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l\,vqntljo thonk everyone
iNoh/ed In cleoiicg lhls book.
lom sinceelygrcJefullo
Donold Holden,I\,4ory Suffudy
ond CondoceRoneyfor lheif
wisdom ond gL]idonce.

Ed'led by MarySLrilodyand CandaceRan6y

Oe{ign€dby BobFlle
Graphicp|oduclionby E lenG€ons

Cogright@1986by Wat6on-G
LrpliI Publoations
Fn$ pubtished 1986in N€wYorkby Watson-Guplill
a dMsioi ol Billboard nc.
t ir'ry ot Congr€s Cat loging.ln"Publlcatlon D6lt

Lrssolls tom Michelangslo.

1. F$tEdlawing-Tschnique. 2. Drawing,
FgEirsaE-E{hniqu6. 3. [4ichelangelo
r475-156a-Thern€€, moti!€s. l. Title.
ifc6t5.B8'/ €86 743'.4 86-11107
rsa o{e*zzr+1
Disttrtsd h !E t niled Kingdomby PhaidonPress,Lld.,
Li@ab Eols€, SL EbbebSt., Oxiofd
All riits r€s€.Ed. No pa.t of ihis publicationmay be
rwodr€d 6us€d h any iom or by any means graphic,
electD.*i n nE ls*:al. indlding photocopying,recod'ng,
lalirE, 6 hturdir| $rage ard leidevalsystems-wilhout
sm€.t pr.tri*irx: d t|e Fui*rer
Manuftdll€d in U.S-A.
1 23,1 5 6 7 8910/919089 8A87 86
l\lHI lloi lSOd OH/!{SllCOv',IIHI CNV
cuol tHI io $sLalv IHI TIVol

limb uu
.. itE lvuscrrsor nE FoREARM

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nne do,/ \dh e vlewingo drowng show Rothetin o moslp eosurable woy,l wsnledlo
Vhod on etperience thot offected m-- st down wilh you,lookai lhesemognficent
:eeplyLs cosuoywo kedlhroughiheroom, worksond beg n d scussng thoseospeclsof
:aw o drowingI coudn't toke my ey€solf, eoch wgrkthol o recleo resi1l.observeoswe
:nd ol lhe olher drowlngsseemedsho ow os mosiimporlonilo lirstrolefgure drowing
! and undslingushed by comporson.Thoi Iire drawngsseecied ior th s trookshow
I :rcwingwoso nude sfudyby M chelongelo ih,. figurein manywrols posesirom a ldi
lihough h o d b e e n l o m i o r w l h terenlpo nlsofvew Thereiso greoloppodu
'.ilcheongelotworkol my fe, iseemedlhol nly here10observehowo moslerdrcflsmon
t .nly now perhopsbecouseof myeducolion foreshodens monyol the fofmsof lhe body
I :nd troinng,waslrecept\€to hh nfe|preto ond chongeslheif shopesin ihe different
_?nsof lhe figufe nfocl,ilwasosf hodn-.ver
:eenlhembeforeondlholnothingcouldbe Anyonewho serously $ontslo underslond
-ore exciiinglhcn lo be n ihe presenceof greolfrguredrowingmuslde\r'cie o conslder
_ gh Renoissonce od ond flnoly hove eyes ob e omounloflirnelolhesludyofonolomy
_rolcoud seeit hoveonlyconcenlroledon the moslimpor
Sincelhol doy I ho!€ been lhoroLrghly n ionl musclesond musce groupson l1_ie slr
,c\,€d n the processond mogicof drowing face of the f gure Forgreolerclorlv I ho\€
_.1efgure My increosedknowledgehos ncludednextlo Michelongelob workso di
_e\€rde$royedlhe sponlonellyond mogcl ogromof lhe skeleton showng ony ihe mus
' hosonlyenhoncedilgreoiy ln foct,I ho!€ cle or muscesunder discussionTheseore
'rund thol drowng wthouto frm foundolion nlended io he p you underslondond re-
_ lhe p ncpes of onoiomy s morediflicuI anemberexocilywhereo fom beginsand
ron ihe ocil.rolsdrnng of lhoseprnciples
When begonio wte lh s book,mYinTen- Thesewrl ngsoTeio be consideredon in-
_3nwqsio keep the spirl of fgu€ drowing troductonorcotolyslio o pfofoundslLlciy thoi
.iocl.lho!€ nol oltempledio soyeveMhing yo! w spendlhe restof )o!r doysenJoyng.I
roi con be saidoboul drowing,nor frove fei stronglyihol \tonled lo createo book
- ed to lisiolLihemuscesoflhe h!mon body ihoi would knockdown some borefs ond
iclher,in o mosipleoslroblewqy,I \tonleclto a low \,oungorihisio beg n to reqllyundef-
: i downwiih \,ou,lookol thesemognifcenl stondthe lormsoffhe flgure,lilscleorto me
I ,,crksond begindiscusslng thosecspectsof thal f wonledihe reoderlo shoremy g€oT
',llch6ongelo3\^ofklhoi ore ceoresllo ob- enihlsiosmfor onolomyanddrqwng prlnc-
:?tueos wel os mosl imporiantio lilsl_roie p es, wou d have lo expresssome comp ex
'3iJ|edrowng, deos in o more simplfed wqy ond I loke
when lbegon io wriieihisbook,my inien responsibiV lor thot.
rn wosio keep lhe spit of figuredrowng N4orelhon on!4hngese, lhis book is ihe
_ioct, ho\€ nol oliernptedto soye\€Mh ng express on of o lo\,€affor thol I hovehodwllh
-ci con be sod oboui drowng, nor hove I the exhoordinorydrawlngsof lhe greolesl
- ed to sla I the mlrscles of the humonbodl mosterof the figure,Mcheongeo.
Michoe Bubon
NewYorkC ly,1986




\ ,a-

1508,tadd point ontl p.n
73/r'.t 9qt p1.27 t 24.45ch)
is n9.ForMicheonge o, drow 10lhe nsidemodelng of lhe fgue wilhoul
Eorm eleMh
I ng s o pfoceou€ rcr oercrmrnrng rcrm firsieslab shingthe ollside shopeoJlhe fig
the i uson of form s merelyappfoxmoleiJ uTen o geneTotwgy
lorm is ndicoledby lighl ond shodeolone E!€ryfigurehoson implcil oclion,or ges-
Theshopeof o form sdelined exaclly by ihe ture.]helneA connechihe portsof lhe body
use of ne, fire lhree seaied figLrreswere lrcm heodio ioe and suggesis lhe geslureof
drownwilh lighl sketchyInes colled p€nr'' nrepose.Gestu€istheh.4hmor musicofthe
menli 'Yepenlonces," or chongesof m nd figure.whichcreoleso peosingrelotionsh p
beforclhe lnol contourisdrown. benreen one form cnd onolher Mchef
Prelminorysketchesor conlour drowngs ongelo ncorporoledo slrongsenseof ges
thol ndicoteoverolproportonsondlhe ges turein o lof hisdrowngs.Hhboldcurvingond
fure of the pose o€ essenliollo sLrccessfu spirolinginespre\r'enled lire posefrcm be-
fgu€ drowings,Thereis not much poini in comingstiffond wno'rurol,
movingonlo sLrch deloilsos hondsor€elor

,l f/


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lllchelongelo drew consfonil\4 ond be- Mcheongelo begon to indcote more de-
ItI cousepoper was expensi\ein the six- io ed forms He representedskeeiol ond
leenthceniuryh spogeswelen\oroblyflled musculormossesby quick,light nes Forex
wlh o\,e opping sketchesond studies. lhe omple,ihelnesol Bindicoiethe col orbones,
skelches on ihispoge cleory demonsirolehis or c avcles;ihe shod nes in lhe oreo of C
eorly esioblishmenl of powe !1, e\ocot\€ suggesilhegreolpecioro muscles on lop of
dlowings.Thebod, untoliernginesusedlo lhe r b coge.A seresof shorllnes,which\dere
ndicotelhe oulsideshopeof ihe odulttg!€ then applied lo lhe arge mosses, suggesi
and ch d {A)ore beoulifuydrown Oncethe formsthoi ore lo be in shodowtnole lhe
oliside conlourof o llgufev/osdelermined, cur\,edlineson the bock ofihe thlghoi D.

of Form
The n o fgureson ihe rqhlotlhs drowing,
! whch ore renderedn lqhi ondshode(4
wereperhopsfrctskelchedln line,muchlike
the n o frgu€s on the eft (Bl

*# in o looseond genero monner,

of lhe figLrre
wilhoulbeing concemed oboul mnor de
toils.l€epng in mindhowlheheod,ribcoge,

ond pe vicmosses
),ou muslo so
orelo be p oced inspoce,
delerrn ne the poslonsof ihe
ormsond egs,Onceyouho€ opproprole y
drownlhe oulsde shopelo del lle lhe direc
iion ond size of ihe forms,lhen colefully
ond poienlly refne ollthe genero linesio
ochievethe flno ouisde conlour ine Asyou
obser\ethe oulsideshopesof thesefgures,
noiicelhe\,orouschongesin difeciionof lhe
lnes l.liimotely,lhe linesof lhe f glle connol
be vogue;ihey must cleory fepresentthe
onolomy lt s mportanl, ho\^€!€i notlo drow
linesndicolngdetalsL.htilthe d fecllonsond
propofiions ol the lorgerformsoreexocty lhe
woyyouwsnilhemObviouslythesiudyof lhe
shopesof ihe formsof ihe bodyisfundomen-
io io drowingihoseformsoccuraieyAsihe
trueshopes of lhe boneond rnuscleslructure
ore underslood,lin€sbecome \€ry eosyto



't534,block cholk
s e / t ' / 4 f t t 1 5t 1 o . 6 . n l
ln the d'owing ol efl, tou con see how
IMchelongelo bu i feshyforrnson lop of
lhe skeletolshucture.lheribcoge (AJondlhe
pevis(B)ore hugebonystructuresonwhichto
boselhe enlireposeondgesture, Londmork
oflhe iLesh greonyfromone indviduollo
onolherOnsomemodelsthen pp esorelowl
on olherslheyore high Bonesg \,eo reloble
setof fixedpoints,or ondmorks,on whlchto
buiLdo drowing.
lvloke onofomcol drowlngsolong with
)o!rdraw nggfromthe model.Ofcourselour
rnode does nol ook like on onotomcal
\-:.-. drowng,bui by mokn9occomponyng skel'
' ' etolondmuscuordrcwngs,youore liflinglhe
curtoinof skin n orderlo seelhe uhderlyng
strlcturethof detgrmneslhe shopeson lhe

Agoodwoylo eorniheformsofihebody s
lo proclicedrowingthe majof mossesffom
onoiomy chorh Drow ihe frcni, side,ond
bock views Closeihe book dnd see how
much'ou can dfowlrcm memoryll lsa soo
good ideo lo proclice drowing frcm the
greotmo$ers,lf N,lchelongelocon gi\€ )ou
on ideowherethe linesshoud be pul down,
whal betrerhelp coLJldyou ho1€?Another
wqyio eorn isio dtaw ftom o reolskelefon,
Skelchihe skeeion o\€r yourfguredrowings
io seeif lou hove ploced ihe bonescorrecily,
Monybonesore directlyLJndor lhe skin-for
'ii instonce, ihe skul,the knee,ond lhe bonesof
ihe feol and hoads

;i$ ..__:.l

1520 2', block ond Ed cholk
scopula(shouder blqde)
der Jont (bol-ond4ockei)

a2nlb6oneoch side ,

verteb|oe( ib)


onieiorsupeor ilocspln€

s pubh




Ihese boxes ore bosed on the
lenglh af the slernum. ^lale lhe
relallonship af lhis lenglh la alhet

I n drowing,the fgure s bu I oul ol mosses bone,or sternum, minuslhe xiphod process,

I lhol hoveo relofonshp io eoch oiher:Th 5 s wh ch s ocoiedot lhe boliomof lhe siern!m
acLectpropodons n o ploportono sYslem Thelenglhoflhe slernumnlocleqLrolslhe
_-reori st con usewhoteverporl of lhe bocly longlhof selerc oiher seclionsof lhe onoi-
^? kesos o lnl of meosureThenhe need omy Forexompe, l eqlols the engthof The
:- y anol\/?ehow lhh chosenunil Ie oles10 clovcLe, the lengihol lhe shoulderblode,or
:: erpodsofthebodyTheonc enl EgYplons scop! o,lhe d sloncebelweenlhe scopuoe,
_:c o propodionolsystem thoi\dasbosedon the lenglhof lhe hand m nuslhe tp of lhe
-,. englh ol lhe midde fnger opp colions th rd f nger ond lhe w dth oi ihe heod
:: rhhsyslemoso occur n cerToinexompes n oddton, ihe siernollenglhmutpled
:'Greek orl Accordng 10 lhs syslern, the one ond o ho f limesequa slhe lenglhofihe
:^qih ofihe midde fngermulip ed by n ne' heod (fromthe top of the sku io the boliom
_:.n equos the heght of ihe figure The ollhechin)ondthe englhollhe foreormThe
:^glh of ihe hond muiplied by ien or the slernollengihdoubed eqLrols ihe engih ol
:^glh oi ihe looi muLlp ed by sx a so op- lhe r b cooe,iheoppfoxmoleu/dih oiihe fli)
: .x moieslhe heghiof on o\€roge hlmon coge oi iiswdesl poinl ond ihe engThofihe
upper orm, or humerus Ihree iimes ihe
ri l'redeveopedlhe drowingshownhere, lenglhoilhe siernurn eqlo sihe Lengrih
ol tte
'. a.eongelowosevdeniylhnkng of lhe lhighos\de oslhe lenglhofihe egwihlhe
:_!i1 of lhe kneeond how il le oieslo lhe fool, lhal s, the heighloi ihe fooi (ihe dis
:-: formsoflhebodyAflercorrecly render lonce fromihe onke io lhe groLlndl
:-e porlsoitheknee n ine,M cheongelo Ho\,e),ouevercompleledo drowng oiihe
:::eeded to odd lght ond shode-noie figureonlyio fnd lhoi lhe head isioo srno,
- :' -e ght in lhisdrowingcomesfromthe ihe orm s ioo long,oI the body sloo wide?
=' .-i iowqrdthe fronlol lhe liglrre Thecurefortheseproblemsslo workosmuch
-: nlerestng lo observelholihe engihoi osyoucon wth proporions,TheoncienlorT
-:..39,ihoi s,lhedisloncefromlhetopoisis of Greece lo\,ed lo work wlh meosure
-: ::-rmon lendon,(4, of lhe quodrlceps mentsond numbersond thosehormonoLrs
-,:: . io ihe knee ng polnl,or tuberce oi numbersloundihe rwoyinlothereoi onships
-: -: . equa s the enerlhof lhe br,aosi- of lhe forms of lhe lgure



Qy underrtondngthe reoionshrps
be- usuollymode n the owerlmbs
fofmsin a siondnq f qLrfeyouw Accordingio lhs systemof meosuremenf,
hovea beller deo of whot io expeclwhen ihe heod lselfconsiitules the irst meosure
lou encounlerfglres in seotedor €clinng meni(A).Thesecondmeosuremenl h the dls-
lance beireen lhe chin ond ihe nppes (B)
Arlisisof ihe Renossoncewere fond of Thethird meosuremenis lhe d sloncefrom
Lrsingihe englh of Jhe heod os o uni of lhe n pp es io the e\€ ol the no\,e (C)rihe
meosureThe engih of Jheheod mulip ed iourlh fromthe no\€l lo ihe crolch,or sym-
sevenond one hof lmes equo/slhe loto physspubls(D)jtheRfihffornihe crolchloihe
he ghiof on a\erogeliguretlheheod lengih leve of lhe mddle ol ihe ihigh (E)rlhe sixth
mullipliedby eghl equohlhe heighloJololl fromlhe midde ol lhe lhighlo ihe le\,eof the
personrond the heod lenglh mulllp/ied knee (D;lhe se\,enfhfrom lhe knee lo lhe
roughlyby sevenequo slhe he ghl ol o shod m dde ol ihe ower eg (G)jond the eighfh
ndviduol.Renossonceorlsh usualy used fromlhe mlddleof the owerleg io the bol
eghi heodsas o meosuremenl simpy be- tom of the foot (H)
couse il s eosier10 subdivdeeighl lhon I yo! oppy lhe englh of lhe heod to lhe
se\,enond o holf.Ofcoursenolo lrnodeho€ w dihsoisorneoi ihe mossesolihe figufe,),ou
ihe some height D screpdncyn heighl in con seelhol lhe lengthol one heod equa s
mosTinsionces, occursn the o\^€rlimbsrlhe lhe d sloncebe veenthe nipplesos we os
lengihoilhe heodond lnrnkdoesnot\ilryso lhe d slonceocrossthe \ro si,
much.Thelefore, odjuslmentsn heghlwefe One ond one hol heod engihsequo lhe
-: ,"r,. .iL--.

iLsiancebeireen the ormpihos wellosthe y'6youdrow conlinuolyscon\,oursubleci 153Arcd chdlk
lemoeb The lntroduclionol bod proporlionsresulls loli t 15.!, 1272 \ 395 ch)
,ldlh of lhe mo eh pevc massrlhe
seLvicrnossss ghllywidet whenyou Looktoo longat ony givenpan or
the lengih of tu/o heodsequoh ihe ds- delollof lhe body n odditionto lhe propor
'3nce ocross lh,a moe3 shouders;the lionolsysiems thothovebeend scussed here,
=moeb shouders ore sighty norrov€t The why nolexplore ond come up wlh oiherrelo_
.nglh ofiv/oheodsso soequolto ihe lengih uonships olyourown?Themorereollonships
:i ilre lhigh. thoiyouconlindosyoudrowlhe moreoccu_
li so mhiokeiobeg n drow ngiromlhelop role yourlgure wiL be. Proporiionosy$ems
:: ihe heod ond oliempl lo fn shyour drow_ shoLrldbe lseful and comiodoble Mchei_
-g of ihe bo1lomoi the fgLrreojl n one ex ongeos meoslrremenls oi ihe llgure ore
:arion Lnsfeod, sketch n ihe poris of The ceorly differenllrcm lhose ol soy E Greco
'j!re n o generolv/oy,lndicoing proporiions Thefemoe fgu|e oi DeLoh ond the orger
:_c ceslure,Thnkof ),ourfiguredrowng oso lg!re ofSornson tholyouhovebeenstudyng
-.p on whichyo! simpyv,/oniio pon ond here ore dfown occordingio proporlionol
:;coler ihe plocemenlof the porlsof lhe syslems thal ore roughyihe same I s ihe
..:dy lhe esloblishmenl of po nts,or lond lengths lhe Lrnits
ol of meosurelhal ore d i
-ark, ond the plocemenlof inesconneci €leni noiice lhol the heod ol Sornsonis
_3 lfese poinlsore mportonl n poitng i\r ce os lorgeoslhol oi Delioh
: aperproporijonsbetv€enlormsofthebody
The eftecllveplocemeniot one obleci in
I fe otonto onolheroblecfs\ery mporlonl
in a work of orl. Thelhingsthot )ou leorn
oboul drowingo sngle figurewillo so be of
help in composlngo piciule mode !p of
groupngsof frgures. Juslosthe€ iso geslule,
or h)4hm,throughoulihelormslhol mokeup
o singleflgure,theremuslbe a rhy,thm lhot
conneclsmuliple imoges,
In ihis drowing of Hercuesengoged in
d sporole octions, lhe gesfuresof lhe ind!
vlduolfguresbiendhormoniousylo creoieo
unifed composillonThoifhormonyofgestue
cousesthe eyelo fow freelyfromone fgure
lo onoiherTryio visuolize
thofconnecithethreef gufesin lhlsdrcwing.
A good composilionollen hos numerous
fildhm hesrunnlngln monydifferentdirec-
lionr,Thus,ihe podsof o drawingore never
ireoiedas bh ond piecesbul workiogether
lo forrno lorgerlnljy

Rhy'hmlinesindi.ote lhe flaw ot

.rD.Jenlenlwithin o drcwing ond
rclote indiviluol figut$ ta the
compositr, os o whole.




