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SHF Passive RFID Tag Antenna Section Design for Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) Application
M.Tech Student V.R.S.E.C Vijayawada

A.Vijaya Sankar



Asst.Professor V.R.S.E.C Vijayawada

M. Kanthikiran
Lecturer V.R.S.E.C Vijayawada

Dr. K. Sri Rama Krishna
Professor & Head V.R.S.E.C Vijayawada



Index terms- radio frequency identification (RFID) tag antenna ,dipole antenna, microstrip patch antenna.


The microstrip patch antenna is one of the most exciting and fascinating development in antenna and electromagnetic (EM) history . It falls into the category of printed antennas such as dipoles, slots, and tapered slots. This is due to their distinguished features including ease of integration, good radiation control and low cost of production. This antenna is a resonant style radiator so one of its dimensions must be λ/2 where λ is a guided wavelength taking into accounts the surrounding environment of the printed antenna. The resonant dimension depends on the shape of the patch conductor. It is obvious that the substrate properties such as dielectric constant εr and its height play vital role in the antenna performance. The main advantage of patch antenna is its size which is

ISSN: 2230-7818

Wireless technology advancements have given birth to radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, which have generated significant interest and hype among scientists, researchers and industry. RFID technology enables identification, location and information exchange of distant objects via radio waves . It has been commercialized in areas of logistics, manufacturing, transportation, health care, and mobile communications. Basically RFID system is a tag or transponder and a transceiver or reader. The tag consists of an antenna combined with an applicationspecific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip. In order to activate and detect a tag, a base station (reader) transmits a modulated signal with periods of unmodulated carrier.


@ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved.

A. Design considerations:

Abstract-A SHF passive RFID Tag with two different antennas for transmission and reception in the frequency range of 5.8GHZ is proposed .A microstrip patch antenna for RFID Tag receiving and dipole antenna for transmission .The software used for the design is HFSS designing software .The factors considered in designing tag antenna circuit are efficiency, read range, power consumption, responding time and size.

relatively small compared to other radiators. The minimal thickness of the material or profile allows microstrip patch antenna to be easily integrated into the skins of various objects. Integrating microstrip patch antenna for receiving and printed dipole antenna for transmission with RFID technology achieves significant performance and cost advantage due to its light weight, low fabrication cost, and the ability to fabricate feed lines and matching networks simultaneously with the antenna structure. One of the major disadvantages of patch antenna is its narrow bandwidth, however, RFID applications do not need much bandwidth, and it turns out to be an advantage, because the antenna rejects the signals that are out of the band and accordingly the quality factor increases. II. THEORY AND DESIGN

Several general RFID tag design requirements whose relative importance depends on tag application are discussed in the following paragraph. These requirements largely determine the criteria for selecting an RFID tag antenna.  Frequency band: Desired frequency band of operation depends on the regulations of the country where tag will be used.  Size and form: Tag form and size must be such that it can be embedded or attached to the required objects Or fit inside a printed label.  Read range: Minimum required read range is usually specified for different tags:  EIRP: EIRP is determined by local country regulations.  Objects: Tag performance changes when it is placed on different objects (e.g. cardboard boxes with various content), or when other objects are present in the vicinity of the tagged object. Tag antenna can be designed or tuned for optimum performance on particular object or designed to be


