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equation of a straight line is expressed in the form r = a + tb. - to determine whether two lines are parallel, intersect or are skew. - to find the angle between two lines and the point of intersection of two lines when it exists. The equation of a straight line A particular line is uniquely located in space if (a) it has a known direction and passes through a known fixed point, or (b) it passes through two known points. (c) it passes through three known points. A line with known direction passing through a fixed point A straight line passes through a fixed point A with position vector a and is parallel to a given vector b. Let r be the position vector of a point R on the line. Since AR is parallel to b, then for some scalar t ε ℜ, AR = tb OR – OA =tb r – a = tb ⇒ r = a + tb Thus, every point on the line has a position vector of the form r = a + tb. The equation r = a + tb is called the vector equation of the line through A parallel to b. The vector b is a direction vector of the line. A Line with Known Direction Passing through a Fixed Point A vector equation of the line which passes through the point with position vector 2i – j + 3k and which is parallel to the vector 2j – k is r = (2i – j + 3k) + t(2j – k). (2i – j + 3k) is the point it passes through and (2j – k) is the direction vector and t is a scalar. 1. Find the vector equation of the line passing through A(1, –1, 2) with direction vector (3, 0, 1). 2. Find the vector equation of the line which is parallel to the vector 3i + 4j + k and passes through a point with position vector 2i + 3j – 2k. 3. Find the vector equation of the line which is parallel to the vector 2i – j + 3k and which passes through the point (5, – 2, 4). Answer 1. r = (i – j + 2k) + t (3i + k) 2. r = (2 + 3t)i +(3 + 4t)j + (t – 2)k 3. r = (5 + 2t)i +(–2 – t)j + (4 + 3t) k

1

A line through two fixed points A straight line passes through two points A and B with position vectors a and b respectively. If a point R, with position vector r lies on this line, then for some scalar λ ε ℜ. AR = λ AB r – a = λ (b – a) r = a + λ (b – a) Hence the vector equation of the line through A and B is r = (1 – λ)a + λb, λ ε ℜ. 1. Find the vector equation of the straight line which passes through the points A(1, 0, – 2) and B( 2, 3, –1). 2. The position vector of the points A and B are given by OA = 3i – 2j + 2k, OB = – i + j + 3k, where O is the origin. Find a vector equation of the straight line passing through A and B. Given that this line is perpendicular to the vector i + 2j + pk, find the value of p. 3. The position vector of the points A and B are given by OA = i + j + k, OB = 2i + 3j + 4k, where O is the origin. Find a vector equation of the straight line passing through A and B. Find the position vector of the point where this line meets the plane z = 0. Answer 1. r = (1, 0, – 2) + t (1, 3, 1) or r = (t + 1) i + 3t j + (t –2) k 2. r = (3, –2, 2) + t (–4, 3, 1) t ε ℜ ; p = – 2 2 1 3. r = (23 , 13 ,0) or i + j 3 3 A line through three fixed points To obtain the vector equation, we need a vector that is parallel to the line, for example BC, and the position vector of one point on the line, say OA. Find the vector equation of the straight line that passes through OA = - i + j, OB = 2i + 7j and OC = 3i + 9j.

2

PAIRS OF LINES The location of two lines in space may be such that: (a) the lines are parallel (b) the lines are not parallel and intersect (c) the lines are not parallel and do not intersect. Such lines are called skew. Parallel Lines Two straight lines are said to be parallel if they lie in the same plane but do not intersect ⇒ b = ka. Parallel lines have equal direction vectors. Two lines which do not lie on the same plane, are not parallel and which do not intersect. If two lines intersect, there will exist a point whose position vector satisfies the vector equations of both lines.

