Thesis Proposal
Organizational Citizenship behavior in Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited


Allah Rakha Sandhu

MS (HRM) Riphah International University Islamabad Supervised By Dr. Moeen Aizaz Zafar
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1.2 Thesis Proposal 1. Result: In final the Independent variables have positive result on the Organizational citizenship behavior. The proposal is related to the topic “Organizational citizenship behavior in Pakistan telecommunication limited”.0 Domain: Human Resource management Area: Organizational citizenship behavior in Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is the . Introduction.

just as it is difficult to punish the absence of such behavior directly. Dr. This job behavior is considered of crucial importance to employers. and IPTV.and the remaining 12% to the general public. when 26% of shares and control was sold to Etisalat . wholesale are an increasing part of its business. Managers often find it difficult to reward good citizenship directly. PTCL often provide new schemes and packages to its customers who all have different need. PTCL provide its users with worldwide access. OCB is defined as the type of behavior by employees that support the interests of their organization even though they may not directly lead to individual benefits. this holding has since 2006 been reduced to 62%. providing the largest fixed line network. Yasin said that India lagged far behind Pakistan with 37 percent teledensity as compared to 62 percent in Pakistan. In the complex and ever growing world of communication. As telecom industry is a service industry and OCB is an extremely important issue within the service and hospitality industry. (Chen. has great importance of economic growth. The company operates around 2000 telephone exchanges across the country. during an interview with Business Recorder. cellular technology is of great importance. It surely shrinks the world as it is in true sense “global”. Originally fully owned by the Government of Pakistan. including giants like Telenor and China Mobile. And PTCL is fulfilling this need of our country. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) Chairman Dr Mohammad Yasin has said that Pakistan telecommunication limited has been growing faster than that of India with over 62 percent teledensity. Telecom Company’s main aim is to provide grade “A” quality to all its users belonging to different social classes. encouraging the foreign direct investment (FDI). CDMA. For a country that is very strategically placed on the world map and which is trying to break the chains of third world. Broadband Internet.3 largest telecommunication company in Pakistan. Morrison's (1996) research showed . The company provides telephony services nation-wide and is the backbone for country's telecommunication infrastructure despite arrival of a dozen other telecommunication companies. Its subscribers make up a very large and a mix as they belong to all the classes of society. Data and backbone services such as GSM. The current study is based on the research on OCB and its antecedents in PTCL sector of Rawalpindi/Islamabad. 2009).

3 Work place value with OCB This significant value of this independent variable means that if employees believe that their organization values quality products or services.4 that OCB is an indication of high service quality.4 Job Characteristics with OCB . 2.2 Job satisfaction with OCB Results yielded a significant and very strong positive relationship between Job satisfaction and OCB in the present study. Those exhibiting civic virtue would make suggestions to improve quality and customer satisfaction. In another cross-sectional study. 1996). 2. Altruistic workers would help internal and external customers. they will be more likely to become attached to it and engage in behaviors that will contribute to high quality. perceived fairness. This supports previous findings suggesting Organ and Ryan (1995) found in their meta-analytic review of 55 studies that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were the two robust correlates of OCBs. 1995). sportsmanship. and altruism were positively correlated with financial results and customer satisfaction (Walz & Niehoff. and leader supportiveness (Organ & Ryan. Sportsmanship and courtesy would create a positive climate among employees that spills over to customers. It supported previous findings that says a meta-analysis showed that citizenship behaviors correlated with job satisfaction. organizational commitment. Conscientious employees would go beyond customer expectations.1 Job commitment and OCB Job satisfaction correlated positively with OCB. civic virtue. 2. Recent studies have shown abundant proof that OCB is positively related to service quality. Thesis Motivation The study focuses on the following topics 2. 2.

conscientiousness and courtesy. 1977. How scholars define the concept of organizational citizenship behavior and recommend implementing it on any organization. 2. What is the effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the development of the ptcl sector? 4. employees can monitor their own behavior and gain an increased sense of personal control. Converse. Milbrath & Goel. Blume. Thesis Objectives. and Podsakoff (2009) found that OCBs were positively related to unit-level performance and customer satisfaction. Research Questions.).5 To the extent that a job is structured to provide regular feedback and autonomy as well as a sense of task completion. . 5. Whiting. Hrivnak. What is the total percentage of OCB in PTCL? 4. Nielsen. examined the relationship between OCBs and performance at the group level. and Shaw (2009). How much resistance rate is there to follow the organizational citizenship behavior with respect to internal and external factors? 3. More recently. Podsakoff. 1966. altruism. & Stokes. in their meta-analytic review of the existing group literature.5 Job level with OCB Studies of civic citizenship have consistently found socioeconomic status to be the single strongest predictor of the active citizenship syndrome because high status tends to increase both the motivation and the ability to be actively involved (Campbell. sportsmanship. Miller. Nielsen et al (2009) found that similar patterns of relationships existed for each dimension of OCB: civic virtue. 3. There are some research questions on which the research work is based: 1. In addition. These researchers found a positive and significant relationship between overall OCB and performance at the group level. How much organizational citizenship behavior is fruitful in the Pakistan telecommunication limited? 2.