Page 139

Page 140 .  Orientation: Read range depends on antenna orientation. Some applications require a tag to have a specific directivity pattern such as omnidirectional or hemispherical coverage. = Receiving antenna aperture. However. In a typical design process. 139 . antenna gain. and optimized on a computer by monitoring the tag A ES √ Why do we use different antenna for transmission and reception?The required reception and transmission characteristics of RFID tag for electronic toll collection application are different.Dharmendra. Once the RFID application is selected. and impedance which give to a designer a good understanding of the antenna behaviour. 1. The impedance of the selected ASIC in a chosen RF package (like flip-chip. humidity. RFID tag antenna design process is illustrated on a flow chart shown in Fig. Read range calculation can be implemented directly in EM software. The Doppler shift in this case is less than 30 Hz at 5. Issue No. Tag antennas are usually analyzed with electromagnetic modelling and simulation tools. Often a tuneable antenna design is preferable to provide tolerance for tag fabrication variations and for optimizing antenna performance on different materials in different frequency bands. the design is further modified and optimized until requirements are met. demanding high read rate capability.  Applications with mobility: RFID tag will be used in situations where tagged car moving at speeds up to 1 km/hr. and survive such processes as label insertion. Why do we use circular microstrip patch antenna for receiving?  Maximum aperture area for maximum power reception. and silver ink. Antenna parametric study and optimization is performed until design requirements are met in simulation. compromises have to be made to obtain optimum tag performance to satisfy design requirements. (1) where = Transmitted Power. stress. the tag spends less time in the read field of RFID reader. 2.ijaest. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. printing and lamination.  Reduction of responding time. (2) (3) a = radius of the patch(0. Typical conductors used in tags are copper. RFID tag antennas tend to be too complicated for analytical solution as they can be used in complex environment. DESIGN: Proposed RFID tag antenna section: Fig. RFID tag antenna design process. In the last step of the design process. aluminium. All rights Reserved. thick metal mounted tags).  Reliability: RFID tag must be a reliable device that can sustain variations due to temperature.  Cost: RFID tag must be a low-cost device.) to which antenna will be matched can be measured with a network analyzer. simulated. These requirements determine the materials for tag antenna construction and ASIC packaging. Like most antennas. In such cases. I design requirements are satisfied.8 GHz and does not affect RFID operation. typically with Ansoft HFSS software.  High efficiency  Quick RFID tag circuit excitation. range. Tag read range must be closely monitored in the design process in order to satisfy design requirements. etc.org. Otherwise. The dielectrics include flexible Polyester and rigid PCB substrates like FR4. Tag antenna is first modelled. λ = Wave length of the radio wave. r = Distance between the antennas.g.Gutta et al. system requirements can be translated into tag requirements. This imposes restrictions both on antenna structure and on the choice of materials for its construction including the ASIC used. the antenna design is ready. = Received power. 1. For more complicated three-dimensional designs (e. 5. Circular Microstrip rectangular patch antenna design: ( ) IJ ISSN: 2230-7818 T less sensitive to the content on which the tag is placed.931cm) h = height of the substrate =relative permittivity =centre frequency @ 2011 http://www. RFID system must be carefully planned to ensure reliable tag identification. prototypes are built and their performance is measured extensively. = Transmission antenna aperture. Fast EM analysis tools are crucial for efficient tag design. Design Process RFID tag antenna performance strongly depends on the frequency dependent complex impedance presented by the chip. Since antenna size and frequency of operation impose limitations on maximum attainable gain and bandwidth.iserp. modelling and simulation tools can be benchmarked against measurements.143 B.

is the gain of the receiving tag antenna. tag read range. Partially Isotopic nature. Good efficiency. size and form. 2(a). directivity. The fact that passive RFID tags are powered solely by the incoming RF energy. Wave length= 5. Dipole antenna 2D radiation pattern Page 141 T Fig.2(c). A IV. 2.Dharmendra. Dipole antenna 3D radiation pattern Fig. imposes a unique set of criteria on RFID tag antenna design. and is the minimum threshold power necessary to power up the chip. It is the maximum distance from which the tag can be detected. One limitation on the range is the maximum distance from which the tag receives just enough power to turn on and scatter back. 5.ijaest. 139 . Dipole antenna ISSN: 2230-7818 Where λ is the wavelength. and.SIMULATION RESULTS @ 2011 http://www. Read range is an important characteristic of the RFID tag. and is dominant in frequency dependence and | | primarily determines the tag resonance. Low input impedance. READ RANGE Let us demonstrate how Kurokawa’s method can be applied to analyze the performance of a passive RFID tag. combined with cost and fabrication requirements. 5. Theoretical read range depends on the power reflection coefficient and can be calculated using the Friis free-space formula as √ | | IJ Fig. Issue No. ES (4) Fig.3571 cm . Length of dipole antenna=wavelength/2 (half wave dipole) III. reliability. finally. including frequency bandwidth. 4. Dipole antenna design. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.2(b). sensitivity to different objects the tag is placed on. II.143 Why do we use dipole antenna for transmission? 1.org. the first one since RFID reader sensitivity is usually high). 3. Low power application. Typically and are slow varying.2(d).iserp. Maximum gain. is the power transmitted by the RFID reader. equivalent isotropic radiated power). The read range is the smaller of the two distances (typically.Gutta et al. Another limitation is the maximum distance from which the reader can detect this scattered signal. All rights Reserved. is the gain of the transmitting antenna ( is EIRP. 2. Dipole antenna in vacuum box .

