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and CandaceRan6y Ed'led by MarySLrilody by Oe{ign€d BobFlle p|oduclion E lenG€ons by Graphic

Lrpli Cogright@1986by Wat6on-G I Publoations Fn$ pubtished 1986in N€wYork Watson-Guplill by PLrbllcations, Publications, a dMsioi ol Billboard nc. 1515 aroadway NewYork, 1003€ N.Y t ir'ry ot Congr€s Cat loging.ln"Publlcatlon D6lt

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CHAPTER FIVE

The Upper limb uu
IHEMUSCLES OF]HE UPPER A?IV €9 TRICEPSTIHE HEqDED IHREE MUSCLE 90 THE RELAIIONSH lHEFORMS IHEARIV THE P OF OF TO SCAPULC 92 ..,. THE IVUSCLESIHERAISED OF ARM 94 ' TllEIVIUSCLES BON€S Iltr FOREARM AND Of 96 .

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itE lvuscrrs nE FoREARM IHUMB or AND 98
: IVASSING FOREARN' IHE ,oo THE I\IUSCLES IHEIIAND '02 OF SIMPT]F/INGlHEI{AND'04

CHAPTER SIX
THE FRONT THE OF 1HIOH,10l THE MUSCTES IVO!€THE THAT iHIGH 408 THE IIAMSTRING l\ilUSCtES4,10 THE RELATIONSH]P THIGH i}IE PELVIS OFIHE TO 112 lHEBONES OFTHE KNEE4'4 THE FOR]\4S THE OF KNEE1'6 THE BONES MUSCLES IHELEE ,1'18 AND OF lHEMUSCLES THE OF FIBULA '20 THE I\iIUSCLES THE OF CALF /22 THE FOOT: BOIW THE ARCH 124 THE MUSCLES ]HEFOOT 426 OF TIANITHE UPR]GHT IV1AL AN i28

TheLowef Lifllb ,oo

CHAPTER SEVEN

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, .M4SSING Llcllt ANDSHADF WTH .THE GESTURE-oRRH\+jMFABnlc /36 oF :

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INTRODUCTION
in woy, nne do,/ \dh e vlewingo drowng show Rothet o moslp eosurable l wsnledlo Vhod on etperience thot offected m-- st down wilh you,lookai lhesemognficent room, works ond beg n d scuss thoseospecls ng of :eeplyLs cosuoywo kedlhroughihe :aw o drowingI coudn't toke my ey€solf, eoch wgrkthol o recleo resi1l.observeoswe seemedsho ow os mosiimporloni lirstrolefgure drowing lo :nd ol lhe olher drowlngs Iire drawngsseecied ior th s trookshow shed by comporson.Thoi and undslingu irom a ldi by :rcwingwoso nude sfudy M chelongelo ih,. figurein manywrols poses lihough is h o d b e e n l o m i o r w l h terenlpo nlsofvew There o greoloppodu '.ilcheongelotworkol my fe, iseemedlhol nly here10observe howo mosler drcflsmon monyol the fofmsof lhe body becouse myeducolion foreshodens of .nly now perhops :nd troinng,waslrecept\€to hh nfe|preto ond chongeslheif shopesin ihe different _?ns lhe figufe nfocl,ilwasos hodn-.ver f of Anyone who serously $ontslo underslond :eenlhembeforeondlholnothingcouldbe -ore exciiing of greolfrgure o lhcn lo be n ihe presence drowingmuslde\r'cie conslder _ gh Renoissonce ond flnoly hove eyes ob e omounloflirnelolhesludyofonolomy od _rolcoud seeit on hoveonlyconcenlroled the moslimpor n slr ond musce groups l1_ie on lhol doy I ho!€ been lhoroLrghly ionl muscles Since ond ,c\,€d n the process mogicof drowing face of the f gure Forgreolerclorlv I ho\€ _.1e works di o knowledge hos ncludednextlo Michelongelob fgure My increosed _e\€rde$royed sponlonelly mogcl ogromof lhe skeleton ng show ony ihe mus lhe ond ' hosonlyenhoncedilgreoiy ln foct,I ho!€ cle or muscesunder discussion These ore 'rund thol drowng wthouto frm foundolion nlended io he p you underslondond re_ lhe p ncpes of onoiomy s morediflicu anember I exocilywhereo fom beginsand ron ihe ocil.rolsdrnng of lhoseprnciples on wrl When begonio wte lh s book,mYinTen- These ngsoTeio be considered in_3nwqsio keep the spirl of fgu€ drowing troducton cotolysl o pfofound thoi slLlciy or io .iocl.lho!€ nol oltempled soyeveMhing yo! w spendlhe rest )o!r doysenJoy I ng. of io nor ihol \tonled lo createo book roi con be saidoboul drowing, frove fei strongly - ed to lisiolLihe es musc oflhe h!mon body ihoi would knockdown some borefs ond to a low \,oungorihisio beg n to reqllyundefwqy,\tonlecl I iclher,in o mosipleoslroble : i downwiih \,ou,lookol thesemognifcenl stondthe lormsoffhe flgure,lilscleorto me of thal f wonledihe reoder shoremy g€oT thosecspects lo ,,crks ond begindiscusslng ',llch6ongelo3 for \^ofklhoi ore ceoresllo ob- enihlsiosm onolomyanddrqwng prlncsome comp ex :?tueos wel os mosl imporiantio lilsl_roie p es, wou d have lo express '3iJ|edrowng, deos in o more simplfed wqy ond I loke iV when lbegon io wriieihisbook,my inien responsib lor thot. N4ore lhon on!4hngese, lhis book is ihe rn wosio keep lhe spit of figuredrowng _ioct, ho\€ nol oliernpted soye\€Mh ng express of o lo\,€ affor thol I hovehodwllh to on -ci con be sod oboui drowng, nor hove I the exhoordinory drawlngs lhe greolesl of - ed to sla I the mlrscles the humonbodl moster the figure, Mcheongeo. of of Michoe Bubon NewYork ly,1986 C

ONE CHAPTER

UNDERLYING THE FORM OF STRUCTURE

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Preliminory Skerches
is n9.For Micheonge o, drow Eorm eleMh rcrm I ng s o pfoceou€ rcr oercrmrnrng appfoxmoleiJ the i uson of form s merely lorm is ndicoledby lighl ond shodeolone Theshopeof o form sdelined exaclly by ihe were use of ne, fire lhree seaied figLrres Ines colled p€nr'' drownwilh lighl sketchy or menli 'Yepenlonces," chongesof m nd beforclhe lnol contourisdrown. sketches conlour drowngs or Prelminory overolproportonsondlhe ges thol ndicote fure of the pose o€ essenliollo sLrccessfu Thereis not much poini in fgu€ drowings, deloils honds os or€elor moving onlo sLrch 10lhe nsidemodelng of lhe fgue wilhoul firsi eslab shing ollside shopeoJlhe fig the uTen o geneTotwgy E!€ry figurehoson implcil oclion,or gesture.]helneA connechihe ports lhe body of lrcm heodio ioe and suggesis geslure lhe of nrepose.Gestu€ istheh.4hmor music ofthe p figure. whichcreoleso peosingrelotionsh benreen one form cnd onolher Mchef ongelo ncorporoled slrongsense ges o of Hh ond turein o lof hisdrowngs. boldcurving lire spirolinginespre\r'enled posefrcm becomingstiff ond wno'rurol,

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ond belllchelongelo drew consfonil\4 ItI cousepoper was expensi\e the sixin leenthceniuryh spogeswelen\oroblyflled wlh o\,e opping sketches ond studies. lhe his skelches ihispoge cleory demonsirole on eorly esioblishmenl powe !1, e\ocot\€ of dlowings. bod, untoliernginesusedlo The ndicotelhe oulside shopeof ihe odulttg!€ and ch d {A) beoulifuydrown Oncethe ore oliside conlourof o llgufev/osdelermined,

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Mcheongelo begon to indcote more deio ed forms He represented skeeiol ond musculor mosses quick,light nes Forex by omple,ihelnes Bindicoie col orbones, ol the or c avcles;ihe shod nes in lhe oreo of C greolpecioro muscles lop of suggesilhe on lhe r b coge.A seresof shorllnes, which \dere suggesi then applied lo lhe arge mosses, formsthoi ore lo be in shodowtnole lhe cur\,ed lines the bock ofihe thlghoi D. on

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of The Shopes Form
on The n o fgures ihe rqhlotlhs drowing, ! whch ore renderedn lqhi ondshode(4 wereperhops skelched line,muchlike frct ln the n o frgu€s on the eft (Bl Itishelplulfilsilo colelheoulsideshape ind of lhe figLrre o looseond genero monner, in wilhoulbeing concemed oboul mnor de toils.l€epng in mindhowlheheod,rib coge, ond pe vicmosses lo be p oced inspoce, ore ne ),oumuslo so delerrn the poslonsof ihe orms ond egs,Onceyouho€ opproprole y drownlhe oulsde shopelo del lle lhe direc iion ond size of ihe forms,lhen colefully ond poienlly refne ollthe genero linesio ochieve flno ouisde conlour ine Asyou the of obser\ethe oulsideshopes thesefgures, in of noiicelhe\,orous chonges difeciion lhe lnes l.liimotely,lhe of lhe f glle connol lines the be vogue;ihey must cleory fepresent onolomy lt s mportanl, ho\^€!€i notlo drow d linesndicolngdetalsL.htilthe fecllonsond propofiions the lorger forms exocty lhe ore ol lhe woyyouwsnilhemObviouslythesiudyof shopes ihe forms ihe bodyisfundomenof of io io drowingihoseforms occuraieyAsihe slructure trueshopes lhe boneond rnuscle of ore underslood, lin€sbecome \€ry eosyto

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ln the d'owing ol efl, tou con see how IMchelongelo bu i feshyforrns lop of on lhe skeletolshucture.lhe coge (AJond rib lhe pevis(B) hugebonystructuresonwhichto ore Londmork boselhe enlireposeondgesture, \r'ory one oflhe iLesh greonyfrom indviduollo n onolherOn somemodelsthe pp esorelowl g on olhers lheyore high Bones \,eo reloble on setof fixedpoints, ondmorks, whlchto or buiLd drowing. o lvloke onofomcol drowlngsolong with the Ofcourselour )o!rdraw nggfrom model. rnode does nol ook like on onotomcal ng drowng,bui by mokn9occompony skel' etolondmuscu ordrcwngs,youore liflinglhe curtoinof skin n orderlo seelhe uhderlyng lhe on strlcture thof detgrmnes shopes lhe body s Agoodwoylo eorniheformsofihe ffom lo proclicedrowingthe majof mosses onoiomy chorh Drow ihe frcni, side,ond bock views Closeihe book dnd see how much'ou can dfowlrcm memoryll lsa soo good ideo lo proclice drowing frcm the greotmo$ers, N,l con gi\€ )ou lf chelongelo shou be pul down, d on ideowherethe lines you whal betrerhelp coLJld ho1€?Another wqyio eorn isio dtaw ftom o reolskelefon, Skelch skeeion o\€r yourfguredrowings ihe io seeif lou hove ploced ihe bonescorrecily, LJndor skin-for lhe Monybonesore directly instonce, sku the knee, ond lhe bonesof ihe l, ihe feol and hoads

