Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

FABRICATION, INSPECTION, AND TESTING OF PRESSURE VESSELS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Mechanical File Reference: MEX-202.04

For additional information on this subject, contact PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing of Pressure Vessels

Content

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INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 4 EVALUATING FABRICATION DRAWINGS FOR ACCEPTABILITY.............................. 5 Welding Fundamentals ........................................................................................ 6 Types of Welded Joints ..................................................................................... 10 Groove Welds ......................................................................................... 11 Fillet Welds ............................................................................................. 14 Plug Welds.............................................................................................. 15 Weld Joint Categories............................................................................. 15 Welding Procedures and Welder Qualification .................................................. 16 Welding Procedures................................................................................ 17 Welder Qualification................................................................................ 20 Acceptable Welding Details ............................................................................... 21 Saudi Aramco Weld Detail Requirements............................................... 21 ASME Weld Detail Requirements ........................................................... 22 Tolerances......................................................................................................... 23 Heads and Shells.................................................................................... 24 Plate Thickness ...................................................................................... 25 Alignment................................................................................................ 26 DETERMINING WHETHER VENDOR INSPECTION AND TESTING PLANS SATISFY SAUDI ARAMCO REQUIREMENTS............................... 28 Methods of Examination .................................................................................... 31 Radiographic Examination (RT) .............................................................. 31 Visual Inspection (VT)............................................................................. 33 Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT) ......................................................... 33 Magnetic Particle Test (MT).................................................................... 35

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing of Pressure Vessels

Ultrasonic Examination (UT) ................................................................... 36 Type and Extent of Required Examination ........................................................ 40 Pressure Test Plans .......................................................................................... 41 Hardness Test Plans ......................................................................................... 50 Brinell Hardness Test.............................................................................. 51 Vickers Hardness Test............................................................................ 51 Hardness Test Results............................................................................ 51 Impact Test Plans.............................................................................................. 54 Applicable Codes and Standards ...................................................................... 56 SUMMARY................................................................................................................... 57 WORK AID 1: STEPS, DRAWINGS, AND CODE (SAES-W-010) AND PROCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR EVALUATING FABRICATION DRAWINGS FOR ACCEPTABILITY ........................... 58 WORK AID 2: STEPS FOR DETERMINING WHETHER VENDOR INSPECTION AND TESTING PLANS SATISFY SAUDI ARAMCO REQUIREMENTS.................................... 63 Work Aid 2A: Procedure for Inspection Plans................................................... 63 Work Aid 2B: Procedure for Pressure Test Plans............................................. 66 Work Aid 2C: Procedure for Hardness Test Plans............................................ 70 Work Aid 2D: Procedure for Impact Test Plans ................................................ 71 GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................. 72

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................................................................................................................Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.......... 60 Figure 17: Nozzle Neck Attachment to Thinner Pipe.................... 61 Figure 18: Stiffener Ring Attachment .................................................... 39 Figure 14: Sample Problem 1........... Inspection........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Figure 3: Coated Electrode Weld Deposit ....................................................................... 38 Figure 13: Summary of NDE Types............................................................................................................ 32 Figure 10: Sub-Surface Defect Along Magnetic Lines of Flux ...................... 46 Figure 15: Typical Shell Transitions ..................................... 29 Figure 9: Typical RT Setup........... 36 Figure 11: Pulse Echo UT System ................... 27 Figure 8: Typical Weld Defects .............................................................. 9 Figure 4: Examples of Welded Joints and Weld Types ..... 10 Figure 5: Types of Groove Welds.......................................... and Testing of Pressure Vessels List of Figures Figure 1: Typical AC Arc Welding Circuit ..................................... 61 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iii .................... 14 Figure 7: Edge Alignment in Butt Welds......................................... 11 Figure 6: Fillet Weld at a Tee Joint........................................................................................................ 59 Figure 16: Typical Head-to-Shell Transitions .............................................................................................................................. 7 Figure 2: Heat-Affected Zone ................................................................................. 37 Figure 12: Through-Transmission UT System.......................................................................

without an in-depth discussion. inspection. where necessary. and Testing of Pressure Vessels INTRODUCTION MEX 202. This module discusses fabrication. inspection. Inspection.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. It provides the information that is needed for Participants to evaluate fabrication drawings and testing and inspection plans that are proposed by pressure vessel manufacturers. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 .03 discussed material selection and mechanical design requirements for pressure vessels. Several items that were related to fabrication.02 and MEX 202. and testing requirements for pressure vessels. and testing were mentioned in those modules.

and SAES-W-010. Participants are referred to Division 2 for additional details as required. Inspection. This section also discusses dimensional tolerances which must be applied to pressure vessel components and fabrications. Additional welding engineering details are beyond the scope of this course. Relevant Saudi Aramco and ASME requirements are highlighted within the topics that are discussed in this section. and Testing of Pressure Vessels EVALUATING FABRICATION DRAWINGS FOR ACCEPTABILITY Welding is the most common method that is used for pressure vessel fabrication. Pressure Vessels. therefore. Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels. Saudi Aramco fabrication requirements supplement those that are contained in the ASME Code. Saudi Aramco fabrication requirements are contained primarily in SAES-D-001. 32-SAMSS-004. Welding fundamentals and details are discussed to the extent necessary for a pressure vessel engineer to achieve an adequate knowledge of welding requirements as they relate to pressure vessels.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Division 2 requirements are generally more stringent than those that are contained in Division 1. Adherence to relatively stringent dimensional tolerances is necessary to help achieve quality pressure vessel fabrication and acceptable long term reliability. This section discusses only Division 1 requirements. Design Criteria for Pressure Vessels. Section VIII. this section focuses on welding. Divisions 1 and 2. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 .

The most common welding method is called fusion welding. Additional metal. with or without the addition of filler metal or the application of pressure. Arc welding is the general name that is given to several welding processes that generate the heat of fusion by the use of an electric arc. and supports). if needed. The filler rod is made of a material whose composition is similar to that of the pieces that are being joined. The seam that is to be welded is heated. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Welding Fundamentals A weld is defined as a localized union of metal that is achieved in plastic and molten states.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Welding is used in the fabrication of pressure vessels for both pressure containing parts (for example. Joints that are welded instead of bolted are also sometimes used for pipe-to-equipment connections in situations where the leakage potential of a bolted joint must be eliminated. The fusion welding method does not require any pressure to form the weld. lifting lugs. Figure 1 shows a typical ac arc welding circuit. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . usually by means of burning gas or through the use of an electric arc which is brought to fusion temperature. shells and heads) and nonpressure containing parts (for example. Inspection. is supplied by melting a filler rod into the weld area. stiffener rings. The most widely used industrial welding method is arc welding. An arc welding circuit consists of the following elements: • • • • • Power source Two cables (the electrode cable and the ground cable) Ground clamp Electrode holder Electrodes or rods Two types of power supplies are used for arc welding: the direct current (dc) generator and the alternating current (ac) transformer. The choice of power supply depends on the particular welding that is to be done.

The two pieces of metal that are to be joined are placed such that they are nearly touching. The two pieces are then joined with a combination of electrode metal and base metal. This arc causes the edges of both pieces to melt. The molten portions of the pieces flow together along with molten portions of the electrode. The arc from the electrode is directed at the junction of the two pieces. Inspection. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Power line Transformer Arc welder Wall outlet Ground Secondary winding (coil) Ground Primary winding (coil) Electrode holder Electrode Electrode cable Ground cable Figure 1: Typical AC Arc Welding Circuit Regardless of the power source that is used. As the arc column is moved along the joint.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. the molten material solidifies. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 . the electric arc that is produced serves the same purpose: it produces heat to melt the metal.

Inspection..Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Weld bead Heat-affected zone . ...F02 Figure 2: Heat-Affected Zone Because the welding heat changes the crystal structure and grain size of the HAZ.02. and Testing of Pressure Vessels The molten pool of weld metal reaches a temperature of approximately 1536°C (2800°F)... Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . PWHT is discussed in more detail later in this module.. Section VIII. these residual stresses must be removed by PWHT. Figure 2 shows a typical HAZ. . For thicker plates.. Unaffected areas 20204. . . and were discussed in MEX 202. and there is a temperature gradient into the nearby base metal. The need for PWHT for these metallurgical reasons depends on the materials that are involved and the service conditions that they are exposed to. the thermal contraction that occurs in the locally heated area is resisted by the cooler base metal that surrounds the locally heated area. a postweld heat treatment (PWHT) may be necessary to restore the material structure to the required properties.. The portion of the base metal that is adjacent to the weld and that is affected by the welding heat is called the heat-affected zone (HAZ). This resistance to thermal contraction results in residual stresses that remain in the structure. As the weld metal and HAZ cool from the very high welding temperatures. PWHT requirements based on stress relief considerations are contained in the ASME Code.

. Figure 3 shows a coated electrode weld deposit and the area around the weld.. As the electrode wire melts. Gas shield Arc column Slag .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Covered Electrode Electrode covering (flux) Electrode wire Molten metal Molten pool Base metal Figure 3: Coated Electrode Weld Deposit . Inspection. . Weld bead Heat-affected zone Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . and Testing of Pressure Vessels Most modern welding electrodes are coated with a flux. the flux that coats the wire burns and produces a gaseous shield around the electric arc... This gaseous shield prevents contamination of the weld by protecting the molten metal from contaminants that are in the atmosphere.. .... ....

When this mixture of impurities and flux cools. and edge. For design purposes. corner. The slag also helps to form the contour of the weld bead by acting as an insulator. otherwise. Inspection. weld defects will be caused. Types of Welded Joints Welded joints are described by the position of the pieces that are to be joined and are divided into five basic types: butt. lap. it forms a slag. tee.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.F04 Figure 4: Examples of Welded Joints and Weld Types Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . In order to permit later weld inspections. the slag is also chipped away when the metal has cooled after the final weld pass. welds can be divided into three basic types which call for different design methods. Double V-groove butt joint Single V-groove angle joint Double bevel groove tee joint Double fillet-welded tee joint Single fillet-welded lap joint with plug welds Single bevel groove corner joint with backing fillet weld MEX 20204. Figure 4 shows several examples of welded joints and weld types. fillet. The slag protects the weld bead from the atmosphere and causes the weld bead to cool more uniformly. and plug. The slag allows an even heat loss from the local area by insulation of the weld and HAZ. part of it mixes with impurities that are in the molten pool and causes these impurities to float to the top of the weld. The slag is chipped away after each weld pass before slag is deposited by another weld pass. and Testing of Pressure Vessels When the electrode flux melts. This even heat loss helps to control the grain structure of the metal. These weld types are: groove.

