UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

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Guideline for the Preparation of the Final Year Projects in the Department of Civil Engineering
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By Sixtus Kinyua Mwea, F16/
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A project submitted as a partial fulfillment for the requirement for the award of the degree of
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BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
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Year of submission

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.......................................................................7 References.........................................................6 3....4 List of Illustrations ...................8.............................. 3 2..........3....................................................................................10 ..............................................................................................1 Examples of References.....................................................................................................2 Literature Review...................................................6 Conclusions and Recommendations.......................................................................................................................................7 3.....................................................................................(Times New Roman 16) Table of contents (font 12) Chapter One (font 12) Introduction (font 16)........7 3......5 Analysis and/or Discussion of Results...............1 Typeface and margins for the report .............3 Main Body of the Project................................................................5 Third Order Headings .......................................................6 3........................................................................6 3..................................................................................................................6 Introduction.4 2...............................................................................3 Theoretical Analysis...........................................................................................................................................................................................3 Abstract ........................................................3 Marking scheme for the projects.............................8 3.....................................4 2....................................1 1................1 First Order Headings ..........................................................2 Preliminary Pages.................................................................................................5 2.............................3 2..........................................................................................................................................8 Appendices....................................................................................................................................5 Chapter Three General Guidelines for the Various Chapters....................................7 3..............................................................4 Methodology/Data Collection/Experimentation................................................4 Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................7 Referencing list at the end of the body of the report......................4 Table of contents .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Second Order Headings .............................................................2 Chapter Two Structure of the Report ........ 1 Broad areas of the projects............................1 Title Page..........................8 3...............................3 Dedication ....................3.......

The supervisor gives guidance but the project and the report at the end should be a student report following the study. The objective of FCE 590 is to give the student a chance to display his abilities in organizing a study or investigation or inquiry into an engineering problem and how to report on the same. Broad areas of the projects There are four basic project types including: A) B) C) D) Design Projects Experimental Project Theoretical Project Descriptive Or Field Studies Title Page 1 . investigation or design exercise.Chapter One (font 12) Introduction (font 16) (Three spaces) The Department of Civil Engineering in the University Nairobi has been using notes for preparation of project prepared by Gichaga (1985). The revised guidelines will ensure good quality presentation and more importantly uniformity of the projects in the department. The broad guidelines remain the same with some modifications where necessary.

photographs.This is unnumbered page should be arranged as follows:Statement of the University Title of the project Author’s name Statement of the degree Year of project submission University of Nairobi (Times New Roman 16 bold. 25 mm from top) The title should have a maximum of 16 words without punctuation (Centered 75 mm from the top) At least (Centered 100 mm from the top) At least (Centered 150 mm from the top) At least (Centered 240 mm from the top) An example of a typical title page is the cover page for these notes 1.1 Marking scheme for the projects (Elegant) Details 1 Attitude.3 Marking scheme for the projects When the project report has been submitted examiners use the scheme shown on Table 1. co-operation with supervisor and others 2 Presentation of the project report diagrams. general format 3 Oral English language. layout. and examination Design Projects (Category A) 4 Design analysis 5 Design Calculations 6 Drawings Experimental Projects (Category B) 4 Theoretical background 5 Experimental results 6 Discussion and conclusions and recommendations Theoretical Projects (Category C) 4 Critical Expositions of existing theory 5 Development and application of existing 6 Discussion and conclusions and recommendations Descriptive of field studies (Category D) 4 Critical discussion of problem 5 Collection and analysis of data 6 Discussion and conclusions and recommendations Out of 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 25 20 15 25 20 2 .1 for awarding the project mark Table 1.