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pelv,ic c€sl onieiorsupeor ilocspln€ (petvlc potntj symphyspubh s

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Proportionol Systems

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lhe minus xiphod process, the I n drowing, fgure s bu I oul ol mosses bone,or sternum, p 5 I lhol hoveo relofonsh io eoch oiher:Th s wh ch s ocoiedot lhe boliomof lhe siern!m propodons n o ploportono sYslem Thelenglhoflhe slernumnlocleqLrolslhe acLect _-re st con usewhotever porl of lhe bocly longlhof selerc oiher seclions lhe onoiof ori ^? kesos o lnl of meosure Thenhe need omy Forexompe, l eqlols the engthof The blode,or the how lhh chosenunil Ie oles10 clovcLe, lengihol lhe shoulder :- y anol\/?e belween scopuoe, lhe ons scop! o,lhe d slonce onc enl EgYpl :: erpodsofthebodyThe _:c o propodionol thoi bosedon the lenglhof lhe hand m nuslhe tp of lhe system \das -,. englh ol lhe midde fnger opp colions th rd f nger ond lhe w dth oi ihe heod lenglhmutpled n oddton, ihe siernol exompes oso :: rhhsyslem occur n cerToin the one ond o ho f limesequa slhe lenglhofihe :'Greek orl Accordng 10 lhs syslern, the :^qih ofihe midde fngermulip ed by n ne' heod (from top of the sku io the boliom _:.n equos the heght of ihe figure The ollhechin)ondthe englhollhe foreormThe ihe lengihdoubed eqLrols engih ol :^glh of ihe hond muiplied by ien or the slernol p :^glh oi ihe looi muLl ed by sx a so op- lhe r b cooe,iheoppfoxmoleu/dih oiihe fli) ofihe : .x moieslhe heghiof on o\€roge hlmon coge oi iiswdesl poinl ond ihe engTh upper orm, or humerus Ihree iimes ihe ri l'redeveopedlhe drowing ol eqlo sihe Lengrih tte here, lenglhoilhe siernurn shown '. a.eongelo ofihe egwihlhe wosevdeniylhnkng of lhe lhighos\de oslhe lenglh :_!i1 of lhe kneeond how il le oieslo lhe fool, lhal s, the heighloi ihe fooi (ihe dis y correcl render lonce fromihe onke io lhe groLlndl bodyAfler :-: formsoflhe o porlsoitheknee ine, cheongelo Ho\,e evercompleled drowng oiihe n M ),ou :-e :::eeded to odd lght ond shode-noie figureonlyio fnd lhoi lhe head isioo srno, - :' -e ght in lhisdrowingcomesfromthe ihe orm s ioo long,oI the body sloo wide? os s The curefortheseproblems lo work much =' .-i iowqrdthe fronlol lhe liglrre -: nlerest lo observe The ng lholihe engihoi osyoucon wth proporions, oncienlorT -:..39,ihoi s,lhedisloncefromlhetopoisis of Greece lo\,ed lo work wlh meosure -: ::-rmon lendon,(4, of lhe quodrlceps mentsond numbers oLrs ond thosehormon -,:: . io ihe knee ng polnl,or tuberce oi numbersloundihe rwoyinlothereoi onships -: -: . of lBl,equa s the enerlh lhe br,aosi- of lhe forms of lhe lgure

Proportions byRenoissonce Used Artists

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the be- usuolly mode n the owerlmbs Qy underrtondng reoionshrps glween fofmsin a siondnq f qLrfeyouw According lhs system meosuremenf, io of hovea beller deo of whot io expeclwhen ihe heod lselfconsiitules irst meosure the fglres in seotedor €clinng meni(A). second The meosuremenlthe dlsh lou encounler lance beireen lhe chin ond ihe nppes (B) Arlisisof ihe Reno ssoncewere fond of Thethird meosuremeni lhe d sloncefrom s Lrsing ihe englh of Jhe heod os o uni of lhe n pp es io the e\€ ol the no\,e (C)rihe meosureThe engih of Jheheod mulip ed iourlh fromthe no\€l lo ihe crolch,or symsevenond one hof lmes equo/slhe loto phys publs(D)jthe ffornihe crolchloihe s Rfih he ghiof on a\erogeliguretlhe heod lengih leve of lhe mddle ol ihe ihigh (E)r sixth lhe mulliplied eghl equohlhe heighloJololl fromlhe midde ol lhe lhighlo ihe le\,eof the by personrond the heod lenglh mulllp/ied knee (D;lhe se\,enfh from lhe knee lo lhe roughly seven by equo slhe he ghl ol o shod m dde ol ihe ower eg (G)jond the eighfh ndviduol.Renossonce orlsh usualy used fromlhe mlddleof the owerleg io the bol eghi heodsas o meosuremenl simpy be- tom of the foot (H) I yo! oppy lhe englh of lhe heod to lhe couse il s eosier10 subdivdeeighl lhon se\,en o holf. ond Ofcourse nolo lrnodeho€ w dihsoisorne ihe mossesolihe oi figufe, ),ou ihe some height D screpdncyn heighl in con seelhol lhe lengthol one heod equa s mosT insionces, occursn the o\^€rlimbsrlhe lhe d sloncebe veenthe nipples we os os lengihoilhe heodond lnrnkdoes the not\ilryso lhe d slonceocross \ro si, One ond one hol heod engihsequo lhe much.Thelefore, odjuslments heghlwefe n

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y'6youdrow conlinuoly scon\,oursubleci beireen the ormpihos wellosthe iLsiance resulls ol lemoeb The lntroduclion bod proporlions ,ldlh of lhe mo eh pevc massrlhe too whenyou Look longat ony givenpan or rnossss ghllywidet seLvic the lengih of tu/o heodsequoh ihe ds- delollof lhe body n odditionto lhe propor here, '3nce ocross lh,a moe3 shouders;the lionolsysiems hovebeend scussed thot ond ore shouders sighty norrov€tThe whynolexplore comeup wlh oiherrelo_ =moeb olyourown?Themorereollonships .nglh ofiv/oheodsso soequolto ihe lengih uonships thoiyouconlindosyoudrowlhe moreoccu_ :i ilre lhigh. sy$ems li so mhiokeiobeg n drowngiromlhelop role yourlgure wiL be. Proporiiono be ihe heod ond oliempl lo fn shyourdrow_ shoLrld lseful and comiodoble Mchei_ :: -g of ihe bo1lom the fgLrre n one ex ongeos meoslrremenls ihe llgure ore oi ojl oi lrcm lhoseol soy E Greco sketch n ihe poris of The ceorly differenl :arion Lnsfeod, 'j!re n o generolv/oy,lndicoing oh proporiions Thefemoe fgu|e oi DeL ond the orger ng tholyouhovebeenstudy figure drowng oso lg!re ofSornson Thnkof ),our :_c ceslure, -.p on whichyo! simpyv,/oni pon ond here ore dfown occordingio proporlionol io thal :;coler ihe plocemenlof the porlsof lhe syslems ore roughyihe same I s ihe lhal ore d i of ol of ..:dy lhe esloblishmenl po nts,or lond lengths lhe Lrnits meosure is -ark, ond the plocemenlof inesconneci €leni noiice lhol the heod ol Sornson _3 lfese poinlsore mportonl n poitng i\r ce os lorgeoslhol oi Delioh : aperproporijonsbetv€enlormsofthebody

AH S,AMSON DEUL ANO 153A chdlk rcd 2 loli t 15.!, 127 \ 395 ch)

Fonns Designing
plocemeniot one obleci in The eftecllve I fe otonto onolheroblecfs\ery mporlonl in a work of orl. Thelhingsthot )ou leorn oboul drowingo sngle figure willo so be of help in composlngo piciule mode !p of groupngsof frgures. Juslos the€ iso geslule, or h)4hm, throughoulihe lorms lhol mokeup o singleflgure, theremuslbe a rhy,thm lhot connecls muliple imoges, In ihis drowing of Hercuesengoged in d sporole octions, lhe gesfuresof lhe ind! vlduolfgures biendhormoniousylo creoieo unifed composillon gestue Thoif hormonyof couses eyelo fow freely the fromone fgure lo onoiherTry visuolize io curved, owinglines ff thofconnecithethreef gufes lhlsdrcwing. in A good composilionollen hos numerous fildhm hesrunnlng monydifferent ln direclionr,Thus, podsof o drawingore never ihe ireoiedas bh ond piecesbul workiogether lo forrno lorgerlnljy

Rhy'hmlinesindi.ote lhe flaw ot .rD.Jenlenlwithin o drcwing ond rclote indiviluol figut$ ta the compositr, os o whole.