Inspection. The geometric relationship between the parts that are being joined and the access that is available for welding. such as the groove and fillet welds that are used in the corner joint. Groove welds are subdivided based on the shape of the edges of the groove welds. Other joint types may employ two weld types. Figure 5 shows the primary types of groove welds that are used in pressure vessel fabrication. The choice of the joint and weld type that is to be used in each case depends on the following: • • • Groove Welds Saudi Aramco and ASME Code requirements. Buttor tee-type joints with V or double-bevel groove welds are the most common weld joint types that are used in pressure vessel fabrication.F05 Figure 5: Types of Groove Welds Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . Economic considerations. SINGLE Bevel groove DOUBLE V groove J groove U groove MEX 20204. in some cases.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Note that. a given joint type may employ only one weld type. such as the groove weld that is used in the butt joint.

The bottom of the weld area is called the "root" of the weld. Note in Figure 5 that the edges of the pieces that are to be joined are cut from their initially supplied straight configuration into some form of bevel." Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . and Testing of Pressure Vessels For example. the weld metal is completely fused to the base metal and to itself throughout the full thickness). The parts that are being joined are separated by a small distance.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. double bevel groove welds are used." The primary pressure containing welds in pressure vessels must be designed for full penetration (that is. the weld penetrates through the complete thickness of the metals that are joined) and for full fusion (that is. The ASME Code also specifies the full fusion requirement. The type of edge preparation that is used depends on the following factors: • • • The thickness of the parts that are being joined. and the weld is completed from both sides to help ensure full penetration and fusion. butt-type joints are used to join pressure vessel shell and head plate sections together. The full penetration requirement is stated in the ASME Code and in 32-SAMSS-004. For thicker plates with access for welding from both sides. The angle of the bevel face is also specified to ensure that the welding electrode has complete access to the bottom of the weld area. Tee-type joints are used to join nozzles to shell or head sections. The cut edges are called "edge preparation. Whether the weld will be made in the shop with automatic equipment or whether it will be made manually. The particular welding process that is being used. Inspection. called the "root gap.

the width of the open area at the surface of the weld for a V-groove weld preparation increases because the bevel angle is constant through the entire thickness. However.03. when thick components are being joined.or U-groove weld geometries. The joint efficiency is specified by the ASME Code and depends on the type of weld examination that is used.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. With these J. and shear. The J or U groove-type weld preparations are more frequently used in thick fabrications. or compression.or U-groove weld. This extra weld metal increases the cost of fabrication for both material and labor. bending. the weld root is completely accessible. tension. Allowable stress of the weld metal (which is nearly always the same as that of the parts that are to be joined). The weld preparation cost is more for a J. This extra width requires a larger amount of weld metal to make the closure. The full penetration groove weld is the most reliable of all weld types. There are no significant stress concentration effects in a full penetration groove weld because there are no abrupt geometric discontinuities.or U-groove due to the reduced actual welding time and material. as was discussed in MEX 202. Stresses in groove welds are computed through the use of standard formulas for tension. but the total amount of open area that is to be filled with weld metal is reduced in comparison to the V-groove preparation. Inspection. The strength of a groove weld is based on the following: • • Cross-sectional area that is subject to shear. the total weld cost is less for a J. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . and Testing of Pressure Vessels As the thickness of the parts that are to be joined increases.

the allowable stress of a fillet weld is also lower than that of a groove weld. Inspection. stiffener rings. of its largest inscribed right triangle.F06 Figure 6: Fillet Weld at a Tee Joint The size of a fillet weld is specified by the leg length.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Figure 6 shows fillet welds at a tee-joint. and other attachments to the main pressure-containing parts. Stress concentrations at the root and toe of a fillet weld can cause fatigue failure under cyclic loading conditions. However. w. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . Fillet welds are primarily used to attach reinforcing pads. Fillet welds are never used as the primary pressureretaining weld in pressure vessel construction. No edge preparation is required for a fillet weld. T weld face toe w critical section w t force lines root or heel reinforcement Double fillet-weld tee joint T= w= t= welded part thickness weld leg weld throat MEX 20204. A 45° fillet weld with legs of equal size is the most common and economical type of fillet weld. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Fillet Welds A fillet weld has a triangular cross section and joins two surfaces that are typically at right angles to each other. This lack of edge preparation lowers the cost to make a fillet weld. and defines some relevant terms.

Inspection. A continuous fillet weld is required to prevent the occurrence of corrosion between the attachment and the vessel due to corrosive fluid being trapped between the two parts. However.03 in the discussion of weld joint efficiency. C. and stress concentration effects. Where fillet welds are used for attachments to a pressure vessel. These stresses consist of shear. and compression stresses.) thick and over. B. Division 1. SAES-D-001 requires that the weld be continuous. tension. Weld Joint Categories The ASME Code. Section VIII. Plug Welds A plug weld is a circular weld that is made through one member of a lap or tee-type joint. Recall that these categories were used in MEX 202. and Testing of Pressure Vessels The stresses in fillet welds are complex because of the eccentricity of the applied load. or D. Plug weld holes in thin plates are completely filled with weld metal through the entire plate thickness.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. the weld shape. The stress distribution is not uniform across the throat and leg of a fillet weld and varies along the length of the fillet weld. defines weld joint "categories" by the location of a joint in a vessel. Plug welds are most often used in pressure vessel construction to fix a corrosion-resistant strip lining into an existing vessel. The Categories are used by the ASME Code in the specification of joint type and degree of inspection for certain welded pressure-containing joints. practical assumptions are made with regard to the fillet weld geometry and applied load in order to simplify design. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 .5 mm (3/8 in. Plug weld holes are typically only partially filled in plates that are about 9. The joints that are included in each category are designated as Categories A.

32SAMSS-004 and SAES-W-010 prohibit the use of permanent backing strips. but such a joint achieves lower joint efficiencies. The following are examples of specifications in Table UW-12: • Buttwelded joints that are made by double-welding (i. welded from both sides) or by other means which will obtain the same weld metal quality on the inside and outside weld surfaces may be used for all joint categories. the metal backing strip cannot remain in place. Higher weld joint efficiencies reduce the required component thicknesses. in Table UW-12. • • Economics is a consideration in the determination of what weld joint efficiency and weld type to use. Section IX covers welding procedures and welder qualifications. and the use of Section IX is specified in SAES-W-010. This is the most commonly used weld type for the weld seams of the main pressure vessel because it results in the best weld joint efficiencies. The ASME Code. but the code allows such a joint only for circumferential butt joints that are not over 16 mm (0. and testing of pressure vessels. Section VIII contains rules for the mechanical design.) thick and that are not over 610 mm (24 in. The ASME Code permits the use of a single-welded butt joint without a backing strip for Categories A. which reduce material and fabrication costs. the weld joint types that may be used in each Category.e. Inspection. If a metal backing strip is used for this weld. Section IX is not covered in this section.. However. However. and Testing of Pressure Vessels As previously discussed. The ASME Code. fabrication. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . several welding procedure and welder qualification requirements are highlighted in the following paragraphs. the ASME Code specifies. From a practical standpoint. the allowable weld joint efficiency is so low for this type of joint that it is typically not used for pressure vessels in refinery applications. A single-welded butt joint with a backing strip also could be used for all joint categories in the ASME Code. B. However. and C. these cost reductions come at the expense of more expensive weld joint preparations and inspection.625 in.) in outside diameter. Welding Procedures and Welder Qualification The achievement of high quality pressure vessel fabrication requires the use of tested welding procedures as well as qualified welders or welding machines.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.

Therefore. the welding procedure has been shown to produce sound welds for the intended application. the procedure is said to be "qualified": that is. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . and Testing of Pressure Vessels Welding Procedures The pressure vessel designer determines the basic type and size of weld and the weld joint configuration to use in vessel fabrication. U. and flux) Electrode DC or AC electric current Voltage and current levels Manual or automatic welding Preheat temperature and. When a welding procedure is developed. Pressure vessel fabricators have well established welding procedures that are available for the types of welds and materials that they normally use. and the sample weld is inspected and tested. PWHT procedures The welding engineer produces a welding procedure that details exactly how the weld is to be done and considers the parameters that are listed above. based on the following parameters: • • • • • • • • • • • Material of components Thickness of components to be joined Diameter of components to be joined Position and direction of welding Type of weld bevel to use (e.g. When the sample weld is approved. a welder uses the procedure to weld a sample piece.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. welding procedures do not have to be qualified for every new pressure vessel that is fabricated. Each weld joint type in a pressure vessel has its own welding procedure.. V. Inspection. possibly. must specify exactly how the vessel components are to be welded together. on the other hand. one side. both sides) Welding process (including variables such as the welding speed. shielding gas. The welding engineer. Additional welding procedures are qualified only for new welds that the vessel fabricator has not made before. J.

procedure variables. A weld map. documentation. Section VIII. Basic Welding Requirements. Additional requirements are also specified for the test coupon. Several of these SAES-W-001 requirements that go beyond the ASME Code are highlighted as follows: • Welding procedures must be submitted to Saudi Aramco for review and approval prior to the start of work. and approval requirements. Inspection. Acceptable PWHT procedures are also specified. This information simplifies the review process. This review and approval procedure avoids the potential problem caused by welds being made by means of unacceptable procedures and by the need to then determine whether these welds can be accepted or whether they must be remade.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 . or table that specifies exactly where each weld procedure will be applied must be provided by the vessel manufacturer. These requirements ensure that adequate stress relief will occur. as specified in Paragraph UCS-56 for carbon and low-alloy steels. drawing. These ASME Code PWHT requirements are based on material type and thickness. and thickness. helps ensure consistency between procedure and weld. Saudi Aramco preheat and PWHT requirements are specified in SAES-W-010 and are contained in Work Aid 1. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Saudi Aramco welding procedure requirements are contained in SAES-W-001. The ASME Code contains the temperature and hold time requirements when PWHT is needed for stress relief considerations. Division 1) must be controlled during PWHT: • The minimum PWHT temperature and the minimum holding time at temperature are specified based on the material P-No. and assists maintenance personnel should repairs or alterations be required later. The following parameters (based on the ASME Code. • • Preheat and PWHT requirements were discussed in MEX 202. procedure requalification requirements.02 and must be specified in the welding procedure.

the maximum temperature variation in the portion of the vessel that is being heated must be limited to 139°C (250°F) in any 4.6 m (15 ft. - - - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 . In no case can the heatup rate exceed 222°C (400°F)/hr. Inspection. For carbon and low-alloy steels. the vessel may be cooled in still air. During heatup. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • Heatup and cooldown rates must be controlled within specified limits in order to avoid excessive local thermal stresses within the vessel during PWHT. cooldown must be done in a closed furnace or cooling chamber at a maximum rate of 278°C (500°F)/hr divided by the maximum metal thickness of the shell or head plate in inches. From 427°C (800°F) down. In no case can the cooldown rate exceed 278°C (500°F)/hr. During the temperature hold period. the maximum difference in temperature between any two parts of the vessel that is being heated must not exceed 83°C (150°F).Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Above 427°C (800°F). The furnace atmosphere must be controlled to avoid any excessive surface oxidation of the vessel.) length. the heatup rate must not be more than 222°C (400°F)/hr divided by the maximum metal thickness of the shell or head plate. in inches. Above 427°C (800°F). these heatup and cooldown rates are as follows: The furnace temperature must not exceed 427°C (800°F) before the vessel or vessel part is placed in it.