1523 rcd cholk 144" ' 16qr
(27.31t 4223ch)
Thk is o foscinolinoskelchnloving mony
I fgufesondmuchdynomc oction,lis!c-
uobe becouseii showshow lvlchelongelo
lhoughl oboui ond drew compicotedcus-
lers oi inlerocJngfgures Theseliguresore
drownos simpe iornrs,bll the drowingis in
1.., no v\rcyvague,Theseporoionof one muscle
mossirom onolheron lhesesmoi bodiesis
c eorlydeined by Inei ond shorl holched
nesore paced on thosetiguresor porlsol
fgures1o €presentshoding Nole lhat lhe
ighi source n N/ichelongelo's drowingsol
mosio wqyscomes from lhe efl
Wrelherlou are workingon o drowingof
one fgure or o hlfdred fgures,il is wiselo
keepo lihe foms smple lf youcon v sucize
one hundredfguresos one lorge rnoss, you
w I ha\e discoveredo fundomenlolkuth
oboui whot greatdrowingenlois lhe sub-
ord nolionofdeioi io ihe elfeclverendering

lrt' ,
tW..1 ,

;' -r,/,:

fheseswtli.g lihesdenanstole
the wcy rotiaus fiqutes Elote ta
each alrer dthin lhe can'ert af o

1534,bl@k cholkll r 161,'
127.94, 41.91en) Dohoaed




l I
Th s h o delo I of lhe drowinglhol oppeors of theowl of lhe nrce.Thebolloftheheod,or
I on poge 131.lheoldestmossing concept cronium,willRlinloa perbcJsqloretthe ovol
|.Bedby orl slsfor lhe head h lhol of ihe boll ofthe loce isone ond o holft mesoslongos
ond the owl. Tryto seelhrough deloils of lhe lhe boll of the heod. Peopleofien moke lhe
heodosif lheydid nol exslond nolelhoi the ihe croniumloo smollforthe foce
t rolncose,or cranium,sosphefe(Al.ondthe Theorlisl mustalsoconsiderhow these1vr'o
mossofthe iJce, whenthe feoluresore dis- large mossesore io be ploced, lhe relo
'egoded, oppeors lic be on o\r'ol(B).ll is ex- lionshipof ihe ballof the heod lo the owlof
iemey imporloniic wderstondthe slzeof lhe foc€ will of cou6e wry depending on ihe
li|e bo oflhe heod in le olonshiptolhe size posiiionof lhe heod.

the relallonshpat the poll of lhe

hed b t'heawl at thb fo.P wj
chonge os the mode/3pcrtion

fheHeodin Spoce
The iosr or dfowng,ucl"rcomplcoied
I fo{m5os lhe heod in o llted posilions
greaiy essenedf youlrst th nk ofthot head
oso slmpeiorm o bock,cy ndetorovo
ond ihen placeihiss mpe form n o posilion
lhoicor€spondsioihedes redposion oiihe
heod Disreoord ng ihe ieolures,
of ihs heod con be Lrnclerslood os a cyiin-
der kemossilling ntolhepoperoilh,-lopos
the bolTorn of the cylnderproleclsforwarclf
o cy nder were poced n lhis posion in
spoce you woud see some of lhe c rcuor
underpone allhe boltomor bosebul none
oi the c rculorlop plone.Nolce lhal lh-- nes
represenifglhe hol (Aldefne ond ernpho-
sze ihe cy ndrcol shope of ihe for-oheocl,
' ond ihol the rlesusedfor the borderof lhe
r.: i:: i:
;,,. oweriaw (BJsuggesilheunderpone ol the
cy rdetvsuo z ng lhe foceoso cy nderwih
;:.,'rr inesencrc ng t also heps nsurethot you
ploce eyes,nose,and mouthon the heod

la irs,te lf)e ptapet tlll af the

hedd lr .dtowirg. t is helptulta
lhi.k af the fa.e as o cftnCtical


1524-21 tot totet)
ed chdtk, bldck choik, ohd peh
13', \ 31/,',63 42 t 21 se cn)


. l. ,,..

,'. .:
'r' \:: 1]' '"t,:!:,.-,'

Prcporfionol FociolFeotures
ri.,,* : -$; r
f# ..r The I fsllhinqsyoumighlnoice n lhisdfow-
I ing of o heod ofe the beoulfulond com
p exdetoih,blllhedelaiharenotwholmoke
ihs drowing greol Whol h mportant lo
nollce s lhclthe smollerforms o€ drawnso
thotihey appeorlo reslgrocefullyon lop of
lhe ofger mossof lhe heod ls€lf.Heods '.{
drownby Micheangeoovr'cysgile the u
sionof beng o solidmossn spoce.
Whendecid ng on lhe plocomentol lhe
feotures,t s hepful lo dividelhe loce inio
Thrds Youmightwantlo rln ghl horizonio
lnesoroundlhe ow - ikemossof ihe foce al
the evel of lhe balures.Theforeheodfrom
the holrinelo ihe brcw (4 woud represenl
one lh rdi lhe nosewoud represeni the sec
ond lhirdtond lhe spocefrcmthe bofromof
lhe nose (B)lo the bollom of the ch n (CJ
woLrldloke up ihe losflhird.lhislosisecton
con be furthersubdividednio ihirdsin order
lo ploce lhe moLrihond chin colecly The
seporotonof ihe lps willbe otihe botiomol
the firstlhirdtlhetop of the chn wil be neor
lhe boltomofthe secondihirdrond the bol,
j'' tomoflhechinw be ai ihe bollomol the osi
,,.,' thirdYouhoveto soy"neof"of "oboul,whsn
speokng of meosufemenhbecouselhere
ofe no obsolutgrulest youcon justnotlcehow
c oselyiheleoluresofihe mode corespond
io the c osscal proportonsoui ned obove
n iems of depih, ihe reoilonshipof ihe
boiufesmustoho be c eory esloblishedThe
nose s fodhefforv,qrdlhan lhe mouihiihe
upper lip is mo€ forvr'ord lhon ihe owerllpr
ond ihe chln s fortherbockthanihe mouih.
Iry drowing consiructonlines-hor zonioi,
\ericol, ond diogono-from one feolureio
onoiherThephllirum(D),or areo obo\€ ihe
cenler of lhe lpper p exiendsdownwqrd
frornlhe cenlerof the boseol the nose,lhe
:l philirurnformso rnosi nlereslngplonet I s
conco!€ irom lop io boitomond oso con-
co\€ iromsideloside.Thsistheonlypone of
,1. iisknd on lhe enl re lgure,
the moresensili\,eyou ore io reolronshlps
belween vorous ieoiures,ihe belier your
drowngswi be. Nol€that on mognory\€r
/ .-'a Uco ne exlendingupwordlromthe bock of
of org n withlhe innercornerol the ele.
.- r' )* -{-' When pasilioning the feo Noticeloo thot the chn sirop (E)in this
J *"';l ' ^.trct il is helpful ta divide lhe
loce inla lhnds wilh light hai
drowlngservesaso contourineihothelpsio
exploinihecuri€d ospecloflheunderplofe
ot the owerlow(Fl Ihe ch n stroposo sepa-
roles the ower jow flom onother cufted
pone,lhe cylindorof the neck {Gl.Youcon
seelholihechn ntesecisthe neckot o ower
f elellhon doesthe backoJtheskull. Thebase
oflheneck s owerinfronlthon in bock,which
gives i o fo^/crd ihrust


I . ::: .- oiLt,5323/.bto-\.1o\'.. ot )3-3 )3\A-ar
Defining withLightondShode
- : .:=re' c eorwheiherlh s slhe l]owiire symboof o so d s weokened.
I :' : - an oro womon, lvlcheionoe o Olco!rsewiihihe heod rilh s posltion,the
sde ond podonsoiihe fronipionesof ol of
,,.-:. -19 crlsfsnlo sketchlinescrevs thesmolerforms olthe heodoreo sovisibe,
.. ^nsCrowing Thereo revery€w slroighl osorelhebockord sde ponesofthe neck.
.:3.efe Michecnge o wasconcernedwih Thed rect ght n thisdrowng comesifom
.leci nga soldheodono faipieceolpopet ihe efi ondihe iellecled ghlcomeslrornthe
,n cars besloccomplishedby usingcurvecl r ght.Thesideplonesof ihe heod ore in ght,
nes Ihe linesof lhe hol (Aond B)he p c or fo whereoslhe frontpanes of lhe foce o€ in
iire foundness ol the heod Thelinesof lhe shodowLghl and shadedel ne ihe meelng
siernocledomasloidmuscle(C)help lo de poces of fronlond srdepones,ll rsmost m
fne the neckos o cylinder po onllholsr-rch clefnilionbe estobshedby
ThislhreequorlerposI on clromolicaIy n- lneor by ghl ond shcderolherwhelhe forms
creoseslhe uson of ihe heod os o lhree- of the heod ond lace w I oppeorfol
dimensionol foranThnk of a cube drown n Themergingol thefronlondsidepionesof
juslsucho poslon Nowd.ow of lh nk of o lhe nose (Dl.s ernphcszedby lhe obrLrpl
cube poced n o compelesde vewt nole chonge frornlghi lo shade Therdge oi o
form,ihe iunclureof l^/o panes,shouldbe
nlio y eslob shedby drowng o line.
l/ore roundedformsore ndicoled by o
moregroduallronslon ofva ue fromiighiio
clork.BecoLrse ol th sgrodLraprogression.ihe
loreheocloncl neck oppeor mor,-ro!nclecl
ihon do lh-6nose,rnollh,onclch n on which
ihe clrongeifom lightio clorks obrupt.The
nose.mouTh.ond chin are bocklike n op-

Tlreeor sbeoli fu lydrowno nd posilofed.

tsfroniborder s ocaledallheholwrypo nl
of ihe sde of ihe heod f th s worco siroqhl
profe viewihe lop oriheeorwoudoppeor
e!€ w th lhe browondihe bofom ollhe eor
woLrldappear e\,1rwilh lhe bofonr of the
J nose.8!i snce ihe hed.l s I 1e.l.lownword,
ihe ear correspon.l ng y iilisupword n con-
kasl lo ihe nose ond o\irl oi the loce Th-.
more the hecrd s t led, ihe more ihe reo-

Afierp npointingihe conecllocoiionofThe

eor youshoud generolly--stabsh ls olrlsicle
shope NoleM checngeob corefuoiJeniion
lolhelubekecort ogesoflheeor lhefm,or
heix (E)rlhe Yshopeclnnercorl oge oi ihe
onlhe x (Fl, which cLr^/es dowri\,lord
'.1 o ongsde ihe he ix;ihehro smalprojeclions
oi lhe irogus(G) ond ontilrosus(H) /rogus
comesfromlhe Greekwordmeonng goofs
beorcl"ril s herelhol hoirsn lhe eor occur
Thecorliogessurround cnd deine lhe hear
ing cono, or concho 0. Theeor/obe!) s
hondsomeydecorotedwlh lhe eorrnO.The
cortiogesformng the eols ond nosecon-
linue10grow througholtour lelme, whch
meons od foks somelimeshove er1roor
d nor y bg eorsond nosesi



a;-!, NEID,1516,red cholkS' \ 6lr" 2AS \ '165nnl

of Voluefo line
lf VoLrcon opply qhiondshodelo o cV n sockeioreo{Bl,ondthecaslshodowiromihe
I Oer yolr con dfow ihe necl of o mode nose [C] is oso qule subJe ,\ o .ue,
Oflenlhe heod coslso shodowon lhe neck Micheongeo ,,!caexircmelycorefu cboul
Mcheongeo knew lhol such dork spois cosl shodowsand oiher dorktonesused10
coud spoillhesuble effeciof ghl. iis nier defne forns n ghi oreasof hh drawngs.
esing io nolelhol oilmes, he om iredor jLrsi Youcon undersiondhow lhe drcclon of
borey suggesledsuch cost shodows(A ihisheoclwasesiob shed by vsualzng hvo
Thereo refewexlremely dorkionesin ihe eye mpo(onTconsirucionnes;mooneo hor-
zontc ne runningthroughlhe eyesond o
!€rfco ne runnnOlhrough ihecenierofihe
foce Thenose s beouifLrlydrowncnd per-
tucllyp oced coftislenlwth the directon of
lhe rnossof the head ll m ghl be he pfu lo
lh nkofonimognoryorrowpiercing ihe bock
ol ihe mossoi lhe head,ot lhe eve of the
bottomof lhe nose,ond com ng oullhe froni
of lhe head ol the some eve Thisonow
'i woud ndiccle the direction n which lhe
TheInesoflhh ng oreveryexpress ve
. onclore reoled 1oo llhe olher eemenlsof
ihevo uesopp ed ioihe orgermosses ln ihe
oreasihai lhey possover Forexample,ihe
ne oi lhe lroi iso aonTour ihai isdrowno\er
ord explonslhe shopeol ThefoleheoclThis
ine s very ghl os i lrovehlhroughihe high
ighl oreo [D]ol the mossoi lhe heod ond
becon'es.larl<er as il r'rovesnlo lhe shadow
oreo(ElTherno$ ofihe foce sstrocl,od mrch
os o large egg woLrdbe The/ighi s fo nO
fronrabove efi ond lo\dordihe ironl.Sucho
ighlng schemeifsuresthot threeJourlhs ol
lhe heod s in ighi wh e one fourth s n

Theinesusedonlhe efl sideofsuchfofrfs

os ihe eyebrows, ihe oi the eye,ihe w ng
oiThenose. ondihe lpsoreolliglriernione
thanthe nesusedon the rightsde.
Theeyebrows olso rcpresenledby nes
lhoi eclro ond expoin ihe fofm obo\€ ihe
eye Thesepofotonfiefr'r'een the froniond
sideof the foreheodoccursct F Thecurved
LnesLJsed for lhe eyeldsdelinelhe rounded
iorm of lhe eyebol, and lhese iinescurve
sighiy up\dord,ndicolng thoi lhe heocl s
t led s ghllydownwcrclThe ine usedlo sep
orole the lps oso curles.slightyupward
Slroghl nesonywhereon the f gurelend io


3ld ' 55/l(2121 \ 1129cn)

T h e r g h l n g s c h e m ee m p o y e d h e f et r o sa yelblocklke masseslhebub, niheceniet
I R)vofrle or Micheongeoe o enge lqhl ond Thewngs on eilhersde,wh ch ore por
soufce from lhe efl lowsrd ihe ironl ond lio y embedded n the cenlro and slighiy
obove ihe figure, L nes os wel os lghi ond orgerbu b Nolce howMichelangeobmas-
shade n [,4cheongelo3 drawngs ore olwcys lerfu monpulolionof \4true cousescerioin
bosed on lhe orlislsp'oiound underslondng oreosol Thenose io odvancewhie oiher
oi forrn.Thevo ues con be ihoughloi os lhin oreosTecedeThereolonshipben/eenihe
oyerc of skin plocecl on lhe so d scu pluro formsoflhe head n lermsoi deplh s oiwoys
forms of the figufe P,s n ihe drowngs seen we consdered b'y Micheangeo For n
eor er,eyeld linesore cqrefulyclrownherelo slonce,onelee sihoi n h sdrawngslhenose
convey a sense of lhe mass of lhe eyeba l. sc eaflyiorwardoiihe eyesofdiholihe eyes
AdisTsrarey nd cole fhe eye oshesbecouse ole ceoriyfor\,lordof ihe eors
lhey hove so lllle fo|m ft4icheongeobdrowi]rgsof mouihsfever
McheongeoS unclerslondingoi ihe poris ookfol. n thisdrowng lheTes o ceofsense
ol The nose ore c eorly demorislraieclhere oi Tfremouihcurvngaroundlhe loolh cy n
Theoreo bel\reenlhe bfows,obove the nose, der of the underyingsku The upper p
s colecl lhe giobeilo (Al 1is o down\aord which s o clownwarclsopng pone, receves
s o p n g p c n e , w h c h c u r \ e su f d e r o n c l o w o y essghithqndoestheoweriip,wh chslopes
from lhe lighfsourceemonolng from obove upwordTheowerlp lnlhisdrawng hosbeen
SLrbllegroylone oppl-ad lolhe g obello sug shacledosone woud shodeo horzontacy
gesTsih scLrrvingowoy lrom the lighi D reciy incleflhe upper p ismade up ofihfeeiorms
beow th.,rgobela s The Jrone c€oied by one in the m .l.lle oriclonc on eoch sido
ihe bi.lqei of lh,- nose.which s composeii of whie Theow--r p s made up of hro forms.
l v / os m . r / l n o s ob o n e s( B J . l h ipso n e . w h c h s Once Thesirlclureof Thehe,:,:ls esTob
iooclo.l by ghl, wideris os l sopes.lowir- ishecl,you sho! d TokecoreTo dec cleon ihe
\,!ad .rfd lerrrrfoles on o evc ihoT corre exocTocoTionol lhe leoTLil:s. A qoo.l eye n
spoftls wiThThe nner corncrsol ih.- cyes.The ihe wrongploce sworseilran o bod drawfg
ower hn iollhc cy r.lcrjiko rierl] oflhc fos{l ollh(--cyen lhrir ehip oce \lnr.rlirco !l ftJof
lrecomes rnorc noffow os it eiTencis(lown hornrna onrl v-^dico r,-s o(f,ossyolr
rfTolhe bulb oi ihcrorc (Cl The owerer.rol nxxlcl! lftje vr lhot yo! can .lejemii'r the
thc nosc s formed by ihree smo . rolnded, le ai onshp of lh--f-.aiues


. -"'*11"'

_j- t
tA s lda, 242.'