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IHRFE LABORS NERCUTES OF 1523 rcd cholk 144" ' 16qr (27.31t 4223ch) DoDoged

Form Complex Simplifying
skelchnloving mony Thk is o foscinolino I fgufes muchdynom oction, ond c lis!cuobe becouseii showshow lvlchelongelo lhoughl oboui ond drew compicotedcuslers oi inlerocJng fgures These ligures ore drownos simpe iornrs, the drowingis in bll no v\rcy vague, seporoionof one muscle The moss irom onolheron lhesesmoi bodiesis c eorlydeined by Inei ond shorl holched nesore paced on thosetigures porlsol or fgures1o €presentshoding Nole lhat lhe ighi source n N/ichelongelo's drowings ol mosio wqyscomes from lhe efl Wrelherlou are working o drowingof on one fgure or o hlfdred fgures,il is wiselo keepo lihe foms smple lf youcon v sucize you one hundred fguresos one lorge rnoss, w I ha\e discovered fundomenlolkuth o oboui whot greatdrowingenlois lhe subord nolionofdeioi io ihe elfeclverendering I

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SXEICHES TI]E TOR DEAD RIS]NG 1534, bl@k cholkll r 161,' en) 127.94, 41.91 Dohoaed

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Mossing Heqd lhe
lhol oppeors Th s h o delo I of lhe drowing concept oldestmossing I on poge 131.lhe |.Bedby orl slsfor lhe head h lhol of ihe boll to ond the owl. Try seelhrough deloils of lhe heodosif lheydid nol exslond nolelhoi the sosphefe(Al.ondthe or t rolncose, cranium, ore moss ofthe iJce, whenthe feolures disll 'egoded, oppeors lic be on o\r'ol(B). is exiemey imporloniic wderstondthe slzeof li|e bo oflhe heod in le olonshiptolhe size The of theowl of lhe nrce. bolloftheheod,or cronium, willRl a perbcJsqloretthe ovol inlo ofthe loce isone ond o holft mesoslongos lhe boll of the heod. Peopleofien moke lhe ihe cronium smollfor foce loo the Theorlisl mustalsoconsiderhow these1vr'o large mosses io be ploced, lhe relo ore lionship ihe ballof the heod lo the owlof of lhe foc€ will of cou6e wry depending on ihe posiiionof lhe heod.

the relallonshpat the poll of lhe hed b t'heawl at thb fo.P wj chonge os the mode/3pcrtion chonges

29

fhe in Posifioning Heod Spoce
The iosr or dfowng,ucl"rcomplcoied I fo{m5os lhe heod in o llted posilions greaiy essened youlrst th nk ofthot head f oso slmpeiorm o bock,cy ndetorovo ond ihen placeihiss mpe form n o posilion lhoicor€spondsioihedes posion oiihe red heod Disreoord ihe ieolures, drowng ng The of ihs heod con be Lrnclerslood a cyiinos der kemossi lling ntolhepoperoilh,-lopos the bolTorn the cylnderprolecls of forwarclf o cy nder were poced n lhis posion in spoce you woud see some of lhe c rcuor underpone allhe boltomor bosebul none oi the c rculor plone.Nolce lhal lh-- nes lop represenifg hol (Aldefne ond ernpholhe sze ihe cy ndrcol shope of ihe for-oheocl, ond ihol the rlesusedfor the borderof lhe oweriaw (BJ suggesilhe underpone ol the cy rdetvsuo z ng lhe foceoso cy nderwih inesencrc ng t also heps nsure thot you ploce eyes, nose,and mouthon the heod

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SIUDYOF IHE NEADOF DA\II..I 1524-21 tot totet) ed chdtk, bldck choik, ohd peh 13', \ 31/,', 42 t 21 se cn) 63 L

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Syslems: Feotures Fociol Prcporfionol
ri.,,* : f# ..r
-$; r you dfowThe I fsllhinqs mighlnoice n lhis I ing of o heod ofe the beoulfulond com p exdetoih, blllhedelaiharenotwholmoke ihs drowing greol Whol h mportant lo nollce s lhclthe smollerforms drawnso o€ thotihey appeorlo reslgrocefully lop of on lhe ofger mossof lhe heod ls€lf.Heods gile the u drownby Micheangeoovr'cys sionof beng o solidmossn spoce. Whendecid ng on lhe plocomentol lhe feotures, s hepful lo dividelhe loce inio t Th Youmightwantlo rln ghl horizonio rds lnesoroundlhe ow - ikemoss ihe foce al of the evel of lhe balures.Theforeheodfrom the holrinelo ihe brcw (4 woud represenl one lh rdi lhe nosewoud represeni sec the ond lhirdtond lhe spocefrcmthe bofromof lhe nose (B)lo the bollom of the ch n (CJ woLrld loke up ihe losflhird.lhislosisecton con be further subdivided ihirds order nio in lo ploce lhe moLrih ond chin colecly The seporoton ihe lps willbe otihe botiomol of the firstlhirdtlhe of the chn wil be neor top lhe boltomofthe second ihirdr ond the bol, tomoflhechinw be ai ihe bollomol the osi thirdYouhoveto soy"neof"of "oboul,whsn speokng of meosufemenh becouselhere you ofe no obsolutg rulest con justnotlce how c oselyihe leolures ofihe mode corespond io the c oss proportons ned obove cal oui n iems of depih, ihe reoilonship ihe of boiufesmust oho be c eory esloblished The nose s fodhefforv,qrd lhan lhe mouihiihe upper lip is mo€ forvr'ord lhon ihe owerllpr ond ihe chln s forther bockthanihe mouih. Iry drowing consiructonlines-hor zonioi, \ericol, ond diogono-from one feolure io onoiherThephllirum(D), areo obo\€ ihe or cenler of lhe lpper p exiends downwqrd frornlhe cenlerof the boseol the nose,lhe philirurn formso rnosi nlereslngplonet I s conco!€ irom lop io boitomond oso conco\€ iromsideloside. sistheonlypone of Th iisknd on lhe enl re lgure, you the moresensili\,e ore io reolronshlps belween vorous ieoiures, ihe belier your drowngswi be. Nol€that on mognory\€r Uco ne exlending upword lromthe bock of point ihewingoJihenosewould conneclthis of org n withlhe innercornerol the ele. Noticeloo thot the chn sirop (E)in this drowlng serves o contourineihothelpsio as exploin ihecuri€d ospecloflheunderplofe ot the owerlow(Fl Ihe ch n stroposo separoles the ower jow flom onother cufted pone,lhe cylindor the neck {Gl.Youcon of seelholihechn ntesecis neckot o ower the elellhon does backoJthe the skull. base The oflheneck s owerinfronlthon bock,which in gives i o fo^/crd ihrust

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When pasilioning the feo ^.trct il is helpful ta divide lhe loce inla lhnds wilh light hai

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lhe with Defining Feotures Light Shode ond
- : .:=re' c eorwheiher s slhe l]owiire symboof o so d s weokened. lh I--::: I :' : - an oro womon, lvlcheionoe o Olco!rsewiihihe heod rilh s posltion,the sde ond podonsoiihe fronipiones ol of of ,,.-:. -19 crlsfsnlo sketch lines crevs thesmolerforms olthe heodoreo sovisib e, .. ^nsCrowing There revery€w slroighl osorelhebockord sde ponesofthe neck. o .:3.efe Michecnge o wasconcerned wih Thed rect ght n thisdrowng comesifom .leci nga soldheodono faipieceolpopet ihe efi ondihe iellecled ghlcomeslrornthe ,n cars besloccomplished using of by curvecl r ght.Thesideplones ihe heod ore in ght, nes Ihe lines lhe hol (Aond B)he p c or fo whereos frontpanes of lhe foce o€ in lhe of iire foundness the heod Thelinesof lhe shodowLghl and shadedel ne ihe meelng ol siernocle domasloid muscle(C)help lo de poces of fronlond srdepones,ll rsmost m po onllholsr-rch fne the neckos o cylinder clefnilion estobshedby be This lhreequorlerposI on clro molicaIy n- lneor by ghl ond shcder olherwhe forms lhe creoses lhe uson of ihe heod os o lhree- of the heod ond lace w I oppeorfol Themerging thefronlondsidepiones dimensionol foranThnk of a cube drown n ol of juslsucho poslon Nowd.ow of lh nk of o lhe nose (Dl.s ernphcszedby lhe obrLrpl cube poced n o compelesde vewt nole chonge frornlghi lo shade Therdge oi o form,ihe iunclureof l^/o panes,shouldbe nlio y eslob shedby drowng o line. l/ore roundedformsore ndicoled by o groduallronslon ue fromiighiio more ofva progression. clork. BecoLrse th sgrodLra ol ihe loreheocl oncl neck oppeor mor,-ro!nclecl ihon do lh-6nose, rnollh,onclch n on which ihe clrongeifom lightio clorks obrupt.The nose.mouTh. ond chin are bocklike n opTlre sbeoli fu lydrowno nd posilofed. eor tsfroniborderocaled s allheholwrypo nl of ihe sde of ihe heod f th s worco siroqhl profe viewihe lop oriheeorwoudoppeor e!€ w th lhe browondihe bofom ollhe eor woLrld appear e\,1rwilh lhe bofonr of the nose.8!i snce ihe hed.l s I 1e.l.lownword, ihe ear correspon.l y iilisupword n conng kasl lo ihe nose ond o\irl oi the loce Th-. more the hecrd s t led, ihe more ihe reoAfierp npointing conecllocoiion ihe ofThe eor youshou generolly d --stabsh ls olrlsicle shope NoleM checngeob corefuoiJeniion lolhelubekecort ogesoflheeor lhefm,or heix (E)r Yshopeclnnercorl oge oi ihe lhe onlhe x (Fl, which cLr^/es dowri\,lord o ongsde ihe he ix;ihehro smalprojeclions (H) oi lhe irogus(G) ond ontilrosus /rogus comes fromlhe Greek wordmeonng goofs beorcl"r s herelhol hoirsn lhe eor occur il Thecorliogessurround deine lhe hear cnd ing cono, or concho 0. Theeor/obe!) s hondsomey decoroted wlh lhe eorrnO. The cortiogesformng the eols ond noseconlinue10grow througholtour lelme, whch hove er1roor meons od foks somelimes d nor y bg eorsond nosesi

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nnl red a;-!, NEID,1516, cholkS' \ 6lr" 2AS \ '165