SAES-W-010 requires that PWHT be done on vessels in specific process services. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . 1. PWHT may be required based on process service considerations as well.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. The concern here is that the repair welding may defeat the benefits of the original PWHT. The size of repair is within specified limits. Groups 1 through 3. An unqualified welder or defective machine results in a poor quality weld. However. The PWHT is not required for service reasons. As noted earlier. the ASME Code specifies PWHT based primarily on stress relief considerations. that SAES-W-010 requires that PWHT be done after all repairs are completed. These PWHT requirements are summarized in Work Aid 1. however. since welded components are prone to cracking in certain process environments. Specified inspections are made. even if a qualified welding procedure is used. Welder Qualification A qualified weld procedure specifies how the weld is to be made. The result of these qualifications and tests is that qualified welding procedures are performed by qualified welders. and Testing of Pressure Vessels - Except as permitted for P-No. Inspection. and P-No. It should be noted. the individuals or equipment that actually do the welding must be tested to confirm that they have the capability to carry out the procedure. Therefore. the actual welds will be made either by men or machines. Groups 1 through 3 materials. 3. vessels which have received PWHT must receive an additional PWHT after any weld repairs have been made. Weld repairs may be made to these materials after the final PWHT without doing another PWHT provided that the following conditions are met: + + + + The repairs are made before the vessel hydrotest.

nozzles. or attachment pad that covers a weld seam. must conform to requirements that are specified in the SAESs. • For welded connections. Methods must also be established that relate the specific welder to his work and that permit test records to be maintained. and nonpressure components to a shell. and the ASME Code. This alignment eliminates any additional local stresses that may be caused by eccentric application of the vessel weight loads. Other requirements apply for less critical welds.) NPS weep hole is required in each nozzle reinforcing pad. Details that are used for the primary circumferential and longitudinal welds were discussed earlier in conjunction with weld joint categories. 32-SAMSS-004. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . and Testing of Pressure Vessels The ASME Code requires that welders and welding operators that are used to weld pressure-containing parts and to join loadcarrying nonpressure parts to pressure parts be qualified in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. saddle wear plate. Saudi Aramco Weld Detail Requirements Saudi Aramco specifies weld detail requirements in 32-SAMSS004 and SAES-W-010. The weep hole permits later pressure testing of the pad attachment welds and also provides a vent during welding. Support skirts are to be welded to vessel heads (with the exception of hemispherical heads) so that the centerlines of the skirt plate and the straight flange of the head line up. including the welds that attach heads.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. a 6 mm (1/4 in. Inspection. This lack of undercut minimizes local stress intensification effects and the potential for fatigue failure under cyclic loading. These requirements are contained in Work Aid 1. The weld that attaches the skirt is to have no undercut. Acceptable Welding Details All pressure vessel welds. The paragraphs that follow elaborate on two of these requirements. small fittings. Other Saudi Aramco and ASME Code weld detail requirements are highlighted below.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing of Pressure Vessels

ASME Weld Detail Requirements

Work Aid 1 summarizes two locations of ASME Code weld detail requirements. The paragraphs that follow provide additional comments about several of the ASME requirements. Further information related to these and other weld details is contained in the ASME Code. Thickness of a pressure vessel head sometimes differs from the thickness of the shell it is attached to, such as when a hemispherical head is attached to a cylindrical shell. The transition between the component thicknesses must be made gradually in a taper in order to avoid an excessive local stress. The head-to-shell weld will typically be made in the cylindrical shell. However, the weld can also be located within the taper. Head-to-shell thickness transitions are illustrated in Figure 16 in Work Aid 1. An intermediate head is attached to the inside of a cylindrical shell when the intermediate head separates two sections of the vessel. The butt weld between shell sections also attaches to the head, and a fillet weld is also located between the head and shell. The ASME Code permits elimination of the fillet weld if there is no access and if the service is noncorrosive. However, the fillet weld should generally be used for all refinery applications to avoid the potential for accelerated corrosion due to process fluid getting between the head and shell. The attachment of an intermediate head to a cylindrical shell is illustrated in Figure 16 in Work Aid 1. In some cases, a nozzle neck that has a weld-end may be attached to a pipe that is thinner. This attachment between components of different thicknesses could occur if extra thickness was included in the nozzle neck for reinforcement or if the pipe and nozzle materials and/or allowable stresses differ. In such a case, the nozzle neck must be tapered to the pipe thickness. Tapers of similar thickness are also used to join shell sections that are of different thicknesses. Shell thickness and nozzle thickness tapers are illustrated in Figures 15 and 17 respectively in Work Aid 1.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing of Pressure Vessels

Stiffener rings may be attached to the vessel shell by continuous, intermittent, or a combination of continuous and intermittent welds. Intermittent welds must be placed on both sides of the stiffener and may be either staggered or in-line. The ASME Code specifies acceptable spacing, size, and length of the welds. Stiffener ring attachment weld options are illustrated in Figure 18 in Work Aid 1.

Tolerances Pressure vessel components are designed for specified dimensions through the use of procedures and equations that were discussed in MEX 202.03. The actual fabrication of the individual components and the completed vessel must match the dimensions that were used in the design calculations within relatively small tolerances. These small tolerances are required for the design to be valid and for it to have the reliability that the ASME Code intends. The ASME Code specifies acceptable dimensional tolerances for specific situations. This specification also includes allowable alignment tolerances between components that are being welded together. Excessive misalignment between welded components can result in poor quality welds, local stress intensification effects that were not considered in the design, and a reduction in long-term weld reliability. Saudi Aramco generally accepts the ASME Code tolerance requirements without additions.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication, Inspection, and Testing of Pressure Vessels

Heads and Shells

The following list summarizes the primary dimensional tolerance requirements for heads and shells based on the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1. • Cylindrical, conical, and spherical shells that are under internal pressure must be substantially round and must meet the following requirements: The difference between the maximum and minimum inside diameters at any cross section is not to exceed 1% of the nominal diameter at the cross section. Since all the design equations are based on circular cross sections, deviations beyond this value would introduce higher local stresses that were not accounted for in the design calculations. When the cross section either passes through an opening, or within a distance of one inside diameter (I.D.) from the opening measured from its center, the permissible diametral difference stated above may be increased by 2% of the opening I.D.

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Cylindrical, conical, and spherical shells that are under external pressure must meet the same dimensional tolerances noted above, plus additional dimensional tolerances that are specified in Paragraph UG-80 of the ASME Code. These additional requirements account for local geometric discontinuities, which reduce the buckling resistance of a shell. Participants are referred to the ASME Code for details. The inner surface of a torispherical, toriconical, hemispherical, or ellipsoidal head cannot deviate outside of the specified shape by more than 1-1/4% of D and cannot deviate inside the specified shape by more than 5/8% of D. D is the nominal outside diameter of the vessel shell at the point of attachment. The knuckle radius cannot be less than the specified value.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

24

except for certain special provisions that are noted in Paragraph UG-16. • Plate Thickness For plate material that is ordered. and the material will typically be stronger than these minimum permissible material strength properties.01 in. there will be slight variations in plate thickness so that the entire plate would not be this thin.) exclusive of any corrosion allowance. In addition. If plate is furnished with an undertolerance of no more than the smaller of 0. it must be specified that the material is to be no thinner than the required design thickness. it may still be used at the full design pressure for the thickness ordered. This amount of overstress will still be well below a level that could cause a failure. Therefore.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. In the extreme case. the ASME Code requires that the minimum thickness for shells and heads. The difference between the maximum and minimum diameters of head skirts is to be limited to a maximum of 1% of the nominal diameter. shall be 1.25 mm (0. the allowable stresses are based on minimum permissible material strength properties.6 mm (1/16 in. From a practical standpoint. Inspection. after they are formed. permitting a nominal plate thickness undertolerance of up to 6% is well within reasonable safety margins. This minimum thickness requirement results in a basic degree of mechanical integrity of the vessel regardless of the actual design loads. This requirement is due to the influence that geometric shape has on the buckling characteristics of a shell. It should also be noted that. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • A hemispherical head or any spherical portion of a torispherical or ellipsoidal head that is designed for external pressure must meet additional tolerances that are specified in Paragraph UG-81 of the ASME Code.) or 6% of the ordered thickness. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . this degree of permissible plate thickness undertolerance permits at most a 6% overstress in the vessel component.

a relatively poor quality tack weld could be the initiation point of a weld failure.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. and retained in position during the welding operation. Tack welds must also be made using qualified welding procedures. Any tack welds that are used to achieve alignment must either be removed when they are no longer needed. Inspection. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . Alignment at edges that are to be buttwelded must have a maximum offset within the limits that are shown in Figure 7. is the nominal thickness of the thinner edge at the joint. The thickness. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Alignment As noted earlier. the alignment between two parts that are being welded together must be within a reasonable tolerance in order to achieve an acceptable weld. This procedure keeps the parts from moving during welding. The list that follows highlights several ASME Code requirements for alignment. t. • Plates that are to be welded together must be fitted. If qualified welding procedures are not used. aligned. or their ends must be ground and the tack weld incorporated into the final weld. based on weld joint category.