These notes are prepared in the above typeface and margins 2. The margins should 2.1 Typeface and margins for the report The report should be typed in 1. It must convey the essence of the report and all the important concepts and conclusions of the work. tables and any illustrations.2 Preliminary Pages Abstract Bold Lower Case skip line The abstract should be approximately 200 words. The text should be justified between the paper margins. The student with the consultation with the supervisor develops an appropriate structure.5 line spacing using 12 pt Times New Roman typeface or equivalent in the way it appears. For projects with more than 400 pages the left margin should be increased to 3.0 cm to allow for a bigger binding edge. It is a very important element of the project and should be prepared with care. This margin should also be observed for figures.Chapter Two Structure of the Report (Three spaces) The report may take several forms of chapters depending on the nature of the topic under investigation.5 cm on all the four sides of the pages for projects with less than 400 pages. The abstract should be placed in a separate unnumbered page behind the title page 3 . The following guidelines are to be followed with appropriate modifications to suit the different projects. 2.

4 . A separate unnumbered page should be used after the abstract page. In any case it should not exceed 100 words. Subdivisions should be indicated clearly by headings.Dedication Bold lowercase Skip line The decision to include a dedication is entirely the author’s own.3 Main Body of the Project The main body of he project should be organized in a manner that can be understood by the reader (Examiner) easily.5cm without omitting a line. 2. Acknowledgements Bold lowercase Skip line The decision to include acknowledgements is entirely the author’s own. These physical subdivisions should facilitate the comprehension and provide a quick way of scanning through the project. In any case it should not exceed 100 words. Plates. It enables the examiner to find his/her way around the work and should include an accurate listing of all the sections that follow. Charts etc. The paragraphs are to be separated by indenting the following paragraph by 1. The sections and the subsections should be given with the page numbers. A separate unnumbered page should be used after the dedication page Table of contents Bold lowercase Skip line The table of contents is very important and should always be included. If there are different kinds of illustrations the list can be divided into subsections headed Figures. The contents pages should be numbered in small case Roman numbers List of Illustrations Bold lowercase Skip line This should follow the Table of contents pages. Maps.

5cm. These should be preceded by a line and followed by text without leaving one line of space.2 Second Order Headings The heading is preceded by one line and should be typed boldly in capital and small letters flush to the left with a tab of 1. The final editing to ensure this is achieved requires paraphrasing sentences and reorganizing your work for a good flow of the typing of the work. Too short or too long paragraphs or sentences are to be avoided 2.3. It is followed by one line. Third Order Headings The third and highest order headings should be typed boldly in capital and small letters flush to the left with a tab of 1. They are to be typed in capital and small letters flush to the left below the numbering of the chapter. 5 . It is preferable to transfer a heading to the next page.Do not begin a new section at the bottom of a page.5cm.1 First Order Headings These are usually the chapter titles.3. An example of a first order heading is the chapter headings for these notes 2.

3. In some cases literature review and theoretical analyses may be combined to form one chapter. This chapter should clearly spell out:    3.2 The scope and purpose of the project The plan of development of the subject matter in the project Value to the reader (Examiner) Literature Review Investigation to gather information on existing level of knowledge.3 Theoretical Analysis A theoretical chapter explains the theory behind the subject under investigation or it may be your wish to confirm a theory from investigations using full-scale tests. which must be relevant to the subject.Chapter Three General Guidelines for the Various Chapters (Three spaces) Introduction The introduction of the project should develop the project presentation so that the reader can be familiar with the background of the investigation. The relevant reference literature should appear in the references list at the end of the report. . is included in this chapter. Those references quoted here must appear in the references list. Such information.

3. The chapter normally starts by reminding the reader about the objectives of the investigation. Reference may be made to the Literature and Theoretical chapter (s).4 Methodology/Data Collection/Experimentation You may wish to describe the method(s) you used in collecting data from laboratory or field or both. Thus. A simple mention that the plastic limit of the soil sample was determined is good enough. 3. which must once again relate to the objectives of the investigation.5 Analysis and/or Discussion of Results In this chapter the results obtained from the investigation are subjected to thorough scrutiny. A discrepancy between theory and results or between one’s results those of others are discussed and the author is expected to offer explanation for this.7 References . Where results show conclusive evidence of a behavior or phenomenon the same forms the basis for the conclusion and recommendations chapter. If there is no conclusive explanation it is necessary to recommend further investigation relating to that aspect. 3. This is generally a short chapter with list of major findings. This chapter describes the methodology and may incorporate results if so desired or else Results chapter should follow this chapter. Standard laboratory procedures need not be presented in detail. The results from the studies are discussed in relation to those of other researchers or in relation to what was expected from theory or common knowledge.6 Conclusions and Recommendations The chapter presents conclusive findings and recommendations as will have been discussed in the discussion chapter. it is not necessary to present the methodology of determining the plastic limit of the soil under investigation. 3. The rest of the chapter should then relate to how each objective has been tackled and achieved.