RelolionshipVolue line of fo The
con lo lf VoLr opply qhiondshode o cV n I Oer yolr con dfow ihe necl of o mode Oflenlhe heod cosls shodow lhe neck o on Mcheongeo knew lhol such dork spois coud spoillhesuble effeciof ghl. iis nier esing io nolelhol oilmes, he om iredor jLrsi borey suggesledsuch cost shodows(A There refewexlremely rkionesin ihe eye o do sockeioreo ondthecaslshodowiromihe {Bl, nose [C] is oso qule subJe ,\ o .ue, Micheongeo ,,!caexircmely corefu cboul cosl shodows and oiher dorktonesused10 defne forns n ghi oreasof hh drawngs. Youcon undersiond how lhe drcclon of ihisheoclwasesiob shed by vsualzng hvo mpo(onT consirucion nes;mooneo horzontc ne running throughlhe eyesond o !€rfco ne runn nOlhrough ihecenierofihe foce Thenose s beouifLrly drowncnd pertucllyp oced coftislenlwth the directon of lhe rnoss the head ll m ghl be he pfu lo of lh nkofonimognoryorrowpiercing bock ihe ol ihe mossoi lhe head,ot lhe eve of the bottomof lhe nose, com ng oullhe froni ond of lhe head ol the some eve This onow woud ndiccle the direction n which lhe nosesnouro olown De TheInesoflhh d.aw ng oreveryexpress ve onclore reoled 1oo llhe olher eemenlsof clrow Lnesuseclto ng. deineformsoflen ioke ihevo uesopp ed ioihe orgermosses ihe ln oreasihai lhey possover Forexample, ihe ne oi lhe lroi iso aonTour isdrowno\er ihai ord explonslhe shopeol The foleheoclThis ine s very ghl os i lrovehlhrough high ihe ighl oreo [D]ol the mossoi lhe heod ond becon'es rl<er il r'roves lhe shadow .la as nlo oreo(ElTherno$ ofihe foce sstrocl,od mrch os o large egg woLrdbe The/ighi s fo nO fronrabove efi ond lo\dord ironl.Such ihe o ighlng schemeifsures thot threeJourlhs ol lhe heod s in ighi wh e one fourth s n Theines usedonlhe efl sideofsuchfofrfs os ihe eyebrows, l.ls oi the eye,ihe w ng ihe oiThe nose. ihe lpsoreoll ond iglrier nione thanthe nesusedon the rightsde. Theeyebrows olso rcpresenled nes by lhoi eclro ond expoin ihe fofm obo\€ ihe eye Thesepofotonfiefr'r'een froniond the sideof the foreheod occurs F Thecurved ct Lnes LJsed lhe eyeldsdelinelhe rounded for iorm of lhe eyebol, and lhese iinescurve sighiy up\dord,ndicolng thoi lhe heocl s t led s ghllydownwcrcl ine usedlo sep The orole the lps oso curles.slightyupward ghl nesonywhere the f gurelend io Slro on

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IEADOFFEMALP FIGURE 3ld ' 55/l(2121 \ 1129cn)

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the ond Shoping Nose Mouth
T h e r g h l n g s c h e m ee m p o y e d h e f et r o sa I R)vofrle r Micheongeoe o enge lqhl o soufce from lhe efl lowsrd ihe ironl ond obove ihe figure, L nes os wel os lghi ond shade n [,4 cheongelo3 drawngs ore olwcys bosed on lhe orlislsp'oiound underslondng oi forrn.Thevo ues con be ihoughloi os lhin oyerc of skin plocecl on lhe so d scu pluro forms of the figufe P,s n ihe drowngs seen eor er,eyeld linesore cqrefulyclrownherelo convey a sense of lhe mass of lhe eyeba l. AdisTs rarey nd cole fhe eye oshesbecouse lhey hove so lllle fo|m McheongeoS unclerslonding ihe poris oi ol The nose ore c eorly demorislraieclhere Theoreo bel\reenlhe bfows,obove the nose, s colecl lhe giobeilo (Al 1is o down\aord s o p n g p c n e , w h c h c u r \ e su f d e r o n c l o w o y from lhe lighfsourceemonolng from obove groylone oppl-ad lolhe g obello sug SLrblle gesTs scLrrving ih owoy lrom the lighi D reciy beow th.,rgobela s The Jrone c€oied by ihe bi.lqei of lh,- nose.which s composeii of l v / os m . r / l n o s o o n e s( B J . l h ip o n e . w h c h s s b iooclo.l by ghl, wideris os l sopes.lowir\,!ad .rfd lerrrrfoles on o evc ihoT corre spoftls wiTh The nner corncrsol ih.- cyes.The ower hn iollhc cy r.lcrjiko rierl] oflhc fos{l lrecomes rnorc noffow os it eiTencis(lown rfTolhe bulb oi ihcrorc (Cl The owerer.rol thc nosc s formed by ihree smo . rolnded,

yelblocklke masseslhebub, niheceniet ond The wngs on eilhersde,wh ch ore por lio y embedded n the cenlro and slighiy orgerbu b Nolce howMichelangeob maslerfu monpulolionof \4tr couses ue cerioin oreosol Thenose io odvancewhie oiher oreosTecedeThereolonshipben/eenihe forms oflhe head n lermsoi deplh s oiwoys we consdered b'y Micheangeo For n slonce,one sihoi n h sdrawngslhenose lee sc eaflyiorwa oiihe eyes rd ofdiholihe eyes ole ceoriyfor\,lord ihe eors of ft4icheongeob drowi]rgs mouihsfever of ookfol. n thisdrowng lheTes o ceofsense oi Tfre mouihcurvngaroundlhe loolh cy n der of the underyingsku The upper p pone, receves which s o clownwarclsopng essghithqn doesthe oweriip,wh chslopes upwordTheowerlp lnlhis drawng hosbeen shacled one woud shodeo horzontacy os incleflhe upper p ismade up ofihfeeiorms one in the m .l.lle oricl onc on eoch sido whie Theow--r p s made up of hro forms. Once Thesirlclureof Thehe,:,:ls esTob ishecl,you d TokecoreTo cleon ihe sho! dec exocT ocoTion lhe leoTLil:s. qoo.l eye n ol A ihe wrongploce sworse n o bod drawfg ilra ollh(--cye lhrir ehip oce \lnr.rlirco !l ftJof n hornrna onrl v-^dico r,-s o(f,ossyolr nxxlcl! lftje vr lhot yo! can .lejemii'r the p le ai onsh of lh--f-.aiues

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MusclesExpression The of

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SIUDY ruE HEAD FOE OFTI]E DON MADONM '1503 red.hdlk 4, /'h \ 6* [24 \ 1715cn)

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ng hos sheeilhol exlends T he dominor rormortheheod sthesku cronrum, o iendinous I Theob, i1lto drowlhe heod vlettEbosed o\€r lhe lop of ihe cron Lrmlo lhe foreheod, on on underslonding ofthe shopeoJlheskull. wherefibers ogoinoccur. Allhe fo€heod the Thore o fewveryihin mltsc ol ihe foce musce term noles in the skn obo\,e lhe eye ole es Thoi ll oulihebonysiruclure ihe skutt. i ol These brows. occipiiojronlals hosihe funclion The cre the musctes expression oi Addltionolltj oi lfiing up lhe eyebrows, creoiinghorizonloi lhere ore lwo musceson lhe heod, wh ch wrinkes lhe foreheodos seen n lhe exon mo\e the ower jow or mandbe, ond ore press of surpr or ollenton on se usedfof chewng food Theele s sufiounded se\€ro musces, by Themuscles expression slrucluroly These of ore include selsofcirclilor hro muscles lhe \€ry diJlelenl fromlhe muscles lhe body nnerondoulerrings lhe orbiculorh i (B of of ocu the mlsclesiholmo\€ lhe bodyofginofeot and Cl Theinnefrngs,or po pebralpori (Bl, one bone ond insertnto onolherbone.The are respons for openingand closing be ihe musc ol exp€ss o soorginoleon bone, eye ds. The ouler ring,or obiiol porl (C), es on on ihe sku bulihey inserlinlothe ofihe oboveThe I, skin eyes, whenconlracied llpulllhe w irce Whef lhesemuscles conirocl ihey pLt/l skin beireen lhe eyebrows s ghlly down producing the skin, wriousfcrcioexpressions. word,cousrng shortverilcolwrnkes lo op Theocc p to-frontolis (A muscle co\ersthe peorbei/,eenlhe brows. s muscle Th expresOock,lopond fronlof the cronium, m!s- seslhe letlocll\,eor mediloli\e slo1e, Thls cle, orginoiing n Jberson lhe bock of the Anolhermuscle lhe ele oreo islhe corin

ihe nseriinio ihe musce fbels surrounding lob moulholthe lower p Thedepressor lnferioispu lsthe ov,€rlp down in lhe aclions oTcryrng. of Youmusiunderstond lhesemlscles thal wllh one expTession ol inlerconnecled ore lhusin ihe anolher n ihe r porlcu or oreos; ofthe nosesthe p^/ro- subllemo!€rnenisof the eye oreo or the Oneofihe muscles _ridolis (E). orsesfromlhe nosa bones moulh regon, severolsmollfociol muscles nosi li Or rnd exlends upvr'crdlo nsed nlo lhe skin moy be in\€l\,ed n one expression. the ng This ceiweenlhe eyebrows, musce pu s lhe loce moybe express moreirronone emooslh sone, ol :kn obo\€ lhe nose downwqrd,creoing lon n o drowing lhe heodsuch of lhe lvichelongeodoes nol d.ow lhe ndviduol short zoniolwr nkes ol ihe bridge hor he iirem,lruT cer_ he on rosechoroclesl c of lhe express ol o nger focio musces; mosses ihem ond tronsoles hlhe ioiny knowsol ob,orri one oflhech efmuscesof ihe rnoLrlh o olthe heodlhoishows .ygomotcusrnojor (D I oig noles ol lhe lhem inloo drowing greoidea of expression. olzygomoT|c oflhe cheekbone, cwerborder down io nserlneorlhe cone,ond exlends os of aorners lhe mouthwhen conlTocled, In ine exp€ssonof oughtei thismuscleplls oflhe mouihupwqrdond tolhe iiie corners mouth onother minor(G), Thezygomolcus 'nusc of ses frornthe fronloflhezygomolic e, aone,coser io lhe nose Theelewtol oflhe Jpper p, or e\'oiorlobi superios (H)rses or iom ihe lowerboldel of ihe ele sockeT, arbiio covlly lhese iwo muscesexi'enddown 'o inseri lhe orbcuorLs in lhe oreoof orls inio 'le upper p They hovethe funclonof ftng 1e upper ip neor ihe midpoinlwh e lhe os ofthelipdropdown, n expresslons :ornerc al g ef. Theorbcuors orls0, a circuormLlsce ihe .vhich surrounds moulh,hoslhe funciion lhe rf closing moulhisouleribersbendwlh mus_ :nd con act ogoinslthe wriousolh-ar : esthot ore otiochedio t Anolhermusce ol lhe moulh,co led ihe : evoioroflhe upper p and lhe wingoi ihe -3se,or e\olor lob super o oeque nos oris from orlginoting lhe lpper -1,so th n rnuscle the upperlow or moxilo,extending :.d of or lo i swnword inserlnlolhe wing, o o, oi lhe _3se ore forms lfied ond lhe upper ip These - ihe ocl on of sobE ng. or Iheconinus, ewior ongu oris(l!, orises -3m the moxllo and inserls inlo ihe skn musc litisihe e I30\e lhe con ne looth This lhol - 3per lp,exposing loothto giveo sneer or ofthe angleof lhe mouTh, ihe depressor ihe orisesfrom mon ::cressorongu oris(L), upwordto : ae, or owerlow qnd exiends _:garnlolhe corners olthe moulhTheiunc_ _ar ofthismusc islo pul the cornersoTThe e -auih downuordn expressions ogony ol ofihe ower p, or depressor -e depressor on ohoorignoies irremon:: nferors{lvl), up ihere ihe muscleexiends lo : : e. From