'15034, red.hdlk
/'h \ 6* [24 \ 1715cn)

T he dominorng rormortheheod sthesku cronrum,hoso iendinoussheeilhol exlends

I Theob, i1lto drowlhe heod vlettEbosed o\€r lhe lop of ihe cron Lrmlo lhe foreheod,
on on underslonding ofthe shopeoJlheskull. wherefibersogoinoccur.Allhe fo€heod the
Thoreole o fewveryihin mltsces ol ihe foce musce term noles in the skn obo\,e lhe eye
Thoii ll oulihebonysiruclureol ihe skutt.
These brows.Theoccipiiojronlals hosihe funclion
cre the musctesoi expressionAddltionolltj oi lfiing up lhe eyebrows,creoiinghorizonloi
lhere ore lwo musceson lhe heod, wh ch wrinkeson lhe foreheodos seen n lhe ex-
mo\e the ower jow or mandbe, ond ore presson of surprse or ollenton 1
usedfof chewng food Theele s sufioundedby se\€ro musces,
Themusclesof expression ore slrucluroly Theseincludehro selsofcirclilor
\€ry diJlelenlfromlhe musclesof lhe body nnerondoulerringsof lhe orbiculorh ocu i (B
the mlsclesiholmo\€ lhe bodyofginofeot and Cl Theinnefrngs,or po pebralpori (Bl,
one bone ond insertnto onolherbone.The are respons be for openingand closingihe
muscesol exp€sson o soorginoleon bone, eye ds. The ouler ring,or obiiol porl (C),
on ihe skuI,bulihey inserlinlotheskinofihe oboveTheeyes,whenconlraciedw llpulllhe
irce Whef lhesemusclesconirocl ihey pLt/l skin beireen lhe eyebrows s ghlly down
the skin,producingwriousfcrcioexpressions.word,cousrngshortverilcolwrnkes lo op
Theocc p to-frontolismuscle(A co\ersthe peorbei/,eenlhe brows.Ths muscleexpres-
Oock,lopond fronlof the cronium,Thlsm!s- seslhe letlocll\,eor mediloli\e slo1e,
cle, orginoiing n Jberson lhe bock of the Anolhermusclein lhe ele oreo islhe cor-

-Jgotorof lhe eyebrowor corugolor super nseriinio ihe musce fbels surrounding ihe
: i (D),o \,erysmaI muscleor ginotingon lhe moulholthe lower p Thedepressor lob ln-
'3reheod,underlhe occipiiolironiolismus- ferioispu lsthe ov,€rlp down in lhe aclions
ae. Thecorrugolornserh nlo lhe skinoiihe oTcryrng.
-ndpo ni of lhe eyebrcws,pu ling lhem n Youmusiunderstond thal lhesemlsclesof
.,rordond up\,!ardcreolng expressions of expTession ore ol inlerconnecledwllh one
anolher n ihe r porlcu or oreos;lhusin ihe
Oneofihe musclesofthe nosesthe p^/ro- subllemo!€rnenisof the eye oreo or the
_ridolisnosi(E).li orsesfromlhe nosa bones moulh regon, severolsmollfociol muscles
rnd exlends upvr'crdlo nsed nlo lhe skin moy be in\€l\,ed n one expression. Or the
ceiweenlhe eyebrows, Thismusce pu s lhe loce moybe express ng moreirronone emo-
:kn obo\€ lhe nose downwqrd,creoing lon n o drowingol lhe heodsuchoslh sone,
shorthorzoniolwr nkes ol ihe bridgeof lhe lvichelongeodoes nol d.ow lhe ndviduol
rosechoroclesl c of lhe express on ol o nger focio musces;he mosses iirem,lruThe cer_
one oflhech efmuscesof ihe rnoLrlh hlhe ioiny knowsol ob,orriihem ond tronsoles
.ygomotcusrnojor (D I oig noles ol lhe lhem inloo drowingolthe heodlhoishowso
cwerborderoflhe cheekbone, olzygomoT|c greoidea of expression.
cone,ond exlendsdown io nserlneorlhe
aorners of lhe mouthwhen conlTocled, osIn
ine exp€ssonof oughtei thismuscleplls
iiie cornersoflhe mouihupwqrdond tolhe

'nusce, of sesfrornthe fronloflhezygomolic
aone,coser io lhe nose Theelewtol oflhe
Jpper p, or e\'oiorlobi superios (H)rses
iom ihe lowerboldel of ihe ele sockeT, or
arbiio covlly lhese iwo muscesexi'enddown
'o inseriiniolhe orbcuorLsorlsin lhe oreoof
'le upper p Theyhovethe funclonof ftng
1e upper ip neor ihe midpoinlwh e lhe
:ornercofthelipdropdown,os n expresslons
al g ef.
Theorbcuors orls0, a circuormLlsce
.vhichsurrounds ihe moulh,hoslhe funciion
rf closing lhemoulhisouleribersbendwlh
:nd con act ogoinslthe wriousolh-armus_
: esthot ore otiochedio t
Anolhermusce ol lhe moulh,co led ihe
: evoioroflhe upper p and lhe wingoi ihe
-3se,or e\olor lob superoriso oeque nos
fromlhe lpper
-1,so th n rnuscleorlginoting
:.d of the upper low or moxilo,extending
i swnwordlo inserlnlolhe wing,oro o, oi lhe
_3seond lhe upper ip Theseformsore lfied
- ihe ocl on of sobEng.
Iheconinus,or ewior ongu oris(l!, orises
-3m the moxllo and inserlsinlo ihe skn
I30\e lhe con ne looth Thismusce litisihe
- 3per lp,exposinglhol loothto giveo sneer

ofthe angleof lhe mouTh,

ihe depressor or
::cressorongu oris(L),orisesfrom ihe mon
: ae, or owerlow qnd exiendsupwordto
_:garnlolhe cornersolthe moulhTheiunc_
_ar ofthismusce islo pul the cornersoTThe
-auih downuordn expressions ol ogony
-e depressorofihe ower p, or depressor
:: nferors{lvl),ohoorignoieson irremon-
: : e. Fromihere ihe muscleexiendsup lo
the h{o musces of mostcolon edend Thelemporos musce(Blislocoledonihe
I do\anhi.rdtromthe mmovobl--slillioihe sideotihe cronum in the temporo fossc ls
molcbe owerlow On lhe bock port of lhe lbers possdownwordunderlhe zygomolic
cheek s lhe mossefermuscle(Al,whch ex- orchond inserinio the coronod processon
lends down$ord and bcclolofd from the lhe owerjow Ths musce workswih ihe mos-
zygomoicorchoflhe sku lolheongeoiihe selermusce lo rose lhe oweriow when o
owerjo\,vBybeing owqreof lhe posiiionof personchews,lhe oiernoing coniroclon
ih s mlsce, you can underslondis funciion, ond reoxalionoi the iemporalsmusce s
which ls lhal of fo sing lhe lowerjow This opporenionlhe sideoflheheod in iheoreo
powerfulmusc e con be fellby c enchinglhe ol lhe lemples Ancenl onolomslsnarned
owerlow h th ckifont bordercreoleso sho lh s musce ond lh s oreo of lhe skuI lem
lowdepression on the foce,d recly ln froniof poro s,reolng iollme,becouseliisherelhol
hoirslLrrnwhle so qulckiy

.. .ir . . ..t:.i ,i


: :a- 3r A NEADtOR TllE LASTIUDGEMENI 1534 block ond Ed cholk l Sl/t' t



O r gn :

to ihe corono d process



O r gn :

to ihe corono d process

The orfl$nrsiseesbrm in lermsof sirnple
I mossbeic€ goingonliosmollerforms ond
deloil.lhe neck is essenliollv o cvllnderllke
moss,lvichelongelone\,'erlirlledto empho-
sizethecyllndrlcol qlollly of ihe neckwhichis
widetot the bosethonot lhe top lhe neck
ossumes o cvinddcolshooebecouselhe flsi
lvroribs,whichlbtmlhe boseof lhe neckore
chculor,]he hlgherle\,elof lhe neckIn lhe
bocklhon ln the fronlof the body€6ull$in o
In men.the sldesof the neckCyllnder or€
fomed bVthreescolonusmuscles-onleior
m6dlus, ond pod€fior.Ihe6e muscle6gdend
upv,ordfromthe ffnt two ribsic the upp€r
neck\erlebroe,]he 6cdlenus muscles couso
the n6ckto b6nd,
Onthefronioftheneckihereole importont
icrmsthot piojector.rtv,ord ftomthe cyllnder
mo$, o€ th6 cortlloges o@!ndlhe
wlndplp€, or trocheo, whichfom the\oice
boxorloryrx,Theshopeof thelorynxlslhot of
on upslde-down lrlongl€. Theopo(of lh€hl-
ongle ls locdtedat the pli of the ihroot(Al,
ondthe upperbordercofi€sponds to o le\€l
lustbelor tho low€rlow Theportof thevolce
boxthdl lvlchelongelov ts mostlnlei€siedIn
portoylnghele lslhE upp€redge @),whlch
prcJecis liofom the ldomt opple,
Ano\er fom thdt i!4lch6long€lo wosw€ll
owsr€of ls th6 hlold bone,o smollhoBe'
shoe+hooed boneoboletheAdomtoDole
thol helprholothe wlndplpeIn ploc6,thls
smollh)he b hot vlslblgon th€ rurlbce,brJt
occurswherelhe underplone of lhe lower
JowlepoiEis6ftom the fiont plon6 of th€
]ho lhrootmufclosleatowr tho corillqger
of the\olca bo(,lh€9ethlnrduscies ole mos-
Orlgin- f--'-, J sgd, ond fhry lprm the generol cyllndor
9hopeof fd9fronlof lhe neck

lorynx(\,olcebo0r Adqln!

Bd 6&R
'ht\, x Hl 123.26, 19.6*'n)

i :
The two nernoceidomostod mlsces resi
I on, ond ore porlio v embedded n the
cyindermossof lhe neck,Theyore ropelike
muscesthot exlendfromthe top ofthe ster
num up to the heod beh nd the eor They
nserinio lhe moslod process(A)of lhe sku
Eachmuscleis oi ls widesiobout ho tMoy
downtheneck.Alls lowerend tbronchesoff
inlohro iendonsrone lendonisotiochedto
ihe top ol lhe siefnum(B),ond lhe other s
altochedlo lhe clovcle (Cl.Thesehdolen-
'.'i., .ot,' donscreoieo smollhongLrlor deprcssion(D);

lhe heod of lhe c ov cle s ot lhe baseof this .,2

depesson Theiendonlhol oltocheslo lhe
.t .j:
" lop of lhe sternumh verypronouncedand
'd cordlike,whie lhe one lhol ollocheslo ihe
clovcle isrolherf ol ofd brood Theiendons
thol ollochto ihe sternumformlhe pil oflhe
ihroat IEJf lhe slernoceidomosiod muscle
on one sldeoflhe neckconhocis,ihe heod
wll roiole in ihe opposiledireclionor t i
downwordloward the shouder Theselwo
musclesusuolly\^/ofkogo nsleoch oihot bui .4
whenlhey do wo.klogelhe, ihey cousethe
heod lo be lhrownup whie smuloneously
pullnglhe neckdown,
G l\4ichelongeo hos drown ihe steF
nocledomosioidmusclesn o subiewsybe"
cause,oshasbeennofed,iheyore delollson
ond porliolyembeddedn ihe orgermossof
,; D ihe neck Theymusinoi oppeor ioo prom-
B nent.ln ihs drawingo smoI podlonof ihe
orge tropezusmuscles vlsble (FJ, EetMieen
the slefnoclodomqsloidmusce and ihelro-
peziusiso rolherlargefiongu or depression
co led ihe 'onofomicolsollbox"(G)
Theneckh consiruciedlor greoi freedom
ond vorlet of mo!€meniThesho!dergidle
(i,,/oscopuloe ond ]u,o c avic €s) s ihe ske-
elo siruclLrreupon whichtho l oshyformsoi-


',511,ed cholk
14h \ 7lt t3s86 , 1937@)

Fl l'.

r. .a:-:: . ..


l nr formlhotthe orisldrowsw obviolrsv ook ng Lrpol lhe body of Chrsl bLriyou o€
Ahove o cerloinposton ondd recionreo ook ng down on h sfeeiond oilhe sku otihe
'/elo thespacelholsurrounds il Theposition base of lhe cross The heod of lhe figure s
: delerminedbythe locolon oflhe obiect n direcled 10 lhe rghl lhe rb coge s turned
:oocetlhe d recion s deiermned by wh ch lowofd lhe iefi ond si led londordrihe moss ihe obiecl h focng. mogne on oxis o f t h e p e v s s i l r n e d s i g h t y t o t h e g h t o n d
a oced vedcollyihroughihe cenier oi the llled fo^altrrclio\rcrd The eft.
rbjecl Now mog ne ihoi lhe objecl roioies Thereare ih€e mpcrloni orge mossesof
rround ih s cxis.Thedegreeof roloion s of T h eh u m o n i g L r ei h e h e o d T h e r i b c a g e , o n d
.cu6elhe obleclsdreclon Thequeslons on tire pevs A: hos ceen shov/n n iire eor er
:rlislaslcbeforeclrowinga I gureoreiWhcts sludy oi ihe hecd, i ! .rc!_ rnporionl lo
'.e dreclon of ihe part oJ the body onr
:rowng? s I d ecled lowsrdlhe ell oI lhe
.ght and by how much?Howfor foovardor siori dro\^/ng ihe 'gLJre i s 'e .iLr ircn' ihe
cocL^r'ord in spoceislhe form eon ng? Fur- b e g i n nn g , i o d r r w i h e s g - a s s e . <a s s r n p e
iitermore,ihe orlistrnustconslderlhe relo lorms,for exomc L cn egg, :cne€ a! .:er,
'onshipof h sown poslon n spocetothotof o r b o c k l t i s . n L r cehc s e r i c p c a e o a . - c 9 r
-heobieclbeingdrown Hedoesnol hovelo f o r ml k e l h e i b c o g e n o d f t c r ' p . : r . . . , /
Crowlheoblecl n lhe posiliofiromwhichhe d r o w i n go s i m p l eb o c k i n i h a i p o s i o . ' : : '
!ews I bulil hedoesnot,he rnusldelermne Youcon then skelch I lhe r b ccge o''sr i'e
ire positionfrom which lhe iorm s To be block Snce lhe humon figLrre s tne most
drown,ond he muslmeniollyoccommodoTe complex iorm on oriisi can drow i s neces
s o r yi o s e e r g h l i h r o u g ho l l h e i n i r c o i eo n d
l\4icheangeodetermned ihe poslion of confls ng clelo h lo the crrge,simpe mosses
th s ligureverycorefuly n odv.rnceYo! ore

Ihese sinple bax figurcs

con be Lsed l. detetnine
lhe elolire pasilian af lhe

moses the heod, r/b

. 'i;ii,::
.i:i :i
jj )v:"'-
,,-*# ,4



1 2 3 2t 2 6 . 2 . n )


r..' 't,

r..' 't,
of theT0ls0
Ihe Plones
nons der whol porlonsotlhe vorousporis
\rof the igLrreyou ore lookng ol n ihis
drowng.Do)ou seelhe loo fionl sde, or o I
ofthese?Theseare the plonosof o form.
Dsregordlng detoilsforo momenlthinkof
thetorsoaso orgeb ockcreotedbythofioni
plone (4 ond ihe sde plane (Bl The sde
plonesofthe lorsoole ol o sighl obluseon-
g e lo thefrontp ane,mokingthe bockwider
lhon the front of lhe torso
rnogne o seresof linesrunningfrcm lhe
lop oflhe shoulderslolhe n pp es,lromshou
der lo shoulderand from npple 10 nipple
Thesenes\^/ould definelhe b g lop ploneof
lhe chesi(C),which iswiderol lhe shouder
ihon ol ihe nipples,lhls pone lncLudes lhe
fronlplaneof the delo d musce (D)
Youmoynolcetholthe occuroiedefniiion
/ of plonesisd reciy fe oled 1othe successful
hondingof ghi dnd shode.Forinsionce, the
armon lhe righiisdrownoso roundedblock
the lght top plone (E)is clearlysepooted
fromthe pane in shodow(F)
Thetocilholbolhihe ffonlof thelorsoond
o sectionoflhe sldeorevisibe giveso power-
fu i usionofihe figureoso lhree-dimenslono

ing s ihot ii requkesyouto ihlnkond do sev-
erol differeniihingssmuioneously, Snce t s
diilicultin lhe beg nningio ddselero ih ngs
ol once, I moy be he lo consldefony
one eement ol o iime,e\,entholgh lt is !n-
dersioodihoi oll e emenisof o drawlngore
nierleloied.Theelemenhof o good figure
thrusi,onotom\tperspecii\€, lighiondshode,

Whenbeginnng o drowng,iiisoflenhe p-
fLrlo consder onlyihe plonesAfleryouha\,€
esloblishedihe ouhide shapeof ihe lgure,
drow inesthotseporoteone ponefrom on'
ofher Thinkof ond drow lhe plonesof lhe
lorgestmosses f rsi lhen go on io ihe plaries
of lhe smollerforms

Ihese slmpledrcwings werc dohe os

preliminorysketchesfo determine lhe NUDEMALE FIGURE RIJNNING
lorge plonesal lhe la6o frcm lhe frcnl, 1496 150],,pq, b@n ihk ond block chotk
bcck and lhrcequoners views 1a! \ 9./d(3).47| 23.13m1



:,J '-


'.-i;t"x"i;-" ,-'.

-.. ;''

I n lhisslrongdrowing,whch k lessfinjshed slernumThlss ght ollochmenito the restof

I lhontheprecedingdrowng,lher bcoge is the skeeion offordsthe lwo scopuoe ond
dromoilcolyUppedforv/ordli s cleor thoi fu/oc oviclesexiensivemobLly1Sinceihe up
Mchelongelodrewthe ligurewhie beorng per limbsore oitachedlo ihe scopulobylhe
n mnd lheiop orsuperiorview ofihoiform shoulderloini,the ormsore oso onlyslighty
Theshouldergirdle,which reshon iop of ottoched lo the restof lhe lrunk oi the body
ihe b coge, conssh of lhe hro clovlcles(A ond ore olsocopobe of greol movement
ond B) ond ol lhe 1uo shouder blodes,or \lewed from the fronl,the c ovlc e oppooB
scopuloe.Thescopuloeore bolh co\e€d in osa slroghi line,butwhenseenfiom obo\€,
lhLsposebyihe hvc mosses of ihe iropezius os I s in lhs drowng, ils S shope cun€ is
musce [C ond D).Theshoudergirdle s oi-
ioched io ihe rib coge ony ot the pil of lhe It is inleiesiingio observein suchon un
lhroolwherelhe clovclesmeeiihe iop of lhe nnshed drcwng os this one which c€os
ii-r'i -

':helongeo decided lo workon frsi ond stefnum(E)n a waythot c eof y definesthe

_,, Thoseoreosthol projecl lorvr'ordihe d rectionof the r b coge lorbordihrLr$jng
-:n ihe shoulders ond ihe righlorm ore ond l led downrard lowordlhe righi n ihis
: moslde\eoped Theheod,howe\,ethos drowlnglhe siernumoppeorsmuch shorter
:_ yei been refrnedievdenly lhe odisi
._ied ilsl lo e$oblshthe symmelryof ihe Coler up ihe siernumwiThlhe Tjpof your
:_:- der gndle lngerond seehowlhed recijonoJlhe orger
-e poston oJlhe siernlm scn impodont moss,lhe lono, is weokened.Suchsmo el
-:-.r whendrowng lhe fibcoge n o djllicult forrnsos c ovc es,breosfs,
or lile sternum,f
r,rrcn. Ve\{ed from lhe fronl,ihe slernum drowncorreciynperspeclile,wlgreoilyen-
:.:ecrs os o vertcol line,bLrlfromihe slde honce the ilusionol lorgermossessirongly
: .!ru€ of lh s bone con be cleary ob- pilchedJoMordor bock in spoce
.-.e.. HereMicheofgeo hosdrownlh-.
ofile Chest
LI ere iso mognifcenl drowing oJthe torco.
fl the b€osi muscles,lhe iuo greot pec-
loroh, peclorclis mojor (Aond B),exiend our-
wqrd from ihe sidesof the slernumond the
lnlernolholfof ihe lo^r'er borderof the clov
cle to inserlIntoihe orm underthe shoulder
muscle,or deltoid (c). lhe fiberslwistos lheY
neor lhe insertionpoinl, Ihe two greol pec
torol musclesote sjmlLorln shope lo llot
bloclc,whjch wrdp oroundthe fronl upper
holf of ihe ib cgge, givlng lt o somewhoi
icp shelf, of ihe chesi.ThegredtpecicTolm!s-
cles cover the front of lho b coge frorn lhe
clovicles10the le\el of the fftthor sMhrlb The
lowetbordersof theselwg mlsclesole ropre'
sented by h\lc llne6 (D ond E),wh ch cln€
oulurordond downv/qldliom the slernum
Mcholongelohos Indlcoledo smollbLlt
importonl detoll of lhls oreo lho frbersof lhe
pectorolmuscleneol the orm oro pusneo
foMord bV ihe delicld muscle,c€otlng o
smolleggllke bulge(Dobole lhe breootneof
ihe armplt.
A !€rtlcol groo\e (Gl s the rqsull of the
ploirudonof ihe peclorol musclesowayftom
lhe sidesof lhe sialnum.
the liefnLrmis shop€d\ery mlch lke o
smolll?omon swordwhlchpoinildownvlrd ll
l ls composedof lh€e pods iho hondle,of
monubrllmjihe body or blode (lometlrneg
t coLledth6 Olodlolus), whlchlsthelongeslpof-
I ioni ond the xlphoidprocess,whLchreplo'
i senlsthe iip of the sword,Theuppq exlromily
ot the siernumitms thleo noicheslthecen-
i ier noich forms lhe plt of lhe lnrooi (H) lhe
.1 lnnerendof oochclovlce restsinthenotcheg
on elihersde of lhh ceniro noich thg plt
of the stomoch0 l5formed bv the xlphoid




sruDYFoR$ &qRrfploMEw
15t" \ 1YP9n9x
.! :
Ll e'e , /ef onothe'qrond drowng of the
I lrqurelholtuns!rpossed n 15represenio
iion of o soid iorm n spoce,M cheongelo
\.!€ntedlhe igure3lefi shoulderond orm To
odvonceond lhe righikfee to od',cnce.To
pu somefo.msof lhe body fo^4ordwhile
pushingolhersbock,ihe ori sl i rsicor€cly
drowstheforms nspoceHerehedrewlherb
coge mcsscs o roundedbock, whch i is
fonir'crdal lhe lop ond irockot lhe boiiom
The efl orm is o bock ke cy nder lhe iower
end prolrudesfcrlherforv/ordlhon doesThe
lop Nexl,the orlsi fnds i helpfu lo cnot"e
lhe overoppng oi lorms f yolr ook ol lhe
fguret leltshouder,youcon seelhollhe dei
lo cl musce (4 ond upper orm ore ceory
posilionedn fronlof lhe etl pecloro smojor
cle ore n fronlof lhe groo\e oi the sternum t
oncllhecy ndershapedneckTheseiorms e
n fronioiTheiigureS righipectoro,wh ch s n
lroni oi hisrghTarm Thsi lsiol] s occom
p shedby overoppng neslhol e.ho over
oppingfoimsot Thebod\r
Noice loo ThoT on lhoseoreosol lhe body
ihoi prolecltoru4.ird rirereara sirongvolLre
conirosisTheolh,-rlorms n the.ircwng orc
ol5orendcredn ghiand shocle, buTthecof
nosTisnot nearly$ sirongos on ihe proleci