Over 3/4 to 1-1/2. • Any offset within the allowable tolerances must be fared at a 3:1 taper over the width of the finished weld. Over 1/2 to 3/4. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 . 1/8 in. Lesser of 1/16t or 3/8 in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. incl. This 3:1 amount of taper minimizes the effects of local stress concentrations. incl. Additional weld metal may be added at the edge of the weld to meet this requirement. Over 1-1/2 to 2. Inspection. 1/8 in. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Joint Categories t. C. Over 2 A 1/4t 1/8 in. & D 1/4t 1/4t 3/16 in. Figure 7: Edge Alignment in Butt Welds B. incl. 1/8t Lesser of 1/8t or 3/4 in. incl. in. Up to 1/2.

Incomplete fusion between weld beads or between the weld and the base metal.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. The most common weld defects for which welds are examined are as follows: • • • • • • • Poor weld shape due to part misalignment. The pressure vessel designer is responsible for specification of the type and extent of weld examination that is required in order to ensure that acceptable welds are achieved. Cracks in welds or heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the base metal. an intermittent or continuous groove that is located adjacent to the weld and that is left unfilled by weld metal. However. Undercut. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 . A good weld combines a good design with the execution of a qualified procedure by a qualified welder. Inspection. the ultimate quality of the actual welds that are made in a pressure vessel may not be acceptable for a variety of reasons. Slag inclusions or porosity in the form of voids. Pinholes on the weld surface. Lack of penetration or an insufficient extent of penetration of the weld metal into the joints. and Testing of Pressure Vessels DETERMINING WHETHER VENDOR INSPECTION AND TESTING PLANS SATISFY SAUDI ARAMCO REQUIREMENTS Overall inspection of completed pressure vessels includes an examination of the following: • • • • Welds Base material specification and quality Dimensional requirements Equipment documentation This section discusses only the methods and extent of required weld examinations.

...Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. . Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . .... . Between Weld Bead and Base Metal Between Adjacent Passes Lack of Fusion Incomplete Filling at Root on One Side Only Incomplete Filling at Root Incomplete Penetration External Undercut Undercut Figure 8: Typical Weld Defects 29 .. . . .. Internal Undercut ...... ... .. . . . . ... . .. .. . and Testing of Pressure Vessels Several of these common weld defects are illustrated in Figure 8. . Inspection.

the types of defects that they can detect. Inspection.0 means that there is greater assurance that high weld quality is achieved. The need for this impact testing must be included as part of the vessel vendor's fabrication plans. The sections that follow discuss radiographic and other forms of weld inspection. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 . and ASME Code requirements have already been discussed. to an internal pressure that is high enough to demonstrate its mechanical integrity. In practical terms. and the extent of required examination. Weld inspection must be performed in a manner that will detect unacceptable defects and that will not damage the vessel material. a spot radiographic examination produces a weld joint efficiency of 0. Later sections discuss pressure test requirements in more detail. weld joint efficiency.0 in a fullpenetration butt weld. If the material is not exempt from impact testing in accordance with Division 2 requirements. and increases the risk of failure. The objective of a pressure test is to bring the vessel. Welds that connect nozzles or major structural components to vessel shells must also be of high quality. This type of inspection is called nondestructive examination. Charpy impact tests must be made to confirm that the material has adequate fracture toughness prior to fabrication. a weld joint efficiency of 1. Radiographic weld examination. Weld hardness must be kept below specified maximum values in order to decrease the potential for weld cracking in certain process environments. Main seam pressure-containing welds are not the only ones whose quality must be assured.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. therefore.85 in a full-penetration butt weld. based on service considerations and the vessel material. After a pressure vessel has been completely fabricated. and that the vessel parts may. under controlled conditions. be fabricated from thinner material. it must be pressure-tested before it is considered safe for operation. and Testing of Pressure Vessels The presence of defects reduces the strength of the weld below the requirements of the design calculations. For example. reduces the overall strength of the fabrication. that there is no difference in quality between the weld and the base metal. or NDE. Weld hardness tests may be required prior to fabrication and after the welding of vessel components. A 100% radiographic examination produces a weld joint efficiency of 1.

Inspection.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . and the particular defects that are expected. a ray is emitted from a controllable source. The major advantage of RT is that it produces a permanent record of the examination on film. the position of the weld. Figure 9 shows a typical setup for RT examination. the material to be joined. In radiographic examination. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Methods of Examination The five primary weld NDE methods are as follows: • • • • • Radiographic examination (RT) Visual Inspection (VT) Liquid penetrant examination (PT) Magnetic particle test (MT) Ultrasonic examination (UT) The choice of which weld examination method or methods to use depends on the weld quality required of the joint. Radiographic Examination (RT) The most important NDE method is radiographic examination. These weld NDE methods are discussed in the paragraphs that follow. and leaves an image on a strip of film that is mounted behind the test specimen. penetrates a test specimen.

F09 Figure 9: Typical RT Setup Any change in density of the weld metal shows on the film as a dark spot. When RT examination is done. and Testing of Pressure Vessels X-Ray Tube X-Ray Film Test Specimen 20204. Inspection. access to the area is restricted to essential personnel. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . RT examination is a relatively expensive method due to the high equipment cost and required safety precautions. RT examination is most effective in the detection and identification of small flaws. such as longitudinal and circumferential joints in pressure vessel shells. RT examination is most effective in the examination of buttwelded joints. slag inclusions. and the operators are located behind protective shields in order to minimize operator exposure to the rays that are emitted.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Flaws such as gas pockets. but RT is not practical for complex shapes such as tee junctions because the results of the examination are difficult to interpret. incomplete penetration. or cracks that are located anywhere through the weld thickness are readily detected.

must be completely removed since they could prevent the entrance of penetrant into the metal and could also prevent the identification of the flaw. PT examination is done on intermediate weld passes for critical welds in order to detect and repair defects early before an entire weld is made. weld undercut. or any other surface defect. The basic steps of a PT inspection are as follows: (1) Surface Preparation and Cleaning: All surface coatings. or UT. such as those that connect insulation support rings to a vessel shell. Defects which a PT examination may detect are cracks. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Visual Inspection (VT) A thorough visual inspection is usually satisfactory for minor structural welds. In some cases. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 . PT is often done on the weld root pass to ensure that the first weld pass is sound. inclusions. Visual weld inspection involves measuring the weld and noting any areas of obvious surface porosity. after which another inspection method is used to search for internal defects. The VT provides an overall impression of weld quality and helps to locate areas where additional NDE should be performed. seams. porosity. PT examination is used for both ferrous and nonferrous materials. PT is relatively simple and is less expensive than RT. folds. slag inclusions. Solvents are commonly used for surface preparation. PT is also often used after the final weld pass to find flaws that go through the weld surface. It cannot be used as the only examination tool for critical pressure-containing welds. MT. or overlap. Inspection. Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT) A liquid penetrant examination is used to detect weld surfacetype defects. shrinkage. PT is often used as the first and only step up from VT for relatively minor structuraltype welds. such as paint and contaminants. All weld surfaces that will be examined by more extensive means are first subject to VT. The major limitation of PT examination is that it can only detect imperfections that are open to the surface.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.

The penetrant must still be liquid at this stage rather than dried. or the entire process must be started again. developer is immediately applied to make the flaws readily visible. A cold-shut crack appears as a line of dots and comes to the surface a few minutes after the developer is applied. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . Spraying is a common means of solution application. By acceleration of the capillary bleed-out process. A cold-shut crack is an undersurface crack that bleeds to the surface. The liquid penetrant solutions also contain a fluorescent or visible dye to mark potential defect areas. Removal of Excess Penetrant: Excess penetrant must be removed from the surface by wiping the surface with a clean cloth or equivalent. Porosity indications appear as dots and come to the surface almost immediately after developer application. Development emphasizes the presence of a flaw by causing the penetrant that is retained in it to spread over a larger area. With either type of penetrant. and high reliability to permit penetration into defects by capillary action. Development also acts as a color-contrasting background for the dye or fluorescent penetrants. The objective is to remove the penetrant from the weld surface without removing any penetrant that seeped into weld defects. Inspection and Evaluation: After development. Inspection is done in normal light when visible dye penetrants are used and in ultraviolet light when fluorescent dye penetrants are used. A large crack appears as a solid line of some width and becomes apparent soon after developer application.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. and Testing of Pressure Vessels (2) Penetrant Application: Liquid penetrant solutions have high fluidity. the developer helps detect penetrant that is retained in surface flaws. the weld is inspected. Inspection. and porosity. Development: After excess penetrant has been removed. (3) (4) (5) The standard true flaws that are indicated by PT include cracks. pits. both true and false indications may be revealed. low viscosity. after which excess penetrant is removed. Adequate liquid penetration into any flaws generally takes 10 to 30 minutes.

a small break in the force lines appears at the defect location. and Testing of Pressure Vessels False or nonrelevant indications are not caused by surface flaws. These force lines are parallel if no defects are present. Inspection. The results of the PT are evaluated to determine if the flaws are real. In MT examination. The primary reasons these false indications occur are poor PT application procedures or rough weld surfaces. MT is frequently employed on the root and final weld passes or every 6 mm (1/4 in. If there is a defect. MT examination is based on the magnetic lines of flux (or force lines) that can be generated within a test piece. porosity. the iron powder is aligned in straight lines along the North-South magnetic flux lines. Figure 10 shows schematically how the iron powder is distributed at a defect during an MT examination.) of weld buildup for critical welds where RT inspection is not practical (such as for nozzle attachment welds).Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. to determine their extent and exact nature. and lack of fusion at or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. MT depends on the magnetic properties of the material that is inspected and cannot be used on nonmagnetic materials. Flaws that are up to 6 mm (1/4 in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . If there are no defects.) beneath the weld surface can be detected. iron powder is applied to the surface and then the test piece is magnetized. Magnetic Particle Test (MT) The MT examination can detect cracks. If there is a defect. the iron powder alignment is disturbed and flows around the defect. and to determine if repairs are needed.

that may be present in thick plates. or forgings. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Force Lines (Flux) South South/North North Surface Flaw Flux Lines Surface MEX 20204. the nozzle attachment welds cannot be reliably RT examined. UT is often used to confirm that high weld quality is obtained in pressurecontaining joints that cannot be RT examined. welds. Unless specially designed nozzles are used. A heavy wall thickness pressure vessel typically employs 100% RT examination of the primary longitudinal and circumferential joints. castings. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 .F10 Figure 10: Sub-Surface Defect Along Magnetic Lines of Flux Ultrasonic Examination (UT) Ultrasonic examination is frequently used to detect subsurface flaws.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Inspection. such as laminations or slag inclusions. because nozzles are typically tee joints. UT inspection may be used to ensure that the nozzle attachment welds are equal in quality to the primary vessel joints that were RT examined.

sound waves are generated by a power source and applied to the test piece through a transducer. By careful calibration. Figure 11 shows a pulse echo ultrasonic examination system. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Read Out Base Line Input-Output Generator A B C Cable Transducer A Couplant Test Specimen B C Flaw 20204. Inspection.F11 Figure 11: Pulse Echo UT System In the system shown in Figure 11. and Testing of Pressure Vessels In UT examination. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . the UT operator knows if a flaw has been detected and knows its location and its size. the sound waves pass through the test piece and are reflected back to the transducer either from the far side of the test piece or from a flaw that is located at an intermediate position within the test piece.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.