-Jgotor lhe eyebrowor corugolor super of or on o smaI muscle ginoting lhe : i (D), \,ery '3reheod, musunderlhe occipiiolironiolis oiihe ae. Thecorrugolornserh nlo lhe skin -ndpo ni of lhe eyebrcws, ling lhem n pu of .,rordond up\,!ardcreolng expressions

of The Muscles lheJow
the h{o musces of mostcolon edend I do\anhi. tromthe mmovobl--slill rd ioihe molcbe owerlow On lhe bock port of lhe cheek s lhe mossefer muscle(Al, whch exlends down$ord and bcclolofd from the zygomoicorchoflhe sku lolheongeoiihe owerjo\,vBybeing owqreof lhe posiiion of ih s mlsce, you can underslond funciion, is which ls lhal of fo sing lhe lowerjow This powerfulmusc con be fellby c enchinglhe e owerlow h th ckifont border o creoles sho lowdepression the foce,d recly ln froniof on Thelemporos musce(Blis locoledonihe sideotihe cronum in the temporo fossc ls lbers possdownwordunderlhe zygomolic orchond inserinio the coronod process on wih lhe owerjow Ths musc works ihe mose selermusce lo rose lhe oweriow when o personchews,lhe oiernoing coniroclon ond reoxalionoi the iemporalsmusce s opporenionlhe sideoflheheod in iheoreo ol lhe lemples Ancenl onolomslsnarned lh s musce ond lh s oreo of lhe sku lem I poro s,reolng iollme,becouse herelhol liis hoirs lLrrn whle so qulckiy
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: :aIUDGEMENI 1534 block ond Ed cholk l Sl/t' t 3r A NEADtOR TllE LAST

42

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TNE MASSETER MUSCLE

IHEIEMPORALIS \4USCLE

O r gn :

to ihe corono d process

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TNE MASSETER MUSCLE

IHEIEMPORALIS \4USCLE

O r gn :

to ihe corono d process

Foms lheNeck of The
sees brm in lerms sirnple of The orfl$nrsi going I mossbeic€ onliosmollerforms ond deloil.lhe neck is essenliollv cvllnderllke o moss, lvichelongelo ne\,'er lirlledto emphoqlollly of ihe neckwhichis size cyllndrlcol the widetot the bosethonot lhe top lhe neck ossumescvinddcol o shooebecouse flsi lhe lvroribs, whichlbtmlhe boseof lhe neckore chculor, hlgherle\,elof lhe neckIn lhe ]he bocklhon ln the fronlof the body€6ull$ o in fcMurdthrust moredfomotlclnwomen lhon In men.the sldes the neckCyllnder of or€ fomed bVthreescolonus muscles-onleior gdend m6dlus, pod€fior.Ihe6e ond muscle6 upv,ordfromthe ffnt two ribsic the upp€r neck\erlebroe, 6cdlenus ]he muscles couso the n6ckto b6nd, Onthefronioftheneckihere importont ole icrmsthot piojector.rtv,ord the cyllnder ftom 'lhese mo$, o€ th6 cortlloges o@!ndlhe wlndplp€, trocheo, or whichfom the\oice boxorloryrx, shope thelorynx lhot of The of ls on upslde-down lrlongl€. opo(of lh€hlThe ongle ls locdtedat the pli of the ihroot(Al, ondthe upperbordercofi€sponds o le\€l to lustbelor tho low€r Theportof thevolce low boxthdl lvlchelongelo ts most v lnlei€sied In portoylnghele lslhE upp€redge @), whlch prcJecis fom the ldomt opple, lio Ano\er fom thdt i!4lch6long€lo w€ll wos owsr€of ls th6 hlold bone,o smollhoBe' shoe+hooed oboletheAdomtoDole bone thol helprholothe wlndplpe ploc6, In thls smollh)he b hot vlslblg th€ rurlbce,brJt on occurs wherelhe underplone of lhe lower JowlepoiEis6ftom the fiont plon6 of th€ neck ]ho lhrootmufclos owr tho corillqger leat of the\olca bo(,lh€9ethlnrduscies mosole sgd, ond fhry lprm the generol cyllndor 9hope fd9fronlof lhe neck of

THE SCALENE IVUSCLES

Orlgin-

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(\,olce lorynx bo0r Adqln!

SIUOY IHE.HEAD FOR OFAN E\IAXOEUSI '1517-18, 6&R Bd 'ht\, x Hl 123.26 19.6*'n) ,

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i :

IheStetnocleidomosfoid Muscle
d The two nernoceidomosto mlsces resi I on, ond ore porlio v embedded n the cyindermoss lhe neck,They ropelike of ore musces thot exlendfromthe top ofthe ster num up to the heod beh nd the eor They nserinio lhe moslod process of lhe sku (A) Eachmuscleis oi ls widesiobout ho tMoy downtheneck.Alls lower end tbronchesoff inlohro iendonsr one lendonisotiochedto ihe top ol lhe siefnum(B), ond lhe other s altochedlo lhe clovcle (Cl.These lenhdo donscreoieo smollhongLrlor (D); deprcssion lhe heod of lhe c ov cle s ot lhe baseof this depesson Theiendonlhol oltoches lhe lo lop of lhe sternum verypronounced h and cordlike, whie lhe one lhol ollocheslo ihe clovcle isrolherf ol ofd brood Theiendons thol ollochto ihe sternum formlhe pil oflhe ihroat IEJf lhe slernoc eidomosio muscle d on one sldeoflhe neckconhocis, heod ihe wll roiole in ihe opposiledireclionor t i downwordloward the shouder These lwo muscles usuolly \^/ofk nsleoch oihot bui ogo whenlhey do wo.klogelhe, ihey cousethe heod lo be lhrownup whie smuloneously pullnglhe neckdown, l\4ichelongeo hos drown ihe steF nocledomosioid muscles o subiewsybe" n cause, hasbeennofed, os iheyore delolls on ond porliolyembeddedn ihe orgermoss of ihe neck They musinoi oppeor ioo promnent.ln ihs drawingo smoI podlonof ihe orge tropezusmuscles vlsble (FJ, EetMieen the slefnoclo domqsloid musce and ihelropezius o rolherlargefiongu or depression is (G) co led ihe 'onofomicol sollbox" Theneckh consirucied greoi freedom lor ond vorlet of mo!€meniThesho!dergidle (i,,/oscopuloe ond ]u,o c avic €s) s ihe skeelo siruclLrre upon whichtho l oshyforms oi-

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DOMASTO STEANOCLE D MUSCLE

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ST]JOY HEAD THE FOR OF NUDE ATLEFT ABOr'E PERSIAN SIBYL ',511,ed cholk 14h \ 7lt t3s86 , 1937@)

4

THREE CHAPTER

TORSO: THE ANTERIOR REGION
r. .a:-:: . ..

ft

Plocing lorue lhe MossestheBody of
l nr formlhotthe orisldrowsw obviolrsv ook ng Lrpol lhe body of Chrsl bLriyou o€ Ahove o cerloinposton ondd recionreo ook ng down on h sfeeiond oilhe sku otihe '/elo thespacelholsurroundsThe position base of lhe cross The heod of lhe figure s il : delermined the locolon oflhe obiect n direcled 10 lhe rghl lhe rb coge s turned by :oocetlhe d recion s deiermned by wh ch lowofd lhe iefi ond si led londordrihe moss r.gy ihe obiecl h focng. mogne on oxis o f t h e p e v s s i l r n e d s i g h t y t o t h e g h t o n d io\rcrd The eft. a oced vedcollyihroughihe cenier oi the llled fo^altrrcl of rbjecl Now mog ne ihoi lhe objecl roioies Thereare ih€e mpcrloni orge mosses h Thedegreeof roloion s of T h e u m o n i g L r ei h e h e o d T h e r i b c a g e , o n d rround ih s cxis. on .cu6elhe obleclsdreclon Thequeslons tire pevs A: hos ceen shov/n n iire eor er clrowing I gureoreiWhcts sludy oi ihe hecd, i ! .rc!_ rnporionl lo a :rlislaslcbefore '.e dreclon of ihe part oJ the body onr :rowng? s I d ecled lowsrdlhe ell oI lhe .ght and by how much?Howfor foovard or siori dro\^/ng ihe 'gLJre i s 'e .iLr ircn' ihe islhe form eon ng? Fur- b e g i n nn g , i o d r r w i h e s g - a s s e . < s s r n p e a in cocL^r'ord spoce iitermore, orlistrnustconslder ihe lhe relo lorms,for exomc L cn egg, :cne€ a! .:er, 'onshipof h sown poslon n spocetothotof o r b o c k l t i s . n L r ce c s e r i c p c a e o a . - c 9 r h -heobieclbeingdrown Hedoesnol hovelo f o r ml k e l h e i b c o g e n o d f t c r ' p . : r . . . , / oblecl n lhe posiliofiromwhichhe d r o w i n go s i m p l eb o c k i n i h a i p o s i o . ' : : ' Crowlhe ne Youcon then skelch I lhe r b ccge o''sr i'e !ews I bulil hedoesnot,he rnusldelerm ire position from which lhe iorm s To be block Snce lhe humon figLrre s tne most occommodoTe complex iorm on oriisi can drow i s neces ond he muslmeniolly drown,
s o r yi o s e e r g h l i h r o u g ho l l h e i n i r c o i eo n d

l\4icheangeodetermned ihe poslion of confls ng clelo h lo the crrge,simpe mosses th s ligureverycorefuly n odv.rnceYo! ore

Ihese sinple bax figurcs con be Lsed l. detetnine lhe elolire pasilian af lhe moses the heod, r/b

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OVEPTHE CI]RISI DEAO t 1232 26.2.n)