It s niereningio nolcehowMcheorigeo
haschorigedtheshop,6 of ihe pecTorosmo
jor musce (8) ftom lhoi ri the prccedlno
drowng n thcrlvr'orkih smusceoppeorsaso
fol. bock ke mossrnihsclrowngiTisspher
ico Theoclionorfunclonoflh s muscesTo
drowihe orm to lhe lroni ollhe bocly
Theserroturs mognusanlsce s mode Lrpoi
n ne ifger kedglalonslhoioreocoleclon
ihe sclesoJlhe r b coge bul are lorgey h cl-
den by the peclorolsmolor Thed giloiions
T ]ESERRAILJS orgnolefromihe uppereghl rbs,and ex
lend lo\4ardlhe backoi ihe r b coge,wrrere
lheyconvergeond possunderihescopuo 10
iermnole ol h nnerborderThetwo serroTls
mognusmlsc espu the iwo scopuoe oporl
or iowordlhe fronlof lhe iorsoTheuppersx
dgiloions o€ coveredbylhe pecioro s mo-
lortihe owerlhre,oore vsibe on lhe surioce
oi lhe body ol C bei"veenpeclorolismclor
ondolorgebockrnusclecoledlhe otssmLrs
dors(D),o smo!poriofwhchisvsjbLe in Ths
pose.The dig loi orisoresomelmesconiused
wih the r bs,bui I bs ore poro el Toone on-
olher,whereosth s nruscLe ions oul on lhe
sidesol ihe r b coge reslingon iop of lhe ribs


SByt,T6dond whl€ cho/k1Atu r 71/!!2699 \ 19OScht
TheReclus Muscle
llrhenihe ormisrosed,theoeciorols mo
tt lor musce (Al lckes on o iionqucr
shope Thelbefs ol lhe musce exlendfrorn
the r b coge ond inseri nto lhe lpper orm
underthe deioid muscle(B)the mossol the
peciora smojoro soconsliuiesihe troniilop
or ihe ho ow oi ihe ormplt or ox lo (C) The
ieresmojor,o sma muscleon ihe scopuio,
iogeiherwliho sma pori on of ihe loiissmus
dors,formsa mass(Dl,which mokes!p ihe
bock flop of lhe oxi o holow Thelosilhree
d gitotions(E,t G) of the serratusnrognus
muscecre eegonly drown Theirposlion
behveenlhe pecloro smolorond oissmus
dorsimusces sceoryvsible
The pectoro regionol lhe lorso s sepo-
rcledfromlhe ob'dominoregiof bylhethor
occ orch of the rb coge.Ths s o orge
po ntedorchformedbythe cortiogesofihe
f bs ocoiedbe ow the siernum.The obdom-
no musce,or reclusobdomins (Hl,f s lhis
orchond e\:lendsirornlhe owerrbs qndJhe
x phod processol lhe slernumto ihe pubic
bonesorfio povs, nofiowng os lrlescends
Ihe neo olbo ( wh le ne l iso slrongien'
.lon lhoiextendsdownlhe csnlerol lhe rec
lusob.lonrn s,cliv.lng lhisrfusce iri ho f \r'er
lco y Themusce s furlherdlvcledby lhree
horzonlol.or lransverse, iendons One ien-
don crosses the abdomenotihe leve oflhe
nove; onotherrilersecls the bollomol lhe rib
cogei.rndihe Jhrd occLrrs beh,/eenthe bol-
lornoflheslernumondlhe bollomof the rb
coge flhemusceswe deveoped.asil sin
ih s drowng, lhe lndviduolsectionsof the
musclecTe vsbe. Exceplior o smo i!'
ongulor-shopecl musce, pyrom dols,wh ch s
RECIL.]S locoled obo\,ethe pubic bones,rectusob
dom n s isthe onlymusceon lhe froniol lhe
obdomno regon.F\rronrida s s covereclby
Jonytssue,wh ch proteclsthe pubc bones.
ThereciLrs obdom nisworks ogoinsiiheslrong
muscesof the bockto ho d ihe r bcoge in on
uprghi posion, coLrnieroclngthe force ol
Or0r. grav]y Thhmusclecousesthe lorsolo bend
fo^rordrI o so formslhe wol on lhe fronlof
lhe pelvc bosin,wh ch proleclslheorgonsof
digeslionEoch ndviduoLsecJon of lhe rec-
lLrsobdominusmuscleh lke o porlionof an
-.gginshopeondconbe dm orlyshodedn
lhs poselhe rb coge s lilledforwsrdoslhe
pevic mosss plched bcck ihe obdom nol
muscesfodedon hefolo eve iLrsl obove

1511 rcd cholk avet bldck cholk pepobtiahs
131/ t 9fd',(33.66/ 23.31cn)Dohoged

tiguor j'1, .

ll ll-re


's Ins

-r_g rcrr t)',

: r-:3nsoi

T his s o mostinJeresl ng drowingot lhe fig-
I ure ln whch youcon obserueo rib coge
lhcrl lsdlsiincllylipped to one side.The116shy
mossofJheexlernoobliquemusce,or obliq,
uusexternusobdom nus(4, exlendsfrcm lhe
losleighl rlbsof lhe b coge ond inserhlnic
lhe iop of lhe pelvis,or ilioccreslthe shape
of lhe exlerno obllque ook like o leordrcp
from mony ong es, n ihis pose, hore\€t lhe
efrernol oblique oppeors os o rounded
block,Whenlho lwo obique musces simul-
toneously coniroct,theywo in concerlwiih
lhe reciusobdomlnisio bend lhe body for
v,,ord. Whenonlyone contrcc,ls,lhe ribcoge
isrotoigd,of pulled,loone sde, Ihesem!s-
cles olso prelent o ddewsysclllqpse of lhe
db coge.Ihepelvlcmosslsboundbylhe llloc
crest (B),by ihe abdomen (C),whlch slopes
downvrordbei\re€n lhe lh ghs, ond by the
Theodhi olJghttoknownot onlythe forms
of the bodtl the mLJscleg on the surfoce,bLJi
olsolhe chongesln ihEshopesofihese forms
ln the dlffefenlmowments.A musclemoy
become thlckerond $oder ln d sloie of con-
lrcclion,or ll moy be €loxed and reloilvely
ffotlened. Obsefwtionosw€llos under,siond-
ng lhe oc,lionor funciionof q mlscle wlll
enobleyouto drow lhe foms ls
offonsl\€io see o drowlng of o llgure in gr6ol
octlonwhlleollihe mlsclesoreportro'€dos
Ino 16oxedstote,oro €clinlngfgurewliholl
lhe foms coniroclodqnd buging Inon oul-
seryngtho nlde oth elesot ihe gymnoglum,
bscome mosieA ot porifoylng the exdcf
onolomyoflhg body In mo\€ment.

o gif:
the losleighlrbs
(lhe libe6 nterd9 ioie
w1hlhe d qltotonsof
lhe lo{er senotus mosnut

1501,block chotk
'16"x 10h
[40.44 t 26.01\n]


f .l&'
. '
).# /',t
t, t
i l' ,r*



, is



1 nis


j {J,


onieror superor iac splne

o n i e r o rn i e o r l o c s p n e
of Form:MoleondFemole
Th6ls o ne drowingof ihe lemoe iorsoc.
I whichlhe bosicformsol lhe figLJre hc €
been coreful y ind coled, Figurgs ole olvcE
moreintereslng whenihe moss€soflhe boo,
ore onanged in opposingdireciions, h rs
drowinglhemodelsweighlison herrightl€g
Ihereforeihe pelv s h pushed'rp\dqrdon tE
ighis de of her bodylhe r b coge,whichl|16
downwqrd ond fo\dordlhe I ghl sid€ of ilE
body,counterbalonces tho iil of ihe pelvd
lhe ib coge s olsoiurnedslghllylowsrdltE
models lefl side,whereoslhe pelvic o€c
focesfondsrdloword lhe vie\det
lhe moss (A) represenls lhe exlerno
obllquemusce ll ls ony sllghtyseporolec
frcm lhe mossbelow ii, ihe g uleus medi-6
muscle(Bl,becouseihesei^lt formsappect
osonelorgemqsson monyfemoe modelsl^
generol,ihe musclesof lhe obdomnol 'e
glonofthe femolefiguleolemuchmoresub-
ile ond essdlstlnguished from one onolher
ihon ore cofiesponding musces ofthe mole
lgu€. The llne epfesenilngihe lod of l'ne
gron (C)ls nol os cleorydefned os ll vr'oub
be in o mole fg!€, Theformsoi D ond Ecb
nol €p€seni muscei iheyarecousedbythe
fatryllssueof the th ghs.
Ihe shopeof ihe deio d muscle(F)ls dif.
fefeniln menihon lnwomen,lvlen3 shoudels
ore brooder ond more block lke n shope,
whereoso womon'sdeltod lssphercqloiihe
topi flbersslopegroduollydownvlardcleol_
lng increoslngtullness oi ihe botlom of ihe

n drowLngsofTnole fgures,ihen pp e hiusl

obo\,e the ow€l border ond s ghily lo the
side of the peclorolmusce. n drowngsof
femole figu€s, howe\€t the breaslsresl di
recilyon ihe peclorolmuscles, onihe mlddle
lhkd of ihe rlbcogerihe I b coge oreoobole

lhe breosisisequo lo ihe rib coge areobe_
ow lhem Of courselheseare closscalpro_
portions,ond e\€ry mode is different, but
genero y breosisore p oced c oser to lhe
heod ond shouiders thon lo ihe obdomen
Vlewedirom ihe fronl, npples appeor io I
point oulvirrd iowqrd the sldesol the body I
ne\€rsiroghi io^dord.

152A-21,bt6ck chotk
lold x 714 [25J2 \ 'r3.10cn)





.,J Il!



15*' / 1ar'dUAA1 t 24.99cnl


A s hosbeen shown,Micfrelongeohod on mode lo ioke thh lnusual pose so lhol he

Aeiiroord noryobi ly to seecomp er torms couldcorefuly copyit?ll sun/ikely Hehadon
ci ihe body n lermsof lery simpe mosses, extensi/eunderslond ng of the formsof ihe
\oie ihe hvo orge egglikemossesthot ore lrody lhol o lo\red him io drow the hLrrnon
creoled by the rlb coge. The heod of ihe figurefrom oulofh sheod,wthoulomodet,in
liyng i gure smerelyndicoledol lhissfageof onyposlon n spocethofhewished. Drowing
thedrowlng.Micheonge o obviousy \,!'onied lrom liie is\€ry mpodoni,o greotiesi oi on
io eslobishthe symmelrycnd mossof the oaristsobiliv but i s no1ihe onty exerctse
iorsowithoulthe inJerruptonof lhe smoller necessory n leorninghowio drowltrefgLrre
iorm of Jhe heod The muscesorcundlhe Fgure drowng is noi copryingfrom o
backond sideof the ribcoge oreolsodrown mode Sfudylhe muscesso ihoi yo! know
os smol,egg ke shopes,wh ch ore porlio y wrrereeoch one comesfuorn,ond where i
embeddedno orgermoss goesto, os wellos ls aclon. \\,b ore oble jo
Thesublleilgureol ihe uppeftettcornerof drcw inesonty by knowingihe originond
iil s drow ng suggesiso iorso seen from lhe insertonof the formsDrowingof the formsof
sde lhe ouler line (4 represents the orge, ihe bodyccn comeonlyfTom onewhohoso
dominonlmossoi lhe r b coge,Thedefn lve comp eie underslanding of construcionond
nesond tonesof ihe finsheddrowng are onoiomy ProcJicedfowingihe ngurefromout
cbsenthere,olowng )oU1oobsenethe m- of yourheod,withouto modet.This son excel-
codonlinilio nesol o moslerdrawing enTV/oyio see f you reallyknowJhengure.
Do you lhnk ivichelongetoosked ihe
n rowinglhe bocI iso gfeol cholengebe-
lrcouse lhree olefsof mLJscles influenceih
oppeoronce.The deep€slloler consislsof
lhe ereclorspinoemuscet which orlginote
ai the socrumond lhe bock of the pelvs,or
llium,extendup the bockbone,io inserinlo
the owerlorlebroeof lhe neckregion,Erec-
tor spnoe musclesbuLgeon ethersideofthe
\eriebro spnescousng o furrow(4 down
the m ddle of the bock, ond exlend ouiw,ord
lo lhe oreo ol whichthe ribslurn ond bend
lowcrd the onlerior of the boq/,
Ereclorspinogo€ lhlckestin lhe oreo of jr
/: lhe lo\derbock or umborreglonlB).ihey ore
It consequently mosivlsiblelhere,whee they
c€ol6 iwo cy nderlikemasses on ihe surfoce

_b$ of lhe body Thgyoppeorrotherfloi in lhe r b

coge oreo becousethey don't hove rnuch
flnclion lhefe.Theirfunciionislo exiend,or
pullbockv,r'ord,ihe lrunkof ihe bodyofb ng ii

$ bock oflet it hosbeen flexed,oI benl fondord.
Theyoso hove ihe imporicni ftrncllonof
helpnOtokeepihewholebodyhiheupr ghi

Ariistsoflen €fer io ihe deep musclegol ihe

spne os the shongcordsof lhe bock be-
\r. couseof lhe cylndedlkemosseslhey moke
., on the su oce of the ow€r back (umboi
regon,Mlchelongelolkedto ploy up those
muscesln h s drowlngsbecouseoftholr!€ry
humanfunclon ol holdlng us In ihe g€cl
posliion.WhendrowlngIn lghi and shode,
the odist th nl<sof ihe \ir ues on fuo greoi
ropesorcolumns, thesemosses becomewry
pfomlneniwhen the mode 19corryingq
heoq/ object.



1511,ed dnd btockbhotk
11q." \ 7/a" [29.s3 \ 19.69cn)
, '11
Tlre rhombodeus muscleswhch reslon dogonolyin ls uppef podon by o bony
I ihe deep erectorsp noemlsc es,formNvo rdge,or spne (D)Thhbonyrdge exponds
promnenimosses {Aond B)be /eenihe 1r,vo nlo lhe ocromon processot ihe summl of
scop! oe Theorign of ihesemuscess lhe the shouder (El
se\€nlh,or lcsf,neckveriebroand thel rslfve The suprospinclus musce (F) s ocoied
ihorocc \€debroe Thefibersof ihe rnuscles obove the bony rclge of lhe scopuo ond
Trovedownwordond ouhlcrd lo olioch to Tefmnoiesol lhe bock ol lhe upper orm oi
ihe nner,orverlebrol,borderofihe scapuloe lhe humerusundef lhe deloid nruscleThe
(C) Ihe fiombodeus musces pu ihe nfrospnolusmusce ond teres rnnor bolh
scopuoelogelher,thal s,lo$ardlhe bock foTmo rnoss(G) ocoled beow lhe bony
bone. f o mode! sho! derscre lhus pu ed riclge.Theynsertnio lhe upperorm besde
bock,lhemossof the homboicleusmusces lhe suprospnotus.Thefunclionofihesethree
oppeorcgrecty conirocled The fiombod mLrscess to pu ihe ormsbock\rsrdond lo
moss s mode up of fu/o seclons rhonr- roioieihern oufilard,owayfromihe fronloi
boideusrninoro nd rhombodeusmojor -'bui
Theorisilhinksoflhem os one moss Theteresmolor muscle(Hls occied beow
Thesccpua hasmusceslhotrestontopof nirospnolusand leresm nor I orginalesoi
''| 3 h " ( 2 3 5 t3 2 r . 2 7 c m l 1 t is o foi,lrionguar bone thol is crosse.J ihe owerporion of the scopulooncl nserls
nlo the lronl of the upperorm beneoththe
deTol:lmuscle Theieresmolor\dorks wlh the
teres minor.ihe infrospnoius,ond lhe s!
prospinolus io pLrlllhe ormsbock Bli i acis
o one io roiolethe ormsinwcr.l,lowrrcllhe
lronlorlhe (rndo othef
lormscreole.lby lhc rnus.lesof lhe scqpuc
oppear os smoI, cgg kcishopes,whichore
pcriia y cmbedde.lln the argermassolihe

n ilr s clrowingthe lighioga n comesfrom

obo\4:ofi iyou.lisreoarda thesmollforms
lor o momeni,you con visualze ihe enllre
bcickoso orgef olTenedovolrthereiso ctecI
progressonol clorkefingione from left Tc
righl Thelighl crreo(ll,the ho lfone.or groy
oreo, beh,leen lqhi ancl shocieond lhe
shodowi uslroleih sprogresson,lnmode n-c
ndividuolsmolLlorms )ou shouclkeep ir
minclihsmovernenlof ght fto dofk.
i s importaninol oniy lo knowihe exocr
...' shopesof the scopuoe bul olso precisert
howondwherelo p oce thesebonesreolve
lo lhe rb coge Thescopuoe occupyihe
upperholfof the rlb coge,ond ihe d sionce
-.') belweenihem isequoliolhelengihoi oneo.

