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IMPACT OF GENDER & LOCALITY ON ATTITUDE

TOWARDS GAMES & SPORTS


Kuldeep Kumar (UGC-JRF)
Junior Research Fellow
P.G. Department of Psychology
University Of Jammu
Jammu
May. 2008 Ph. 09469212552 e-mail:kkmalhotra1@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the attitude of adolescents toward games and
sports using an attitude instrument grounded in attitude theory. In addition, this
investigation also sought to ascertain if gender and locality (rural/ urban) influence
attitude toward games and sports. A previously validated attitude instrument based on a
two-component view of attitude with scores that showed evidence of reliability and
validity was used. The participants for this study consisted of 500 adolescents (male=250,
female= 250). Out of 250 male, 125 were from rural areas and 125 from gets from urban
areas. Similarly, female group consisted of 125 from rural area and 125 from urban area.
The results indicated that there was no significant difference in attitude toward games and
sports of male and female adolescents. Similarly, no significant difference was found
between rural and urban adolescent in attitude toward games and sports. Future avenues
for research and educational implication of the present study are discussed.

Keywords: - Attitude, Games& Sports, Adolescents, Rural/Urban.


IMPACT OF GENDER & LOCALITY ON ATTITUDE
TOWARDS GAMES & SPORTS

Introduction
In present area, games and sports has made its important place in the core of heart of
every country and its people. Sports not only helps in developing the qualities like
discipline, punctuality, respect, cooperation, building up stamina but also help human
beings to remain fit and active.
In the field of sports not only boys but also girls have made their place. Games & sport
help in developing emotional stability. They also teach the art of social living by which
pupils get training in the habits of social life. They develop the qualities like fellow
feeling, sincerity, good temperament and despite all of them essential features for a
healthy social life.
Game and sport help in all round harmonious development of individual. Games and
sports are the remedies for the today’s problem. Through these activities, the suitable way
can be carved out to channelize the vital energy of the youth towards constructive
purposes.
Adolescents have perceived factors such as social time, use of drugs and alcohol, and
lack of equipment as barriers to being physically active. Compared to boys, girls are less
likely to include regular physical activity as part of their value system because it is not as
well-accepted by their peers. Interestingly, it also appears teachers have a great effect on
attitudes of children toward physical activity, and their influence appears stable
throughout the middle-school years.

Attitude & its importance


Attitude equips the individual with traditions, customs, language, habits, skill & values.
Attitude is the most useful concept. They are learned legally through socialization
process and interaction with people. Attitudes are feeling or belief of a person toward a
particular phenomenon.

Attitudes are closely related to opinions. Affective aspect includes the vigorous emotional
feeling. Behavioral aspect consists of the tendency to act or react to the object in certain
ways. These attitudes influence the behaviors of a person but the behavior itself is not
always a true indication of attitudes. This is obvious that attitudes have their impact on
the life of an individual.

Operational definitions of the terms used


Allport (1955) defined an attitude as “mental and neural state of readiness organized
through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual
response to all objects & situations with which it is related”.

The word game covers all entertaining activities like indoor computer games, cards,
carom, squash and outdoor games like hockey, football and cricket. The word sport
covers exercises or games pursued in the open like cricket and hockey.

Importance of the study

The good news is that recent studies also indicate that a total of 30 minutes of moderate
physical activity performed most days of the week has a significant impact on prevention
of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. These numbers can be attained by the
majority of children and youth if they are given the proper instruction, encouragement,
and motivation. Health care professionals have long understood the importance of
physical activity for children. Exercise has traditionally been prescribed as a treatment for
children suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and insulin
dependent diabetes, for whom regular physical activity may reduce both morbidity and
mortality. However, there is a virtual consensus that children and youth should be
involved in physical activity on a regular basis, and that teaching/reward systems should
encourage active participation and enjoyment by all students, not just the highly skilled.
Indeed, it is the children who are the least successful in traditional sports and athletics
who are most likely to be physically inactive.

Objectives of Study
1) To study the attitude of adolescent toward games & sports.
2) To study the impact of gender on attitude towards games & sports.
3) To study the impact of locality (rural/ urban) towards games & sports.