In this case. the flaw blocks the reception of the sound waves from the receiving transducer. one to transmit the sound waves and the other to receive them. if a flaw is present. Inspection. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Figure 12 shows a through-transmission UT system. It uses two transducers. CRT and Power Source Coaxial Cables Couplant Sending Transducer Flaw or Discontinuity Couplant Receiving Transducer Figure 12: Through-Transmission UT System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 . Flaws up to 6 mm (1/4 in. May be used for welds where RT not practical. procedures. complex shapes. slag Helps pinpoint inclusions. constantly castings. and equipment possibilities for each method that was described. shrinkage Cracks. Most effective for butt-welded joints. forgings. cracks ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS Produces Expensive. incomplete penetration. Magnetic Particle Ultrasonic Subsurface flaws: laminations. or UT. MT. slag inclusions. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Figure 13 summarizes the types of nondestructive examinations. calibrated. Figure 13: Summary of NDE Types Complete discussion of the primary NDE methods that are used in pressure vessel fabrication requires the investigation of many different techniques. welds. Such a complete discussion of NDE is beyond the scope of this course. Cannot be used on nonferrous materials. and the advantages and limitations of each process. Can only detect what is clearly visible. pits. Not practical for Detects small flaws. weld areas for additional undercuts. porosity. and less expensive than RT. lack of fusion Liquid Penetrant Used for ferrous Can only detect and nonferrous surface materials. seams. Simple imperfections. NDE. porosity. the defects typically found by each.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Visual Porosity holes. permanent record. inclusions. NDE TYPE Radiographic DEFECTS DETECTED Gas pockets. overlapping Weld surface-type defects: cracks.) beneath surface can be detected. slag inclusions Can be used for Equipment must be thick plates. Inspection. folds.

The presence of a lamination in these areas could lead to poor quality welds and/or high local stresses that were not considered in the vessel design calculations. weld shrinkage stresses could cause a lamination to open further. Such opening of a lamination could also occur during plate forming. if attachment welds are made in the vicinity of a lamination.) thick must be 100% UT-examined for a distance of 150 mm (6 in. • - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 . As plates get thicker. Inspection. this situation could occur in very large field-fabricated vessels where the foundation has not been designed for the total water weight and where the vessel is not completely filled with water for field pressure testing. All plates that are over 50 mm (2 in. Work Aid 2A summarizes the steps which may be used to confirm that vessel vendor inspection plans meet Saudi Aramco and Division 1 requirements. • SAES-W-010 requires that any pressure-containing weld that will not be hydrotested must be 100% radiographed. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Type and Extent of Required Examination The type and extent of examinations that are required for pressure vessel welds are specified by Saudi Aramco requirements and by the ASME Code. However. Such a situation is rare for pressure vessels. 32-SAMSS-004 requires UT examination as follows: All plates that are over 50 mm (2 in.) thick must be UT-examined. For example.) back from a nozzle weld preparation or other cut-out. The following paragraphs elaborate on several of these inspection requirements. Participants should refer to Division 2 for details when required. they are more prone to internal laminations which could be detrimental to vessel integrity after subsequent fabrication is done. The ASME Code also specifies inspection procedures and acceptance criteria which must be followed. Requirements that are contained in Section VIII. Division 2 tend to be more stringent than Division 1 requirements.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.

The objective of the pressure test is to bring the vessel to a high enough internal pressure. prohibits a pneumatic pressure test without written approval from the Chief Inspection Engineer. under controlled conditions. UT examination is done to ensure that there is an acceptable bond between the cladding and base plate. SAESA-004. Participants are referred to the ASME Code for pneumatic test requirements.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. The pressure test is made at a pressure that is higher than the design pressure. Vessels in refrigerant service must be either hydrotested and dried or must be pneumatically tested. Pressure Test Plans All pressure vessels that are designed to ASME Code requirements must be pressure tested after fabrication and inspection in order to demonstrate their structural integrity before they are placed into operation. However. only the hydrostatic test will be discussed. and Testing of Pressure Vessels - Clad steel plates must be UT-examined. Successful completion of the pressure test signifies that the vessel is acceptable for operation. The ASME Code permits performance of a pneumatic pressure test as an alternative to a hydrostatic test under certain circumstances. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . This excess pressure provides a safety margin since the vessel component stress levels during the test will be higher than the stress levels which will occur during operation. Inspection. Pressure tests are typically made using water as the test medium because of the relative safety of water compared to a pneumatic test. SAES-A-004 also specifies general requirements for pressure testing. to demonstrate its mechanical integrity. Pressure Testing. Since the hydrostatic test will almost always be used. 32-SAMSS-004 specifies that all vessels except those in refrigerant service must be hydrotested.

The Pressure Vessel Design Sheet (Form 9527) also contains the required equations. The calculated hydrotest pressure cannot exceed the test pressure of the flanged connections. for the field test with the vessel in the final position and with uncorroded component thicknesses. Refer to the copy of Form 9527 that is contained in Course Handout 3 and note the following: • Hydrotest pressures must be calculated for the shop test with the vessel in the horizontal position. Work Aid 2B may be used to help determine if the hydrotest pressure that is specified by a vendor is correct. The basis for calculation of the initial test pressure for the vessel in the shop is the lower of the pressure calculated for the shell or the pressure calculated for the heads. The shop hydrotest pressure must also consider the permitted hydrotest pressure of any flanged connections. Use of this pressure level for the hydrotest permits potential use of the vessel up to its MAWP without the need for a new hydrotest. and Testing of Pressure Vessels 32-SAMSS-004 requires that the pressure at the top of the vessel be determined by the rules of Paragraph UG-99 (c) for Division 1 vessels or by the rules of Paragraph AT-301 for Division 2 vessels. the appropriate weld joint efficiency. and the material allowable stress at test temperature. the nominal component thickness which includes corrosion allowance.03. The "calculated test pressure" for each element is determined based on the appropriate equation for MAWP that was discussed in MEX 202.5 and by reducing the value by the hydrostatic head on that element. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 . Inspection. Form 9527 contains areas that directly relate to determination of the required hydrotest pressure. These ASME Code rules require that the hydrostatic test pressure at the top of the vessel be calculated by multiplying the "calculated test pressure" for each element by 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. and for the field test with the vessel in the final position and with corroded component thicknesses.

based on 32-SAMSS-004 requirements. Inspection.0 is used. Each vessel section must typically be designed for a separate hydrotest. to withstand the hydrotest loads in some cases. The larger specific gravity and fill height of hydrotest water results in a higher weight and hydrostatic head load than occurs during normal operation. The stress in the vessel is limited to 90% of the MSYS to ensure that there is an adequate safety margin before permanent deformation in vessel components can occur. and the design high liquid level is usually much lower than the top of the tower. Also recall that a reduced wind must be considered to act during the field hydrotest. Each separate hydrotest could affect the intermediate head design because the head is exposed to a higher weight and hydrostatic test pressure than would occur during normal operation. and Testing of Pressure Vessels SAES-D-001 and 32-SAMSS-004 require that.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Section VIII. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . A tall tower is typically designed for a specific liquid level (design high liquid level) as part of its normal design conditions. Therefore. based on use of the design weld joint efficiency (E). during the pressure test. However. • If visible. water at a specific gravity of 1.0. especially for tall towers. The requirement to design the vessel for field hydrotest introduces a complication. permanent distortion of the vessel occurs during hydrotest. There are situations where one pressure vessel may have two or more individual sections that are separated by intermediate heads. the specific gravity of the design liquid is normally less than 1. During a field hydrotest. The paragraphs that follow summarize additional general hydrostatic test requirements that are based on the ASME Code. Division 1. the stress at any section of the vessel cannot exceed 90% of the material minimum specified yield strength (MSYS). thicker plates are required for lower sections of the tower than would be required for the operational loads. the ASME Authorized Inspector has the right to reject the vessel. Permanent distortion should not occur as long as the design is correct and the test pressure does not exceed the value that was calculated on the basis described above. and the tower is filled to the top.

The allowable stress correction is equal to the ratio of the material allowable stress at test temperature to the allowable stress at design temperature. the adjacent chambers are then hydrotested simultaneously.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. corrected for the effect that design temperature has on material allowable stress. In addition: If the common elements are designed for a higher differential pressure than the MAWP's of the adjacent chambers. then their common elements must have a hydrotest pressure that is at least 1-1/2 times the differential pressure that is marked on the unit. Inspection. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • Pressure chambers of combination units that are designed to operate independently must be hydrotested as separate vessels: that is. and if this pressure is less than the higher pressure in the adjacent chambers. • All joints and connections must be inspected after application of the hydrotest pressure. Care must be taken to limit the differential pressure between the chambers to the pressure that is used when testing the common elements. The test pressure must not be applied until the vessel and water are at about the same temperature. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 . This inspection must be made at a pressure that is not less than 2/3 of the test pressure. The metal temperature during hydrotest should be maintained at least 17°C (30°F) above the minimum design metal temperature but not over 49°C (120°F). each chamber must be tested without pressure in the other chambers. then the hydrotest of the common elements must subject them to at least 1. The minimum metal temperature is specified to minimize the risk of brittle fracture. - After testing and inspection of the common elements. If the common elements are designed for the maximum differential pressure that can occur. corrected for temperature.5 times their design differential pressure.

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Sample Problem 1: Calculation of the Required Hydrotest Pressure The horizontal drum that is described in Figure 14 is being supplied to Saudi Aramco. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • Vents must be provided at all vessel high points (based on test position) to purge possible air pockets while the vessel is filled with water. Work Aid 2B may be used to help solve this problem. Determine the required hydrotest pressures for the new vessel in the shop and field. Inspection. Also determine the required service test pressure with the vessel corroded. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 .

