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6/4/12

Statistics: Recapping

Md. Tarikul Islam


Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh
Islam, M.T. http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

The Course: Topics


No Topics
01 Basics of statistics and recap! 02 Collection of data 03 Presentation of data 04 Measures of central tendency 05 Measures of variation 06 Skewness, moments, and kurtosis 07 Correlation analysis 08 Regression analysis

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09 Forecasting and time series analysis 10 Probability 11 Sampling Islam, M.T. http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

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Research Methodology
q Research Methodology
o Teach me on the issue!

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

Research: Dened
q Definition of research
o Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method o Research is RE + SEARCH too!!

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

Research: Types
q Types of research
Two types mainly
o Basic research o Applied research

Any idea about them to share from anyone?

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

Research: Types
q Types of research
Basic research
o A type of research that is carried out to increase the understanding of fundamental principles o It advances fundamental knowledge about the human world o It focuses on refuting or supporting theories that explain how this world operates, what makes things happen, why social relations are a certain way, and why society changes o This is the source of most new scientific ideas and ways of thinking about the world o It can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory; however, explanatory research is the most common Mainly carried out by universities o Also called fundamental or pure research
Islam, M.T. http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

Research: Types
q Types of research
Applied research
o Applied research refers to scientific study and research that seeks to solve practical problems o This is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies

The main differences among basic and applied research


o The main motivation of basic research is to expand human knowledge , not to create or invent something o There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

Research Methodology: Breakdown


q Breakdown
Working with RM means getting answers of
o What kind of research it is? o What types of data to collect? o From where to collect these data? o How to collect the data? o What treatment of data after collection?

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

R. Methodology: Research Design


q Research Design
What type of research you are involved in?
o We need to know types of research

Research Types
o Exploratory o Descriptive o Causal o Normative o Lets see the next slides

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

Research Design: Research Types Research Design


Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research Design Descrip5ve Research Cross-Sec5onal Design Single Cross- Sec5onal Design
Islam, M.T.

Causal Research

Longitudinal Design

Mul5ple Cross- Sec5onal Design


http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

Research Types: Exploratory Research


q Exploratory Research
o A type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined yet

For problem definition or for the better understanding of the problem in hand Or to create more insights of the issue What is a research problem?
o It helps to determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

Research Types: Descriptive Research


q Descriptive Research
o A type of research that describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied o The characteristics of relevant groups, such as consumers, salespeople, organizations, or market areas o I n m o s t c a s e s i t e n d s u p w i t h c o n c l u s i o n a n d recommendation if asked!

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

Research Types: Causal Research


q Causal Research
o A type of conclusive research where the major objective is to obtain evidence regarding cause and effect relationship o The result or output can be explained by what variables! o Pretty much common in scientific fields

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

Research Types: Normative Research


q Normative Research
o A type of research that tries to define how things are and how things should be o Therefore it Describes the events And then recommends how the event should be o Also called applied research

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

R. Methodology: Data, Data Collection


q Data, Data Collection
Three major questions
o What data to use? o From where to collect? o How to collect?

What data to use?


o In most cases two types data Primary data: the researchers collects data first time Secondary data: Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user o There is one more type Internal data: internal records of a firm

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

R. Methodology: Data, Data Collection


q Data, Data Collection
From where to collect?
o It defines the actual source of data o From where do you collect? From respondents? From journal? From book? From any other source?

How do you collect them?


o Through questionnaire? Through observation? Any other method? Why this method? Mention all of them o If from respondents, how did you select the respondents? Why this method of selecting respondents?

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

R. Methodology: Writing
q Writing
o Its not mandatory that you will have to write the parts separately

But you can do so


o The important thing is to write all the required issues in a clear and specific manner You should not leave any chance to question to pop up?

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

R. Methodology: Examples - 1/5


q Example
o The study considers both primary and secondary data in order to answer the main research question. Primary data have been collected from Dhaka city and its outskirts by interviewing 100 respondents with a formal questionnaire (added in appendix) through simple random sampling method. Real estate professionals and experts are other sources of the primary data that have been collected through informal interviews. Secondary data comes from different published sources like research reports, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, real estate publications, Internet, and different literatures on real estate business etc. Two models namely five factors model and value chain model of Michael E. Porter have been used as the basic theoretical framework in this research.
Islam, M.T. http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

6/4/12

R. Methodology: Examples - 2/5


q Example
o The study considers both primary and secondary data in order to answer the main research question. Primary data have been collected from Dhaka city and its outskirts by interviewing 220 respondents with a formal questionnaire (Appendix-04) through judgmental sampling method. Before giving the questionnaire there used to be an informal discussion with the respondent about the real estate sector to know how much he/she is aware of the sector in Bangladesh. Therefore knowledge of the real estate sector was the criterion for the judgmental sampling.

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

R. Methodology: Examples - 3/5


q Example contd
o We used this as the criterion because we wanted to know how people evaluate the emergence of the sector and how do they evaluate the current operations of the sector along with the factors that affect both the development and ongoing operation of the sector. Twenty real estate professionals and fifteen real estate experts are other sources of the primary data that have been collected through informal interviews. Secondary data comes from different published sources like research reports, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, real estate publications, Internet, and different literatures on real estate business etc. Two models namely five factors model and value chain model of Michael E. Porter have been used as the basic theoretical framework in this research.
Islam, M.T. http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

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R. Methodology: Examples - 4/5


q Example
o This research is a combination of both normative and descriptive research therefore incorporated both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the available data. The nature of this research required both primary and secondary data for consideration. Primary data have been collected using the judgment sampling method from the twenty Bangladeshi migrants living in England (London), Holland (Delft, Rotterdam), Spain (Madrid), Sweden (Stockholm), and USA (New York) through interviews with informal questionnaire mainly to analyze the impact of cultural shocks on flow of remittance. Observation and experiences of the researcher during the three years of living in Sweden, Spain, Holland, and France also incorporated in this research.

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

R. Methodology: Examples - 5/5


q Example contd
o The researcher visited England to collect data from London while Skype, Yahoo Messenger, and MSN Messenger have been used to contact the respondents in USA (New York). Secondary information was collected from different publications, books, internet and relevant academic journals. To make the study more broad-based and informative, materials of this paper were presented systematically for analytical purposes and also to draw inference there from.

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

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q Thank You!

q Any Question?!

Islam, M.T.

http://sites.google.com/site/kjatbd/

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