Skew Lines Intersecting lines

(a) Parallel Lines Two straight lines are said to be parallel if they lie in the same plane but do not intersect. Parallel lines have equal direction vectors. r1 = i + j + 2k + t(3i − 2j + 4k) and 2 = 2i − j + 3k + s(−6i + 4j − 8k ) r are parallel because the direction vector for r1 is (3i− 2j+ 4k) and direction vector for r2 = s(−6i + 4j− 8k) which is equivalent to (−2t) (3i− 2j+ 4k). (b) Intersecting Lines Two straight lines are said to be intersecting if they are not parallel and there exist scalars λ and µ (obtained by solving simultaneously using the i–vector and the j–vector) such that when substituted into the k–vector, gives the same value. r1 = i – j + 3k + λ(i –j + k) and r2 = 2i + 4j + 6k + µ (2i + j + 3k) i) The two lines are not parallel (direction vectors are different). ii) Rearranging : r1 = (1 + λ, –1 –λ, 3 + λ) and r2 = (2 + 2µ, 4 + µ, 6 + 3µ) iii) Equate the i–vector and the j–vector to obtain λ and µ. Substitute the two values into the k–vector. If the values are the same, then the two lines intersect. To find the intersection points, substitute λ in r1 or µ in r2 .

3

(c) Skew Lines Two lines which do not lie on the same plane are not parallel and which do not intersect are called skew lines. r1 = i + k + λ(i + 3j + 4k) and r2 = 2i + 3j + µ (4i – j + k) i) The two lines do not have the same direction vectors, therefore they are not parallel. ii) Rearranging: r1 = (1 + λ, 3λ, 1 + 4λ) and r2 = (2 + 4µ, 3 – µ, µ) iii) Equate the i – vector and the j – vector to obtain λ and µ. Substitute the two values into the k –vector. If the values are not the same, then the two lines are skewed. 1. Find out whether the following pairs of lines are parallel, non-parallel and intersecting, or non-parallel and non-intersecting (skew) (a) r1 = = i + j + 2k + λ(3i -2j + 4k) r2 = = 2i - j + 3k + µ (-6i + 4j - 8k) (b) r1 = = i - j + 3k + λ(i - j + k) r2 = = 2i + 4j + 6k + µ (2i + j + 3k) (c) r1 = = i + k + λ(i + 3j + 4k) r2 = = 2i + 3j + µ (4i - j + k) 2. The vector equations of three lines are stated below: line 1: r1 = 17i + 2j – 6k + λ(- 9i + 3j + 9k) line 2: r2 = 2i - 3j + 4k + µ(6i + 7j - k) line 3: r3 = 2i - 12j – k + γ(- 3i + j + 3k) State which pair of lines (a) are parallel to each other. (b) intersect with each other. (c) are skew 3. Decide whether the following pairs of straight lines are intersecting, parallel of skew. If the lines intersect give the position vector of their point of intersection. (a) r1 = (1 -λ)i + 3λj + (2λ + 5)k ; r2 = 2µi + (µ - 4)j + 3k (b) r1 = -7i + 4 j + 3k + λ(2i + k) ; r2 = 5i + 8j + k + µ (-4i + 3k) (c) r1 = 2λi + 3j - (2λ + 5)k ; r2 = (2- 3µ)i - 4j + 3µk (d) r1 = 2λi + (4λ + 1) j + (5 - 3λ)k; r2 = (µ +4)i + (5µ + 3) j + (µ - 6)k 4. Show that the lines l1 and l2, with vector equations r1 = λi + (3 - 2λ)j + (2 + λ)k and r2 = (1 - 2µ)i + 4µj + (1 - 2µ)k respectively, are distinct parallel lines. (Show that the two lines are parallel and that the direction vector of the two points that the two lines pass thro’ is not parallel to the direction vectors of the two lines). 5. Show that the lines L1 and L2, with vector equations r1 = 2λ i – 3 j + (λ - 2) k and r2 = (µ + 1)i + (2 - µ)j + (2µ - 5)k do not intersect. 6. The lines l1 and l2 are given by r1 = (3, 1, 4) + s (5, -2, 3) and