51

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of Ihe Plones theT0ls0
nons der whol porlonsotlhe vorousporis \rof the igLrreyou ore lookng ol n ihis drowng.Do)ou seelhe loo fionl sde, or o I ofthese? These the plonos o form. are of Dsregordlng foro momenlthinkof detoils thetorso aso orgeb ockcreoted thofioni by plone (4 ond ihe sde plane (Bl The sde plones onofthe lorsoole ol o sighl obluse g e lo thefrontp ane,moking bockwider the lhon the front of lhe torso rnogne o seresof linesrunning frcm lhe lop oflhe shoulderslolhe pp es,lrom n shou der lo shoulder and from npple 10 nipple Thesenes\^/ould define b g lop ploneof lhe lhe chesi(C), which iswiderol lhe shouder ihon ol ihe nipples, pone lncLudes lhls lhe fronlplaneof the delo d musc (D) e You moynolcetholthe occuroiedef niiion of plonesisd reciy fe oled 1othe successful hondingof ghi dnd shode. insionce, For the block armon lhe righiisdrownoso rounded the lght top plone (E)is clearlysepooted fromthe pane in shodow(F) Thetocilholbolhihe ffonlof thelorsoond o section oflhe sldeorevisib gives powere o fu i usion os ofihe figure o lhree-dimenslono The moslinlrigu nglhingoboulfigure drowyou ing s ihot ii requkes to ihlnkond do severol differeni ihingssmuioneously,nce t s S diilicult lhe beg nningio ddselero ih ngs in ol once, I moy be he pfL.tl consldef lo ony one eement ol o iime,e\,entholgh lt is !ndersiood ihoi oll e emenisof o drawlngore nierleloied. elemenhof o good figure The proporilon, deioil, drawngareline, mossond perspecii\€, thrusi, onotom\t lighiondshode, Whenbeginnng o drowng,iiisoflenhe pfLrlo consder onlyihe plonesAfleryouha\,€ esloblished ouhide shapeof ihe lgure, ihe drow ines thotseporote one ponefrom on' ofher Think ond drow lhe plonesof lhe of lorgest mossesrsi lhen go on io ihe plaries f of lhe smoller forms

/

Ihese slmpledrcwings werc dohe os preliminorysketches determine lhe fo lorge plonesal lhe la6o frcm lhe frcnl, bcck and lhrcequoners views

NUDE MALE FIGURE RIJNNING pq, b@n ihk ond block chotk 1496 150],, 1a! \ 9./d(3).47| 23.13m1

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whch k less finjshed I n lhisslrongdrowing, drowng,lher bcoge is I lhonthepreceding dromoilcolyUppedforv/ordli s cleor thoi Mchelongelodrewthe ligurewhie beorng ofihoiform n mnd lheiop orsuperiorview girdle, which reshon iop of Theshoulder ihe b coge, conssh of lhe hro clovlcles(A or der blodes, ond B) ond ol lhe 1uo shou ore scopuloe. scopuloe bolh co\e€d in The posebyihe hvc mosses ihe iropezius of lhLs musce [C ond D).Theshoudergirdle s oiioched io ihe rib coge ony ot the pil of lhe lhroolwhere clovclesmeeiihe iop of lhe lhe

s slernumThls ght ollochmenito the restof the lwo scopuoe ond the skeeion offords mobLly1 Sinceihe up c oviclesexiensive fu/o by per limbs oitachedlo ihe scopulo lhe ore the shoulderloini, ormsore oso onlyslighty ottoched lo the restof lhe lrunk oi the body ond ore olsocopobe of greol movement \lewed from the fronl,the c ovlc e oppooB osa slroghi line,butwhenseenfiom obo\€, os I s in lhs drowng, ils S shope cun€ is io It is inleiesiing observein suchon un nnshed drcwng os this one which c€os

1

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':helongeo decided lo workon frsi ond _,, Thoseoreosthol projecl lorvr'ord ihe -:n ihe shoulders ihe righlorm ore ond hos : moslde\eoped Theheod,howe\,et :_ yei been refrnedievdenly lhe odisi of ._ied ilsl lo e$oblshthe symmelry ihe :_:- der gndle -e poston oJlhe siernlm scn impodont -:-.r whendrowng lhe fibcoge n o djllicult ihe r,rrcn. Ve\{ed from lhe fronl, slernum fromihe slde :.:ecrs os o vertcol line,bLrl : .!ru€ of lh s bone con be cleary ob.-.e.. HereMicheofgeo hosdrownlh-.

(E) the stefnum n a waythot c eof y defines d rection the r b coge lorbordihrLr$jng of ond l led downrard lowordlhe righi n ihis drowlnglhe siernum oppeorsmuch shorter wiTh Tjpof your lhe Coler up ihe siernum oJlhe orger lngerond seehowlhed recijon moss, lono, is weokened. lhe Suchsmo el forrns c ovc es,breosfs, lile sternum, or f os drowncorreciynperspeclile,wlgreoilyenhonce the ilusionol lorgermosses sirongly pilchedJoMord bock in spoce or

of IheForms ile Chest
LI ere iso mognifcenl drowing oJthe torco. lhe fl the b€osi muscles, iuo greot pecloroh, peclorclis mojor (Aond B),exiend ourwqrd from ihe sidesof the slernumond the borderof the clov holfof ihe lo^r'er lnlernol Into cle to inserl ihe orm underthe shoulder muscle,or deltoid (c). lhe fiberslwistos lheY neor lhe insertionpoinl, Ihe two greol pec ln ote sjmlLor shope lo llot torol muscles bloclc,whjch wrdp oroundthe fronl upper holf of ihe ib cgge, givlng lt o somewhoi intheupper€gion,or oppeoronce ffojlened m!sThe icp shelf, ihe chesi. gredtpecicTol of the front of lho b coge frorn lhe cles cover clovicles10the le\el of the fftthor sMhrlb The lowetbordersof theselwg mlsclesole ropre' sented by h\lc llne6 (D ond E),wh ch cln€ oulurordond downv/qldliom the slernum Mcholongelohos Indlcoledo smollbLlt of importonl detoll of lhls oreo lho frbers lhe pectorolmuscleneol the orm oro pusneo c€otlng o foMord bV ihe delicld muscle, neof bulge(Dobole lhe breoot smolleggllke ihe armplt. A !€rtlcol groo\e (Gl s the rqsull of the owayftom ploirudonof ihe peclorol muscles of lhe sides lhe sialnum. the liefnLrmis shop€d\ery mlch lke o sword whlchpoinildownvlrd ll smolll?omon ls composedof lh€e pods iho hondle,of monubrllmjihe body or blode (lometlrneg pofwhlchlsthelongesl th6 coLled Olodlolus), whLch replo' ioni ond the xlphoidprocess, The senlsthe iip of the sword, uppq exlromily cenitms thleo noicheslthe ot the siernum ier noich forms lhe plt of lhe lnrooi (H) lhe inthenotcheg lnnerend oochclovlce rests of on elihersde of lhh ceniro noich thg plt of the stomoch0 l5formed bv the xlphoid

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lHEGREAT MUSCLE PECIORAL

Orlgln:

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sruDY $ &qRrfploMEw FoR 1s34-3tbtdcrchok 15t" \ 1YP9n9x 25.lo.ml Dodidoed

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Forms overlopping oftheTo|so
Ll e'e , /ef onothe'qrond drowng of the I lrqurelholtuns!rpossed15 n represenio iion of o soid iorm n spoce,M cheongelo \.!€nted igure3lefi shoulder ond orm To lhe To odvonceond lhe righikfee to od',cnce. pu somefo.msof lhe body fo^4ordwhile pushing olhersbock,ihe ori sl i rsicor€cly drowstheforms nspoceHerehedrewlherb coge mcsscs o roundedbock, whch i is fonir'crd lhe lop ond irockot lhe boiiom al The efl orm is o bock ke cy nder lhe iower lhon doesThe end prolrudes fcrlherforv/ord lop Nexl, orlsi fnds i helpfu lo cnot"e the lhe overoppng oi lorms f yolr ook ol lhe fguret leltshou youcon seelhollhe dei der, lo cl musce (4 ond upper orm ore ceory posilioned fronlof lhe etl pecloro smojor n ccvi musce ondcovice;ihepeclorolond cle ore n fronlof lhe groo\e oi the sternum Theseiorms e oncllhecy ndershapedneck n fronioiThe iigureS pectoro,wh ch s n righi lroni oi hisrghTarm Thsi lsiol] s occom p shedby overoppng neslhol e.ho over oppingfoimsot Thebod\r Noice loo ThoT lhoseoreosol lhe body on rirereara sirongvolLre ihoi prolecltoru4.ird conirosis olh,-rlorms n the.ircwng orc The rendcredn ghiand shocle, buTthe cof ol5o nosT not nearly sirong on ihe proleci is $ os It s niereningio nolcehowMcheorigeo s haschoriged shop,6 ihe pecToro mo the of jor musce (8) ftom lhoi ri the prccedlno smusc eoppeorsas o drowng n thcrlvr'orkih nihsclrowngiTisspher fol. bock ke mossr ico The oclion orfunclon oflh s muscesTo drowihe orm to lhe lroni ollhe bocly oi Theserroturs mognus anlsce s mode Lrp ocoleclon n ne ifger kedglalonslhoiore ihe sclesoJlhe r b coge bul are lorgey h clden by the peclorolsmolor Thed giloiions orgnolefromihe uppereghl rbs,and ex lend lo\4ard backoi ihe r b coge,wrrere lhe lheyconverge poss ond underihescopuo 10 iermnole ol h nnerborderThetwo serroTls mognus mlsc espu the iwo scopuoe oporl iowordlhe fronlof lhe iorsoTheuppersx or bylhe pecioro s modgiloions o€ covered ore lortihe owerlhre,o vsibe on lhe surioce peclorolis mclor oi lhe body ol C bei"veen otssmLrs ondolorgebockrnusclecoledlhe in dors(D), smo!poriofwhchisvsjbLe Ths o pose.The loi orisoresomelmesconiused dig wih the r bs,bui I bs ore poro el Toone onions olher,whereos s nruscLe oul on lhe th on sides ihe r b coge resling iop of lhe ribs ol

T ]ESERRAILJS VL]SCL' I'.IAGNLIs

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:iUoYfORTHE NUDF EFTABOVE AT PERS|AN T6d SByt, ond whl€ cho/k1Atu r 71/!!2699 \ 19OScht