14 Design Temperature .500°F Design Pressure .Elliptical Seamless ( Typical ) 0.0.125 in. Longitudinal stress in the shell due to weight plus pressure does not govern the specified shell thickness. ID 20204.Allowable Stress = 17.125 psig Head and Shell Material . Inspection. Figure 14: Sample Problem 1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. and it may be assumed that the specified thickness is correct. 70 .75 in. Nominal Thickness 10 ft.000 psi Corrosion Allowance .Yield Stress = 38. and Testing of Pressure Vessels 2:1 Semi .500 psi . hydrotested to 450 psig Drum designed to be completely water filled.85 for shell welds ANSI Class 150 flanges.SA-516 Gr. E = 0.

Shell S ET P s = R +c0.75 in. D = 120 in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.75 120 + 0. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Solution: • Determine Initial Test Pressure Basis.6 × 0. R = 60 in. 2T Sc = 17 500 psi E = 1. PE = 218 psig Therefore. the shell is the limiting component and is the basis for determining test pressure. Pc. P s = 185 psig Heads 2 ScET PE = D + 0.75 in.75 60 + 0. 6T Sc = 17 500 psi E = 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 .75 T = 0. Inspection.2 × 0. 75 T = 0.85 × 0.0 PE = 2 × 17 500 × 1× 0.85 Ps = 17 500 × 0.

433 × 10 B = 4. Solution: 1.5 for each flange Class.433h PSH = 278 − 0. PNT = 450 psig in this case.7 psig. rounded to 274 psig • Solution: Determine the field hydrotest pressure with the drum new and in the final position. 433 h = 0. the smallest of Ps (PE or PD. • Determine test pressure of bolted flange connections.5 × 185 = 278 psig PNT = 450 psig BSH = 278 psig (smaller of PNT or 1.5Pc = 1. h = 10 ft. PSH. Inspection.7 psig Answer: PSH = 273. A = BSH = 278 psig B = 0. PNT.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Answer: P c = 185 psig. as applicable). (height of test water in vessel with the vessel horizontal). PNT can be found in ANSI/ASME B16. 7.33 C = A − B = 273.5P c ) PSH = BSH − 0. • Determine shop hydrotest pressure at top with vessel horizontal. rounded to 274 psig P T = 125 psig (the vessel design pressure) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 .433 × 10 PSH = 273. as was stated in the given information.

75 ) 0. . • Determine service test pressure at the top of the vessel with the vessel corroded and confirm that the stress in the vessel does not exceed 0. B = 4. • Confirm that the stress in the limiting component does not exceed 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 . This would not be the case for a tall tower which is hydrotested horizontally in the shop but vertically in the field. we only need to check its stress: S= P(R + 0. Inspection. Note that the shop and field test pressures with the vessel new are equal in this case since this is a horizontal drum and since the hydrostatic head pressures from the water are equal.9 × 38 000 = 34 200 psi Answer: Since S < 34 200 psi. test pressure at the top = 274 psig (the higher of C or D).Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. 6 × 0. rounded to 192 psig at the bottom of the vessel Answer: Therefore. 6T ) ET Note that the pressure used is at the bottom of the limiting component. the hydrotest pressure is acceptable.75 S = 26 361psi 0. E. S= 278 (60 + 0. Solution: Since the shell is the limiting component.83. 85 × 0. 33 E = D + B = 191.9 of the minimum specified yield strength times the weld joint efficiency. Note that E was accounted for already in the equation. 5 .9 of the minimum specified yield strength times E. and Testing of Pressure Vessels D = 1 5PT = 1 5 × 125 = 187.

It is also possible to convert hardness measurements that are taken using one method into equivalent values on the other hardness measurement scales.6 × 0. The Brinell.75 . 5 psig : . the harder a material is. Therefore.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.125 + 0.625 in.625) S= 0. since Saudi Aramco requires these methods.125 = 0. is directly proportional to material strength. and is inversely proportional to ductility and toughness. there will be a variation in hardness across the base metal. and Rockwell methods are the most common approaches that are used to measure hardness. Therefore. corroded thickness Solution: P(R + 0. and HAZ of welded components due to local variations in chemistry (especially carbon content). Vickers.0.625 S= Answer: S = 21 865 psi < 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50 . 6T ) ET 192 (60.9 × 38 000 = 34 200 psi Therefore. and preheat temperature. Inspection. the more prone it will be to cracking or brittle fracture. the vessel is acceptable. Discussion of such conversions is beyond the scope of this course. Welding procedure changes and PWHT are often done to reduce weld hardness when hardness reduction is needed due to material and/or service considerations.85 × 0.. weld metal. Hardness can be readily measured. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Service Test Pressure = 1 5 × PT = 187. The paragraphs that follow briefly describe the Brinell and Vickers hardness measurement methods. Hardness Test Plans Hardness in metals is defined as the ability to resist the penetration of the metallic surface. welding technique. Hardness is affected by material chemistry and microstructure and is thus greatly influenced by the heat of welding. P = 192 psig at shell bottom T = 0.

Vickers Hardness Test The Vickers hardness test employs a similar principle as the Brinell test in that the Vickers test expresses the results in terms of the pressure under the indentor and uses the same units. the loads are lighter and vary between 1 and 120 kg (2. However. and the other methods are faster for production work. and file-hard steel about 600 BHN. the indentor is a diamond that is shaped as a square pyramid. Hardness Test Results The ASME Code does not have weld hardness testing requirements or limitations. Inspection. However. and the impression is measured using a mediumpower compound microscope. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Brinell Hardness Test In the Brinell test. The Vickers method is more flexible and is considered to be more accurate than either the Brinell or Rockwell methods. For example.265 lb.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.). Hardness test requirements are specified for both the welding procedure qualification welds and the vessel production welds. Work Aid 2C provides a checklist which may be used to help confirm that vessel vendor hardness test plans meet Saudi Aramco requirements. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51 .) in diameter is pressed into the surface of the metal with a load of 3 000 kg (6 614 lb. The diameter of the impression is converted to the Brinell hardness number (BHN) by consulting a table. soft iron is about 100 BHN.2 . a steel ball that is 10 mm (3/8 in. However.). is used for hardness testing of production welds in a pressure vessel. which uses a much lighter weight to make the indentation. SAESW-010 specifies when hardness testing must be done for pressure vessels and also specifies the acceptable hardness limits. The paragraphs that follow elaborate on several of these hardness test requirements. The diameter of the impression that is made in the metal surface is then measured through the use of a special microscope. the equipment is more expensive. SAES-W-010 and 32SAMSS-004 have weld hardness testing requirements. A portable Brinell hardness tester.

partial cladding. • The weld procedure qualification welds must also be hardness-tested for vessels in any service if the wall thickness is greater than 38 mm (1. Inspection.5 in). the cladding or overlay shields the ferritic base plate from the sour fluid. and except when the weld procedure is used only for external structural attachment welds. The concern here is that the high heat inputs that are required to make heavy welds could cause the welds to be hard and more prone to cracking under service loads.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. PWHT may be required for specific materials and/or thicknesses in order to meet the hardness limits that are specified by Saudi Aramco. except for vessels that are made from austenitic stainless steel or nickelbased alloys.0 in.) thick. Another exemption from hardness testing is if the weld procedure is used only for external structural attachments and the vessel wall at the attachment point is at least 25 mm (1. the weld HAZ will not extend to the vessel inside surface and thus will not be affected by the sour fluid. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • The Vickers hardness test procedure must be used for welding procedure qualification welds for vessels that are in sour service except for specified exemptions. In this case. However. or partial overlay are not exempt from hardness testing. Partial or complete strip lining. In this case. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52 . Hardness testing is required for this application since hard welds are prone to cracking in sour service. One of the exemptions from hardness testing is if all vessel internal surfaces are clad or weld-overlaid with austenitic stainless steel or nickel-based alloys. the exemptions must still comply with all NACE MR-01-75 hardness levels and test requirements.

regardless of material. Hardness Testing for Welding Procedure Qualifications. to ensure that the production welds consistently have acceptable hardness levels.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. when specified. Inspection. must meet the following requirements: Testing must be done with a portable hardness tester (TeleBrinell or approved equivalent). Hardness indentations must be made at or near the middle of the weld bead. This indentation location will give an average hardness reading that is a composite of the weld metal. The Brinell scale must be used unless another scale is approved by Saudi Aramco. • - - - The Saudi Aramco hardness testing requirements ensure that weld hardness is considered in the weld procedure qualification tests when appropriate. This smoothing is required to obtain an accurate hardness measurement. base metal. Production weld hardness testing. The Brinell hardness test is used in this case because it is generally quicker and less expensive for production hardness testing than the other hardness testing methods. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 . and HAZ (considering the size of the indentor that is used). and Testing of Pressure Vessels SAES-W-010 also requires hardness testing of the production welds for all vessels that are in sour service. The weld must be ground to a smooth flat surface for testing. The hardness tests then confirm that the hardness of the actual production welds is acceptable for sour service. Hardness retesting may be performed within specified limits if the original hardness test results are too high. SAES-W-001 specifies requirements as follows: • hardness testing procedural Hardness testing of welding procedure qualification coupons must conform to Standard Drawing AB-036386 (W).

• • Requirements for impact test procedures and apparatus are specified. The material "astested" must then be confirmed to be equivalent to the material "as-fabricated. Inspection. impact energies will be measured in the direction in which the plate will tend to be tougher. Therefore. • - This approach ensures that the basic materials are acceptable before they arrive at the vessel vendor and provides earlier materials quality control. the vendor's impact test plans must be based on both Division 2 and Saudi Aramco requirements. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Impact Test Plans Material toughness. the stated requirements are from Division 2. plate specimens may be oriented with the specimen length parallel to the final direction of rolling. Also recall that 32-SAMSS-004 requires that ASME exemption criteria and impact test procedures must be used for both Division 1 and Division 2 pressure vessels. With this orientation.02. Unless otherwise noted. Certified impact test reports by the materials manufacturer are acceptable provided that either of the following conditions are met: The specimens are representative of the material that was delivered and the vessel fabrication will not reduce the impact properties of the material. brittle fracture. and the ASME Code exemption curves were discussed in MEX 202. Each set of impact tests must consist of three specimens of a specified size." Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Unless otherwise specified. Participants are referred to Division 2 for additional details. once it is determined that the material cannot be exempt from impact testing. The materials from which the specimens are removed are heat treated separately such that they are representative of the material in the finished vessel. Work Aid 2D contains a checklist which may be used to confirm that vendor impact test plans meet Saudi Aramco requirements. Charpy impact testing. The paragraphs that follow highlight several Saudi Aramco and Division 2 requirements.

