CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

“Brands are like human beings. They are born, fed and nurtured, made strong and responsible so that they can be faithful friends of the people (customers), form mutually beneficial and satisfying relationships with them and become their companions for life. Such brands, make their parents (organization or corporate) proud of them. The best brands are the ones who help in forming and sustaining strong long term “parent-brandpeople” relationships. These brands form the potential for present growth and future expansion. They help the organizations conquer peaks at the time of booms and stay afloat and swim at times of depression.” We come across a number of brands in our daily lives. Our morning starts with using a toothpaste (Colgate, Pepsodent or Close-up), using a bathing soap (Lux, Fairglow or Cinthol) and shampoo (Clinic All Clear or Vatika), wearing clothes ( Allen Solly, Levi’s or Raymonds), breakfast bread (Britannia or Modern) and butter (Amul) or jam (Kissan), lunch and dinner (Nature Fresh or Pillsbury flour and Safal vegetables), morning and evening tea and coffee (Tetley, Nescafe or Bru), going out in a car (Hyundai Santro, Honda Accord or Mercedes Benz). Talking on the cell phone (Motorola, Nokia, Siemens or Samsung), watching television in the evening (LG, Sony or Philips) or listening to music (Philips or Apple) etc. But how often do we think of what all a company does to put a positive imprint (fight for a shelf space) in the mind of the customer? Today nearly all the companies are focusing more and more on building strong brands. The concept of brand equity and its management has come to the fore like never before. More and more companies are refocusing on select strong brands. This project is thus a timely stuffy of the importance of brands, what it takes to build them, what benefits do they give to different stakeholders (organization, distributors and customers), how can they be leveraged, what is the impact of modern technology on branding, branding on the web, branding in mergers and acquisitions etc. examples have been given and cases discussed at every suitable point to bring out an application oriented understanding of “building and managing brands”.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • • • To study the factors which influence the buying pattern. To study the effect of brands on consumer buying behavior in relation to readymade garments. To do a comparative study of the promotion strategies adopted by the companies in the readymade garments.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Market research is a form of applied sociology that concentrates on understanding the behavior whims and preferences of consumer economy and aims to understand the effects and comparative success of marketing campaigns. In other words market research examines all aspects of a business environment. It asks questions about competitor’s market structure government regulation. Economic trends technological advances and numerous other factors that make up the business environment. Sometimes the term refers more particularly to the financial analyses of companies industries or sector. N this case financial analysis usually carries out the research and provides the result to investment advisor and potential investors Research methodology Research methodology is used to solve the research related complication that we confront during research period. It provides us a systematic scientific and reasonable way to solve the problems. Research methodology keeps many dimensions according to existing situation The purpose of methodology is to explain their acceptable procedure while we through research work. It includes over all research design, data collection process, sampling process, field survey, analysis, procedure. I selected survey research methodology. It is the best and scientific way to descriptive research & to learn about customer awareness, beliefs, preferences, satisfaction and to measure these magnitudes in the general population. My research is interview based. It is best way to know what the people think and what they want, people can give their ideas in their own words & can express their needs. I contacted people through the personal interview. Interview was based on intercept form. In this interviewer must not require too much time. Intercept form. In this interviewer must not require too much time.

Research instrument

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Questionnaire is most common research instrument in collecting primary data during marketing research. A Questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to respondents. Because of its flexibility the questionnaire is by far the most common instrument used to collect primary data. Data is generally of two types 1. Primary data 2. Secondary data Primary data are those data specially collected for problem in hand. In this study data are collected from primary sources through personal interview of retailers. These methods of data collection are quite popular. These are the major methods of data collection in the research study. Secondary data are those data, which are collected for some purpose other than helping and solving the problem I hand. Sources of secondary data are: • • • Magazines Company records Company web sites

Data collection method The data is collected for research questionnaires method and through visualization for franchisee analysis. A questionnaire is framed then collected by making it fill by different respondent. Data analysis techniques Analysis of data is done through quantities that are numerical figure. Data analysis instrument Instrument used for data analysis is tabulation of data, bar chart and pie chart. SAMPLING Sampling Technique Used

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In this project the technique of sampling used was Judgment sampling. Sample Unit In this project case sample were the people of Navi Mumbai region & the aim was to collect the true information about buying behavior of people. Sample Size: 200 5|Page . Judgment Sampling involves the choice of subjects who are most advantageously placed or in the best position to provide the information required.