.a-j g€ol movemeni.Whenihe shoLrlders onc

armsore ihrownfoMord,the scopuloedrau
J" owsy lrom eoch olhe| when lhe sho! defs
ore pulledbock,lhescopuoeore drownic
word eoch oiher When ihe orm is roisec
higherlhonihe sho!det ihe scopuo rolote:
lronra \,eriicoto a horizonioposton on ihe
b coge Thekeylo delermn ng lhe posi or
oflhe sccpLrlo whendrowng o f gurewlh cf
ormro sedoboveihe shoulder islo ookot ihe
direclionolthe orm:1hescopulocnd ormw



c rnree ol lhese musces

luberosityol lhe hlmefls

T o.- o.--e oo-. ncnsvory occord ng lo lhe parlofihe nLrsc:
I - :e e , P ' - . o - , . r _ 5 liol s ocivcied f bolh shouders ore i!e:
:::'!: an t.e backof ihe neck,shouder the ibers ocoEd lhere wi pul ihe he::
:_: -33er back regon lls nner borcler ex- back, b,LJif ony one sde is oclivolec -..
':_:. n:n'ire bock
oflhe slul tothe osi or heodwi be pLr ed down io il-rcl sho! cler --
-..eJ: ro veriebro
l C ) T n e t r o p e z r . rhs a s lowerf bresolTheia of iheiraoez u3clrcn --:
ren.l noLrsslreeioreoson l, wh ch oppeoras s h o i r d e Tos o w n T h em d d l e f b e s o e . :
s ght depressonson ihe s!fface oithe body Thescop! ae drowihe shouce6lowara : _=
Tne erlent oi Thesedepressonsdepends on o n o t | r e rf l h e h e o c l s f x e d ,i i r e f b e r so ' ' _ :
The erTenToi muscu/ordeveopment ol the T r a p e z u si r i l r e n e c k o n c l s h o ! c l e r r e e : -
iro.le One afeo of ten.lon sheei s loccied
orouridiha lwelflhlhorac cverl,.bro oTlheI p lhe mLrsces ollhe back lo g !e _.:
of the ia oiiheTropezus musce (C) Anolr]er e i f e d o f a l h r e e d m e n so n c i g u r e , y o !- ! :
o r e o s o c a i e . lo l t h e s p i n eo f i l r e s c a p r a o n fo conTfo Thc\,1]!$ ori the m|rsclesD€i :=
ThesLrmmiof the sho! cer (D),on.] ihe lhrr.l w h c i r l o r m so r , ar ] i h e i g h T . w h i cchl e r . : :
.ireo nrrr() lhe promirn|l 5ev,ariihcer T o r r eo.r l l w i r c h o r e n s h o d o \ rS k e k r h. " :
v (! !erT,-br.ron llE b(r.rkoi the r--ck (L).I hrs url{resol ihe orgcsl nrosseslr5t Thenso:.
o s Ta r c o i . r a r | o n d s h o p o . lo r . l s I o n s l the edllc bolw.iexrlhe I and rir::
by th. trrfi:r rErg ns ol iho ltupezus ni!s. -- To rouril oli The lorms Ony geonr€ :
8.rtrrLr,atlre iropcriLrsr|Lr5ce 5 ior!1,-on.l sli.rpes s|rch .rs lr .Lrbc lrov.r $urp ec! :
/:t 1D'i t1r3/ . ,.6/.nl riints nio s.rvcr.rl.rrrrrsotth,o bock, ts nrnc wfoG on,- profe nrccls.xjoTfr(j
lri ,

9 ) Ulal
tD, ^r€trqlt
+u€uDot l.€!
orqafe qr q1zieL{ ol
€uoq r4ao.o €tri snzlnvuJHl
! brO
n t:i!'|h.
/f, nothersuperfrciomuscleot lhe bocL s
tillhe loiissmusdorsi.Alonq wilhlhe bockoi
lhe shoulders ond a srnolllrlonguloro€a of
ihe musclesoflhe scopuo region,ihe iorms
that rnoke up the surfoceof lhe back orei
iropeziL$ ondthelwo holvesof afssimusdors
[Aand B).ihishuge,symmeircol musc]eorigi
nales oi lhe pe vis and socrum,exiendsup
ward overjhe lurnbofregion,lhe lowersix
poirs of rbs, ond the lo^,€rportionof the
sccpuloos it exlendsollwqrd io lhe ompl,
lhere loiisslmlsdorsi nseris,olong wiih the
leresmojot intothe fronlof lhe hlmerus,lust
below ls heod Thelowerport on of thisrnus-
cle,allhe socrum,pelvis,ond lo\derbock,is
justo lhln lendnoussheei.Beneoihthisihln
sh6ef,lheunderlynge€clor spinoemuscles
(C)showcleorlyon the surfoceofthe figlle ln
ths drawlng,
Short,holched lnes(D)ndicoiewhereihe
musclefberc'ofloiisslmus dorslorsefrornihe
lendon sheei n the lo\rerbock Theselinet
exlendlrom the higheslpo nl of the pe vls,
LJp\rgrdond lnv,'ordtoMr'ordthe bockbone,
Theupperboderoflhismlscle{E),whlch runs
horizontally over lhe deeper icrms of ihe
bock oi,the le\€l of lhe sxth r b veriebroof ihe
bockbone, posseso!€r iho lowErpofllon of
the scopua ond ihusholdsll downon ihe rlb
coge Thelroni bofderof the otsslmus dorsl
(D extendsdownv,ord fforn lh6 ormpll ond
clrves oroundio the bock of lhe rb coge, 1
creoilngo beouiifulIne on ihe fgufe,
Lqtssimus do|simokegll possibleto ow€r
lhe rclsedorm ond pu it back wlh fofce. I
MUSCTE showshef cleody in such movemenlsos
ployng gol swmrning,choppng wood,of
p! lingono rope.lenob eslhe enllrebodylo
org n: be puled upvr'ordond fonr/ordwh-cr)ihe
ormsore in o flxedposlllon, Aciionsthal por
lcularly depend on ths muscleore rope
climbingond workon a horzonlolbor
Thehoh€sof the oiissimus dors ond ihe l
-nderlyng rio coge s-ggesl'he shopesot
lMr'olorge \^icfermeons, To ploce lighl and
shodeon suchdominoniformsin Wlr drow-
ing,lllshelpfuliovlsuolize, or elen ic indicoie
on ihe paper on orror showingihe direciion
iromwhichlhe lighiiscomng.Thoiwllleslob-
I shihe diect on of lhe mo\€menl of lighi lo
dorkocrossihe flgue. ll willolsope\€nt the
ighl fromjumpingto hil formsfromdlfferenl
direclions, lhuslendingto destroyihe I unit In
renderingmojorforms il solsohelptuio runo
I ne down ihe formsto seporoJethe light oleo
fiomthe shodoworea.Theholtlpneoreofo ls
alonglhol line.

'.--\ ..-
lu. tZ LZ x t6 tZJ"%9 r, r r rloqr reDlqpuo per'rtg, lOnNdol Sl onls
u ^t
-lod !
; ollpc
so q
/l*::'"'-' *. 'e6o
q! €
eL l
aL{ t
s lc
T..i$r. orqesuperfic Lolmuscles
lhoi cover sheetoi ihe lalissimLrs
dorsi The mossbe-
I m.J cf ihe bock lolissimus
dors ond lro tu€enihe bo1lomof lhe rbcoge ondlhelop
Deziis. ore relotivelylhin folher ike o of lhe pevh is represenledby lhe externol
cookei ond o€ thereforeinfuenced by oblique(ll.
lie tormsof lhe deeper Lrnderlyjng
muscles As lhey ore shownon onoiomlcolchodrs,
Lnltr sdrowingihemossofihe bock(AJobo\€ ihee o€ no linesona modelSbockseporot,
ihe spineol ihe scopulois forrnedby ihe ing musclemosses. Theformsoi the bock in
lropeziusond lhe underyingsuprospinolus.o finshed drowing ore dep cied by smol
The1r^omosses betweenthescopu oe (Bond mosses in lghtond shode,wh ch orepadolly
C) ore lomed by lhe rhomboideus ond lra- embedded n lhe greol mossof lhe bock
peziusmuscesA smollrnoss belowlhesplne lseI l€rnemberlhotdark nlhe ghl oi\4oys
of lhe scoplo (D) is caused by th-. n- oppeordorkerlhontheyreollyorc.Thesome
frospnotusmusce.liismosiimporlonlionoie oppliesfor relecied lighl ln shodow lhe
inlerockswilh,or tres lghls ov/oysoppeor ghterihon theyore.lf
thot ihe infrospnofus
possesonto,lhe mossof lhe deltoidmusce l1cufo lowo simpe rue,lhe vo ues),ouuseio
(E).The ow€r end of ihe scopuloond the shodelhe bock w be moredynomc and
or€rlyng leres mojor form o smoll egg occurole Whenmodelinglhe ightoreosol
shopedmoss(F)Theie€s major is locoied tour flgurc,mokethe dorksLghterihon they
d recly on the iop borderof lhe lolssmus oppeor lo you, ond when working n the
dorsi(GJThegreol coumngof lhe ereclor shodoworeos,moke lhe ighlsdorkerlhon
7!. t 101/t[19.69\ 2572 cn) splnoe [H) ore v]sibleihroughthe lenclon meyoppeorrc you




)cv€ tHl tQ sltcsfl,\
eql ul
!.. oql-/e
i,i' )
. !'.
Thee ore tuvosf,eelo grdleson lhe body,
I ihe shouder qifdleond lhe pevic girdle
Thefuncton of ihe shoulderg rdle s mob lilY
Onlys ghllyollachedlo lhe restof ihe ske'
eion, 1 olfordslhe upper lmbs lreedomoi

Thefunclionol ihe pelvc g rd e s stoblily

aswellos ocomoion oflhe owerlimbsThe
lwo orge ho\es of the pelvs (meonng
''basinl ole limly olloched n bock to the
socrum,ond in l|onllhe hvopubc bonesore
frmly connectedlo eoch other Thepelvs,
which €sts on iop of lhe heodsol lhe luo
lhghbones.or l6murs,hods up Thebock-

Theonlyporlsof lhe pevislhot o€ vsible

on the bock ore ihe pevic,or ilac, cresl(4
ond lhe sacrum(B).Theos socrumCsocred
bonel, os t wossomelimes co ed, \doslhe
bone ofleredup lo the gods n socriiceby
early rnon ll i5 ociuoly fve !€rtebroeihol
ho\,€osslied,or iusedlogeiherio iorm one
but cufi€s ouhv]rd (con\€x)from iop lo bol
tom.On is boseond nd coiing ls widlhore
the posieriorpevic,or ilcc, spines(Cond Dl,
whichoppeor on ihe surfcceof the body os
andmorkd mpes.Theselondmorksole fat
therqpcrrtonwomenlhan on men becalse
the femolesocrumond pe visorewiderthon
ihoseofihe mo e. Theseiv/opo nls,logeiher
wlh lhe po ntlhatindcoleslhe bofiomof ihe
socrum(E), formo usefuconslrucion lr ongle
for clorlyingthe posilionof ihe pelvs ln ony
g\€n pose.A line TLrnning ihroughpo nis (C
ond D)wouldindcofe ihe iill of lhe pevis.
Eelowlhe socrumore lhe four verysmol
bonesthoi represenio ihoi remoinsof lhe
veriebroeihotformlhe humontoi, or cocc\,l.
The coccll s nol reo y of nteresllo orlsts
becoLrseli cur\€s lnder ond betuv€€nihe
lv/o bullocksand does nol oppeor on lhe
surfoceof ihe fgure.
lhe posilionof the pevh delermineslhe
o\r'eroI pose of the figure Lfihe model is rcsl_
ng herwelghlon one eg,lherghi eg jnlhis
drowing,lhepelvsisplshed Lrpon lhe rghi
IHE PELV sdeond dropsoweron the opposilesideA
lhe smollerformsrnustbe correspgfldingy
liled To mointain ihe modelis boonce
ogoinslthepu ofgroviv,lheshouden coLrn
lerocl lhe d reci on ol lhe pelvis by tilt ng n
lhe opposiledlreclonjthot s, ii ihe pevis s
h gher on the rght sde,lhe shoulderw lle
hgher on ihe eft side


101h , 71h 125.72 t. 19.45 ml

lDr.tlpu q
-r ..-'i.i!
The qutelrsmo/mus[A] ihe orgeslond
I th clesl musce of lhe bodv formsihebul
lock ll ariseslromthe bockfourlhoflhe i ac
creslihe sccrum,ondthe cocc)r(Soflreof ils
fberslerminolen sheeisoff bers,orfoscio,on
':, ir'
lhe th gh; oihers nsed nio lhe bock of the
shofi oi ihe femur lusi beow The greoTer
trochanier(Bl,o orge,squoreprojecTion of
lhe femur ocoied jlsi beow is heod ond
neck Dependng on ihe conirocion of ex-
ponsonollhe g Lrleomuscesoroundii,ihe ppeorson lhe sudoceof
lhe b,odyasa c ndmcrkdepresson or pfoiec-
lon.Whenlhemode slondspedecly stroghl
wth weghiequa y dslrbutedon bolh egs,
ihe greaierlrochonlersore eve Howe\€r
when the weghi is ploced on one eg, ihe
grcotertrochonierof the slonclnOeg slhru$
oui ond oppeorsas o proieclonon lhe sur
.:,'l::' .t, loce Thelrochonleroflhe reloxecleg on The
opposlesde appeorsoso depresson
ThegluieLrs moxmus s bock ke in shope,
bll the foi ihol occursorj Ts ower border lhe shapelhereand creolesthe g u
1eo loLd(C) Nollcehow MicheLongeohqs
manp'r olecl lne n lhs oreo of lhe drownO
io nclcaie lhe unclerpane of lhe q uleLrs
moxmls ol ilslunclurewThthe Thigh
Theg {rleusnroxr'n!sexiencls lhe f execl,or
bent,thsh,thot s,pu s I bdck rlo ne wih
the lrlnk More rnporlonl,ii monlons lhe
body,whoserrlnk wo!d olherwiseir for
vlqrdol lhe hip jo nl, n on Lrprghtposion
r! LongbeloreDorwf\ lheoryof evolufon,Ars
iolle coled ihe giuleusrnoxinuslhe mosi
dhilngLrsh ng mlscleofmonDurngiheevo
(rionoryprocessilssze ncreosecl, ond iwos
ui rnoleLyresponsrbe for ihe roiolon of ihe
pevs iroma horzonioio o veriico posiion
HerelVchelongelohos ceory inclcoied
ihe lbers ol the gllieLrsmcximusinserlng
behreenlhe homstrng moss(Dlatlhe bock
ofihelhlghondlhevoslus exTurnusmusce lEl


1534ond | 545,blaak cholk
9t r 7./t 12.1.13
| fi.42cn)



lhklltl" , 74'(236 t 194 cn)
aqt ]o luo4 ut s puoq aql lo poq eLl{lDL.ll
puo'puoq eqt ]o ^poq sLlllo luo4 ul sllslr
eq++o'. ',$r/vleql ro luorl u s LUroeroJ eq] pql
l oqs6u Morpqq+ul seu oql leL]touolo luo4
!t LUro] euo]o !ot+$odow oul+ocrpul)o] €3^
ep +uetacxeuDstourddDfeo leqpuo sdol
Je o eu] euo !€|o r^oqeclloN llrlol peusl
roLlsarolil^orpoflnculrpsl|]lJoiLLlolDuo eql
sessodxa,^foelceull]o esn 9oe6uo|el]crn
lo puoLl eql lo uolsod eu€4xe eL.ll
Oulruesqoq peuroeleq ol qcnursraieql
uolllsodploi on uD
o+Lrrjod eqlJouo$olorro'uollou dnsJouollco
u 6!e eq1ur elor o sIDd oqo e csnursll.ll pueq
] UO l o ol ^ oqF eql sesnorqcLl/r\'LrllD reoon eul
p)o,i^olLuroaroj eql 'pueq rc 'xej ol sl soes q
eq Jo Uollcoe|11snrporeql 'LlroercJeu] io
seuoqeq+Jo euop sapululrolpuor^oqe eql
lo fd e! olu sdp ueqlsdeclqeql Dnoocs
€1.{}o ^l^oc poueto eL.ll}o dol eql L!or}
sesrDpD€Ll6110eql DLndocs eql
e(]ljo +l.rorj
uo*ra6uu +uaqo s€qLr]oser l.lclqassocord
o-ss€3ord pocoloJ e+ uorl seslrDpDeq
foqs eql olndocseql LlorJs€slloLpapoeq
-oi {. sloeL! eu]DusIJelcsnu soeoq eL.lI
sdocrl eW puo sd€cp eql lo sessoLu eql
ueer^leqserr(H)ocsnurplo{ep eql lo xedo
o(]l (e) sdeq4 aql PUD'(l) sdoqq eql'El
rolouJsloro+ced6|.l+'M snzed04 eql ero plol
lep eq+punorrnspql sLlJlol e csnuleql $ep
- noqs eql lo 6 o eql o+ qn urroeq+eslDro1
s uotlcunls{ snraurnq oll lo uoqseq+}o 6pls
"+noeql u/r\opio vlDqroqo lu oo D lo ]les
-ul puo qulod aseqlLUo4pro^u/v\oppuelxe
p ol6p eq+jo s6q I eq1 o ndocseql ]o eu ds
aq] Jo urolloq 6ql puo 'sseoolouo!!ol3D
oql'at.^Dlc eql lo pr Lll rero Lr.lolloqaql
J p sepulolo ]t a6uD4 u,^^op-ep6dn !D ol
odoq6ul.rouJlssle csnurplolep ar$ueeql
pro \roJpeqsndueoq soq+oqlLrroloJo
uoFnleqlolsppo 6u !apo!! Buorlsql edDLls
locueqdsqpolpp et]llol sluno3roqc q^\lep
lnoqs eql lo lu olF)lros puo- Dqeql sre oc
puo punoro sdo} pro+opaq+ ,o uopod
Fddn 6ql C p pepclpu alD ecsnur eL-ll
]o $equra,!\oteqlrpeppourAlnllnoaqsl t3J
epsnurp ol|epeqlJopDdreddnpedDqslDq
eql reptnoqseql JoI LrJurns eq+lo lrourpuol
poloclp! irDac D q ondocs eql lo ssec
-orduotworcoeql L-ll[v\ [€Jelc^op eq1]o pue
ralnoor+]o 6uleeL! eql l3plnoqspuDfaeu
eqt ua€/'veq o qte^ s )cDq eql ]o lvj o csnLU
sn?edo4a6roleql JouolJoollou-rs v pelDln
-curotpu+s p eio uro pLJorop noLlslceu
eql 1osuJ,|oj eql 6ut'^olpeu-rospuoq slq+u I
uuvFddnoqlp selcsnw
[u. oeE \ tz 6z],,t/t6\ "./ttLrtoqc,.D/q 9t-tt9, $ilvd gNlsE qvlo lHl lo lNo dol lc s
li:, j:
t' l,'' /. +'
il t- *
ii '
!l .lt .-1:'
oftheFomsoffheAm tofie scopulo

" ig

Ll ere s onothermogntfcer]tsiudyor the

I I fe ofonsh/pbehtu€en the musceson lhe
15/ \ ? 140.41\ 22.36chl bock oi the orm ond on the scopLrlolhe
smollegg ke mosson the owerend of ihe
scopuo is ihe teresmajor muscte(Al.The
rnossobove I oi B s rnode up of ihe in-
lrospnolugmuscleond the ieresminormus-
cle.Secouseofthe bockvcrdposiiionof the
orm,you con notce lhoi ihesefofmsof the
upperbockorebulglngn o sioieof conlroc
iion.Resing overlhe lop of the shouder ond
receivng o lot oi ght isthe lropeziusmuscle
{Cl.Theseparotionof the tropezus and ihe
deliod muscleis indlcoiedby o chonge in
Thedireciionof lhe lineol D Doube curves(E
and D deine lhe shapeof lhe deto d
Inih s beniposiiionof lhe ormlhe formson
ThebockondlnsideofiheormoreVtsib e,The
exiernolheod [G],ihe nterno heod (H),ond
the ong heod of ihe lriceps(t)orea tcteorly
seporoTedfrom lhe lower border of ihe de -
lold.the commoniendon (J tiesabovethe
poiniofihe elbow(l()lo lhe lnsideofthe point
of lhe elbowis the inner owerend,or con
dyle,of lhe humerus(L),wh ch formso prom
nem iondmark
lhe abilly of the scopuoe lo mo!€ on jhe
rb coge ]sextensive. Thuslhe shopesof mus
clesin lhiso€o wllllorygreollyoccordln'glo
ihe poseoi ihe modet.
, .:.
r, ul
.i. ;
/l n e\ce ent way to obsetuelhe r! ll of on
Flort slisin lire dfowinqoflhe fo sedorm. n
th s areo ihere ofe ihree musclesthoi orig,
noTelrom ihe corocoid processof ihe
scopulo.The ftrslrs lhe peclorolismino[ o
smallmusce lhot scoveredbythe pecloro s
mojorondgenefolydoesfoloppeoron lhe
surfoceoi ihe body lhe second s ihe shori
heod ol lhe biceps.lhe third is the coF
ocobrocholismuscle,whichoppeorson lhe
nsideofthe ormwhenlhe orm sroisedtiihos
lhereiorebeen coled ihe brucfixon mus
cle" SmoI and sienderil s visibeoiA. lt ex-
lendsupuordfromlhe ormptond nserhinio
Theupperorm oboui hal6,\oyup the shafiof
lhe humerusbeiweenlhe bceps (B)ondthe
ong heod of lhe lrlceps (C) The cor-
ocobrochios musce is on adduclorof the
orm;tholh,il pu sihe armlo\rsrdthe sde of

Aso visbe ln ths drowng s the ntefno

heod of ihe triceps(D),lhelnnercondye of
lhe humerus(E),the smollmossof ihe ieres
mojor(F),oncllhemossollhe loiissimus dorsi
(G).Theleresmojorond ihe oissimusdorsl
exlendfromthe bockoflhefigureandpcssn
froniof ihe longheod of the fceps io iermi,
nate n ihe froni01lheshofiof ih€ humerus.
Theolssimus dorcifofrns
the backiop oi the
ormpt wh e the peciorolsmolor (H)forms
lhe ffonlilop.
Mlcheangelomode mony siudiesof ihe
foisedorm,Hedd soaso wayof knowingthe
forms lr1this oreo and how ihey chonge
shopens ghty ditferentposilions. Theorigns
ond insgriions of ihe musclesinlol\ed in ihe
roisedorm moy presento chollengeat frsl,
buiwiihsludyloushouldbe oblelo drowthis
MUSCLE complicoiedoreo of lhe fgure wilhoulony
dificu1yol o/1.