Inspection. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) electrode or for any Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) electrode that is used for welding procedures with impact toughness requirements. When impact testing is required.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. 32-SAMSS-004 requires that the impact test temperature must be 18°C (32°F) below the minimum design temperature that is specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet Form 9527. • the vessel Minimum required Charpy V-notch impact energy values are specified. Acceptable impact energy values are specified as a function of tensile strength. and higher values are required as the tensile strength increases. the specified brand. SAES-W-010 contains the following items related to impact tests: For any flux. type. This approach provides additional review to ensure that material toughness is adequately considered in the weld procedure. it must include the base metal. all other parameters being equal. Therefore. and Testing of Pressure Vessels As an alternative to this confirmation. • • - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 . and maximum size used for the Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) must be used in the actual fabrication. manufacturer may do the impact testing. weld metal. Higher strength steels are more prone to brittle fracture than lower strength steels. and HAZ. These values are stated both as the average value for the three specimens and the minimum value for any one specimen. higher strength steels must achieve higher impact energy values in order to have adequate fracture toughness. Welding procedures with impact test requirements must be submitted by the Inspection Department to the Consulting Services Department for final review and approval. This approach provides an extra margin of safety against brittle fracture.

These codes and standards include the following: • • • • • ASME Code. Section VIII (Division 1 or 2. Pressure Vessels SAES-W-010. Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels 32-SAMSS-004. as appropriate) ASME Code. Section IX SAES-D-001.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 . and Testing of Pressure Vessels Applicable Codes and Standards The codes and standards that apply to the evaluation of vendor inspection and testing plans were discussed throughout the prior sections of this module. Inspection. Pressure Vessels Work Aid 2 may be used to help determine whether vendor inspection and testing plans meet Saudi Aramco requirements.

Inspection. type and extent of required examination. and the applicable codes and standards which will enable the Participant to determine whether vendor inspection and testing plans satisfy Saudi Aramco requirements. welding procedures and welder qualification. These requirements will enable the Participant to correctly evaluate fabrication drawings for acceptability.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. This module completes discussion of the requirements that must be met for a new pressure vessel. hardness. and impact test plans. It has also identified the acceptable welding details and fabrication tolerances for pressure vessel components that are contained in the Saudi Aramco SAESs and SAMSSs. and Testing of Pressure Vessels SUMMARY This module discussed welding fundamentals. and in the ASME Code. types of welded joints. pressure.05 will discuss maintenance and repair requirements for existing pressure vessels. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 . MEX 202. The second section of this module discussed methods of examination. and acceptable welding techniques.

Section VIII. in conjunction with this Work Aid. Pressure Vessels. This reference should generally be sufficient confirmation that the vendor intends to follow the fabrication requirements that are contained in these documents. Section VIII. Shell and head pressure-containing welds are to be full penetration and full fusion. 1. Figure references that are noted are in the ASME Code. and takes the form of a checklist with appropriate references. 3. and 32-SAMSS-004. and SAES-W-010 in Course Handout 2. 7. Division 1. 4. For example. Division 1 in Course Handout 1. and Testing of Pressure Vessels WORK AID 1: STEPS.) NPS weep hole is to be in all reinforcement or other plates that are welded to the shell. A 6 mm (1/4 in. Reinforcing pad attachment welds are to be at least 50 mm (2 in. Shell and head joint details are to be consistent with weld joint categories that are used in the vessel design in accordance with Figure UW-12. DRAWINGS. AND CODE (SAES-W-010) AND PROCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR EVALUATING FABRICATION DRAWINGS FOR ACCEPTABILITY This Work Aid may be used to evaluate fabrication drawings for suitability. Nozzles and manholes that extend into clad vessels are to be in accordance with Standard Drawing AB-036367 (Reference Course Handout 3). 5. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 . Inspection. but must meet ASME requirements. unless there is specific information to the contrary. dimensional tolerances will typically not be shown on vendor drawings. This requirement is not applicable to hemispherical heads. 6. unless stated otherwise.) from head-to-shell welds. 2. 8. Section VIII. Nozzle attachments are to be full-penetration welds.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Reference should be made to the classroom copies of the ASME Code. Division 1. Vendor fabrication drawings are to reference the ASME Code. Support skirts are to be welded to the vessel heads such that the skirt centerline aligns with the head straight flange centerline.

Welded attachments are to be continuously seal-welded to the vessel. Figures 15 through 17 provide excerpts from these figures. Figure UW-13. 11.) thick shall be made in at least two passes. Division 1 as follows: • • • Figure UW-9 for shell transitions.4 for nozzle neck attachment to thinner pipe. Welds that are greater than 3 mm (0. Figure UW-13. and structural brackets that are attached to the vessel shall be seal-welded all around. Section VIII. and Testing of Pressure Vessels 9. 10. Refer to the ASME Code.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. support rings.1 for head-to-shell transitions. Internal and external supports. Thickness transition details are to meet ASME Code requirements. 12. Inspection. pads. Figure 15: Typical Shell Transitions Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 .125 in.

.. . ......... .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Butt Weld Intermediate Head Attachment Figure 16: Typical Head-to-Shell Transitions Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 ..... and Testing of Pressure Vessels th Thinner part th Thinner part I Tangent line I y y ts th th ts y I Tangent line Thinner part y I Tangent line Thinner part ts ts Fillet Weld . ... ..... .. Inspection. ........

Nozzle attachment details shall be in accordance with Figure UW-16. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 . See Figure 18. Typical nozzle attachment details from this figure were illustrated in MEX 202.1. Stiffener ring attachment details shall be in accordance with Figure UG-30. Weld procedure requirements shall be as follows: • A weld procedure is required for each weld type and shall meet ASME requirements.03. except that only details that use fullpenetration welds are acceptable. 14. Inspection. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Figure 17: Nozzle Neck Attachment to Thinner Pipe 13. Figure 18: Stiffener Ring Attachment 15.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.

Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. UCS-56 for carbon and low-alloy steels. or the weld procedure test requirements should be explicitly stated within the documentation. Welder qualifications are to meet ASME requirements. (Reference Course Handout 3). • • • PWHT shall be based on the ASME Code. 1 carbon steel material. Vessel fabrication documentation should reference SAESW-010. Weld procedure test requirements shall be in accordance with SAES-W-010. Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels: Caustic soda (NaOH) solutions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62 . Para. in accordance with Standard Drawing AE-036208 (W) Monoethanolamine (MEA) solutions at all temperatures Diglycolamine (DGA) solutions above 138°C (280°F) design temperature Rich amino disopropanol (ADIP) solutions above 90°C (194°F) design temperature Lean ADIP solutions above 60°C (140°F) design temperature Deaerator service 16. Inspection. Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • A weld map or equivalent is to be provided that relates each weld in the vessel to the required weld procedure. PWHT is also required for the following services in accordance with SAES-W-010. Minimum preheat temperature shall the greater of: 20°C (68°F) Appendix R of the ASME Code The preheat listed in Standard Drawing AE036451(W) for field fabrication or repair of PNo.

4 material (such as 1 1/4 Cr .1/2 Mo) 2. As a minimum. and 32-SAMSS-004. Division 1. to determine whether vendor inspection and testing plans satisfy Saudi Aramco requirements.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. category. and the SAESs in Course Handout 2.) for P-No. 3 material (C-1/2 Mo through 1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo) 16 mm (5/8 in. 1. and Testing of Pressure Vessels WORK AID 2: STEPS FOR DETERMINING WHETHER VENDOR INSPECTION AND TESTING PLANS SATISFY SAUDI ARAMCO REQUIREMENTS This Work Aid may be used in conjunction with the class reference copies of the ASME Code in Course Handout 1. Butt welds which exceed the following nominal thicknesses: 32 mm (1 1/4 in. 1 material (carbon steel) 19 mm (3/4 in. and joint efficiency that were employed in the design calculations in accordance with Table UW-12 of the ASME Code. 3. Work Aid 2A: Procedure for Inspection Plans Use the steps that follow to confirm that the inspection plans that are proposed by pressure vessel vendors meet Saudi Aramco requirements for Division 1 pressure vessels. except where a Saudi Aramco source document is noted. Section VIII. Pressure Vessels. Full radiography is also required for the following cases even if not required by Step 2: • • Shell and head butt welds for vessels that are in lethal service. All the requirements are based on Division 1. Inspection.) for P-No. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 63 . Vendor fabrication drawings are to reference the ASME Code.) for P-No. the extent of radiography is to be consistent with the weld joint type.

Electrogas welds that are in ferritic material with any single pass over 38 mm (1 1/2 in. or are located in shell components that are over 75 mm (3 in. Pressure-containing welds that will not be hydrotested (SAES-W-010).1 Mo) 38 mm (1 1/2 in. Butt welds that are joined by electrogas welding with any single pass that is over 38 mm (1 1/2 in. sour service (SAES-D-001 and 32-SAMSS-004). UT examination is required as follows: • As a substitute for RT for the final closure seam if the vessel construction is such that a radiograph cannot be interpreted. or are in wet. All butt welds in vessels with a minimum design temperature below 0°C (32°F). UT examination shall be done after heat treatment. UT • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64 .Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. examination shall be done after heat treatment. Inspection.).) thickness do not require radiography. • • • • • • 4. Electroslag welds that are in ferritic material.) for austenitic stainless steels Shell and head butt welds in unfired steam boilers that are over 345 kPa (50 psig) design pressure. Butt welds that are joined by electroslag welding. 5 material (such as 2 1/4 Cr . Butt welds in nozzles and communicating chambers that are attached to vessel sections or heads that must be fully radiographed due to lethal or steam boiler service.) thick (SAES-W-010). Exception: Category B and C butt welds that do not exceed NPS 10 or 29 mm (1 1/8 in.). and Testing of Pressure Vessels • • All thicknesses for P-No. Category A and B welds that are made from one side. Welds that are located under reinforcing pads (32SAMSS-004).