 Studying about the impact brand on consumer buying behavior. 6|Page .SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the research is based on the fashion industry and it throws light on the impact of the brand buying behavior. Significance of the study:My research will help the fashion industry to know the current scenario of customers buying decision with respect to brand image of the garment. Significance for the researcher: Wide exposure to the fashion industry.

your product. Additionally. your services.  Sounds: A unique tune or set of notes can "denote" a brand: NBC's chimes are one of the most famous examples. create. concept Logo: The visual trademark that identifies the brand  Tagline or Catchphrase: "The Quicker Picker Upper" is associated with Bounty. product. 5 is trademarked. such as the rose-jasmine-musk of Chanel No. Products are what companies make.   7|Page . and/or your company. Brand elements Name: The word or words used to identify the company. symbol or design or a combination of one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. A brand is a name. sign.  Shapes: The distinctive shape of the Coca-Cola bottle or the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands.  Graphics: The dynamic ribbon is also a trademarked part of Coca-Cola's brand.  Taste: KFC has trademarked its special recipe of 11 herbs and spices for fried chicken.  Color: Owens-Corning is the only brand of fiberglass insulation that can be pink. “an image that develops into a personality for yourself. The key is to determine. and then project that personality.  Movement: Lamborghini has trademarked the upward motion of its car doors. term. "Can you hear me now" is an important part of the Verizon brand. service. that brand. Farmers used to put some identification mark on the body of the livestock to distinguish their possession. but customers buy brands. Therefore marketers resorted to branding in order to distinguish their offerings from similar products and services provided by their competitors. it carries an inherent assurance to the customers that the quality of a purchase will be similar to earlier purchases of the same brand Brand is.” It is that one attribute that comes to mind when your clients and audience thinks about you.  Smells: Scents.LITERATURE REVIEW Understanding Branding BRAND The word “Brand” owes its origin to the Norwegian word “brand” which means to burn.

cement. durables etc. fertilizers. • Branding is the process by which a marketer tries to build long term relationship with the customers by learning their needs and wants so that the offering (brand) could satisfy their mutual aspirations.g. salt. • Branding can be used as a differentiation strategy when the product cannot be easily distinguished in terms of tangible features (which invariably happens in case of many services. a tool. 8|Page .). The brand owner tries to retain customers to its fold over their competitors by a mix of hardware software because when a customer feels satisfied he / she develop a kind of loyalty for the same. • Brand building is a conscious customer satisfaction orientation process. a strategy and an orientation.BRANDING Branding is a process. potato chips etc.) or in products which are perceived as a commodity (e.

Attributes Benefits Values Culture Personality User A brand will communicate specific attributes. Top-of-Mind Awareness occurs when your brand is what pops into a consumers mind when asked to name brands in a product category.” which is a top-of-mind brand. Top-of-Mind is the goal of most companies. such as prestige A brand strengthens a product’s attributes by communicating a set of benefits that makes it more attractive A brand represents a company’s core values and belief system A brand is representative or target a target audiences socio cultural characteristics A Brand can project behavioral personality patterns of targeted consumers The brand. 9|Page . It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. For example. There are various levels of brand awareness that require different levels and combinations of brand recognition and recall. but also has distinctive qualities that stick out to consumers as making it better than the other brands in your market. The distinctions that set your product apart from the competition is also known as the Unique Selling Point or USP. Aided Awareness occurs when a consumer is shown or read a list of brands. jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. Brand awareness is of critical importance since customers will not consider your brand if they are not aware of it. and expresses familiarity with your brand only after they hear or see it as a type of memory aide. in some cases. the common answer is “Kleenex. This is known as the “Six Dimensions of The Brand” Brand awareness Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name. can emulate the end user Kotler (1999) expands on the concept of identity by stating that a brand is capable of conveying up to six different levels of meaning to a targeted audience. It helps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brand belongs and what products and services are sold under the brand name. It also ensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products (Keller). Strategic Awareness occurs when your brand is not only top-of-mind to consumers. logo. when someone is asked to name a type of facial tissue.

consumers will instinctively attempt to simplify their choice process by selecting brands that have satisfied them in the past. Thus. is a means of creation of identification and recognition in the market. will produce a state of competitive advantage. This type of consumer behavior is based on stimulus provided by direct exposure to advertising campaigns. but rather. a family of products or an umbrella brand. it can induce the natural differentiation of their offerings.A set of related products that are manufactured by a company and are sold as a family of products under the marquee or banner of a brand have a certain recognition and a place of respect within that very market. Branding the product thus. Differentiation can only allow for competitive advantage if the cost of differentiating is significantly lower than the revenue earned by the sales. may it be a simple label. one can conclude that pleasant past experiences is highly conducive to consumers associating benefits to a brand. a company’s PR efforts or even a high concentration of local distribution in an area that is in close proximity to a consumer.Branding in Today’s Markets A central function of branding is the facilitation of the consumer choice process. The lawful registration of the trademark means that any competitor cannot copy any of the elements and names of the products. but it is process of evolving as a well reputed name on the market and field. Differential advantage allows companies to showcase their offer in respects to other competitors in the same marketplace. It is not just a process of getting a trademark and logo. the process of branding involves making of a trademark and a good name. that frequent purchasing of a brand cannot always be linked to previous experiences. which ultimately. Importance of Branding Principle of branding . the act of photocopying is termed as 'Xeroxing'. but can alternatively be formed by embedded perceptions. One must acknowledge however. Due to the complexity of having to select a product amongst thousands of similar offerings. Importance of Branding in Business From the point of view of a business. People can 10 | P a g e . lead him to a brand that has been satisfying in the past. A registered trademark and a name ensure individuality and uniqueness of a particular product or family of products. Though it is a company's name. In terms of companies’ views on branding. Branding can be done for anything that can be promoted in the consumer's market. A very well known brand that has become the identity of the market itself is the office equipment manufacturer 'Xerox'. A consumer might strongly favour a brand with no prior purchasing experience. One can conclude that a central function of branding is its ability to negate the need for a consumer to seek out information when a need or a want has been recognized.