4

r2 = (- 3 , 5, 2) + t (1, 0, 2), respectively. Show that the lines L1 and L2 are skew. 7. Two lines L1 and L2 have equations r1 = (-2 + 2λ, 2 + λ), λ ε ℜ, and r2 = (1 + µ, -1 + 2µ), µ ε ℜ, respectively. Find the point of intersection P of lines L1 and L2. 8. Show that the lines L1 and L2, with vector equations r1 = k +λ(i – j – 3k) and r2 = 2i + j + µ (3j + 5k) respectively, intersect, and find the position vector of their point of intersection. 9. The points A and B have coordinates (1, 1, - 4) and (3, 3, 0) respectively. The line L1 which passes through A has equation r = (1, 1, - 4) + t (2, -2, 0). The line L2 which passes through B has equation r = (3, 3, 0) + s (4, 2, 6). Show that the lines L1 and L2 intersect, and find the coordinates of their point of intersection. 10.Show that the point with position vector i – 9j + k lies on the line L with vector equation r = 3i + 3j – k + t (i + 6j – k). Answer 1. a. parallel 2. b. Intersect at -2i + 2j c. skew

Line 1 and line 3 are parallel to each other. Line 2 and line 3 intersect at (- 4, - 10, 5). Line 1 and line 2 are skewed b. Skew d. Intersect at 6i + 13j - 4k

3. a. Intersect at 2i - 3j + 3k c. parallel 7. OP = 4i + 5j 9. 1 5 i+ j – 4k 3 3 8. 2i – 2j – 5k

5

Angle Between a Pair of Lines If two lines have equations r1 = a1 + λb1 and r2 = a2 + µb2, they are in the directions b1 and b2, respectively. The angle between any two lines is defined as the angle between their direction vectors. So the angle between a pair of lines depends only on their directions and NOT on their positions. (b1 . b2 ) Therefore cos θ = . This applies to a pair of skew lines as well as to | b1 || b2 | a pair of intersecting lines. It follows that if the lines are perpendicular cos θ = 0 ⇒ (b1 . b2) = 0. If two lines have equations r1 = x i + y j + z k + λ( a i + b j + c k) and 1 1 1 1 1 1 x 2 i + y 2 j + z 2 k + λ( a 2 i + b2 j + c 2 k), respectively, the angle θ between r2 = these lines is the angle between their direction vectors, v 1 = a 1 i + b1 j + c 1 k (a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 ) θ and v 2 = a 2 i + b2 j + c 2 k is cos = | v1|| v2 | 1. Find the angle between the lines r1 = i –2j + 3k + λ( 2i – 3j + 6k) and r2 = 2i – 7j + 10k + µ ( i + 2j + 2k). 2. The lines L1 and L2 are given by r1 = (3, 1, 4) + s(5, –2, 3) and r2 = (– 3, 5, 2) + t(1, 0, 2) respectively. Find the acute angle between them. Points A and B have position vectors a = (1, 1, 0) and b = (4, -2, 6) respectively. P has position vector p = λa + (1 – λ)b. Find the two values of λ for which the angle between OA and OP is 60°. The points A and B have coordinates (2, 3, – 1) and (5, - 2, 2) respectively. Calculate the acute angle between AB and the line with equation r = (2, 3, – 1) + t (1, – 2, – 2). Calculate the acute angle between the line with equation r = (2, 6, 1) + t (1, 3, 2) and the z-axis. The line k which passes through the origin has equation r1 = s (1, 2, –1). The line m has equation r2 = (0, 0, 1) + u (5, a, 5), where u is a real parameter and a is a constant. Find the positive value of a for which the angle between k and m is 60°. Relative to a fixed origin O, the points A and B have position vectors (– 1, 3, –5) and (4, – 3, 0) respectively. a) Find, in vector form, an equation of the line k which passes through A and B. The line l has equation r = (5, - 3, 4) + λ(2, - 2, 3) b) Show that A lies on l. c) Find, in degrees, the acute angle between the lines k and l.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7.

