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Biometrics

http://scgwww.epfl.ch/courses

Dr. Andrzej Drygajlo Speech Processing and Biometrics Group Signal Processing Institute Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL)

Face Recognition

Local features

DCT-based methods

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)

transformation, is a data-representation method that finds an alternative set of parameters for a set of raw data (or features) such that most of the variability in the data is compressed down to the first few parameters

The transformed PCA parameters are orthogonal The PCA, diagonalizes the

covariance matrix, and the resulting diagonal elements are the variances of the transformed PCA parameters

PCA

Advantages

It completely decorrelates any data in the transform domain It packs the most energy (variance) in the fewest number of

transform coefficients It minimizes the MSE (mean square error) between the reconstructed and original data for any specified data compression It minimizes the total entropy of the data

Disadvantages

There is not fast algorithm for its implementation The PCA is not a fixed transform, but has to be generated for each

type of data statistic There is considerable computational effort involved in generation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrices

PCA

PCA

r The covariance (scatter) matrix of the data x , which encodes the

variance and covariance of the data, is used in PCA to find the optimal rotation of the parameter space PCA finds the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. These have the property that

where: S - covariance (scatter) matrix r r r - eigenvectors W = [ w1 , w2 ,K , wD ] V - transformed covariance matrix (diagonal scatter matrix of eigenvalues) diag( V ) = v = [v1 , v2 ,K , vD ] - eigenvalues

WT SW = V

Example:

0 0.26 0.96 14492.28 20760.14 0.26 0.96 302.84 = 0.96 0.26 20760.14 14492.28 0.96 0.26 94.40 0

WT

PCA

Having found the eigenvectors and eigenvalues,

the principal components are found by the following transformation:

r r T xPCA = W x

Example:

xPCA,1 0.26 x1 0.96 x2 0.26 0.96 x1 x = 0.96 x + 0.26 x = 0.96 0.26 x 2 1 2 PCA,2

The eigenvectors give an idea of the importance of each of the original parameters in accounting for the variance in the data

PCA

A face image defines a point

in the high-dimensional image space Different face images share a number of similarities with each other

They can be described by a relatively low-dimensional subspace They can be projected into an appropriately chosen subspace of eigenfaces and classification can be performed by similarity computation (distance)

x2

xPCA,2

xPCA,1

x1

Graphs from: C. Sanderson, On Local Features for Face Verification, IDIAPRR 04-36

PCA

Suppose data consists of M faces with D feature values

10

... 1) Place data in D x M matrix x x = ... xij ... 2) Mean-center the data ... Compute D-dimensional (mean). x0 = x - 3) Compute D x D covariance matrix ( c = x0 x0T) 4) Compute eigenvectors and eigenvalues of covariance matrix 5) Choose K largest eigenvalues (K << D). 6) Form a D x K matrix W with K columns of eigenvectors. 7) The new coordinates xPCA of data (in PCA space) consists of projecting data into K-dimensional subspace by xPCA = WT(x )

M faces

D features

PCA

PCA seeks directions that are efficient for

representing the data

11

not efficient

efficient

Class A Class B

Class A Class B

12

The database

a1 a 2 = M a 2 N

e1 e2 = M e 2 N

b1 b2 = M b 2 N

f1 f2 = M f 2 N

c1 c2 = M c 2 N

g1 g2 = M g 2 N

d1 d2 = M d 2 N

h1 h2 = M h 2 N

13

m1 m r 2 1 m= M M mN 2

a1 + b1 + L + h1 a + b +L + h 2 2 2 , M M M a 2 + b 2 +L + h 2 N N N

where M = 8

14

a1 m1 b1 m1 c1 m1 d1 m1 r d 2 m2 r a2 m2 r b2 m2 r c2 m2 , , bm = , cm = , dm = am = M M M M M M M M a 2 m 2 b 2 m 2 c 2 m 2 d 2 m 2 N N N N N N N N e1 m1 e2 m2 r , em = M M e 2 m 2 N N r fm = f1 m1 g1 m1 h1 m1 r h2 m2 f 2 m2 g 2 m2 r , gm = , hm = M M M M M M g 2 m 2 h 2 m 2 f N 2 mN 2 N N N N

Now we build the matrix which is N2 by M The covariance matrix which is N2 by N2

15

r r r r r r r r x = am bm cm d m em f m g m hm

C = xx

The matrix is very large The computational effort is very big

We can reduce the dimension of the covariance (scatter) matrix

Eigenvectors of C and S are equivalent

S = x x

T

16

space

r r T r xPCA,1 = W ( am ) , xPCA,2 = WT r r r xPCA,5 = WT ( em ) , xPCA,6 = WT

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

r dm , r hm

1 r r = max xPCA,i xPCA, j 2

for

i, j = 1, 2,K, M

17

To recognize a face

r1 r2 = M r 2 N

r1 m1 r2 m2 r rm = M M r 2 m 2 N N

Compute its projection onto the face space

18

r r xPCA = W ( rm )

and all known faces

r r = xPCA xPCA,i

2 i

for

i = 1, 2,K , M

Reconstruct the face from eigenfaces

19

reconstruction

r r rPCA = W xPCA

2 2

r r = rm rPCA

If < and i , (i =1,2,K, M) then it is a new face If < and min { i } < then it is a known face

Eigenfaces

20

= 0.4

+ 0.2

+ ... + 0.6

= 0.4

+ 0.2

Eigenfaces

Shortcomings:

21

Eigenfaces do not distinguish between shape and appearance PCA does not use class information: PCA projections are optimal for reconstruction from a low dimensional basis, they may not be optimal from a discrimination standpoint: Much of the variation from one image to the next is due to illumination changes. [Moses, Adini, Ullman]

Different illumination Different head pose Different alignment Different facial expression

PCA

22

Database Samples

PCA

23

Average

Major (principal)

Minor

PCA

24

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