the consumers are already well aware of the product. whilst other are virtually unknown to consumers. Apart from that. Some are deeply embedded in global culture and are thus. advertisers face lesser heat from unauthenticated advertisements. In the field of marketing. Apart from that advertisers can initiate fearless and independent advertising as due to the process of branding. Importance of Branding in Marketing Marketing primarily involves the study of demand in a market and creating a response in the form of supply. Apart from that. highly recognizable. When a business who owns an already famous brand wants to launch a new brand in the market. The advantage is that. effectively. schemes such as free gifts and discounts often boost the sales as the brand is an important icon of the market. one refers to “brand equity”. As a brand name can never be copied. As a result of a brand loyal group of consumers. people are bound to purchase the new products out of curiosity. Chay (1991) defines brand equity as a “set of associations and behaviors on the part of a brand’s customers.also have a personal brand. it is also a way of developing a good reputation in the market. When attempting to place a value on a brand. Development of Brand Equity The amount of clout controlled by different brands will vary. and 11 | P a g e . and Parent Corporation that permits the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong. The primary advantage of branding is that it is safeguarded from unlawful activities and at the same time. they can use the preearned goodwill and reputation for the new launch. its identity and nature. the brand name plays an important role as it helps the people to promote the brand name and its merits quite easily. well this is another advantage of branding. Importance of Branding in Advertising Advertising is often considered to be a part of marketing however. it also becomes possible for the marketing people to generate intelligence information about the brands popularity and also what people exactly want from the brand owning company. Often you might see some new product carry the tag that says 'from the makers of … brand'. branding a particular product helps the advertisers to provide catchy logos and advertisements. it creates a reputation that is felt not seen. it also becomes easier for marketing department to asses regular and promised demand. their advertisement creation gets protected. channel members. the importance of branding can be summed up in simple words 'successful branding is a process that generates revenue that cannot be counted. In short. sustainable. and it is an asset that one cannot show on a balance sheet.

despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior".differential advantage over competitors”. one must naturally consider overhead. The Competitive Advantage of Brand Loyalty There is a palpable correlation between the efficient branding of a product or service. thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing. Using the financial perspective. Using the consumer-based perspective entails considering how the attitude strength of consumers is directly influenced by the brand name. and a brand name. Brand loyalty is a direct consequence of the ability to better satisfy the desires of a customer that main competitors do. be it financial or intangible. This gives marketers essential insight into the financial value of the brand. This explanation creates a clear link between a product’s values. The consideration and development of brand equity is vital as its benefits are wide reaching. and the display of brand loyalty in consumer purchasing patterns. one measures brand equity by determining how much more consumers are willing to pay in direct relation to the brand name. In this instance. One can consider brand equity as an asset. such as costs of advertising. loyalty is defined as a “deeply held commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future. This perspective operates under the assumption that the consumer has had extensive experience with the product in question. as it can increase cash flow via the widening of a company’s market share and the allowance of higher pricing policies. It now becomes clear that a modern day marketer’s 12 | P a g e . When viewing brand equity from this perspective.

create a broad brand vision or identity that recognizes a brand as something greater than a set of attributes that can be imitated or surpassed. Just like a person without attention-grabbing characteristics. but distinguishes it in a memorable and positive manner. In fact. help them acquire new habits. Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior Definition 13 | P a g e . Consumer behavior is habitual because habits are safe and familiar. many companies are not adept at disseminating a strong. to repurchase a brand continually. clear message that not only distinguishes their brand from the competitors'. image. a brand with no personality can easily be passed right over. Brand Loyalty is the consumer's conscious or unconscious decision. instead of focusing solely on the individual sale of products. and reinforce those habits by reminding consumers of the value of their purchase and encourage them to continue purchasing those products in the future. Unfortunately. A strong symbol or company logo can also help to generate brand loyalty by making it quickly identifiable. In order to create brand loyalty. it needs a personality. It occurs because the consumer perceives that the brand offers the right product features. The image surrounding a company's brand is the principal source of its competitive advantage and is therefore a valuable strategic asset. A brand needs more than identity. but as an overall brand image that defines a company’s philosophies.principal objective is to build sustainable forms of loyalty between a company and its consumers. The challenge for all brands is to avoid the pitfalls of portraying a muddled or negative image. advertisers must break consumer habits. and instead. or level of quality at the right price. a company should view its brand to be not just a product or service. expressed through intention or behavior.