6

Answer 1. 67.6° 2. 37.1° 5. 57.7° 6. √30 7 a. (-1, 3, -5) + λ (5, -6, 5)

3. ( λ =

2

3

,

4

3

)

4. 69.2°

c. 14.6°

THE VECTOR EQUATION OF A PLANE : ax + by + cz = d or (r – a).n = 0 Vector equation of a plane in scalar product form Consider a plane which passes through a point A with position vector a and which is perpendicular to a vector n. If r is the position vector of a point R in the plane, then since AR is perpendicular to n, AR . n = 0 (r – a) . n = 0 (r – a). n = 0 is the vector equation of the plane through A perpendicular to n, in scalar product form. (r – a).n = 0 ⇔ r.n – a.n = 0 ⇔ r.n = a.n ⇔ r.n = d where d = a.n Hence the equation of any plane perpendicular to a vector n may be written in the form r.n = d, where r is the position vector of any point on the plane, n is the vector perpendicular to the plane. 1. Find the vector equation of the plane which passes through the points with position vectors a and is perpendicular to the vectors n. (a) a = 2i – j + k ; n = 3i + j – 4k (b) a = (3, -2, 5) ; n = (4, 2, -7) (c) a = 3i + 4j + 2k ; n = i +2j - 2k 2. Let π be a plane with normal i – 2j + k. Give a vector equation, in the form r.n = d, of π if π contains the point A, where (a) OA = 3i – k, Answer 1 a. r . (3i + j - 4k) = 1 ; 3x + y – 4z = 1 b. r . (4i + 2j – 7k) = – 27 ; 4x + 2y – 7z = - 27 c. r. (i + 2j – 2k) = 7 ; x + 2y – 2z = 7 2 a. r . (i - 2j + k) = 2 b. r . (i - 2j + k) = - 8 (b) OA = 4j.

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Let r.n = d be a vector equation of a plane π . Let r = (x, y, z) and the vector n = (a, b, c). Then r.n = (x, y, z).(a, b, c) = ax + by + cz = d. Thus the equation ax +by + cz = d represents the Cartesian equation of a plane, π. Different values of d give different planes, but these planes are parallel to each other. For instance, the Cartesian equation of the plane r.(3i – j + 4k) = 5 is 3x – y + 4z - 5 = 0. It follows that the equation 3x – y + 4z - 5 = 0 is the Cartesian equation of a plane perpendicular to the vector n = (3i – j + 4k). 1. Write down the Cartesian equations of the planes (a) r.(2i – 3j + k) = 5, (b) r.(3i + j - 5k) = 9 2. Find the Cartesian equation of the plane with vector equation r . (2i + 3j - 4k) = 5. 3. Find the Cartesian equation of the plane which passes through the point with vector i – 2j + 3k and is perpendicular to the vector 5i + j + k. 4. Find an equation of the plane containing the point (3, - 2, 5) and perpendicular to the vector (4, 2, - 7). 5. Let π be a plane with normal i – 2j + k. Give a vector equation in Cartesian form, of π if π contains the point A, where (a) OA = 3i – k, (b) OA = 4j. Answer 1 a. 2x - 3y + z - 5 = 0 b. 3x + y – 5z – 9 = 0 2. 2x + 3y – 4z = 5 3. 5x + y + z – 6 = 0 4. 4x + 2y – 7z = - 27 5 a. x – 2y + z = 2 b. x – 2y + z = - 8

Vector equation of a plane using ‘Cross Product’ or ‘Elimination’ method 1. Find the equation of the plane containing the point P(3, -2, 5) and perpendicular to the vector N(4, 2, -7)

Method 1 r.(4, 2, –7) = (3, –2, 5).(4, 2, –7) r.(4, 2, –7) = –27 or 4x + 2y – 7z = –27 Method 2 4(x – 3) + 2(y – (-2)) + (-7)(z – 5) = 0 4x – 12 + 2y + 4 – 7z + 35 = 0 4x + 2y – 7z = – 27

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**2. Find an equation of the plane through the points P(1, 3, 5), Q(-1, 2, 4) and R(4, 4, 0)
**