Ao

Abdominus Muscle Reclus The
mo llrhenihe ormisrosed,the oeciorols tt lor musce (Al lckes on o iionqucr shope Thelbefs ol lhe musce exlendfrorn the r b coge ond inseri nto lhe lpper orm (B) underthe deioid muscle the moss the ol peciora smojoro soconsliuiesihe troniilop or ihe ho ow oi ihe ormplt or ox lo (C) The ieresmojor, sma muscleon ihe scopuio, o iogeiherwliho sma pori on of ihe loiiss mus dors,formsa mass(Dl, which mokes ihe !p bock flop of lhe oxi o holow Thelosilhree (E, nrognus d gitotions t G) of the serratus poslion muscecre eegonly drown Their lhe behveen pecloro smolorond oissmus dorsi musc sceoryvsible es The pectoro regionol lhe lorso s seporcledfromlhe ob'domino regiof bylhethor occ orch of the rb coge.Ths s o orge po ntedorchformedbythe cortiogesofihe f bs ocoiedbe ow the siernum.The obdom(Hl,f s lhis no musce,or reclusobdomins irornlhe owerrbs qndJhe orchond e\:lends ol x phod process lhe slernum ihe pubic to bones orfio povs, nofiowng os lrlescends Ihe neo olbo ( wh le ne l iso slrong ien' .lon lhoiextends downlhe csnlerol lhe rec lusob.lonrn s,cliv.lng lhisrfusce iri ho f \r'er lco y Themusce s furlherdlvcledby lhree horzonlol. lransverse, or iendons One iendon crosses abdomenotihe leve oflhe the nove; onotherrilersecls bollomol lhe rib the cogei.rndihe Jhrd occLrrs beh,/een bolthe lornoflheslernum ondlhe bollomof the rb coge flhemusceswe deveoped.asil sin ih s drowng, lhe lndviduolsections the of musclecTe vsbe. Exceplior o smo i!' ongulor-shopecl e, pyro dols,wh ch s musc m locoled obo\,ethe pubic bones,rectus ob dom n s isthe onlymusceon lhe froniol lhe obdomno regon.F\rronrida s coverecl s by Jony tssue, ch protecls pubc bones. wh the ThereciLrs obdom nisworks ogoinsiihe slrong musc of the bockto ho d ihe r bcoge in on es uprghi posion, coLrnieroclng force ol the grav]y Thhmuscle couses lorsolo bend the fo^rordrI o so formslhe wol on lhe fronlof lhe pelvc bosin, ch proleclslhe wh orgons of digeslionEoch ndviduoLsecJon lhe recof lLrs obdominus muscle lke o porlionof an h -.gginshope conbe dm orlyshoded ond n lhs poselhe rb coge s lilledforwsrd lhe os pevic mosss plched bcck ihe obdom nol muscesfodedon hefolo eve iLrsl obove

NUs L.]S RECI ABDOM

Or0r.

STUDY TNE FOR NUD! YOUIN Or'ER PROPNEI EL THE DAN 1511 rcd cholk avet bldck cholk pepobtiahs 131/ t 9fd', (33.66 23.31 / cn)Dohoged

62

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63

The Exlernoloblique

ng T his s o mostinJeresl drowingot lhe figI ure ln whch youcon obserue rib coge o lhcrl lsdlsiincllylipped to one side.The116shy moss ofJheexlernoobliquemusc or obliq, e, uusexternus obdom nus(4, exlendsfrcm lhe losleighl rlbsof lhe b coge ond inserh lnic lhe iop of lhe pelvis, ilioccreslthe shape or of lhe exlerno obllque ook like o leordrcp from mony ong es, n ihis pose, hore\€t lhe efrernol oblique oppeors os o rounded block,Whenlho lwo obique musc simules toneously coniroct, theywo in concerlwiih lhe recius obdomlnis bend lhe body for io v,,ord. Whenonlyone contrcc,ls,lhe coge rib isrotoigd, pulled,loone sde, Ihesem!sof cles olso prelent o ddewsysclllqpse of lhe db coge.Ihepelvlcmoss boundbylhe llloc ls crest (B), ihe abdomen (C),whlch slopes by downvrordbei\re€n lhe lh ghs, ond by the buttocks(D). Theodhi olJghttoknownot onlythe forms of the bodtl the mLJscleg the surfoce, on bLJi olso chonges ihEshopesofihese lhe ln forms ln the dlffefenlmowments. musclemoy A become thlckerond $oder ln d sloie of conlrcclion,or ll moy be €loxed and reloilvely ffotlened. Obsefwtion osw€llos under,siondng lhe oc,lion funciionof q mlscle wlll or enobleyouto drow lhe foms wlthiruth.li ls offonsl\€io see o drowlng of o llgure in gr6ol octlonwhlle ollihe mlsclesoreportro'€dos Ino 16oxedstote, €clinlngfgurewliholl oro lhe foms coniroclodqnd buging Inon oullondshmonneri onci€nt The Gr6ek odlsh, obseryngtho nlde oth elesot ihe gymnoglum, bscome mosieA ot porifoylng the exdcf onolomyoflhg body In mo\€ment.

o gif: the losleighlrbs (lhe libe6 nterd9 ioie w1hlhe d qltotonsof lhe lo{er senotus mosnut

FIGURE SIUDY THE FOR 'ECrrE OF QASCTM 1501,block chotk '16"x 10h [40.44 t 26.01\n]

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onieror superor iac splne o n i e r o rn i e o r l o c s p n e

Mole of VoriofionsForm: ondFemole
of Th6ls o ne drowing ihe lemoe iorsoc. hc I whichlhe bosicformsol lhe figLJre € y ind coled, Figurgs olvcE ole been coreful oflhe boo, moreintereslng whenihe moss€s h ore onanged in opposingdireciions, rs l€g is modelsweighl on herright drowinglhe Ihereforeihe pelv s h pushed'rp\dqrdon tE l|16 ighis de of her bodylhe r b coge,which downwqrd ond fo\dordlhe I ghl sid€ of ilE tho body,counterbalonces iil of ihe pelvd lowsrdltE lhe ib coge s olsoiurnedslghlly lefl side,whereoslhe pelvic o€c models focesfondsrdloword lhe vie\det lhe moss (A) represenls lhe exlerno obllquemusce ll ls ony sllghtyseporolec frcm lhe mossbelow ii, ihe g uleus medi-6 appect (Bl, ihesei^lt forms muscle becouse e on osonelorgemqss monyfemo modelsl^ generol, of ihe muscles lhe obdomnol 'e glonofthe femolefiguleolemuchmoresubfrom ile ond essdlstlnguished one onolher ofthe mole musces ihon ore cofiesponding lgu€. The llne epfesenilngihe lod of l'ne gron (C)ls nol os cleorydefned os ll vr'oub oi be in o mole fg!€, Theforms D ond Ecb muscei iheyarecousedbythe nol €p€seni fatryllssueof the th ghs. Ihe shopeof ihe deio d muscle(F)ls dif. shou fefeniln menihon lnwomen,lvlen3 dels ore brooderond more blocklke n shope, deltod lssphercqloiihe o whereos womon's cleol_ downvlard slopegroduolly topi flbers oi tullness ihe botlom of ihe lng increoslng n fgures,ihe pp e hiusl n drowLngsofTnole obo\,e the ow€l border ond s ghily lo the side of the peclorolmusce. n drowngsof femole figu€s, howe\€t the breaslsresl di onihe mlddle recily ihe peclorolmuscles, on lhkd of ihe rlbcogerihe I b coge oreoobole lhe breosis equo lo ihe rib coge areobe_ is lheseare closscalpro_ ow lhem Of course portions,ond e\€ry mode is different, but genero y breosisore p oced c oser to lhe thon lo ihe obdomen heod ond shouiders Vlewedirom ihe fronl, npples appeor io point oulvirrd iowqrd the sldesol the body ne\€rsiroghi io^dord.

SIIJDY CIASS FEfi4AIE OF CAI TORSO AN]IRIOR, bt6ck chotk 152A-21, 'r3.10cn) lold x 714 [25J2 \

69

FOUR CHAPIER

TORSO: THE REGION POSTERIOR

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ANDFOR DAMNED THE cnl 15*' / 1ar'dUAA1 t 24.99

Simplifying Forms theBock the of

Micfrelongeo hod on mode lo ioke thh lnusual pose so lhol he A s hosbeen shown, Aeiiroord noryobi ly to seecomp er torms couldcoreful copyit?ll sun/ikely hadon y He ci ihe body n lermsof lery simpe mosses, extensi/e underslond of the formsof ihe ng \oie ihe hvo orge egglikemosses ore lrody lhol o lo\red him io drow the hLrrnon thot creoled by the rlb coge. The heod of ihe figurefrom oulofh sheod,wthoulomodet, in liyng i gure smerelyndicoled lhissfage ol of onyposlon n spocethof hewished. Drowing thedrowlng. Micheonge o obvious \,!'onied lrom liie is\€ry mpodoni,o greotiesi oi on y io eslobishthe symmelry cnd mossof the oarists obiliv but i s no1ihe onty exerctse iorsowithoulthe inJerrupton lhe smoller necessory leorning of n howio drowltrefgLrre iorm of Jhe heod The muscesorcundlhe Fgure drowng is noi copryingfrom o backond sideof the ribcoge oreolsodrown mode Sfudy muscesso ihoi yo! know lhe os smol,egg ke shopes, ch ore porlio y wrrereeoch one comesfuorn, wh ond where i embeddedno orgermoss goesto, os wellos ls aclon. \\,b ore oble jo Thesublle ilgure ihe uppeftettcornerof drcw inesonty by knowing ol ihe originond iil s drow ng suggesiso iorso seen from lhe inserton the formsDrowing the forms of of of sde lhe ouler line (4 represents orge, ihe bodyccn comeonlyfTom the onewhohoso dominonl moss lhe r b coge,Thedefn lve comp eie underslanding construcion oi of ond nesond tonesof ihe finsheddrowng are onoiomy ProcJice dfowingihe ngure fromout cbsenthere, olowng )oU1oobsenethe m- of yourheod, without modet. is son excelo Th codonlinilio nesol o mosler drawing enTV/oyio see f you reallyknowJhengure. Do you lhnk ivichelongetoosked ihe

Muscles theBock of Deep
lhe n rowing bocI iso gfeol cholengebeih influence lrcouse lhree olefsof mLJscles of oppeoronce. The deep€slloler consisls lhe ereclorspinoemuscet which orlginote ond lhe bock of the pelvs,or ai the socrum io up the bockbone, inserinlo llium, extend Erecthe owerlorlebroeof lhe neckregion, buLge ethersideofthe on tor spnoe muscles \eriebro spnescousng o furrow(4 down the m ddle of the bock, ond exlend ouiw,ord lo lhe oreo ol whichthe ribslurn ond bend lowcrd the onlerior of the boq/, in Ereclor spinogo€ lhlckest lhe oreo of ihey ore lhe lo\der bock or umborreglonlB). lhere,whee they consequently mosivlsible on masses ihe surfoce c€ol6 iwo cy nderlike floi oppeorrother in lhe r b of lhe body Thgy coge oreo becousethey don't hove rnuch flnclion lhefe.Their funciionislo exiend,or pullbockv,r'ord, lrunk ihe bodyofb ng ii ihe of bock oflet it hosbeen flexed,oI benl fondord. Theyoso hove ihe imporicni ftrncllonof bodyhiheupr ghi helpnOtokeepihewhole ol Ariists oflen €fer io ihe deep muscleg ihe spne os the shongcordsof lhe bock bemosses lhey moke couseof lhe cylndedlke on the su oce of the ow€r back (umboi lkedto ploy up those regon,Mlchelongelo becouse oftholr!€ry musces h s drowlngs ln humanfunclon ol holdlng us In ihe g€cl posliion. WhendrowlngIn lghi and shode, the odist th nl<sof ihe \ir ues on fuo greoi thesemosses becomewry ropes columns, or pfomlneniwhen the mode 19corryingq heoq/ object.