friends. purchasing and post consumption of a product or service Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy. citizenship etc. what they buy. Personal Factors. So. school or college. social class and reference groups. handsets which most of group member prefer or even destructive behavior such as excessive consumption of alcohol. Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior Consumer buying behavior is influenced by the major three factors: 1. for example style of clothing. this will influence and change his/her buying behavior. reference groups and society in general. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family. Reference groups serve as one of the primary agents of consumer socialization and learning and can be influential enough to induce not only socially acceptable consumer behavior but also socially unacceptable and even personal destructive behavior. in that group there can be behavior patterns of values. attitudes or behavior of group members. Social Factors Social factors refer to forces that other people exert and which affect consumers’ purchase behavior. club membership. these can influence/ affect the consumer buying behavior. Social Factors 2. For example. Reference groups can be family. These social factors can include culture and subculture. sociology. Psychological Factors 3. he/she will meet different people and form a group.Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching. It blends the elements from psychology. 14 | P a g e . use of harmful and addictive drugs etc. if fresher student joins a college / university. roles and family. Example: By taking into consideration Reference group. Reference group refers to a group with whom an individual identifies herself/ himself and the extent to which that person assumes many values. 1. when they buy and why they buy. according to how an individual references him / her to that particular reference group. work group. Buyer behavior has two aspects: the final purchase activity visible to any observer and the detailed or short decision process that may involve the interplay of a number of complex variables not visible to anyone. anthropology and economics. socio psychology.

Lifestyle dimension provide a broader view of people about how they spend their time the importance of things in their surroundings and their beliefs on broad issues associated with life and living and themselves. and opinions.2. This is influenced by demographic factors and personality. this will influence those customers to buy Sony products due to this attitude towards the brand. E. Example: Attitude is an enduring organization of motivational. Psychological Factors These are internal to an individual and generate forces within that influence her/his purchase behavior. Example: Lifestyle is an indicator of how people live and express themselves on the basis of their activities. So according to their lifestyle and profession. lifestyle. 3. during and after the purchase of a product or service. For example. emotional.g. attitude and personality. consumers of Sony products might have the belief that the products offered by Sony are durable. perception. Consumer Buying Decision Process Consumer buying decision process is the processes undertaken by consumer in regard to a potential market transaction before. The major forces include motives. Consumers form attitude towards a brand on the basis of their beliefs about the brand. Problem Recognition 15 | P a g e . and situational factors. Consumer decision making process generally involves five stages: A. the buying behavior of people differs from one another. interests. perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment.A CEO or Manager is likely to buy more formal clothes. learning. Personal Factors These include those aspects that are unique to a person and influence purchase behavior. ties and shoes or PDAs and less informal clothes like jeans as compared to a Mechanic or Civil engineer. These factors include demographic factors. .

e. There are several situations that can cause problem recognition. First he will recall how he used to solve such kind of a problem in the past. characteristics and benefits that a consumer desires to solve a certain problem. the phone has hardware problems and needs to be repaired or buying a new piece. he / she will try to find the means to solve that need. these include: • Depletion of stock • Dissatisfaction with goods in stock • Environmental Changes • Change in Financial Situation • Marketer Initiated Activities It’s when a person recognizes that she cannot make a call from her mobile phone that’s when she recognizes that her phone has been damaged i. The consumer will decide which product to buy from a set of alternative products depending on each unique feature that the product offers and the benefit he / she can get out of that feature. Secondly. This is the vital stage in buying decision process. B. an individual would not seek to buy goods or service. features. Product features and its benefit is what influence consumer to prefer that particular product. because without recognizing the need or want.Purchase decision making process begins when a buyer becomes aware of an unsatisfied need or problem. D. Sources of information include: • Personal sources • Commercial Sources • Public sources • Personal experience C. 16 | P a g e . a consumer will try to solve the problem by asking a friend or goes to the market to seek advice for which product will best serve his need. Alternatives Evaluation Consumers’ evaluates criteria refer to various dimension. Purchase Action This stage involves selection of brand and the retail outlet to purchase such a product. this is called limited decision making. Information Search After the consumer has recognized the need. this is called nominal decision making.

Satisfaction with the purchase is basically a function of the initial performance level expectation and perceived performance relative to those expectations. E. This might cause the consumer to initiate complaint behavior and spread negative word-of-mouth concerning that particular product. 17 | P a g e . In defining “consumer buying behavior”. and so the brand and/ or the outlet will not be considered by the consumer in the future purchases. Consumer tends to evaluate their wisdom on the purchase of that particular product. The following section of this literature review will seek to enlighten the impact branding has on the consumer decision-making process. After selecting where to buy and what to buy. Consumer usually prefers a nearby retail outlet for minor shopping and they can willingly go to a far away store when they purchase items which are of higher values and which involve higher sensitive purchase decision. First however.Retail outlet image and its location are important. the consumer completes the final step of transaction by either cash or credit. one may refer to Assael (1987) who distinguishes four types of consumer buying behaviors. Post-Purchase Actions Consumer favorable post-purchase evaluation leads to satisfaction. one must gain clear insight into the definition of consumer buying behavior in order to understand the impact branding has on it. This can result to consumer experiencing post purchase dissatisfaction. He bases these four consumer types on the varying degrees of involvement and the degree of differentiation amongst the brands in question. If the consumer’s perceived performance level is below expectation and fail to meet satisfaction this will eventually cause dissatisfaction. Branding’s Influence on Consumer Purchasing Behavior The preceding section of this literature reviewed has sought to define the term branding and explain its functions and values as an instrumental marketing tool used in attaining differential and competitive advantage.