Magnetic particle and/or liquid penetrant examination is required as follows: • When a pressure part is welded to a flat plate that is thicker than 13 mm (1/2 in.or PT-examined before welding.) throat thickness. MT or PT examination of the peripheral edge of the flat plate. For vessels that are over 75 mm (3 in.or spot-radiographed. UT examination shall be done in accordance with ASTM A578. supplementary requirement S7 (32-SAMSS-004). Plate that is over 50 mm (2 in.) and forms a corner joint: Flat plate weld joint preparation is to be MT. 5. Welds that are made by inertia and continuous drive friction process that are full. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • • • Welds that are made by the electron beam process.) thick.) thick. Plate that is over 50 mm (2 in. Clad steel plate. Level I (32-SAMSS-004).) thick (SAESW-010): All Category A and B welds All nozzle attachment welds that exceed 25 mm (1 in. and any remaining exposed surface of weld joint preparation.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. after welding. Inspection. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65 . UT examination shall be done in accordance with ASTM A578. for a distance of 150 mm (6 in.) back from a nozzle weld preparation.) throat thickness that cannot be radiographed Any nozzle attachment welds that exceed 50 mm (2 in. or other cut-out (32-SAMSS-004). in addition to any other inspection • • • - All UT procedures and acceptance criteria are to be in accordance with Appendix 12 of Division 1.

Work Aid 2B: Procedure for Pressure Test Plans The pressure test shall be made using water. The required test pressure at the top of the vessel must be specified for the cases that follow: Shop hydrotest with the vessel horizontal Field hydrotest with the vessel in its final position and uncorroded component thicknesses Field hydrotest with the vessel in its final position and corroded component thicknesses Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 66 . including temporary weld areas. unless a pneumatic pressure test is approved by the Chief Inspection Engineer. wet fluorescent MT (PT for nonferromagnetic material) examination for all welds.) or greater thickness that are made by the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process • • For vessels over 75 mm (3 in.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.) thick. Except for nonferromagnetic materials. Inspection. and Testing of Pressure Vessels • MT (or PT if nonmagnetic) examination of structural attachment welds that are made to pressurized components that are not hydrotested after making the weld (SAES-W-010). wet fluorescent MT using AC yoke is required for (SAESW-010): All internal welds. for vessels that are in sour service All internal and external welds of 25 mm (1 in. including temporary attachment welds (SAES-W-010).

) α = One-half of the cone apex angle at the centerline.2T 2SCET cos α D + 1. mm (in. mm (in.) R = Inside radius of component.) L = Inside crown radius of the head.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.) D = Inside diameter of component. 1.2 T cos α 2SCET D + 0. 855L + 0.1T Where: Sc = Material allowable stress at test temperature. Inspection. mm (in. based on the limiting component of the vessel. mm (in. The procedure that follows may be used to check contractor/vendor test pressure proposals or calculations for Division 1 vessels. This is done by calculation of an allowable pressure based on the nominal thickness and allowable stress at test temperature for the vessel shell and heads. 2T Torispherical Head with 6% Knuckle: PD = SCET 0. and Testing of Pressure Vessels The required test pressures must be shown in the appropriate spaces on the Pressure Vessel Design Sheet. The vessel limiting component determines the initial test pressure basis.6T 2SCET R + 0. kPa (psi) E = Weld joint efficiency T = Nominal component thickness. degrees Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 67 . Pc. Determine the initial test pressure basis. Use the equations that follow for the appropriate component type: Cylindrical Shell: Spherical Shell or Head: Conical Shell: 2:1 Semi-Elliptical Head: PS = PS = PS = PE = SCET R + 0.

Determine the test pressure that was used for any bolted flange connections on the vessel. and rounding up to the nearest 25 psig.5 Pc or PNT (at the bottom) h = height of water in the vessel during test.0. English Units PSH = BSH . psig 3. Determine the shop hydrotest pressure at the top of the vessel with the vessel horizontal. Inspection. A = BSH SI Units B= 9. kPa 4. kPa (psig). 2.433h. kPa C = A-B. at bottom The test pressure at the top of the vessel is the higher of C or D.433h. m (ft.81 h. English Units B = 0. If not given.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication.) SI Units PSH = BSH . where PT is the vessel design pressure at the top E = D + B.5. PNT is determined by multiplying the allowable design pressure at 38°C (100°F) in accordance with ANSI B16. PNT. BSH = the smaller of 1. kPa (psig) D = 1.9. Determine the field hydrotest pressure with the vessel new and in its final erected position. PSH.5 PT. and Testing of Pressure Vessels Pc is the lowest value of pressure that is calculated using the above equations for each vessel shell and head component. psig Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 68 .81h.5 (for the flange Class) by 1.

and Testing of Pressure Vessels For the selected test pressure. kPa English Units P = 1.5 PT + 9. 2T ) 2ET Spherical Shell or Head: Conical Shell: 2:1 Semi-Elliptical Head: Torispherical Head with 6% Knuckle: S= P(0.433h. 2T ) 2ET P(D + 1. Inspection.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Use the stress equation from Step 4 that is appropriate for the limiting component with: SI Units P = 1.1T ) ET Note that the pressure.9 times the minimum specified material yield strength of the limiting component. accounting for the weld joint efficiency. in the above equations must account for the hydrostatic head to the bottom of the limiting component. P. Use the following equations for the appropriate component type: Cylindrical Shell: S= S= S= S= P(R + 0. Determine the service test pressure at the top of the vessel as 1. T = (Nominal thickness) . accounting for the weld joint efficiency. confirm that the stress in the limiting component does not exceed 0.81 h.5 PT + 0.2T cos α ) 2ET cos α P(D + 0. 5. Confirm that the service test pressure does not result in a stress that is greater than 0.9 times the minimum specified material yield strength.5 PT. 6T ) ET P(R + 0.885L + 0. psig 6.(Corrosion allowance) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 69 .

and Testing of Pressure Vessels Note that "h" is the height of the water to the bottom of the limiting component.) thick. are followed. Pressure Testing. Work Aid 2C: Procedure for Hardness Test Plans Use the checklist that follows to confirm that vessel vendor hardness test plans meet Saudi Aramco requirements. Weld procedures are only for external structural attachment welds. or Welding procedure is used only for external structural attachment welds.5 in. All vessel internal surfaces that are clad or weld overlaid with austenitic stainless steel or nickel-based alloys.). • • 2. Saudi Aramco test requirements are specified in SAES-W-010. Inspection. Maximum allowable hardness for procedure qualification welds is VHN 250 when hardness testing is done. which are contained in Course Handout 2. with the following exceptions: • Vessels fabricated of austenitic stainless steel or nickel-based alloys for all wetted pressure boundaries. Confirm that the requirements in SAES-A-004. and the vessel wall at the attachment point is at least 25 mm (1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 70 . except for: • • Vessels made from austenitic stainless steel or nickelbased alloys. Vickers hardness testing of welding procedure qualification welds for sour service is required. 1. 7.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. 3.0 in. Vickers hardness testing of welding procedure qualification welds is required for any service if the wall thickness exceeds 38 mm (1. and 32-SAMSS-004.

1 material (carbon steel) Maximum hardness per NACE MR-01-75. Inspection. Impact test temperature is to be 18°C (32°F) below the minimum design temperature that is specified on the Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheet. Division 2 for impact test procedural requirements. Division 2 criteria. Confirm that the vessel fabrication drawing or other vessel documentation references SAES-W-010 for procedural requirements for hardness testing. Confirm that fabrication drawings or other vessel documentation contains reference to the ASME Code Section VIII. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 71 . 3. Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment. even if the pressure vessel is designed in accordance with Division 1 in all other respects. minimum design temperature. and SAES-W-001 requirements. Brinell hardness testing of production welds is required for vessels of all materials that are in sour service. and Testing of Pressure Vessels 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. 5. Controlling Weld Hardness of Carbon Steel Refinery Equipment to Prevent Environmental Cracking. Work Aid 2D: Procedure for Impact Test Plans Use the checklist that follows to confirm that vessel vendor impact test plans meet Saudi Aramco requirements. 2. for all other materials. This checklist is applied after it has already been determined that the combination of material category. and thickness would not be exempt from impact testing in accordance with Section VIII. Confirm that reference is made to SAES-W-010 for other impact test requirements. 1. Production weld hardness testing must meet API RP942. • • Maximum hardness of BHN 200 for P-No.

wetting. An appurtenance to a vessel which intersects the shell or heads and forms an integral part of the pressurecontaining enclosure. the current melts the flux. communicating chamber crack defect developer electrogas electroslag false indication ferritic Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 72 . or properties make it detrimental to the useful service of the part in which it occurs. and viscosity. A material separation that has a relatively large cross section in one direction and a small or negligible cross section when viewed in a direction perpendicular to the first direction. cohesion. A welding process in which consumable electrodes are fed into a joint containing flux.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. location. adhesion. climb. shape. A discontinuity whose size. and the flux in turn melts the faces of the joint and the electrodes. allowing the weld metal to form a continuously cast ingot between the joint faces. or draw into tight crack-like interface areas due to such properties as surface tension. An indication that may be interpreted incorrectly as a discontinuity or a defect. a nonrelevant indication. A modification of the flux-cored welding process in which there is an externally supplied source of gas or gas mixture. or a discontinuity which exceeds the accept/reject criteria of the particular design. A finely divided material applied over the surface of a part to help bring out penetrant indications. Any magnetic iron alloy that contains more than 12% chromium and that has a body-centered cubic structure. orientation. and Testing of Pressure Vessels GLOSSARY capillary action The tendency of certain liquids to travel. Inspection.

A process that relieves residual stresses set up in welded joints after initial cooling. Imaginary lines used to explain the behavior of magnetic fields. The distance to which a projectile sinks into a target. The ability of a material to allow passage of a liquid. or concealed defects or flaws in a material by the use of techniques that do not damage the item being tested.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. (An imperfection that could be harmful is referred to as a defect or discontinuity. flux flux lines heat-affected zone (HAZ) inspection lamination magnetic flux nondestructive examination (NDE) penetration porosity Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) radiography Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 73 . or gamma rays for NDE of opaque objects. The portion of the base metal that is adjacent to the weld and that is affected by the welding heat. these records indicate the comparative soundness of the object being tested. The distance from the original surface of the base metal to that point at which weld fusion ends. The process of examining and checking materials and parts for possible defects or deviation from acceptance standards. surface. The radiant energy produces graphical records on sensitized film. or pores. Inspection. A material having porosity contains fine holes. Testing to detect internal. voids. The use of radiant energy in the form of neutrons. and Testing of Pressure Vessels flaw An imperfection which may not be harmful. x-rays. The arrangement of a solid in layers.) A coating of mineral compounds on a welding electrode that is intended to perform some function by chemical reactions in the weld pool. The total number of magnetic lines existing in a magnetic circuit.

and Testing of Pressure Vessels slag shrinkage The solidified. glassy mixture of impurities and flux that forms in the weld pool after chemical reaction. The contraction of either the base metal or weld metal upon cooling after the weld process. Inspection.Engineering Encyclopedia Design of Pressure Vessels Fabrication. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 74 .

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