PAMPANGA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES Department of Languages and Literature Literature 1 – Philippine Literature

INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE Literature comes from the Latin litera which means, letters. Literature deals with the corpus of literary creations, both oral and written. These are often results of imagination and/or realities. All of these, however, reflect culture and character, either of the author or the ones being observed by the author. Literary Standards Standards are the basis for evaluating or assessing the greatness of a particular work. In reading literature, the following are considered: 1. Universality – refers to the ability of a particular work to appeal to everyone, regardless of age, race, sex and time. Thus, a work is considered universal if it stays relevant to people across cultures and ages. 2. Artistry – refers to the aesthetic appeal of a work. This means that a literary work possesses a sense of beauty. 3. Intellectual Value – refers to the ability of a work to stimulate critical and analytic thinking, and abstract reasoning. Thus, a work should be able to stir the reader’s intellect and make him or her realize the truths of his or her own life and the society. 4. Suggestiveness – refers to the ability of the emotional power of a literary work. Thus, a work should be able to tingle to emotions of the reader for him or her to understand or define symbolisms, implied meanings, images and messages. 5. Spiritual Value – refers to the literary work’s ability uplift the reader’s soul and spirit. So, it should be able to motivate and inspire the reader to do what is morally upright. 6. Permanence – refers to the literary work’s ability to transcend time. Thus, a good work should remain relevant to people across generations. 7. Style – refers to the writer’s manner of presenting his or her ideas. A good work should have words carefully thought of and an organization that is well laid out to give a better effect on the work. Classifications of Literature 1. According to Structure A. Fiction – refers to literatures which are mere figments of a writer’s imagination. B. Non- fiction – refers to literatures which are based on facts or real life. 2. According to Form A. Prose – refers to the literary work that is spoken or written within the common flow of language in sentences and in paragraphs. B. Poetry – refers to the literary work that is expressed in verses, measures, rhythms, and sounds. 3. According to Genre A. Fiction – refers to a narrative prose.

he or she will never be the same as in the exposition. Protagonist – is the character who has a certain goal in the story. This is the point of no return because whatever the decision of the character will be. C. concepts. B. D. Theme – is the dominant and significant truth about life that is presented in the story. Point-of-View – determines the narrator of the story. Climax – refers to the peak of the story. Crisis – refers to the parts where the problem grows bigger. Parts of the Plot A. Elements of Fiction 1. the setting is not merely the time and place. He. 4. Complication – refers to the start of a major problem in the story. This goal is usually for the betterment of most of the people in the story or for the character himself. Poetry – refers to a patterned form of verbal or written expression. Plot – refers to the sequence of events in the story. Essay – refers to a prose composition in moderate length that presents a tentative exploration or evaluation of a subject. she or it has only one personality and is often predictable. it is a reflection of the culture of the people in that particular time and place. Antagonist – is the character who prevents the protagonist from achieving his or her goal. 2. people. that are represented in the story. F. Flat – is the character that remains the same throughout the story. Thus. B. However. 2. C. ideas. This kind of plot starts from the beginning and exposes the story in a chronological manner. 2. According to Personality 1. also known as “status quo”.B. Denouement – “untying the knots”. Exposition – refers to the initial setting of the story. En Medias Res – literally means “at the middle of things”. Static – is the character that does not change within the duration of the story. B. . Drama – refers to a composition in prose that presents a story in the form of dialogue and action. flash forward and foreshadowing. This is the part where order is put in the story because the problems are staring to be resolved. Characters – are the animals. Kinds of Plot A. According to Development 1. C. According to Principality 1. 2. This causes curiosity and strain among the characters. Ending – is the start of the new status quo. Ad Ovum – literally means “from the egg”. D. E. etc. Dynamic – is the character who exhibits development in the story. Round – is the character that has different personalities. 3. 5. Kinds of Character A. Setting – refers to the time and place in which the events in the story occur. this kind of plot starts at the heat of events and usually uses literary devices – flash back.