these beliefs with eventually transform into attitudes regarding the product offerings. by it through the medium of television. as can be seen on Assael’s (1987) model. If fostered adequately. consumers with dissonance-reducing behavior will seek to establish personal beliefs regarding the product. Like consumers who display complex buying behavior. Assael (1987) considered consumes displaying habitual buying behavior as consumers who did not experience the same sequence as the previous two behavioral types. For this reason. Differentiating 18 | P a g e . the consumer might result to purchasing influenced by convenience. will lead to a thoughtful purchase. This behavioral type. This stage will eventually lead them to develop positive attitudes regarding the product. In the event that this consumer finds him or herself in a market that displays low levels of differentiation. where they consciously make the choice of purchasing the product. the consumer will seek information on the differentiation of the product offerings and will not be particularly price sensitive when seeking functionality. These attitudes. Instead of basing their decision-making process on seeking product information pertaining to functionality or characteristics. this type of consumer will purchase based on information gathered passively. These intermediary stages lead them to the final stage of their behavioral pattern. however see few differences between brands.Consumers who are described as displaying complex buying behavior will expand their beliefs regarding a particular product as a starting point. one will notice this type of consumer engages in highly involved purchasing experiences being fully aware of the range of brands available and their levels of differentiation. via the company’s promotional efforts. Referring to the Assael’s model. if favourable. with low-level involvement products. Assael (1987) classifies consumer who exhibit Dissonance-reducing behavior as consumer who are highly involved in the purchasing experience. radio or print advertising.

is “brand switching”. Their typical buying situation is summarized by low-level involvement in a market that displays high levels of product differentiation. In searching for a more academic view on consumer learning. It has been found that the learning process discussed above acts as a catalyst in creating emotional and evaluating responses. because it is self-growing. because the imprints they 19 | P a g e . These responses are embedded in the consumer’s memory span. The branding process can include any aspect of the promotional strategy. one can understand the process as modifications to a consumer’s behavioral patterns that are the direct consequence of either past experiences or information gathered during all aspects of the purchase decision-making process. the Howard-Sheth Decision-making model by Howard and Sheth (1969) is used that explains not only the process of consumer decision-making during purchasing activities. These modifications are caused by information that has essentially been saved as a set of meaningful associations in the consumer’s mind.this consumer type is the fact that they being the process with beliefs already embedded in their mind. others will vicariously learn from them. what will shape their views and attitudes in regards to brands. which will be recalled when faced with a purchase decision-making process. in order to satisfy their need for diversification. Impact on The Consumer Learning Process At its most basic definition. These tools include both physical characteristics of the product as well as pricing policies. rather than actively. the consumer will develop strong feelings towards a brand. Variety-seekers are the last behavioral type contained in Assael’s (1987) model. but one that facilitates the understanding of pre and post purchasing activities as well. which they have learnt passively. This is ultimately. one can define the consumer learning process as being a time period in which a customer is heavily exposed to the branding process of a product or service. understanding the learning process is the key to marketers who seek to efficiently use promotional methods to influence consumers. including audio/visual forms of promotion. whether it is a conscious process or not. Thus. Once consumers start to purchase product. In order to fully ascertain the effects that branding has on the consumer decision making process. By learning from this information. branding has a vital effect on the learning process. All the elements that are retained by the consumer stem from what they have been exposed to during their individual learning process. Common to this type of consumer. For marketers. These above-mentioned associations provide the consumer with link to the brand image of offerings in respects to the promotional tools used to further this brand image. Vicarious learning is when consumers begin to copy the behavioral patterns of their peers by making changes in their own lives to reflect what they have “vicariously” learnt.