and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (Organ. educational qualifications. Literature Review As a result of literature review it has been reveal that Organizational citizenship behavior is being studied since 1970’s. tenure. organizational spontaneity (George & Brief. but . as defined by Borman and Motowidlo (1993. and job level of PTCL sector. What is the future road map after adopting organizational citizenship behavior in PTCL sector? 2. These terms are related. & Parks. such as extra-role behavior (Van Dyne. rewards. many related concepts have emerged. 1992. 1997). More recently. not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. To study the relationship of OCB with the factors that are job attitudes. 2004). leadership as well as economic conditions.6 This thesis aims to discuss on the following issues and aim to achieve objectives by OCB implementation in PTCL. job characteristics. What should be the top management strategy for the motivation and creating a positive perception of the working employees in PTCL? 3. Organ (1997) refined this definition. “Individual behavior that is discretionary. Examine other antecedents of OCB such as cynicism. George & Jones.1988). work place values. 1997). Hoe the Government policies are implemented on OCB and their effect on the Organization? 4. 7. 1. to determine the extra role behavior. organizational citizenship performance (Borman. Hoe much OCB helps the PTCL decision makers to make the organizational decisions? 5. however. and job performance ratings. Since this time. conceptualizing organizational citizenship behavior as any form of performance that supports the social or psychological environment in which the work tasks are embedded-a definition that more closely corresponds to contextual performance. 6. trust. Cummings. TQM. 1995). Examine other demographic factors such as salary range. 5.

researchers sometimes distinguish affective and cognitive job satisfaction. Podsakoff & MacKenzie. and production quantity. Walz & Niehoff. these behaviors coincide with reductions in costs but improvements in efficiency. 1996). when experienced employees exhibit organizational citizenship behavior. 1997). represent affective job satisfaction. rather than affective. Definitions of the construct indicate its significance in binding the individual both to the organization and to courses of action which are relevant to the target of the commitment (Meyer & Herscovitch. represent cognitive job satisfaction. Nevertheless. Several mechanisms might underpin the associations between organizational citizenship behavior and workplace effectiveness (see Borman & Motowidlo. Second. 2000). job satisfaction. . In general. the precise relationship differs between affective and cognitive job satisfaction. profitability. In particular. 1990). 1996). analyses consistently indicate significant correlations between OC and turnover intention (cf. some of which assessed affective job satisfaction. Allen & Meyer. 1988. Their analyses showed that organizational citizenship behavior was more strongly related to cognitive. some facets of exhibit organizational citizenship . 2001). Randall. Organizational commitment (OC) has for many years been identified as a central construct in understanding the relationship between the employee and the employer (cf. Questions about the feelings their job evokes. In the study conducted by Moorman and Blakely (1995). Nevertheless. 2001. cognitive job satisfaction. they might impart their knowledge and skills to novice employees-whose productivity might thus improve exponentially. Organ.7 often emphasize different features. 2004. First. 1993. organizational citizenship behavior is indeed related to measures of workplace effectiveness (Dunlop & Lee. 1994. and OCBs has been found to create underlying positive attitudes about the job and the organization that encourage people to exhibit citizenship behaviors (Allen & Meyer. commitment. participants completed a series of scales. as job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been found to be strongly related to each other. and organizational citizenship behavior.some scholars indicate that they should be examined together to determine their influence on OCBs (Alotaibi. Podsakoff & MacKenzie. such as "I enjoy my work". Organizational citizenship behavior is positively related to job satisfaction. such as "My job fulfills my expectations". 2001). That is. With regard to the former. Questions that invite more deliberate appraisals. In several studies the relationship between satisfaction. Koys.

crease both the motivation and the ability to be actively involved (Campbell. Research Model Job commitment Job satisfaction Work place value . (McShane and Glinow. The model identifies three types of individual difference that affect the relationship between the core dimensions and the psychological states and the relationship between the psychological states and outcomes. organizational citizenship behaviors might promote positive emotions and feelings. Converse. The job characteristic model helps to explain why employees may respond some what differently to an increase in some of the core characteristics of their jobs. 2000). Thus. Those in high-level jobs may feel social pressure to report attachment to their organizations and may feel subject to expectations from both peers and subordinates that they will "go the extra mile.8 behavior. Recent results of a study by Niehoff and Moorman (1993) support this view and demonstrate that monitoring negatively influences citizenship. A job that allows a high degree of autonomy and the absence of close supervision or supervisory monitoring suggests a situation characterized by trust. 1966." 6. Third. the freedom associated with autonomy and low monitoring is balanced by the reciprocal response of responsibility and constructive behavior.). Studies of civic citizenship have consistently found socioeconomic status to be the single strongest predictor of the active citizenship syndrome because high status tends to in. Miller. & Stokes. might facilitate the identification of insightful and innovative solutions to improve the organization. particularly civic virtue and voice behavior. including morale and cohesion.

Hypothesis H1: Employees Job commitment will positively affect the Organizational citizenship behavior. The Likert scale range from 1 – 5 will be used indicating 1 for completely disagree. H4: Highly motivating job characteristics will positively affect the Organizational citizenship behavior.9 Organizational citizenship behavior Job Characteristics Job level 7. H3: Employees Perceptions of socially desirable work place values will positively affects Organizational citizenship behavior. The variables are fully supported by the theories in the research work. Research Methodology As there is selected some independent variable with organizational citizenship behavior as dependent one. H2: Employees job satisfaction positively affects on Organizational citizenship behavior. There is used both the primary and secondary data to support the research questions. H5: High employee’s job level positively affects Organizational citizenship behavior. For first hand data there is used samples of 100 questionnaires. 8. . to 5 completely agree.

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