Thes!eleton orlhe foreofmsdrownhere n
I lhe posilionof dernipronoJionlhoi s,wrlh
N lhe pa m of lhe hand iurned holtutqybe-
h{een pronoton,or ioc ng downwcrd,ond
supinolon,or foc ng upwsrd,Whenihe hond
s in supinolon,the hvobonesofthe foreorm
ondlhe muscesoi ihe foreormlienexllo one
onolhetBLrlin pronoiion,lherodiusrololes,or
crosses, o\€r 1h6ulna,and lhe mlscleso so
crossTheforeormthen chongesfrcm a flot bll lls
a bockke moss to become cylindricolin
shope In dempronolion,lhe lv!4,bones On
lhe rodus(L),on lhe thumbsde of lhe fore-
orm, ond lhe ulna (lvll,on ihe liiileJnger
sde ond lhe foreorrnmuscesore in o pos
Tonwheretheyore beginnng lo crosslhem

At ihe elbow ihe iop of lhe u no jo nsihe

bollom of lhe humerus(N)os o hingejotnt
which permls flexlon(bending)ond exlen-
son (stroighlen ng)oflheforeormon iheorm.
Thetop or heod,ol the rodluslol s shoped
likeo horzonloldsc,whlch shollo\redoulon
lop Thisholowed-ouidisc fis up ogo nsl o
bo l-likeshope,ihecopilu urn,on lhe boltom
of ihe humerus, on wh ch tsp ns Thespinnlng
moton oflhe d sccousesthe rodiustoroiole
oroundlhe u natlhe polm oflhe hondisthus
lurned downv/ord ond upv/ord through
mo!€menisof pronolonond supernolon
Theprojecton of bone oi P represenh ihe
ponl oflhe elbowor olecronon.Thepfolec-
lon of bone on lhe rodiusbelowlhe heodoi
Q isihe b cipiialiuberosi\/11owhichihe i-^n-
don ofihe bceps s olloched
Thereoree ghlbones nihewrisi(R)liis noi
necessory io drow a I eighl wfhl or carpus,
boneswhenyoudfowtheorm,butii is mpor,
toni lo indicolethe mossor shopelhot lhey
creolebetu/eenihe fofeormond lhe hond
Fromthe iop of ih-. om lo the ilngersihe
sectionsof lhe orm become progressve y
shorlerond nofiower.The foreorm s ihe
englh of lhe upper orm essone-fifih.The
hond equos ihe lenglhof lhe foreormless
one lfth Themassoilhewrisisiwce aswide
os t is ong, ond lhe meioco.polbones(S),
whichfomlhe bodyofihe hond,oreirce os
long as lhe wlsi. Thelineof the knuckles(Tl
mokslhe meelingofihe melacorpolbones
ond ihe lirslof lhree sectionsof phoonges,
Jhe bones of lhe ingels. Thh mporlont
junciure is m dv/oy betuveenlhe lop oJ the
wrslandihe endsoflhe fngers.Thelengihof
lhefngersole roughy equollo lhe w si ond

On the onoiomcol orm on lhe lefi o ffol

ta. oz \ 9r'9zt,ttt x ,*nt rptlc p4
Olw tNodl ''!Odt dlotnoNstjlt v oNv r,luvldol oNV
aNw rln v lo srNo€araNlxr v{dv!r dor sr ctus
lo q
Ml|,\ tNodl €1.t
t :, €qr
\.' '
:t lo p
l]csnn o(]lq
Ar\lA )3V€ 6utu
.i o ls|l
'snpor eql puo rarol oLll!r sepurLr.rol
lo puo ureql]o qcol sepsnu]rnojJoon epourssorll
,^oqle eql e oqo u,Lort pro\\u^\op splelxe t3J rosuale eq+stuoaro, aql ro )poq eq+uo
epsnur)oloudngOuolaql ) lo elq s srDun 'LUroeq+ eps u to
aql ro UoL-ls eql ID srouln droc rosualxero -ro oql uo eqFl ero sreproqlorelolqlnq
'soocrq o|c]roonsaL.ll
/\q pere oc srolcsnLU
F!,r eqf lo rosuqxeroutneql puo rlHjLunrol
- 6lp rcsuayero'$eOuUeql Jorosue])(e uolrl stqlJoasoJrns ieddn eql prcvnol
-uroc eql l[e] s orq s[Dlpo]drDarosuolxa ro uroerot eql xeuol soastqaq+qll^ !3ruoc
u0rO 'puoqpuD+slr,r a{]llolosuelxalolporloqs eqi u qror apsnL! sLll ssecoidplouoioceql
:g)sn6uolslopor d]oorosuelxero'puoqpuD lo dol eql lD Dun oql Joluo-Ueq.llo se.louurel
+sr,^^eq+]o rosuaFetDporOlot eql ero sac puo snraurnL]eql Jo jlor.l laro luor] eL.lllo
-snurrnoleql puoqpuolslr^\or.llolulsuopuel sepu 6fo slo qco4 eqt (C)sdec4 eq+puD
oulpuespro/qurop spuelxepuo snreLunLlM sdoctqeql uea teq etqBr\s (€)srotqcorq qli' 3l
eqt Jo (ll a ,4puoctoure.FeeL+p se+ou6|lo eql sDu/qoui ulrD oLllJoluo4 aq] uo elcsnul
Ihe Muscles ondThumb

:' ,'


Ll ere ore o seresof siudlesof ihe orm ln plonolorlerestthe ieror of ihe wrsl on ihe
ANDSILIO]ESFORANGETS I ldiihrofl posilions ond direciofs in rodius,or fexor corp rod olisiihe pomors
1511,tud ohd blo.k chdlk spoce Theorm o1A s seporaiedfrcm ihe ongus;ond the llexorof ihe wdsion'iheulno,
eqd x 11'(21,27t 27.94q) bockg.oundby a bold line,whichdefnesils or fexor corpl ulnors The pronolorteres,
form Thereore some fu/enly muscles n tho which ierm noles ho fi\oy down ihe ouief
foreorm,bulin frguredrowinglheseiormsore bords of the rodius,is one ol the musces
mossedntolhreegroups lhe llexormuscles respons ble for the roioiionolmo\,emeniof
as one group Theerensor mlsclesos on lhe foreorm,wrlslond hond li controcls,ro
olhet ond lhe longsupnoloros o lhkd moss loing (cfossngllhe rodluso\er lhe uno,
of lhe foreormArnoslolof lhese musces wh ch ploceslhehondpo m down[srd (pro
o glnolefrom lhe condylesol the humerus noion) The olher three supericlolfexo6,
ond ofioch io the bonesol ihe wrhl ond whlch inserlinlo lhe undersde of the wrlst
hond. Becouselhe musciesbecome tend- ond hond,ole responsible for bendinglflex
inousobout hoif\4oydown lhe foreorm,ihe ngl the wrsl ond hond fotu'ord,iowqrdihe
conlour ol the am chonges.The egglke fronl ol the foearm.
shape of the lpper holf of lhe foleam h Beneoththesefour supedcio flexolslso
cousedbylhe fieshytbersofthe muscesilhe deeperflexormusce,lhe llexordigtorumsu-
blocklke shopeof lhe lo\irerholf sformedby pefiiciols I s vsibleony where is lendons
the iendonsond ihe fu/obones lhe rodus oppeoron the wflstbehdeenlhetendonsof
ond u no of ihe foreorm. lhe mo€ superficol iexors.Deeporsii ond
lhe fexor muscles(B),on the fronl of lhe not visibe on the surfoces the llexordg-
foreorm,orginoielromihe innercondye of iorumprofundus,d reclyunderiheflexdidg-
thehumerusondconslsiof fourrnuscleslhe iiorumsuperfciols,the powerfL{l lendonsof
slt36nv!dot3l tru '+euoutn plo snlpor eq+jo uol+lsod
'ssour Joxeu eql puo oulneql o1 ogo eq q sl
Joluo4 eql ozllonsl^ ^+5eroc ooto
u!Fu/\ puo sfltpor eql lo uolltsodaq{ aluop qql 6ut/'orp ol lot eql,Lr.uoreddn^
l!o6p puo r9rllooo eoo dole o H +o seul 'o+LUDero] oql xausdecq eql dteqos|o t/r\
eql snpor aql qo€urepun ssod (g) ssoul +t{uo[ou]dns)pior\dn 6ucql urtodeql q+l^
,oxaggJo ouln eql alq,{ 'prol iol pe lnd elo puoqeql sulfl rlcrql 'oulneql ol |elloroduo +
g) ssouirosu€Uapuo snlpor eql uollouold -lsodo ol )cDq snpor eql 6ulplo,rrolDuold
,o uqJs@ a]l s/\oqs I p aood aql Joieluec eql$uto6Dqrorroloutdnseql sntpotaql ]o
a{ u puor] puo uxo erll ,ro 6! /v\olp eql pue le/' olaqloN s]losllpuosnFulnqet+p
'qurnq+ oL.ll
e^oqo Lljo€rol elipLro3 louratx€eq1e oqo sosrDL.lctq^(31
,ro poe raeol aql uo ssoLlt[ou]s o !ulo, etcsnursllorpDro qJo)qrc iolouldns6uo aql
! 6rO
cr't! tsq eq ,o qrod re '\ot or.{ rq 'sopsnul q peurol sl LurDaroleql lo ssourp1q.laql
rosueua loouadns eioLu eq+Iq pere/\o3sl .ploqcoq pLroqpuo
qFuet rteqllo tsol^ sr^erqqqtod rcsuetxero ls|r\\ eq1pueq rc pueue /€q_Lsnr€urnqeql
qurnq el+Jo rcsuaFeloqs eql puo isn6uol JOOlipUOCOUlelXeeq+ urort osuD'Llloelol
stcltodropnpqo rc 'qu]nqleql Jo lopnpqo eql ro fcoq eLll uo selcsnL!rcsueue eql
6uol eq+3n6uolslcrod losueye to 'qLUnL+ lrroercJ eq+p
eqlp losuetxe6uote(+:qlunqteql epredo sessoL!eorot eqt lo s6u,^o)p u pe p^ut lou
:urouo loql sepsnuiearql eL+/q pa+Dacs ssDLU erDAeqloeep ero sepsnuroql aseqlasnoc
'uroe,ioJ eql Jo)icDqeql uo soiou6uo rlc|.]/t\ -e€ srebuupuo puoq oql to outdsorolo 6ul
'(C)ssour o q hopoJ opqno -xeJeqlelqFsodoullour'sra6uu
llorlJs Etqcelo eql Joseuoq
qcrq^\ 'Luroeroteql Jo pjtql la\ ol €r+ uo eql ol prol u/rop pueye sqcsnuJolv eset+
{ @ 9 6 A Z t 9 9 g z l ' / 1 A t . , ' / t t t u a t l p u a \ D q c p a l 9 A 9 A 9 , S y { l V l O N O L S S SVl $
OSnN X q l d o l S O N VOHN vS I I d VJ OS 3 l o t u !
. d ,.:i-..,'*
n n lhe su'foceotlhe polm ofe1l!omLrscle
\rqfoups. Themossundef the thumb,the
thenormoss(4 n M che onge ot drowingof
the handolihetop ofihe poge,ismode up
ofthe muscesofthe lhumb Thereorefourof
them an odductoror adductorpo icisian
obductotor obductorpo lics brevs;o short
fexot or flexorpol cis brevs;ond o musce,
opponenspo icis,which rfakeslhe thumb
workln opposilionlo lhe fngers,Underlhe
lllle fingerore the hypolhenormuscles(B),
I whichcontroithe lilllelinger

,J Onthefronlof theforeorm, wherethe hond

meehihew sf,orelhec€oses,orwr nkes,of
the skinco ed w sl brocelels, C in the drcw-
. -. **!:J ng to the r ght Theyoremosivslblewhgnihe
Y. hondond wrisiore pulledtowardihe frontof
lhe foreom. The oreo on the po m of the
hond,befiveenihe ihenarond hypolhenor
'i. mosses, (D) n the top drowing,s formedby
lhe podding,whichpfolecislhe hond,Asthe
sklnon lhe hondfoldsoverlhe Jonls,w nkes ,
ore formedon ihe po m these nesofe oc-
cenilaled by ariisislo express form,
Crossing the bockofthe hond,in lhe r ghl-
hand drowng, ond extendng loward lhe
ihumb,islhe tendonof ihe ong extensor of
ihe thLrmb(E).On lho ouhldeborderof ihe
wdsiorethelv"otendon9of tho shorloxiensor
ond ihe ong abduclorof tho ihumb.on ihe
don (F)Belweentheselostlv/oiendonsand
lhe iefdon ot the long exlensoro depfesslon
(Gl called ihe "onatomcalsnutlbox"is ap-
poreniwherithe lhumb s pulledbocku/,ord.
At one tme, men snffed lobocco ffom thls

Thekeylo drowinghondswe s o com

p ele understond ng of lhe skeleiostructure
formsihol fi t oul.Youneed
ond oi ihe n-oshy
nol leorn e\,erysmollmusclebul only ihe
lhe shopeslhoiorcos ol lhe ormossumen
foreshorlened posilions
ore cleodydepicled
n ihe lowefdrowingTheseclionsof lhe orm
OF THEHAND shouldb-. visuoizedos cylinderspoced n
fronlol one onolherTheconiour ne usedfor
the rightormot H s ocluolyo serlesofsmo ,
cun€d, o\erloppng nesthot indicotethoi
lhe deioid moss{l sin fronloflheupperorm
moss(Jlond lhollhe uppercrm isin fronlof
the foreorm (K
The lell orrn n lhe lowerdrowlngot L is
ono opposooe mLrsc
exlremelyforcshorlened,Theseclionsof lhe
ormoppeoroso\l3soregglikefoms p ocod
one in frcntof onolher
Lu.qa6t / ar'gzl,,1/tt\ ,0t rloqc pa lre, Nvr,\rvH
ol JtJlldf,lHt dot sltonts
. slrll
,::+--.. \d.1.
"\r ,GJ
, 'j'
lo 6Lrr/,
.rJt-{i"-*. .....-


i' o/



1534.35,block chalk
11' t 161/.i
127.94' 4191ch)
lueulLuord eroluqcnureLuoceq
rnuro,oql lo pue rei o eq+p seipuoc eql
puo 'no peL-lcla4s ao s€psnlueql uot+lsod
stL+urieeq oql lo dol eql tD sedoLts tculstp
ieql jo ouos esol sdor|ponb eL.+'tueq s
SJoeqaqlueq^ d q eqlploql lurolpuoces
!|6uO o sessorcll puo sned eq+ uo dn sr ur6ro
sf esnooeq^poq eq1to lun4 eul ot q6 L.lleql
snpaj eL.ll '6e le,4o eql Jo loFlelxe eLll
sltll]ledq3q/n',{uoleeq eql uedo q6tqieql
lo luorleqt uo sepsnuieqll6q+e6o{buLlcv
eq+lo gdec|llor. so ecoJlnseq+uo rDeooo
op pql sqcsnLrj eorq aql 01relel uegoqspo
i\luenbesuo3slslD lo] eco]rnseql uo Llrol
rolouro lou $ { arcJeleqlpuDe csnL!snureye
snlso^eql q+Deujepun deep sl 'snlpeurulel
s|wo!\ll sdtcu1 -ul sruso dnor6 qql ]o elcsnu q+rnoleql
rosdtcuqvnolHl oelo eeu)leql oNt Atonporose^rncqqq,r
'snureyesnFo eql Jo€ul lno+uocle+noelll
seop uoql |e e )a\ol o +opuo ilploq eror,!
eeq eql lo do+ eq+ o+lJler'Jncol sloeddo
snurelulsnlsDo!116u[uese]der eul rnoluoc
leuulel']l'NoUeq+ uorl pd\el^ ueqrlAolFloo
plro uopue+uourLuoc eql to o6pe 16!!leqi
olutsl]6sulpuornuJsle|']lrolloqseqlro eps
reulleq+uoI sestroE) snure{usqso^eql
q6lqleql ro )icoq
eq+LJoe csnur+sr] eqi qeour ll 6laqj!\ )cDq
eq+ol prJoSllouJqsn+cer
I I ereq/v\'oet
eq+ol lolDrooslJnl
I UOpUelUOLT.TLUOC eql 'O O6pele+noeql o+ul
Eiosll puD leNor]corl le+Der66ql lo Luolloq
I eql rDou1nL!e,eql Jo uoqsaq+p loo leq
-dn eq+uot sostro I qOql eql ]o ep s+noeq+
uo papco sl tcj epsnLusnulelxesnFo^aq_L
lJ) o q$ eqt]o atcreqnlro'tupdoltFaq eq+
olutpesulol lJlol eaui aql ouFsoralueuots|
ollepd eq so pro. u,rop senu&oc uopue+
!o!!L!oc 6ql aeq eq+lo luorl oql s+colord
'€colns xe^uoJo q+r ron6uol4^qonod
\ tr
'uopuel qql ut pepp€qure q 'otlalod ro
'(gldoca€Dieqt dnorostr{p sepsnlueql o
o] uouruloc s Llcll/r sloluel soecrrponoeq+
lo uopuel uoururoc orll lo ool eql o+uleeLil
oql e oqo eclolqp o selouur,|elpuo
s|^edoqljo eups30 llle^ oleq+uroj uopuel
6uo4sD sDselDuloloI ssoureql p uol+rod
elppllu eql saldncco M sroLirejsnlcer€ql
'snlpeLUrapl sqso eL.llpLroSnureNl
srusDeql'snure+xa snFo^aL.ll'slroual srucer
eql sepsnu rnol lo dn epoLusl I sroure,
sdel ponb oL+pelloJseJsnurrosualan
lo ssolue6roto srL.t6rql oll Jotuo4 eql ulli'
q6tqloqlP luotl otll
nnlhe nsideofiheuppefporloflhelhgh
ry s o lfionqulof-shoped moss[A].Theod-
duclormosso g natesal the pelvsond ter-
minotesin the innersde of the shoftol lhe
femurlhe ower porlionof lhis mosss cov
eredby lhe quodrcepsfemorsmlsclesThe
odductormosss boundfromobove by lhe
iold oflhe groinond lhe obdominolmuscle
Theodduclorspu I lhe lh gh bocklo\4ordlhe
body fromo poslon of obduclon, n which
the ihigh s oMr'oy
fromthe body.
l^r'oolherimportontsma Iermuscles onthe
lh gh ore lhe lensorfoscioeloloe ond lhe
sarlorus.Thetensorfoscioelqtoe (C),whjch
1 orignolesprincipollyoiihepelvc po ni (Bl,or
onlerorsupeToT ioc spne,oppearsas o
smol mass jusi in fronl of lhe greoier
irochanier ol ihe femur Jusl below ihe
greolerlrochonietlhe musce exlendsinlo
the oiibol bond (D),o longbondol f berson
l lhe oulsideollheth gh ca led ihe toscioala
Ths band possesoverand holdsdown the
I vosiusexternus. Crossngthe outsde of the
kneeloint,the bond lerminolesoi lhe ouier
condye of the libo Generollylhe iolblol
; i bond s noivslbleon lhe oLrisideofthelh gh,
bul when ihe lensormuscleconlrocls,the l
i oiibol bond couseso s ghi ridge on ihe
ouisideof lhe kneeond o \€ryshoilowOroovg
on ihe wsiusexiernusmuscle
Thesodorusmuscle(9 o so orignaiesoi I
the anleriorsuperior oc spne. ll exlends
down\tordocfossihe insde ofihelhigh ond
sweepsorcundlo ihe nnersde otthe knee,
whereiiierminates neartheupperparioflhe
s.. innefsurfoceof ihe ibo,lhe sorlo us s only
obouf /o fingerswde, but ii h lhe longest
': .,";q'::-',i " musceofihe body tspirohdownthe nsld-.
.i ..{,... ..-. . of ihe ihgh n o beauiful c!r\,€ lhoi sepo
lhe quodrcepson lhe lronlol lhe lhigh
ffomlhe odduciormosson the insdeof ihe
aqd t 1th' (212J x 28.26cn) ihgh. Thesodoriuss knownos the 'io or's
muscle"becouse in the posi lallors soi
crcsseggedon top of Iorg€\dorktab6s. In
that postion the sortoriusis cloory con-