Positioning A marketing strategy that aims to make a brand occupy a distinct position.) throughadvertising. Once a brand is positioned. Another factor that might negate the effects of positive attitudes might be an overtly high pricing policy. one can conclude that branding can be used to target sub-conscious desires that rest at a primal level. Also called product positioning. etc. one must ponder whether these attitudes all remain at a conscious level. especially those involving low-levels of consumer involvement. Impact on Consumers’ Attitudes Towards Brands An attitude can be considered to be either positive or negative. what it does and how. use. Companies apply this strategy either by emphasizing the distinguishing features of their brand (what it is.” 20 | P a g e .create in the mind of consumer will later on be recalled when selecting a product or brand. Kurtz. consumer might have beliefs that shape their attitudes towards products. entry-level or high-end. One being that the effects of positive attitudes can dissipate should the consumer not purchase the product within a certain timeframe. relative to competing brands. Boonee “Product positioning refers to the consumer’s perception of a product’s attribute. or whether branding can instigate attitudes at a subconscious level. it is very difficult to reposition it without destroying its credibility. In considering attitudes towards brands. utilitarian or luxurious. Branding has been found to be a key in formation of positive attitudes towards products. which might have a contrary effect to the consumer’s positive attitudes towards the brand and result in a non sale. By acknowledging Freud’s theories. The development of positive attitudes towards brands can lead to not only the sustaining of competitive advantage. The evaluation of consumer attitudes towards brands has quickly become a major part in conducting marketing research. but in the bettering of the financial health of a company. quality & advantages & disadvantages in relation to competing brands.) or they may try tocreate a suitable image (inexpensive or premium. However it has been noted that there are factors that might negate the effects of the formation of positive attitudes. Sigmund Freud’s theory that individuals are rarely aware of how their own psychology shapes their visual behavioral patterns which suggests that at an unconscious level. Some are:Beckman. in the mind of the customer. Various authors have given different definition of Positioning. depending on the outcome of their learning and evaluating process. etc.

Hence. Leading brand enjoys some edge over others. 3. Kerlin. all photocopiers are compared with Modi Xerox. The Competition: .g. The Company: . 2. The company behind it. The Consumer: .It should be reiterated that positioning is essentially based on consumer perception rather than factual evaluation. These are:a) b) c) The product itself. toothpastes with Colgate & so on. all PCs with HCL.. POSITIONING • Why? For whom? When? Whom? Elements of Positioning Evidence has shown that there are four distinct variables that affect the position of a given product. It is based on the analysis of response to the following four questions.Berkowitz.How important the product is or what meaning it has for the consumer & how he relates to it. Rudelius “Product positioning refers to the place an offering occupies in the consumer’s mind on important attributes relative to competitive offerings. e. Generally. 4. 1. For instance. the stronger the companies profile the better the image of its products. consumers may perceive a better the image of a product if it comes from a reputed house like Tata’s. The Product: .” Brand Positioning It should be remembered that positioning is more a reflection of a product and that it stifles the rich meaning of the brand without taking into account all its potentialities.Product positioning is invariably done in relation to various competitive offerings.A product comes from a company & every company has its own history. The competition. In most cases. it becomes necessary to 21 | P a g e . The fact that a product involves better ingredients or processes is a matter of indifference unless this knowledge offers distinct advantages to the consumer. Positioning applies to the process of emphasizing the brands distinctive and motivating attributes in the light of competition. the consumers have a tendency to judge a product in comparison to the dominant brand.

it becomes necessary to examine how the consumer views a product. Here. TOP BRANDS 22 | P a g e . the consumer’s self-perception comes into play along with his cognitive & connotative factors. Here.examine how the consumer views a product.

this in itself makes it the leader instantly. The Company acquired from Acme Global the entire business of export of textile. which epitomizes its mantra “Redefining Fashion”. The Company launched the fashion brand ‘Provogue’ in March 1998 and within a short span of seven (7) years. Its designs are cutting edge and radical. coupled with high profile promotional events and its distribution strategy of retailing through selective stores and malls has resulted in Provogue being now positioned as a leading fashion brand in India. The Company’s philosophy of ‘creating trends’ in fashion. recognized by its distinctive icon — 'The Upper Crest'. • • Van Heusen 23 | P a g e . 1997 as Acme Clothing Private Limited. Provogue stands for fashion and not pure apparel. it has established a strong brand identity in the minds of the urban consumer. an aggressive marketing strategy. textile machinery and textile related chemicals and operates these businesses as its division under the name Acme Global. • Louis Philippe Louis Philippe's range of superbly crafted garments makes an exclusive fashion statement that is accepted as a status symbol.PROVOGUE The Company was incorporated on November 11.

It has won the IFA Images 2001 'Best Brand Award' in the readymade menswear apparel category. • Peter England This mid-segment shirt has effectively penetrated the mini metros. • Allen Solly Allen Solly popularized the Friday dressing concept in India. including 'Shirt of the Year 2000' and 'India's most admired menswear brands 2001'.Van Heusen has redefined corporate attire through continuous product innovation and exclusive collections. LEVI’S FASHION BRAND 24 | P a g e . It has won several awards.

Flush with plans of capturing 80. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH 25 | P a g e . Wills Lifestyle. Levis as leading jeans brand has entered into the international parlance and flooding the market with its designer apparels. United Colors of Benetton is aiming to shore up volume and value sales. Wills Lifestyle has also introduced Wills Signature – designer wear designed by the leading designers of the country.000 sq ft of retail space across the country before the year ends. Wills Sport relaxed wear. the most shining name is Levis fashion brand. Since then the journey of its success has been going on. the fashion destination. (LS&CO) was named after its founder Levi Strauss in 1853. Levis products are marketed under various brand names like Levis. Levi Strauss & Co. Wills Clublife evening wear. Dockers and Levi Strauss Signature. ITC’S LIFESTYLE RETAILING ITC’s Lifestyle Retailing Business Division has established a nationwide retailing presence through its Wills Lifestyle chain of exclusive specialty stores. UNITED COLORS OF BENETTON The United Colors of Benetton (UCB) is changing hues in India. while also presenting a larger-than-life facet of its retail look. coupled with a stringent fabrication and merchandising exercise. It has cast its spell in more than 110 countries. offers a tempting choice of Wills Classic work wear. fashion accessories and Essenza Di Wills – an exclusive range of fine fragrances and bath & body care products for men and women.In the list of top market players in the fashion industry.