Using ‘Cross Product’ n = PQ x PR ( or any other two direction vectors, eg RQ x PQ etc) ( −1 x (−5)) − (−1 x 1) 6 − 2 −1 −1 n= = − (( −2 x ( −5)) − ( −1 x 3)) = − 13 3 1 −5 (−2 x 1) − (−1 x 3) 1 d = (6, -13, 1) . (4, 4, 0) = - 28 Equation of the plane : r.(6, -13, 1) = -28 or 6x – 13y + z = -28

**3. Find an equation for the plane through the points (3, 2, -1), (1, -1, 3) and (3, -2, 4).
**

Using Elimination method The equation of the plane has the form ax + by + cz = d Substitute the values corresponding to the three given points: (i) 3a + 2b – c = d (ii) a – b + 3c = d (iii) 3a – 2b + 4c = d (Eliminate a, b, c or d) Eliminating a from (i) and (ii) we get 5b – 10c = -2d (iv) Eliminating a from (ii) and (iii) we get b – 5c = -2d (v) Eliminating d from (iv) and (v) we get 5b – 10c = b – 5c 4b = 5c ⇒ b =

5 c 4

5 c - 5c ⇒ d = 4 15 From (ii) a = d + b – 3c = c + 8

From (v), -2d =

15 c 8 5 c - 3c = 4 c 5c So, the equation of the plane is x + y 8 4 8 Multiply by ⇒ x + 10y + 8z = 15 c Exercises

1 c 8

+ cz =

15 c 8

1. Find a vector N that is perpendicular to the plane of the three points P(1, -1, 4), Q(2, 0, 1) and R(0, 2, 3). 2. Find the Cartesian equation of the plane with parametric vector equation r = (1, 2, -1) + λ (1, 1, 2) + µ (0, 2 -1) 3. Find in scalar product form the equation of the plane r = (1 + 3λ + 2µ) i +(1 + λ + 4µ) j +(µ - λ) k 9

4. Three vertical flagpoles, OF, AG, BH, stand with their bases on horizontal ground. The flagpoles have heights 10m, 14m, 18m, and their bases are O, A, B respectively, where OA = 4m and OB = 8m and angle AOB is a right angle. The point O is taken as the origin, with unit vectors i along OA, j along OB and k vertically upwards (see diagram). (a) Find, in the form ax + by + cz = 10, the equation of the plane FGH. (b) Find the angle between the plane FGH and the horizontal, giving your answer correct to the nearest 0.1°. (c) Find the perpendicular distance from the midpoint of AF to the line GH, giving 3 significant figures in your answer. H F B G

k O Answer

j A

i

1. 8x + 4y + 4z = 20 or 2x + y + z = 5 2. 5x - y – 2z = 5 3. r . (i - j + 2k) = 0

Determining whether a line lies in a plane, is parallel to a plane or intersects a plane. Find the point of intersection of a line and a plane when it exists. 1. Show that the line r = 3i + 3j - 2k + t (i + j - k) lies in the plane r . (3i - 2j +k) = 1. (To show that a line lies in the plane, then the line and the plane must be parallel and contain a common point). 2. Show that the plane whose equation is r . (i + 2j - k) = 3 contains the line whose vector equation is r = i + j + t (2i + j + 4k)