Thesortorilsmusce ond th6tensorfoscioo

lotoeworkogoinsieoch other ihetefsor ro-
lolesih-oeg nwsrd,towordlhe body {medi
o y),ond lhe sododusrololesitoLrluord,o\roy
fromthe body (lateroy).Whenboih muscles
acJtogetherihey help lilithe thigh Lrp\eord,
.t :,
! 610
n the bock of the th gh s the homsfing
moss,or posleror femorol musces,A n
ihe right-honddrawng,wh ch ismode up of
threemusclesthe bicepslemors,the sem
tendinosus, ond lhe semmembronosus Ths
rnossof flexormuscesorignaieson the bock
of lhe pevs, or ihe heelof lhe schum,be'
neolh the g uleusmoximus(B)Thenro ten'
dons of ihe homslrngmuscesbronch oul
ocrosslhe bock ot the knee The nner
homstrnstendon (c) crcsses the kneeond
nserisnto ihe nsideedge of lhe lbia jusl
beow lhe knee Theolier homslaing lendon
(D)crosses the outsdeof the kneejoni ond
nserlsniolhe heodoflhe fbLrlo.n ls enl rely
the homslrng mossisshcpedverymuchlike
o foolbo tsfuncton islo bencllhe knee,ihls
'.\I fex ng the ower eg on lhe thigh.
Thedrowng on lhe efl provdeson exce
lenlopporlunlyio observethe sp ro quo t
of the sortodusmusce (E).lt olsoshowsthe
sroc is (Fl,on oddlcior muscleocoled di
recty beh ndthe soriorus.Thegroc ls(meon'
ns sendef' ln tatinl orsesfrom ihe ower
porloflhepeLvs, ola pointneorihemeelng
of ihe lvlo plbc bones Ths musce,wh ch
clelinesThe nsideconlourot ihe ihgh, ex-
lendsdownlvordr olonOwiththesoriorius ond
ihe nnerhamslrinslendon t nsertsnto the
innersurloceofihe tbia ot o po ntltrstbe ow
the knee ThetendonsofiheselhreemLrscles I
sweeporoLrnd the insdeoJthe kne6,whore
ihey{ormlhespircmossknownosihe goose j
foor tcl
Becouselhe homstrngtendonsore !€ry
shorl,I is dffcul io lfl the thgh when ihe
knee s unbenJ. I the knee bends, the
homstng tendonsore releosedond iththen l
eosyio ro sethe thightowordthe trunk.Tryitl
n theseonotomco drowngsof the leg,
M che ongeloco refulydel neoiedihe forms
Whendfowng frorn fe, howe\€r,he dld nol
fAOM THE NSIDE ANOTNE8,ACK seeor drowmonyof the musces ndivduc yl
1 1 ' 3 [ 2 1 C 4 ' 2 0 . 3 2c h )
nsleodhe d€w them os mossesln o ile
drowng,ihe hamstringmosswouldoppeor
on lhe backofihe ihighnotosthreemusces
bli os one moss n the rshl-honddrowng
nol ce the line(H)runnng \€ri co y downihe
cenleroflhehomsftngs,This seporolion does
nol exlslon mosimodes lJ /o or moremus-
ces ho\,elhe somefunction,the sepcrotion
behleenlhe muscesw noibe ndicoledol
c in o drowng or wi be ndicotedony
slghiy by nes or shodng. li i\ro or more
muscleshovediffe€ntJunctons,lhe seporo
I on betu/eenthem w / be ind caled by strong
inesor shodng,
ol lhelhighto thePelvis
Ihe Relofionship
I rrthisdrowingyoucon cleoryobse^€the
I reoiionshp ol lhe muscLes of lhe lhigh to
lhe muscesol lhe pelvc oreos.Theextenlof
lho lensorfoscioeloloe (Alfrom ihe pelvc
po nl (B)downwsrdond boclolqrd to lhe oui-
sideoftho lhlgh sc eorlyvisib e.Ihe exierno
obliquemusce (Cl resison the creslof ihe
pe visobo\,ethe gLuleus mediusmusce (Dl
Ihe groolerlrochonter(Eloflhe lemurond
the formsthoi sLrfioundit ore olsoc eoly de-
ined; ihe tensorfoscae loloe musce (Al
loms on egglikemossin frontof ihe greoler
trochonlei lhe sphericolyshoped gluieus
rnedius(Dlisobo\,eil, ond the g lTeusmox
mus lFl formslhe rounded,blocklikernoss
behind t. Thewstus exlernusmusce (G) is
seporoiedfromlhe homslringmoss(Hlby o
seresof shortInes 0. Rememberlhol lhh
ihotlhesemuscesho\€ seporolefunclions
The ine represenlinglhe fronlof ihe lhgh
ond knee beouilulLyexpo ns ihe anolomyl
noieihe rectusfemoris(.J), ihe \l]siusexternus
10,the commoniendon(Ll,ond lhe potelo

15u, pen ovetbbckchdtk
10.4" t 6rA [26.U \ 71.44cn]
Domoged bl donphds
. ".i4 '
L r Oq r : -
s Lst.
The knee is one of the oreosof lhe body
I whelethe boneisc oseto the surfoceond
si'ongy influencesih form,Allhoughthe knee
hosmonycomponenls, ihey ol mokesense
in iems of lh funclionos o compoundjoinl
lhe lowerend of ihe femurwidensinb n{o
prcjeclionsof boner lhe inner condyle (4
ond lhe outercondyle (B).these condles l€sl
on the lop or ploifom, of the tbio (g lhe
poiella,or kneecop (Dl,hos okeody been
describedoso smollroughylriong!or bone
wlh o con\,exsurfoceembedded lnio lhe
orge commori tendon of ihe quodriceps,
whichcrosses the iiont of the knee Thepo-
telo les ln ffonlof the lo\derend of lhe femur
ond forms o projeciion on the flont of lhe
kneejthe ower border of ths prdecfionis
le\€l wlth ihe poni of seporollonbeiween
lhe femw ond ihe lbio. Theligomenlof lhe
pdte lo (EJterninotes ot the kneellngpolnl,or
jhe iubercleofthe iiblo(0 ]heiuberce ofthe J
iiblo ls on unmstakoble andmark whlch
morkslhelowefboderofthekneejit19ceo y
vslblewhenthe eg isviewedln prolle.


fhis diogrom af lhe benl kn6a

showslhe rckrlbnshiqaf the tibla
ond tenut ta tha pate a
luc,9az \96a %e/ ,p/t9t,1.q.4.Dtqtz 0z9t Avo10 911LI]BI 3ol srotus
eql Jo ]
eqL bl
M etip'l
Ipoq €l
-I, flecouse lhe l,neeiswder in bocl,lhon in
\ d l, front.someformsof the boci.of the [nee
oreopporenlinthisdrowingoflhe frcntvew
Theouler homslringlendon (Al is visibe on
ihe oulsideof the knee lhis lendon insefs
intotheheodof the libuo (B).Thespko moss
lol,whichsmodeupofihemed ol homstring
iendonond the tendonsoflhe sortorius ond
groc ismuscLes, su€epsoroundlhe insde of
lhe knee,whereil lerminoieson ihe shoflol
lhe lib o Ths spiro mossof lendons cu^,€s
down lowordlhe f.oni of lhe eg, wh e lhe
outer homsfing €ndon exlends slroght
dowa nlothe heodof the nbuloon lhe ouler
sideof ih6leg Abo\eond be ow lhe pofelo
on the frontof the kngeorelhe lol mosses(D
ond E)whlch ore esponsibefor lhe greoi
vorioionslhol orlislsencounljgrwhen drow-
lng the knee.Eyeryoneb kneesore ditferenl
ond ihe fot massesoroundihe poleliocon
show!p os smollprojectng foms mosking
ihe restofthe onoiomyoflhe kriee.Theyo€,
howe\€tnot o grealilcior on th€ benl knee
r^\ os l-e) €c€oe nlo o hollowc eoled bv 'he
\ oo-or oll_e fecr.'o"o'^e op ol lre'lbo



lo ilblo bond
potelo goment
. :, -.. ,.:::, aai.:d. rafi lH1t1o3l NStst3n9ll ]]VI v 9Iv CNVNv
ii::; l
V ' Li
- .,1, -'i
t" t11,t(\\ b':
i:f ' ,'..1: 6uDl
., ,i,
/ ,, l":.'"ll
I {.- -
t C) s6
TheBones qndMuscles
-": I u + c 5 l h e r eo r e t a o b o n e . n l h e r o r e o r m ,
ir', r"' .. ,;
t, rhere ore tuo bone5 n ihe o^er leq lhe
o r g e ri b a , o c o i e d o n i h e n s d e o i i h e e g ,
o n d l h e s m o l e rf b ! o , o c a i e d o n i h e o u T ds e
T h e n n e rs ! r f o c eo f l f e s h a f l c f l h et b o o n d
lhe shorp anlerlor cresl cre enirey on ihe
surfoce.The cutue ofihe ibo from ihe boi
iol.noflhe knee lA)down loihe proiecion on
l h e n s d e o f l h e c n k e k n o v r ' cns t h e n i e r n o
n a e o u s( B l s c e a r y v s b l e T h e p r o j e c l o n
o n t h e o l t s d e o f t h e o n k e . l h e e x l e r n c. n a

fbu o iThe worcl rio eo us comes irom the

L a i n i o r " h a n r m e l ' o r " m a l e t : l T h e h - - a do f
TlreibLr.r rs ocoied on lheo{rts.le s!rfoce ol
The knee Ofy ihc uppor and ower ex
lrem tes of th-a l b! r ore v s b e on irre sur
facc. The shofi Lrn.leres tlre m|rsces oT lire
i o l h e o l h r 1 ! - ' . r lfh . -i-b o s i h c i r r r . ' s a n T - -
r o r ( D l .d l e x o r t r r ( r s . r l-h- a i o r l l i r x r l c s . l ll h c
L r p p -h - rv o t h ( l s o l l t i eI b r r T t t l . J i ! l o r i o f l l r \
nrrn:u pdjlrs I iurl ol ihlicf kc.rf.ld sop
i l r r f , o f l t t r r n u 5 ! . o l l h o l o o l .w h e r c I
pa$.s L rdint.rlh .rf.l rnscrlsinTollrc lros.l
ol rtlr rfch rxlir l)ornr oi lic ltrc.rl lo.. llrc
l . 5 lr f c l N l o r n r LT hj j i l . l ( ) f J V c r vo r g c o n c i s
!i be wheie t cr.rsseslhe troft (n llre ()w.:r
,o! cn.l.rnke isnrnclon slo b,-.d (l--rlthe
iooi nrv]l.l The eq, wheri ih,- t.rot D n ihit
posi.D. iiie Tcl].lor.or be mod c,-ary

D re.J y lo ih,- o!lt|.ie ofih,- Ubo sornerrr

is The .,nq ollcnsor ol The To,4s. or ,Frl,Fns.]
. l . l l o r l n r o r . l L s ( E )l l i s m | ] s c e o s o o r s , - s
r ( )l t i ( l : r . ) l i h { ri t r t r o n . i p o r l
f r o n rl h - .L 4 ) t ) , -l w
of Tlref bLro lhe T.nclonoTThs ri|]sc e crosses
ire nonTollhe.rnke, wh,-r,ai div cl,qsinto l.rLrr
sflro erTenclonsllr.rTlonouton iir--T.rpback,
or .lors|]mol Thefool fhese imo er len.lo15
n s e n n t o l h e o s t p h a o n g e so f t h e s e c o n d
l h r o u g hi h . r f i t h i o e s A s l s n o m e i m p e s . l l r e
ong erlensor oi llre ioes exlends (uncursl
t h e s ei o e sa n c lh e L Ffse x t h e f o o i B o i h i b o i s
anleror oncl ihe ong exTensorc1renrcrssed
lnto one lorm or the froni ofihe eg
The ghl n ih s dravr'ingisironr the efiironi
of ihe fgure Youfab ly to clrow n ghl ond
slrade greoiy mproveswhenyoLrreo zeilrol
ghl os i oppeors on o lgLrre n noiure s noi
necessorlylhe besl ol-tl lor drowng Ari$s
u s u o l yd e v s eo s n g e i g h l s o u r c e , s n c eg h l
hlifg ihe igure lrom d ilerenl clreclons
iends lo breok up the lorms oflhe igure, cre-

ongelodd nol copy iohlng os l ex$ed n

nanrrebut creoted h6 own
\ A& t 2A96cn)
1 5 1 1 , e d c h a l k 1 t6 3 1 , U

0 ro
!elo ts6o1€![
ell llMot tHi lo sltcsnl/,r
.: ,
. ,i l , r f l w o p e r o n e o m l s c e s a r , e f r o ml h e f b L o
i I on ihe ouhde or ihe eq The rorcl PeF
o n e o m e a n s p e r l o n si o i l " r ef b u o f C e o r l y
vs b e on ihe ouls de of ihe eg s Tl-teong
peronecrmLrsce, or percneus ongus,A nfhe
r i g h t - h o n c l d r onwg . w hc h a r s e s i r o mi h e u p
p e r t w o i h r d so i i h e i b u o T h e i e n d o no TT hs
m l s c e p o s s e so r o l n o l h e o u i e t m o l e o u s
and exlenos Lrnderond across ihe fool lo
ierm nole n ihe base olihe meloiorso oiThe
g r e a i l o e l s m o l n f u n c l o n s l o e N T e n dl h e
lool;howevei beccLJseof lhe poih of is ien
clon acrossthe soe of lhe fooT,ihrs 'nuscle
oso s responsibe ioriLrrnrrgihe so e ouiwrr.l
leverirfg tl The short peroneo nLsce. ol
p-.roneusbrevis[B],orses fforn ifre ovr'ertwo
th of lhe lbLr o. Theferr.lon oi Th5 nusce
oho posses oroln.l ihe exlerno molLeoLrs,
blrl 1 rserTsinTolhebdsc ofTlrenrekrt.rrsoof
The l!e lol]. or ifih rrrerol.rrso The mnld o
ibre5 of lh s m!s.e ore covejed rry Theten
tuf ol ihe of.l fr:]rofeo Togel'.J wilr The
orq peri]nl:].l1. The pe(/re!s brevs ext--n.]5
Thel.rn by tflnq Thehee wh .r pLrslrrg th€l

ThertAofca mLr5c-as olc rorey s,oerior

.lrowr oj n.lvil|ro nrrj.l.rsr on-.1 on(l
slcnder Theyt--f(l io nrosi log--lh.J formrnq
ih--llcncra cy n.lri.rr shopcolThe ow.rr cg.
Vhef. lrowcver.the eg s I o iT.rieot llcol
o.Ji{)f ior nn.rncc. wh-^n llic --ni re weighj
.rt Th,- b(rly s on The l.r--5 lfrcse musc,-5
1'|rowup os sep.lruie fttffis onTh,-lor9-^rnr.'ss
o f t h - -e q M c h e o n q e ( ) t ) l l . n . i e c o r o T e . i l h e
oLrlscl,-ol ih.- fooTwlh no.rrlons oflhelen
dons ol the nto p.'roneol n|]sc es \,vroppnq
oro!fil ihc bcrckol lhe exicrfol nro eourr
r ths dfowng lh,- smo niossof Th,-short
el1ero oi ihe loes, of --xiensordSLTorlnl
brevs(Cl, s cleory visbe Th. ne rLrnnnll
NIO T GURTSIUDESFONIHE SANLE OF CASCNA clownlhefronioi lhe eg r,-prer-6n lsihe I blo s
15U, pen ond btd.k chotk onler o| the te r.)on oth s m(rsc,- lDlcreoies
1 A 1 ' . 1 . k 1 2 6 1 7/ 1 9 3 / c n )
o hondsornecurye on ihe fronl of ilre onke.
Rememberthot the eg oLuayslo.s ihe fool
os o cLrrveALsonoje ihai lhe eg shoLrdr]ol
o p p e o r i o e n l e ro l l h e i o p o i t r e c r c h o r l h e
fooi; ihe aciuo meellnQpo ni s allhe bock

lne /e9 e.ters rhe ioor o/ rhe

boci pod ol /he orch cnd ror or
:uErC (Dalored6uo)
lltrs0r\ st\34€
snlNculd lfu
Ihe Muscles
The colf of lhe leg is rnodeup of hi/omue-
I cLes.The gostrocnemius (4 (the nome
meonstrog3be ly'l h a bulgingmusclevsi-
ble on lhe surfoceof lhe leg,lt hoslwo heods,
wh ch orig nole frcm ihe bock of the con
dylesof the€mur,ond it inserlsnlolhelop of
the pchilleslendon,on lhe bock of lhe leg
Thepoinlotwhichihefibers ofthe muscejo n
thol l,endon(B)\cr esfrom personlo person
bui usuollyoccursobout holfvi/,oy downlhe
bock of lhe leg lf ihe gostrocnemius is we I
de\€loped or In o sloteof controclion,the
juncfureof the mlsc e fibersond lendonwll
be cleorlydenned,lheinnerholfoflhe gos-
trocnemlus lson o lo\derle\€lthdn sthe olier
holfjlhe Innerholf thefeforeInserlslntothe
Achilestendonon o le\€lslghily owerthon
the lnsertlonpont of the ollier hoi Thein-
lefno moleolus,how€\,€f, ls on ihe higher
le\el lhon lhol of the exiernolmoleolusond
shoudbe so epTesenledln o drcwlng,
ThesoleuslC) (lhenone meons'floifsh')ls
o llot nluscleihoi esdlecily underthe gos-
lrccnemlus,ll or glnotesoi lhe upperpodlon
of the bockof the tblo ond fbu o ond Inseft
intothe Achillestjendonwellbeow ihe go!'
lrocnem us.Exceptfor ilsriowerfbers,the 5ol-
els s covorodby tho moIe superfcioL gos-

lheAchillestendon(D)lswlde oi lh upper
bofderjlilaperctouordlhe backollho onke
and ihen wldensogoln os t nsedsintolhe
heelbone,or calconeug(E)
Thepow€rlulcolf mlscleso€ lhe extengor
musclesofihe fooi.Theyenobleo personlo
putthe enl rewelghtofthebodyon lhe toes.
In lhis drowingthe iendon of lho tbiols
onterlor(0 lscleorlyvis
ble on lhe lronioi ihe
onkLe.lhe dorsumofihe fooi sdol ned bylhe
iendon of lhe extensorof ihe greoi toe (O).