3(d).org. 139 .Dharmendra. Circular microstrip patch antenna in vacuum box Fig. Circular microstrip patch antenna IJ Fig.iserp. Circular microstrip patch antenna 2D radiation pattern ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www. Issue No.ijaest. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.143 Fig.Gutta et al.3(a). Page 142 A ES Fig.3(c). 5. 2.3(b). Circular microstrip patch antenna 3D radiation pattern T . All rights Reserved.

G. 50. and L. Jan. vol. [7]. K. Tentzeris. Antennas for All Applications. M. Dea-Keun Ju. Cappelli. B. San Diego. pp. A microstrip patch antenna for receiving and dipole antenna for transmission. 2008. Antennas Propag. The designed antenna would be potentially useful electronic toll collection application . 8. IEEE Antennas Propag. vol.Dharmendra. no. H. 2005 .. “A novel lowcost multisensory tag for RFID applications in healthcare. Jiang. “A spherical inverted-F antenna (SIFA).-Mar. 139 . All rights Reserved. Gichul Jung.” Pervasive Comput.org. 12. C. Kruesi and M. Jul. [4].Jong-Myung Woo “An Electrically Small Spherical UHF RFID Tag Antenna With Quasi-Isotropic Patterns for Wireless Sensor Networks ” IEEE Antennas And Wireless Propagation Letters. 2005. “Magic-cube antenna configurations for ultra compact RFID and wireless sensor nodes. J. Mamishev. Nikitin. IJ ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www. Tarricone. 352– 362. J. vol. and K. pp. 53. Opt. V. pp.” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. 3rd ed. Catarinucci. Colella. 9. REFERENCE [3].. Hong-Kyun Ryu. P.iserp. and J. 2010 [2]. 11. Smith. M. A. V.ijaest. “Antenna design for UHF RFID tags: A review and a practical application. New York: McGraw-Hill. 3870–3876. S. a SHF passive RFID tag with two antennas was proposed. 649– 652. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. Marhefka. Int. 2002.. [5].. 2008.. M. 5. Aliakabarian. pp.. Sundara-Rajan. no. vol. “A novel electrically small spherical wire antenna with almost isotropic radiation pattern. Lett. F. CA. R.CONCLUSION In this letter. Lett. pp.Response time of RFID tag is reduced by using circular microstrip patch antenna for receiving and maximum coverage area is attained by using dipole antenna for transmission.2008. 4. Lam.” IEEE Trans. 1.” in Proc.Gutta et al. 396–399. Page 143 A ES T [1]. no. 1–4 [6]. Mehdipour. Roy. H. 2. Technol. [A. Nov. 2877–2880. 2008.J. McDonald.” Microw. J. Symp. Huff and J. Soc. 37–45. Rashed-Mohassel. Vol. Lett. D.. vol. Kraus and R. Dec. and S.143 V. “Battery-free wireless identification and sensing. Sungkyun Lim. Philipose. Rao.” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. S. R. pp. pp. Issue No. 7.