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3. Determine whether the given lines are parallel to, contained (lies) in, or intersect the plane r . (2i + j - 3k) = 5. (a) r = 3i - j + k + t (-2i + j - 3k) (b) r = i - j + t (2i + j - 3k) (c) r = (0, 0, 0) + t (1, 1, 1) (d) r = (2i + j) + t (3i + 2k) 4. Find the vector equation of the line passing through the point (3, 1, 2) and perpendicular to the plane r . (2i - j +k) = 4. Find also the point of intersection of this line and the plane. 5. Find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line r = (2i - k) + t (i + 3j) and the plane r . (5i - j +7k) = 9. 6. Find the position vector of the point where the line r = (5i + 3j - k) + t (i 4j + 2k) meets the plane r . (2i + j +3k) = 12. 7. Find the point where the line 3x – y + 2z = 8. Answer 3 a. Intersect at (2, - ½ , - ½) b. Intersect at (11 7 ,− 5 7 ,− 6 7 ) c. parallel d. lies in the plane 4. r = (3i +j + 2k) + λ(2i - j + k) ; intersection : (2, 3/2, 3/2) 5. 5i + 9j - k 6. 5 ½ i + j 7. (1, 5, 5) Finding the line of intersection of two non-parallel planes. 1. Find the equation of the line of intersection of the two planes 7x – 4y + 3z = - 3 and 4x + 2y + z = 4. 2. π 1 and π 2 are two planes with equations r . (i + j - 3k) = 6 and r . (2i - j +k) = 4 respectively. Find the equation of the line of intersection of the two planes. 3. Find the vector equation of the line of intersection of the planes r . (i - 2j + k) = 3 and r . (3i + j - 2k) = 4 Answer x −3 y −1 z+3 = = cuts the plane −1 2 4

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1. r = 3/2 j + k + t(i - ½ j - 3k) 2. r = - 9j – 5k + t(2i +7j + 3k) 3. r = - 1/3(10j + 11k) + t(3i + 5j + 7k) Perpendicular distance from a point to a plane 1. Find the perpendicular distance of the point with position vector i - 3j + 3k from the plane with equation r . (2i + 3j - 6k) = 9. 2. A plane π has Cartesian equation 5x + 2y - 4z = - 22. Find the perpendicular distance from the point A (2, 1, 1) to the plane π . 3. The point A has position vector 3i - j - k and the plane π has vector equation r . (3i - 5j + 4k) = 3√2. Find the exact perpendicular distance from A to the plane π . 4. For each of the following find the perpendicular distance from the given point to the given plane a) The point with position vector 3i + 7j + k and the plane r . (i + 2j - 2k) = 6. b) The point (4, -1, 2) and the plane 2x – 2y + z = 21. 5. Find the distance of the point (1, 3, 2) from the following planes (a) r . (7i + 4j + 4k) = 9 (b) 6x + 6y + 3z = 8 6. A plane contains a point A, position vector 3i + 4j + 2k and is perpendicular to the vector i +2j - 2k. Find the perpendicular distance of the plane from the origin. 7. Show that the line L whose equation is r = 2i - 2j + 3k + t (i - j + 4k) is parallel to the plane π whose vector equation is r . (i + 5j +k) = 5 and find the distance between them. Answer 1. 34/7 5 a. 2 b. 22 9 6. 7 3 2. 2√5 7. 10 27 3. 23 5 4 a. 3 b. 3

Perpendicular distance from a point to a line 1. Find the perpendicular distance from the point A, position vector (4, -3, 10) to the line L, vector equation r = (1, 2, 3) + t (3, -1, 2) 2. For each of the following parts, find the perpendicular distance from the given point, A, to the given lines. (a) A = (4, 2, 2) and the line r = (3, 1, -1) + t(1, -1, 2) (b) A = 3i + j – k and the line r = i - 6j - 2k + t(i + 2j + 2k)

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(c)

A = (1, 1, 3) and the line

x + 4 y +1 z −1 = = 2 3 3 y−6 z−3 = 2 4

(d)

A = (- 6, - 4, - 5) and the line x − 5 =

3. The points A, B and C have position vectors a = 3i – j + 4k, b = j – 4k and c = 6i + 4j + 5k respectively. Find the position vector of the point R on BC such that AR is perpendicular to BC. Hence find the perpendicular distance of A from the line BC. Answer 1. 3√3 2. a. √5 3. OR = (4, 3, 2); √21 b. 3√2 c. √11 d. 4√6