o r gn

O r gn :
underneoihthe soslrocnemllrs,
rfomihe upperpodon
oi ihe bock ot the libio

uauaa ut eiD saataql puD
uqsueaa 0 srpal eqt NbL etl ua
laBue!\e u seot eq! pua uaxau i\
la ato$ o ut s!laal atl llat eqt ua
Lu. r9aa | 960r)lrte t
itDq. )t.otq tz.oagl
AVClO glt tl3t ll.trdol s]otus
Voucon leornogreoideolo boutlhe onol- co con-auslorms the hee (4, osnoledeorlier
I om/ of lhe fool from studyingMiche- Abole i the oslrogolusrestsn the covt
ange 03 drowngs Theformsof ihe fool o€ formedby lhe lowerendsoflhe iibo (B)ond
determinedmore by skeelal slruclurelhon lhe fibuo (CJnlhiscovt lacls keahnge
byo nyotherfociorOnihe dorsumol lhe fool joinf, wh ch o owsihe fool lo mo\,€ up (flex
ihere s only one sma musce,the shoriex ionlor down(exiens onl lhe novcuor bone,
tensorof theloes,ondthelendonsof lhe ong lhreecuneforms, ond lhe cubod bone form
exiensorof the toesond olher muscesthat lhe archofthe loot ol D
ore ocoled on ihe frontof lhe eg.Theonkle, Beyondlhe lorso bonesore ihe i\e meio
lhe orch,ond lhe heeloflheloot oreformed lcrso bones,wh ch formlhe bodyofihe fool,
by lhe se\,enlorso bones lhe coconeus, connecing lhe lorsus10lhe loes Eochloe
lhe oslaogalus, the ncviculorbone, ihree hosthreepho onges,exceplfof ihe greolloe,
cuneiformbones,ond the cubod bone.The which,ikethe thumb,hosony 1wo


, ' '%;",



9 w t 1 3 1 1 1 2 3 3/1 3 3 6 4 c n )
^ -: . ",
. i :..'
': ,_'
[ \l
f-_ :
(Dq, snoa ou ou€lu
1(]01tHl io slNo€
The fool h remorfoby s mibr io ihe hond.
..,._.1.;, I lhere ore dfferences,however; ihe greol
loe isnol os mobib oslhe lhumb.Aso,unlike
.!-. -. :r' lhethumb,whose posiliononthe honddlfferc
fromtholofihef ngers,thegreoJloe's poslion
on ihe fool isnot \,eryd fferenlfromlhol of lhe
othertoes.Whenlhe g€ct loe h lified,o len'
don-runnlng stroightdownlhe centerof lhe
loe-is cleory vsibleon ihe dorsumof lhe
fool. Ths h ihe lendon (4 of lhe exlensorof
lhe greol loe, whch orisesfrom oboul holf-
woyup lhe shoflof lhe fibuloond lermnoigs
inihe osi(dsto)phoanxoflhegreoiloe.on
ihe fronloflhe leg,thismuscleh complefely
co\eredby the moresuperncai rrusclesond
soh noivisb e,lislendonlsimporlontioorlsls
becouseil morksthe hlghpoinl,or rldge,on
the dorsumof lhe fooi. n thisdrawingnoiice
thol,ffomlh s fidge,N4lchelongelo hosmode
onep oneoflhe foolseemloslopegroduoly
downvr'ordond oulvr'ordiowrrd ihe litl e ioe,
whiLeihe pdne ot the insdeol the fooi op"
peofslo drop downobruptyThefuncilonof
lhe exiensofof the greol toe h lo extendthe
greoiioe by llfilngt up io\dordlhe fronlof the
Theon y muscleonihedorsumoflhe foolis
lhe sho exiensorofthetoeg, osfoisd eor loi
whch orignalesotihe h6elboneond lorms
o smoIegg-shopedmassonlhe oLtlersdeof
ihe fool (B),direcily n fronl ol ihe externo
molleoLus, Fouflendonsextendffom il ond
insediniothe pho ongosof the ffrslfourioes
Theseiendonspossunderlhe fendonsof the
long exiensorof ihe toesond ihereforeare
fololyvisibeon the foot
Theskeletoorch on the innersideof ihe
N4ISCLES footlsflledoulond sofienedbyihe abdLrclor
O r gn of the greoitoe,or obduciofhol uc s (c) on
iheforiher(dlsfal)end of ihe metolarscbon€
of ihe g€oitoe s o proleciion(D)ihoi s an
mporlonl ondmokforihe odlsl Theouiside
conlouroJihe fool isdeflnedbyihe obduclor
of ihe tlle ioe, or obduclordjgitiminim (El
and by o second londmorkprcleclion(D,
whichiscousedbytheenlorgedc oser(prcx-
imoI end oi ihe meiolorsolbone of the tt e
toe ln ihh drowng, l\/lcheongelo empho-
sizedlhe powertullendon of lhe tbio lsonie-
riormusce (G)os l crosses lho onke loinllo
i,.rm nole n ihe nsideborder of the fool,

O r qn :

ot the boseof ihe meioioGo OFADAMHEADOFTHENUDE
1511,ed chdlkdet blo& cholk prepbollo*
\ 7Cf [2953 t 29.69m)
' ::
I :j.l
i u
Mqn:Ihe Uprighf
nfowinglhe egsolthe hlmon flguresnoi
l, thol d tierenlfromdrowng lhe orms.lhe
iricepsmasson lhe fronioflhe lh gh resem
blesfhel cepson lhe bock ollhe orm.One
musclegrolp openslhee bow ond slroighl-
enslhe foreormlo olgn wllhlhe lpperormj
ond the olher group of musclesopenslhe
kneelo slroghlenlhe lo\derleg ond olgn il
wlh lhe ihigh
Thef bersof lhe voslusexlernusmuscle{4
connectlo the commontendon (B) In the
drowinglhe muscleformso projeclionwhile
the iendon h porlrot€d os o llol oreo Ihe
t cepsmuscles on lhe fionl ofthe thighho\€
o common furlc'lontlherefore Mcheon-
gelot linesIndcoiing ndivduoLmusces are
subilyond ghtydrown t isimpodonlloren_
deriheth gh aso lofge,cyllndel lkemossond
ihe l ceps muscesos deloih portolly em-
bedded n ond wroppingaroundthelorgel
one of ihe g€dldifferencesbet$€enmon
ond ihe ofhercnimosisthotmonslondsup"
rghi l isevdent n M cheiangelo3drowings
,j ihoi he knewvreI thot monyof the muscles
hove ihe funclon ol hodng lhe body up
ogolnslihe force of glovljy.porexomp e, ihe
rbcoge mosslsheldup by r€ciusobdomnus
on the lloni ol ihe torso,elec'lorsplnoeirom
b€hind,ond iho exiernolobl qLJemuscles on
lhe sldegiond gLuieus maxmuspfewnh lhe
pelvlsfrom foling foMald. And, os con be
s6en In the deto ol lotl, ihe knee lolnt h
supportedby lhe irlcepsmuscleol the thlgh
(C)ond ihe homslrlngmoss(D)

Befarao.iding lhe deloils ol mus

ci€ mossesond prcilberonc€s ol
bane, lhe lhlgh shautdfnn be
conceved as a long

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srapsuo.tsrlFfo aqllloodnsJoslLJ oo uroll
dorp13qlrit ^or0lo,^q eql ol Llrrolllocspol
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aqt puoiaq loot po]ire o r'doc^qs^os ol
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sarn6,€l.]1]o sluro]
ronasnur'6uorls €r+ {no oulq pLroe5uoq
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-6,€qt punorDi quozrrotldor^ loql (VJsnu
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aro6u aorpsr+urtu€dorp rqtlo sporaqI
.i... -rr.;,*,1.r"i.:,t'l:l
..r.--i.i.\ '* i
or Rhylhm
TheGeslure ofFobric
Cince droperyreslson o f gurethot hoso
lrgesiue or oclon he fobrictoo musf
ho\€ o rhyihm,or geslureThe linesof the
iods olA spiro downthe nsideof lhe lhigh
much ke ihe sorlorusmusce underneofh,
n o studyof the workoi Mlcheongelo,ii
s nol olwoysceor whch drowingswere
ocluoly mode by him ond whlch drowngs
ho!€ been lnoccuroleyoliributedlo hm,
N4ichelongoo schoorsoflen disagree, my
sellh nkthollhls s nol one of Nlicheonge ob
drowingsdespileils ollribulionto him The
nes do nol hove lhe sureness ond spon
ianeiy ot hk oiherworks. Nordo lhey deflne
lhe underlyngonotomy n lhe unheslolng
v"qy lhol ho\,e come lo expecl in his
skelches, Alsoihe honds,heods,ond feelore
rolherweoky porlroled

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oclduclor o musclethof pu lslowqrd ihe midline of lhe body
condyle o orge bump on o bone
cr€sl o rldge on o bone
od€nsor c musclethol cousessome port of the body to slrolghlenout
llexor o muscleihof cousessome port of the body to bend
ins€rllon lhe end poln' of Tusce ottochrren'
o gln the flxed polnt of muscleottochhent
pondlor a rnusce thdt lurnsthe polm of lhe honddownword
proluberonceor lube|o6ily o smollbumpon o bone ,
splne o shofprldgeof bone
suplnolor o musclethotilrng ihe polm of lhe hond lpword
lemor o musclelhoi pedormso ughlenlnqflnctlon

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Abdominolmusces,62 Coli muscles,122123 at.r'96 97,104 Gl€
Coninus,41 fnger '104 GIL
ingers,'104 Copilulum,96 122,124,'126
laat, 118-119, G]:
1oal,126 Coracoidprocess,89 ]egs,147, 118-119,126
Aceiobuum of hiploinl6T Corpus,17,96 thumb,99 G(
Achi esfendon,122 Externolmolleolus,
Acromionprocess,17,18,75,77 Costshodows,36 Exlernolobique muscle,64,66,68
Cheekbone,17,4'l Eyes,
34,32,4a-41 GR
Adduclormossofthlgh,108 109 Chesl,5859
Ch n $rop 32 Gi(
110-111 C avtcle,'12,17, 18,21,46,52,56,58 eyes,30,32,40 4l
thigh,108 109 Cacc\x, 18,19,82, 8A lghl ond shodeon, 34,36
lhumb,99 Colarbone,see Clovicle mouih,38
Commonlendon,21, 92 93,115 mlsclesol40-41
Anolomcol drcwn9, 16,71,100 Composlon,24 nose,38
Anotomcol soltbox, 46 Concha,34 pocemento132,38
Analomcol snutfbox, 102 Condye ol humerus, 92-93,98-99 prcporlionolsyslem, 32 I
Ankte.17,21,124 125 Condyes of bmur 122 Fdscio, 84
Anlerof supeioriliacsPne,19,66 Contourdrowng, 11 Femoe/tvlolelor oiions,68,82
Anihe x, 34 Corccobrochios,94-95 pe vis,82
Antirogus,34 Corocod processof scopuc,17 socrum,82 :
Nch,124 125 Corcnod process, 42-43 iorso,68
ArnT Femur17,'18, 19
Ar$oie, 84 r bato, 17, 18,19,118-119,124-121
Arm-bone,seeHumerus Cronum,19,29,40 heod of, '19
Arms,88-105 relolonshp to foce,29 musclesof, 120-121
bonesot 17,89,96-97 C.icod cori loge,44 Fingers, 17,96,100,104-105
exiensionond flexon, 96 Flexian,96, 123,124
exiensors,97-99 Dollvn,Chores,84 Flexorrnuscles, 98-99,'110-111
Delold muscles,
58,62,68,89,92-93, bockof €9,110-11'l
loreom,89,96-97,'100-101, 94 95 loreorm,98-99
dorsiond, 78
loiissimus oclionoti 89 lowereg,'118-119
lengthof, 96 on lomoe,68 Foldof lhe groln,66-67 H'
movementof, 74,78,96,99 orign ond lnsedon,89 Focn, 124,124-127
musces,89-97 roisedorm,94-95 bonyarch,124-125
leg le olonshlp120
scopuo ond,92-93 Dep€ssofobi inferors,41 musclesof, 126-127
lendons,98,100 D giloiions,
60,62,64 Foreshofen ng, 52,56-57,89, 102
t ceps,90-91 DofsoLspnes of lhoraciclertebloe,78 Form,'10 27,38
upper 89 Da'srm,122, 124,'126
Axilo,62,95 Dropery130-137 bock,70
gestureof, 136 desgn ng, 24 25
Bock10,7219,8A-81 slmpting, 132 fofeorm,100
toms ol 70 supportpo nts,'131,132,134
modelng,80 81 Dtaw)ng,'t2,110,128,139 lneond,12-13
musces of, 72 79 drapery130-137 moe/lbmoe voriaiions, 68
Bockbone, 50 wiih line,12 overlopping,60, 89
Boonce, 82-83 p onesond,54
Biceps,89,90,94 95 Eor34 shopesond, 14 15
orign ond nsettion,89 Eorobe,34 slmplfuing,26 30,52,131
shortheod,95 Egyptonpropodons,21 skeLelol
slrlclureond, 16 19
Bicp tal groo\,€,58,/5, 78 ElG€co, 23 underdrapery131
Bicpiol1rrberosiv96 ELbow'17,89,96,
100 undeiyng structure,10,16-27,131
Breoslbone,see SlernLrm pointof, 96
Breosls,68 Ereclorsp noe,72 Go$rocnemius, 122 123
plocemenlmole/femole, 68 Enendorl 96, 123,124 Geomelrc forms,52, 60
Buuocks, 84 85 Extensord gitorumlongus,1'18119,126 Gesfxe, '11,16,24, 136
ExtensoroJlhe greotloe, 126 127 GlobeLo, 38
Colconeus, Extensors,
96 97,98 99 Glodious,58
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t8 o8 96 V6 98 89 peursnertS
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,zt,,6tt 8 .,tt sosrololen 98 t8',SnUJlxOU_r
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Shope, iormsol chesl53-59
prof e of lorso,86 oi dropery131,132
pronolionoi hond,99 ol fornrs,14 '15 formsol 6l
rb coge n spoce,52 oulside,14, 134
Posleror femorh,seeHomsTr ng moss smp fuing,132 po$eior ot 70 87
Posleror iLocspne.18 Shinbone, seeTbio prof e ot 86
Pouporlslgoment 66 67 Shorlexlensor of lhe loes,126-127 rb coge,50 52
Pren'rnoryskelches, 12,23 Shouder blodes,seeScopuo shouldefgkd e, 56 57
Shou dergirde,46,56 57
Shou derjo nl,17 Trogus, 34
locio feollres,32 Shouder muscle,58 Tropez us,46,56,76 77,8o 81,89
knee1obody 21 Shouders,82 83 orign ond nserlion,
ol lgr'e.2o 23 Skeletolfromework16-19 Tro\,erselendons,62
Renossonce,22 23 Skul,40 Trceps,89,90,92-95
syslems ot 20 23,32 Saetrs,122123 ociionol 90
Spoce,lormsn, 30,52,56 57,60 externoheod ol92-93
Pyramidolis,62 Spne ofihe scopuo,18,75 nlerno heod ol 92 93,94
Slondng, 128 129 ong heod of,92 93
Sternoce domostoid,46 orlgn ond inserlon,90
Quodiceps,21,84,107108 Sternomoslod,34 Ir cepsfemoralis,seeQuodrceps
ociionol 107-108 Stefnum, 17,21,46,50,58 Iuberceof lhe libo,19,21
commontendon,107 Portsol, 58
org n ond inserl
on,107-108 Supnolor 97 99 Uha,17,18,19,89,96-97,100 101
Suprosp noius,74-75 mossng,100-101
Rodus,17,18,19,89,96-97 Symphyss pubis,19,66-67 mo\emeniof, 96 97
movemenlof,96-97 Uprght pose,128
Reciusobdominus,62 Torsqbones,124-125
Reclusfemoris,107,115 '116 Torsus,17,21 \(rue, 34,36,38,80-81,134
Renossonceproporions,22-23 mode ng ihe back,80-81
Rhombodeus, 74-75,80-81 Ternpora is,41 43 \tstus exlernus,107-108,115,116
Rhyrhm, 24-25 Tencion sheeh,76,78 orginond inserton, 107-108
Ribcoge, 21 Tensor fosce oioe,108-109 \bsluslniermedlus, 107
mosslng of,50,52 Teres major62,74-75,80-81,9293, \hsiLrs ,l07,115,116
poslon ng in sPoce,52,56 57 94 95 \brlebrae,'18,19
t pped,64 inseriion, 75 ceNical,19,14-15,76
Ribs,18,19,50,58,60,62 Teres minoi 74 75,80-81,92-95 eeclor spinoemuscesond, 72
corliloge o150,58,62 Thenor mass,102 latssimusdorsiond, 78
Thigh, 107 113 trmbat.19,72,78
Rimot eat seeHelix ironi ot '107 scalenemusces ond,44
homsirngsond, 1'10-111 scopuoe ond, 74 75
socrum,18,19, 72,82 84 movemenlol 108 109 lrapeziusond, 76
mole/femolevraotons,82 83 reloiionsh p lo pelvis,l'12-113 thotaclc,19,50,74 75,78
orion ol ereclorspnoe,72 Thlghbone, seeFemur
orign of g uleusmoximus, 34 Throol46,56,58 vtetgfi , 68, 84, 86,124,02
orign oi lol ssmusdors,78 Thorocc orch,62 on egs,84,86,120
108 109,110 111
Soriorius, Thumb,99, 104 105 a.t laes,122
oclon ol 108 mLrscles of,99,104 plocemeniol 68
ofign ond nserlion, '108109 reolionship1ofingers,104-105 Whiiene,62
Scoene musces,44 Throid codioge,44 Wist,17,96,100 101
ScopLra. 17,18,21,56 \bia, 17, 18,19, 21,118-119
musces oi 60,74 75,78 lLrberc e ol '19,21 Wistbroceleis,102
p ocemenlol 74 75 Tbiohonterior 118119,126
rcohonsh p io orms,9293 lt t, Xiphod process,
splneol l8 ol heod,30,34,46,76,83
onierot 95
Serfo'tus of pelvisfor boonce,82 83 Zygomolc orch,40 43
Serrotus Torso, 48 86 Zygomotclsmolor41
Shodows, 36 onleriorof,48 69 /gomotcusm not 41
bonesol 17,58
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