Thus the scope of study is limited in terms of no. • Despite the unbiased opinion and efforts the possibility of technical exceptions cannot be ruled out. of respondent. • The statistical analysis with various automated tools might have computational errors.This research was subjected to following limitation: • The survey cannot be termed 100% accurate due to lack of time and time and cost only 200 users had been studied. • The lack of candidness of respondent towards answering the questionnaire in few cases may have reduced the accuracy of survey to some extent. CHAPTER II 26 | P a g e .

provogue. arrow are the brands that are successful in creating awareness among the customer. van heusen. zodiac.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS RESEARCH FINDINGS Which of the following fashion brands are you aware of? Data Analysis Above data shows that allen solly. color plus. park avenue. Louis philippe. blackberry’s. Which of the following brands of Denim are you aware of? 27 | P a g e . Excalibur is at the moderate level. The awareness level of Dockers. The brands like parx. proline they need to concentrate on marketing of there brands. peter England.

Data Analysis Above graph shows that the awareness level of Lee. Levis. Pepe Monte Carlo. Lee cooper is higher than Dockers Numero Uno and wrangler How often do you change your readymade garments? 28 | P a g e .

Data Analysis The above graph shows that 78% of respondent frequently change their readymade garments and 22% respondent occasionally change their garments. How often do you purchase clothes? Data Analysis Above graph indicate that normally people purchase clothes monthly or once in 3 months. Factors you consider while purchasing a readymade garments 29 | P a g e .

Please check one box for each statement to indicate the extent to which 30 | P a g e . brand cloth type and color these are the major factor which is considered while purchasing clothes.Rank Them According Your Priority: Cloth Type Color Brand Fashion/Trend Price Availability 4 3 5 6 2 1 Data Analysis Above graph indicate that fashion/trend. Listed below are statements about shopping behavior for clothes and clothing fashions.

I am confident that I have good taste in clothing. Agree Neither agree Nor Disagree Disagree I buy clothes I like. 56 24 120 36 16 148 60 36 104 31 | P a g e . 0 20 180 I buy new fashion looks only when they are well accepted. I prefer to buy well-known designer labels rather than take a chance on something new.you agree or disagree with each statement. 104 16 84 I am not as concerned about fashion as I am about modest prices and wearability. regardless of current fashion.

This graph indicates that people like to buy new fashionable cloths and which are well accepted no one like to buy clothes which are out of fashion. There are very few people who would like to buy clothes of well known designers Who influence you to purchase the brand? 32 | P a g e .

And now a day’s companies are using social networking site for the online advertisement.In which media you have seen the advertisement of these brands? The above graph shows that TV and magazine are the two main advertising tool which is used by most of the organization because these are the effective way of advertisement. Which of the following would affect you choice of readymade garments? This graph indicate that promotional campaigns and cloth type which affecting the choice of readymade garment 33 | P a g e .

34 | P a g e . will you by the product after the campaign? Which media do you prefer more for fashion ads (in order of your preference)? Above graph shows that Tv and Magzine are the two main tool used for advertisement because in TV ads the audio visual effect create good impression on the mind of customer.When you buy a readymade garment during a promotional campaign.

35 | P a g e . overall presentation and longevity of message. is it because of Above graph shows that the organization use magazine ad because it is a good source of latest fashion trends.If TV. is it because If magazine.

If hoardings.If Newspaper / pamphlets. if it because of News paper advertisement is inexpensive source of information it cover huge audience and this is available in many language. if it because of 36 | P a g e .

optimal usage level.CHAPTER III FINDINGS • Branding has been found to be a key in formation of positive attitudes towards products. • Companies must have to concentrate on the brand equity and brand loyalty. • The study shows that people only prefer latest trends in cloths. • The study shows that most of the companies have not entered in rural market. especially those involving low-levels of consumer involvement. life styles. • Company should study purchasing power. • There are some brands whose awareness level is low as compare to others so they need concentrate on the promotion aspect to increase the awareness 37 | P a g e . buying habits. Knowing the huge size of rural population of India it is natural that the rural market is attractive to marketers.