Angles between two planes and Angles between a line and a plane. 1. Let π 1 be the plane x + 2y + 2z = 0, and π 2 the plane 3y + 4z = - 1. What is the acute angle between π 1 and π 2. 2. Find the angle between the planes r.( 2i – j - 3k) = 10 and r.( i + 3j - 2k) = 16 3. Find the angle between the planes r.(i + j - 2k) = 3 and r.( 2i - 2j + k) = 2 x +1 z−3 = y−2 = 4. Find the acute angle between the line and the plane 4 −1 3x – 5y + 4z = 5, giving you answer correct to the nearest degree. 5. Find the angle between the line r = 3k + λ ( 7i – j + 4k) = 10 and the plane r.( 2i - 5j - 2k) = 8 6. Find the angle between the line r = (i + 2j – k) + t (i - j + k) and the plane r.( 2i - j + k) = 4 Answer 3. cos − 1

6 9

4. 6°

6.

sin

−1 2 2 3

More questions on vectors 1. Show that the lines L1 and L2, with vector equations r1 = k +λ(i – j – 3k) and r2 = 2i + j + µ(3j + 5k) respectively, intersect, and find the position vector of their point of intersection. 2. The points A and B have coordinates (1, 1, - 4) and (3, 3, 0) respectively. The line L1 which passes through A has equation r = (1, 1, - 4) + t (2, - 2, 0). The line L2 which passes through B has equation r = (3, 3, 0) + s(4, 2, 6). Show that the lines L1 and L2 intersect, and find the coordinates of their point of intersection. 3. Show that the point with position vector i – 9j + k lies on the line L with vector equation r = 3i + 3j – k + t(i + 6j – k). 13

4. The line L has equation r = (1, 1, 2) + λ(3, 3, 1), λ ε ℜ, and a point B has position vector (–2, 1, 3). (a) Find an equation of the plane π , in scalar product form, containing B and L. (b) Find a vector equation for the line passing through B and normal to π . 5. Find an equation for the plane π that is parallel to the plane with vector equation x – 2y + 2z = 1 and passes through the point (1, -1, 2). 6. Find the vector equation of the plane containing the points A = (0, 1, 1), B = (2, 1, 0) and C = (- 2, 0, 3) in scalar product form. 7. Find the value of k which the planes 3x – 4y + 2z + 9 = 0 and 3x + 4y kz + 7 = 0 are perpendicular. 8. Find an equation of the plane through P (1, 2, 3) and parallel to the vectors (2, 1, -1) and (3, 6, -2) 9. A plane contains a point A, position vector 3i + 4j + 2k and is perpendicular to the vector i +2j - 2k. Find (a) a vector equation of the plane. (b) the perpendicular distance of the plane from the origin. (c) the perpendicular distance from this plane to the parallel plane r.(i +2j - 2k) = - 3. 10.Find an equation of a plane containing the intersection of the planes 3x – 2y + 4z = 5 and 2x + 4y - z = 7 and passing through the point (2, 1, 2). 11.Write down a vector equation, in the form r = a + λ u + µv, of the plane π containing the point A = (3, 2, 3), B = (1, 4, 2) and C = (1, 5, 3). 12.A plane π contains the points A, B and C, whose position vectors are OA = i + 2j + 4k, OB = 3i + 3j + 6k and OC = 4i +7j + 3k. Show that the vector n = 11i – 8j – 7k is normal to the plane π . 13.The planes π 1 and π 2 have Cartesian equations 2x+ 5y – 14z = 30 and 2x + 5y – 14z = -15, respectively. State the vector equations of π 1 and π 2 in scalar product form, show that the planes are parallel and find the distance between the planes. Answer (1/3) i + (5/3) j – 4k r = (- 2, 1, 3) + t (1, - 2, 3) 6. r . (i +2j + 2k) = 4 + y + 9z = 33 7 10 9 a. r . (i + 2j – 2k) = 7 b. c. 3 3 10. 17x + 26y - 3z – 54 = 0 11. r = (3i +2j + 3k) + λ (-2i + 2j – k) + µ (- 2i + 3j) 13. 3 1. 4. 5. 7. 2i – 2j – 5k 2. a. r.(1, - 2, 3) = 5 b. x - 2y + 2z = 7 k=-3½ 8. 4x

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