Hypothesis
1) There will be positive attitude of adolescents toward games & sport.
2) There will be signification difference in the attitude towards games &
sports of male and female adolescents.
3) There will be significant difference in the attitudes toward games & sports
of rural and urban adolescents.

Variables
Independent Variable: Gender and Locality (Rural/Urban)
Dependent Variable: Attitude towards Games and Sports

Sample
The sample for the present study consisted of 500 adolescent from different localities of
Jammu.
Out of total of 500 adolescents 250 were male and 250 female. 250 females consisted of
125 female from urban and 125 from rural area. Similarly 125 boys were taken from rural
area and 125 from urban area.

Tools used
In the present study the scale to measure attitude towards games and sports was adapted
from unpublished M.Ed. dissertation submitted by Shafid M. (2004). The scale consists
of 45 items. The items are drawn up in the form of attitude scale. Each item is being
given multiple response categories of ‘Strongly Agree’, ‘Agree’, ‘Indifferent’, ‘Disagree’
& ‘Strongly Disagree’. Higher the score obtained more positive or favorable is the
attitude towards games& sports.

TABLE-I

Summary table of score on attitude towards games and sports

Gender Locality N Mean Std. Deviation


Female Rural 125 159.8000 15.24795
Urban 125 155.2800 12.48506
Total 250 157.5400 13.97988
Male Rural 125 161.4800 15.26739
Urban 125 156.7200 15.92304
Total 250 159.1000 15.62474
Total Rural 250 160.6400 15.12500
Urban 250 156.0000 14.17961
Total 500 158.3200 14.77090

TABLE-II
Significance of difference between male and female adolescents on attitude towards
games and sports.

gender N Mean S.D. df t-value Remarks


Male 250 159.10 15.62 498 -.526 N.S.
Female 250 157.54 13.97

TABLE-III

Significance of difference between rural and urban adolescents on attitude towards


games and sports.
Locality N Mean S.D. df t-value Remarks
Rural 250 160.64 15.12 498 1.58 N.S.
Urban 250 156.00 14.17

Results and discussion


According to Table-II the t-value of -0.526 is not significant at 0.05 level of significance.
It means that there is no significant difference between two groups on the score of
attitudes towards games and sports viz; male and female adolescents. Hence, the
formulated hypothesis that, there will be a significant difference in male and female
adolescents on the score of attitude towards games and sports is rejected. The mean score
of male adolescents is 159.10, while the mean score of female adolescents is 157.54.
Thus, males has slightly more positive attitude towards games and sports as compared to
their female counterparts. Moreover, female belonging to rural areas has more positive
attitude (M= 159.80; SD= 15.24) towards games and sports as compared to the females
belonging to the urban areas (M= 155.28; SD= 12.48). Also, males belonging to rural
areas have slightly more positive attitude towards games and sports as compared to males
belonging to urban areas.

According to Table-III the t-value of 1.58 is not significant at 0.05 level of significance.
It means that there is no significant difference between two groups on the score of
attitudes towards games and sports viz; rural and urban adolescents. Hence, the
formulated hypothesis that, there will be a significant difference in rural and urban
adolescents on the score of attitude towards games and sports is rejected. The mean score
of rural adolescents is 160.64, while the mean score of urban adolescents is 156.00. Thus,
the adolescents belonging to rural areas have more positive attitude towards games and
sports as compared to the adolescents belonging to urban areas.

Conclusions
1. There is no significant difference between male and female adolescents on
attitude towards games and sports.
2. There is no significant difference between rural and urban adolescents on attitude
towards games and sports.

Delimitations of Present Study


1) The present study was confined to various colleges in Jammu region.
2) The present study was confined to a sample of 100 students only.

Implication of the study


Boys and girls should be involved in co-curricular activities like games and sports, yoga
etc. As study indicate no difference in sex and locality; it implies that both categories
should given due emphases while planning for games and sports. It has implications for
teachers, planners and other concerned with physical education to take care of this aspect
in all stages of education.
The number of competitions involving physical activities should be increased and
conducted and the publicity should be given to such competitions through T.V, Radio,
Newspaper, Magazines etc. The sports functions, if organized in the institution, can be
special features in which top sports person can be awarded so that the other also develop
motivation for games and sports and involve themselves.

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