-ft * For correct character yii see Giles no. see Chin-lin Ta-shih (T'a-che). jJ1Im XSiQ(*V) Wirbid JANN tgt *4 -P'o-lo-so. see also Ho-lo-tanand She-p'o (Chb-p'o. also southernKalah = Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo Ko-lo see Lang-chia (Lang-kia) = Lang-ya-hsiu.Sumatra Mu-liang(Mou-ling). Tun-hsiin = (hsii) (Lang-ya-sieou) Lang-chia Lang-ya-hsiu Langkasuka = Perak-Kedaharea. Indonesia. 671. To-lo-po-ti Po-li-lo-cha Po-lo-la. Ling-ya-ssu-chia kasuka = Perak-Kedaharea Lo-hu (Lo-hou) = Louvo = Lopburi area of Siam Lo-hu Lo-hua (Lo-houa) = apparently Louvo = Lopburi area of Siam.) . see Mo-lo-yu Ma-li-yii-erh = Ma-lo-wen(Ma-lo-wen. early kingdom in the Bandon region Pa-ssu-li(Pa-sseu-li).see Fo-shih Sribuza = Sumatrancoast of Straitsof Malacca and Arab equivalent of San-fo-ch'i 8rivijaya= a Malayan empire includingmost of W. Palembang = Suvannabhfimi Thaton-Martabanarea of Burma. Battambang region.Ma-lo-won) Mu-liang= Malyang Malyang = dependency of Cambodia in S.Sho-p'o) Ho-ling = Shih-li-fo-shih (Che-li-fo-che) 8rivijaya.lower end of the Malay Peninsula Malayu = Djambi (Jambi).probablyearlierTs'an-pan = Mo-lo-yu (Mo-lo-yeou)= Ma-li-yui-erh Malayu = Chanpei = Djambi (Jambi). coast south of Chen-li-fu Po-ssu-lan Qaqola = Takola.early transcription Syam = Java.see Mo-lo-yu = (Ma-li-yu-eul) Malayu.Sumatra. 13. see Lo-hu Lo-yiieh(Lo-yue) = Johore.the Arabs . capital. also Shih-li-fo-shih San-fo-ch'i Zabag for San-lo.see Ma-lo-wen = Nou-t'o-yuian T'o-yiian P'an-p'an (P'an-p'an). = Ko-lo (Ko-lo) = Ko-lo-fu-sha-lo Chieh-ch'a= Kalasapura = Kedah.said to be east of Ch'ih-t'u said to be west of Ch'ih-t'u on (Po-sseu-lan).304 ORjg :xFR&&R THE FAR EASTERN QUARTERLY g41't (90 | (t.

THE KHMER EMPIRE 305 Takola.Jijft^ = ling = Chou-mei-liu Tambralinga Teng-liu-mei (Teng-lieou-mei) Tan-mei-liu Tien-sun (Tien-souen) = Tun-hsiin illt? To-ho-lo (T'o-ho-lo) = To-lo-po-ti To-lo-po-ti(T'o-lo-po-ti. in S. Tun-hsiun Tun-hsiin(Touen-siun) Tien-sun Lang-chia= Langya-hsiu= probablyCh'u-tu-k'un Mergui-Tenasserim area and northincludingarea in delta of the MenamMeklongrivers Siam in Zabag = Arab equivalent of Shih-li-fo-shih (Arivijaya) . Battambang.annexed by Dvaravatil YT'ou-chii-li(T'eou-kiu-li)= Chii-li.() CaYTo-yuan thaburi.see Chiu-chih &NlJ Ts'an-pan (Ts'an-pan). S Touo-louo-po-ti)= To-ho-lo Tu-ho-lo = Po-li-lo-cha= kingdom of Dvaravati in the Meklong-Menam Delta of Siam on (T'o-yuan) = Nou-t'o-yiian coast near ChanIrt. Mgit.variantof To-ho-lo. see To-lo po-ti t(A)THw Tu-k'un (Tou-k'ouen) see Ch'u-tu-k'un.see M~alyang V-P Tu-ho-lo (Tou-ho-lo). near Takua Pa. see Chiu-chihand Ko-ku-lo Tambralinga = modernLigor. see Tan-mei-liu Tan-ling (Tan-ling) = Tan-ma-ling (Tan-ma-ling) Tan-mei-liu Tan-mei-liu(Tan-mei-lieou)= Teng-liu-mei= Tan-maJ.

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