Studies of flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya.J. journal articles. etc. and Rodell. (1987). articles in collections and conference or workshop proceedings. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text.J. poverty and shelter (book title in italics).).8. Only references cited in the text should be included. Referencing list at the end of the body of the report References to books. Mwea S. should be identified by a lower case letter like “a” or “b” after the date to distinguish the works.. People. University of Nairobi pp282 . the reference. (Thesis title in italics) Doctor of Philosophy thesis. 2001. (eds.1 Examples of References References to books and thesis Skinner. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year.  After a sentence as follows: However it is the ingress of water and loading which results in accelerated failure of a cracked pavement (Mwea 2001). (2001). and technical reports should be listed at the end of the report before the appendices in alphabetical order. or Gichaga and Mwea 1990 for two authors). London: Methuen. personal communications. M. When more than two authors are involved only the first author’s name should be mentioned. 3. both in the text and in the reference list. R. The referencing should be in accordance with the Harvard Referencing style. When this style is used references should be referred in the text as (Mwea. followed by et al (Noureldin et al 1994).Referencing must be done properly so that if the reader can always obtain the relevant reference from library or from the publisher to check. Unpublished observations.. The reference within the text should be as follows:  Within a sentence as follows: The department of civil engineering has been using notes for preparation of project prepared by Gichaga (1985). K.

Urban Institute Report 88-4. and Sanyal.” In: Pettersen (ed. J.). in Rodwin..Y. Department of Civil Engineering University of Nairobi. and development: An overview”. Lusaka. Fatani M. African Urban Quarterly (Journal title in italics) 2. and Mwea S. S.N. Journal Article Schlyter. National study of rutting of the asphalticic pavements in Saudi Arabia.. B. Proceedings of international conference on bearing capacity of roads and airfields pp 743-756 Trondheim. (1990). Structural Strength condition for some flexible road and airport pavements under tropical conditions. S..J. FCE 390 Guidelines to the preparation of civil engineering projects (report title in italics). Assessing housing needs and policy alternatives in developing countries (report title in italics). (1999). The Daily Nation (Newspaper title in italics). and Al-Abdulwahbabh (1994). Conference proceedings Gichaga F. Proceedings of the sixth conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Vol.. K. L. Zambia”. (2002) “Evaluating alternative scenarios for existing building stock with the use of assessment tools. Boston: Allen and Unwin: 39-47. Noureldin A... On CDRom. Oslo: Ecobuild. Sustainable Building 2002: 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Building. Settlement & Development (book title in italics).Chapter in edited book Rodwin.. 6/8/99: pp32 . Washington DC. (1987). “Homeless turn to estate agency for squatters”. (1987). III pp136-151 Cape Town Reports Gichaga F. settlement.J. Milonas. (1985).. (1988).A. Struyk.. 3 (August): 287-97. Dhalaam M.S. 23-25 September 2002. “Commercialisation of housing in upgraded squatter areas: the case of George. Norway. Shelter. A. (ed). Newspaper articles Quinn. “Shelter. R. L.

nationaudio. are to be discussed and presented in the main report.8 Appendices The appendices include large sections of tables. 2004. Nation media group 3.com/ (web site in italic) Daily Nation 17th December 17. which would make the reading of the report unnecessarily cumbersome and or difficult. illustrations and bulk calculations. Only the appendences referred to in the main body of the report should be presented. Moi and Mama Ngina in Ndungu land report.On the Internet Omari OO (2004). http://www. The results from the analysis presented in the appendices however. .

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