Operating in the domestic market poses an entirely different set of challenges from that of the export market. The retail landscape is changing. further growth could come only from a wider distribution network. Retailers enjoy better margins on their own labels. The domestic market too presents immense opportunities with consumer spending on the rise and organized retailing growing. both are expanding their manufacturing facilities in Bangalore to cater to the expected rise in international demand. as Color Plus discovered. in the past. which needs deep pockets.CHAPTER-IV CONCLUSIONS Conclusions Readymade garment is really becoming big business. times are ahead for the readymade garment industry. 38 | P a g e . which would increase space considerably and also bring international practices to India. however. A boost to the industry would come from allowing foreign direct investment in retailing. has given a fillip to the industry. with little retail expertise. These companies quickly managed to give bigger players a run for their money. do not have it easy either. such as departmental stores and malls. But. once the distribution costs decline. Figuring out which price point to operate in is yet another challenge for an apparel maker. Apparel retailers. major export players such as Ambattur Clothing (Color Plus) and Acme Clothing (Provogue) have. at considerable expense. Interestingly. This may also encourage newer entrants. and the traditional distribution strategy of apparel players is in for an overhaul. But should a garment player go global or sell at home? Some players such as Raymond and Zodiac Clothing have chosen to be aggressive in both markets. had to build their own network. The rapid growth in recent years of various retail formats. It requires more than manufacturing expertise and a heightened fashion-consciousness. but interesting. Raymond stepped in and acquired the brand. Established names. Challenging. The entry of international brands such as Tommy Hilfiger into the Indian market is likely to be followed by more players. Competition is likely to hot up and keep domestic players on their toes. Private labels tend to do well during recessions. placed their bet on the domestic market. Even as they plan to improve their retail presence over the next three years. and are also able to price them lower.

which have the ability to drive volumes. 39 | P a g e . But players may still find it tough to cater to this market. Giants such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour. believe that once women try out private labels and get more accustomed to Western wear. they are likely to upgrade to a more expensive brand. are what the industry would need. They would have to move towards a low-margin. volume-driven business. which have a presence in the segment through Allen Solly. This would also need a far larger distribution network than what exists today.Players such as Madura Garments. Few retail formats in India operate on a truly large scale.

com www.allencooper. KOTLER ON MARKETING: Free Press. Fifth Edition  Kotler Philip & Keller Kevin. STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Means-End Approach. Mark E. New Delhi. New Delhi. (2005) ‘RESEARCH METHODOLOGY’ New Age International Limited.. New York Websites:www.koutons.com 40 | P a g e . MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Pearson Prentice Hall.cottoncounty.peterengland.net www. MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Tata Mcgraw. McGraw-Hill. R.scribd. 2002  Saxena Rajan.com www.johnplayer. 2006  Kotler Philip. 2006  Parry.com www.com www.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Referred:  Kothari C. New Delhi.

Which of the following fashion brands are you aware of?  Levi’s Plus  Parx  Provogue philippe  Van Heusen Excalibur  Arrow  Dockers  Blackberry’s  Park Avenue Peter England  Others(please specify)   Zodiac Louis Color  2.ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE (Tick whichever applicable) 1. Which of the following brands of Denim are you aware of?  Lee  Wrangler  Black  Numero Uno  Levis Strauss  Pepe  Others (please specify)  Monte Carlo Lites  Lee Cooper 3. How often do you purchase clothes?  Once a week  Once in 3 months  once in a month  once in 6 months 5. How often do you change your readymade garments?  Frequently  Never  Occasionally 4. Factors you consider while purchasing a readymade garments? 41 | P a g e .

Please check one box for each statement to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement. I prefer to buy well-known designer labels rather than take a chance on something new. 7. Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Disagree I buy clothes I like.RANK THEM ACCORDING YOUR PRIORITY: Cloth type  Fashion/Trend  Color  Price  Brand  Availability 6. regardless of current fashion. Listed below are statements about shopping behavior for clothes and clothing fashions. Who influence you to purchase the brand?  Family  Self  Friends  Other  Advertisement 8. In which media you have seen the advertisement of these brands  TV  Newspaper  Magazine  Internet 42 | P a g e . I am confident that I have good taste in clothing. I buy new fashion looks only when they are well accepted. I am not as concerned about fashion as I am about modest prices and wearability.

Which media do you prefer more for fashion ads (in order of your preference)?  TV  Newspaper / pamphlets  Any other (specify)  Magazines  Radio Hoardings / bill boards 12. Which of the following would affect you choice of readymade garments? No effective at all Cloth Type Price Promotional campaigns Affecting the most 10. If magazine. will you by the product after the campaign? Yes Likely Don’t Know I will most likely written over to my previous brand I will switch over to previous brand      11. is it because of 43 | P a g e . is it because  It is an audio .visual medium  Overall presentation  Entertainment value 13. When you buy a readymade garment during a promotional campaign. If TV. Other 9.

If Radio. If Newspaper / pamphlets. Is it because  Audio medium  Medium for travelers and car riders  Entertainment value  Any other (specify) 16. It is a good source of latest trends  Longevity of message 14. If Hoardings. is it because  It is an attention gaining medium  Colorful and attractive  Conveys direct message  Any other (specify) 44 | P a g e . if it because of  Inexpensive source of Information  Available in many languages Overall presentation  Any other (specify)  Mass coverage  Any other (specify) 15.