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NAE MUSCLES SP Orlgin

STIIDIES ADAMS FOR RIGHI IdEEANDINREEANGEIS INlHECREAIION ADAIVI 6F 1511,ed dnd btockbhotk 11q." \ 7/a" [29.s3 \ 19.69cn)

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ond The Scopulo ltsMuscles
muscles whch reslon dogonolyin ls uppef podon by o bony Tlre rhombodeus I ihe deep erec sp noemlsc es,formNvo rdge,or spne (D)Thhbonyrdge exponds tor promnenimosses ond B)be /eenihe 1r,vo nlo lhe ocromon process ihe summl of ot {A scop! oe Theorign of ihesemuscess lhe the shou (El der se\€nlh, lcsf, or neckveriebro thel rslfve and The suprospinclus musce (F) s ocoied ihorocc \€debroe Thefibers ihe rnuscles obove the bony rclge of lhe scopuo ond of Trovedownwordond ouhlcrd lo olioch to Tefm noiesol lhe bock ol lhe upper orm oi ihe nner, orverlebrol, border ofihe scapuloe lhe humerus undef lhe deloid nruscleThe (C) Ihe fiombodeus musces pu ihe nfrosp nolusmusce ond teres rnnor bolh scopuoelogelher, thal s,lo$ardlhe bock foTmo rnoss(G) ocoled beow lhe bony bone. f o mode! sho! derscre lhus pu ed riclge. Theynsertnio lhe upperorm besde bock,lhemoss the homboicleus of musces lhe suprosp notus. funclion The ofihesethree oppeorcgrecty conirocled The fiombod mLrsces to pu ihe ormsbock\rsrd s ond lo moss s mode up of fu/o seclons rhonr- roioieihern oufilard,owayfromihe fronloi boideus rninor nd rhombodeus o mojor -'bui The orisilhinks oflhem os one moss (Hl Theteresmolor muscle s occied beow Thesccpua hasmusceslhotrestontopof nirosp nolusand leresm nor I orginalesoi 1 t is o foi,lrionguar bone thol is crosse.J ihe owerporion of the scopulooncl nserls nlo the lronl of the upperorm beneoththe deTol:lmuscle ieres The molor\dorks the wlh teres minor.ihe infrospnoius, ond lhe s! prospinolus pLrll ormsbock Bli i acis io lhe o one io roiolethe ormsinwcr.l,lowrrcl lhe lronlorlhe bo.ly. leres The filld (rndo othef lorms creole.lby lhc rnus.les lhe scqpuc of oppear os smoI, cgg kcishopes, whichore pcriia y cmbedde.lln the argermassolihe n ilr s clrowing lighioga n comesfrom the obo\4:ofi iyou.lisreoard thesmollforms a lor o momeni,you con visua ihe enllre lze bcick o orgef olTened os ovolr thereiso ctecI progresson clorkefingione from left Tc ol righl Thelighl crreo(ll,the ho lfone.or groy oreo, beh,leen lqhi ancl shocieond lhe shodow uslrole sprogresson,lnmode i ih n-c ndividuolsmolL lorms )ou shouclkeep ir minclihsmovernenl ght fto dofk. of i s importaninol oniy lo knowihe exocr shopesof the scopuoe bul olso precisert howondwherelo p oce thesebones olve re lo lhe rb coge Thescopuoe occupyihe upperholfof the rlb coge,ond ihe d sionce belween ihem isequoliolhelengihoi oneo. g€ol movemeni. Whenihe shoLrlders onc armsore ihrownfoMord, scopuloe the drau owsy lrom eoch olhe| when lhe sho! defs ore pulledbock,lhescopuoeore drownic word eoch oiher When ihe orm is roisec higherlhon sho!det ihe scopuo rolote: ihe pos lronra \,eriicoto a horizonio ton on ihe b coge Thekeylo delermn ng lhe posi or oflhe sccpLrlo whendrowng o f gurewlh cf ormro sedoboveihe shoulder lo ookot ihe is direclion olthe orm:1he scopulo cnd ormw

II]E SIBYI :i-f,.S FOR TISYAN ''| 3 h " ( 2 3 5t 2 r . 2 7 c m l 3

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c rnree ol lhese musces luberosity lhe hlmefls ol

75

The Ttopezius Muscie
o.- o.--e oo-. ncnsvory occord ng lo lhe parlofihe nLrsc: T I :e e , P ' - . o - , . r _ 5 liol s ocivcied f bolh shouders ore i!e: :::'!: an t.e backof ihe neck, shouder the ibers ocoEd lhere wi pul ihe he::
:_: -33er back regon lls nner borcler ex':_:. n:n'ire bock oflhe slul tothe osi or -..eJ: ro veriebro s l C ) T n e t r o p e z r . rh a s ren.l noLrs slreeioreoson l, wh ch oppeoras s ght depressonson ihe s!fface oithe body Tne erlent oi These depressonsdepends on The erTenT muscu/ordeveopment ol the oi iro.le One afeo of ten.lon sheei s loccied orouridiha lwelflhlhorac cverl,.bro oTlheI p of the ia oiiheTropezus musce (C) Anolr]er o r e o s o c a i e . lo l t h e s p i n eo f i l r e s c a p r a o n ThesLrmmiof the sho! cer (D),on.] ihe lhrr.l .ireo nrrr()rn.ls lhe promirn|l 5ev,ariih cer v (! !erT,-br.r llE b(r.rkoi the r--ck (L).I hrs on o s T r c o i . r a r | o n d s h o p o . lo r . l s I o n s l a by th. trrfi:r rErg ns ol iho ltupezus ni!s. -8.rtrrLr,a tlre iropcriLrs r|Lr5c 5 ior!1,e on.l riints nio s.rvcr.rl.rrrrrs otth,o bock, ts nrnc back, b,LJi ony one sde is oclivolec -.. f heodwi be pLr ed down io il-r sho! cler -cl lowerf bresolTheia of iheiraoez u3clrcn --: s h o i r d e To o w n T h em d d l e f b e s o e . : s Thescop! ae drowihe shouce6lowara : _= o n o t | r e rf l h e h e o c l s f x e d ,i i r e f b e r so ' ' _ : T r a p e z u sr i l r e n e c k o n c l s h o ! c l e r r e e : i 'lb.lfow

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lhe mLrsc ollhe back lo g !e _.: es e i f e d o f a l h r e e d m e n so n c i g u r e , y o !- ! : fo conTfo Thc\,1] !$ ori the m|rsclesD€i := w h c i r l o r m so r , ar ] i h e i g h T . w h i cc l e r . : : h T o r r e .r l l w i r c h o r e n s h o d o \ rS k e k r h " : o . url{resol ihe orgcsl nrosses lr5t Thenso:. the edllc bolw.iexrlhe I and sho.lc.i rir:: To rouril oli The lorms Ony geonr€ : sli.rpes s|rch .rs lr .Lrbc lrov.r $urp ec! : wfoG on,- profe nrccls.xjoTfr(j

76

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Dorsi lotissimus
muscleot lhe bocL s /f, nothersuperfrcio tillhe loiiss dorsi.Alonq lhe bockoi mus wilh lhe shoulders a srnoll ond lrlongulor o€a of ihe muscles oflhe scopuo region, iorms ihe that rnoke up the surfoce lhe back orei of iropeziL$ thelwo holves afssimusdors ond of ihis col origi [Aand B). huge,symmeir musc]e nales oi lhe pe vis and socrum,exiendsup ward overjhe lurnbofregion,lhe lowersix poirs of rbs, ond the lo^,€rportionof the sccpuloos it exlends ollwqrd io lhe ompl, lhere loiisslmls dorsi nseris, olong wiih the leresmojot intothe fronlof lhe hlmerus,lust below ls heod Thelowerport on of thisrnuscle,allhe socrum, pelvis, ond lo\der bock,is justo lhln lendnoussheei.Beneoih ihln this sh6ef,lhe underlyng e€clor spinoemuscles (C)show cleorly the surfoce on ofthe figlle ln ths drawlng, Short, holched lnes(D)ndicoiewhereihe muscle fberc'ofloiisslmus dorslorsefrornihe lendon sheei n the lo\rerbock These linet exlendlrom the higheslpo nl of the pe vls, LJp\rgrd ond lnv,'ordtoMr'ord bockbone, the Theupperboderoflhismlscle{E),whlch runs horizontally over lhe deeper icrms of ihe bock oi,the le\€l of lhe sxth r b veriebroof ihe bockbone, posseso!€r iho lowErpofllon of the scopua ond ihusholds downon ihe rlb ll coge Thelroni bofderof the otsslmus dorsl (D extendsdownv,ord fforn lh6 ormpll ond clrves oroundio the bock of lhe rb coge, creoilngo beouiiful on ihe fgufe, Ine Lqtssimus do|simokeg possible ow€r ll to lhe rclsedorm ond pu it back wlh fofce. I showshef cleody in such movemenls os ployng gol swmrning, choppng wood,of p! lingono rope.lenob eslhe enllre bodylo be puled upvr'ord ond fonr/ord wh-cr) ihe ormsore in o flxedposlllon, Aciions thal por lcularly depend on ths muscleore rope climbing ond workon a horzonlolbor Thehoh€sof the oiissimus dors ond ihe l -nderlyng rio coge s-ggesl'he shopesot lMr'o lorge \^icfermeons, To ploce lighl and shodeon suchdominoniforms Wlr drowin ing,lllshelpfuliovlsuolize,elen ic indicoie or on ihe paper on orror showing direciion ihe iromwhich lighiiscomng.Thoiwlllesloblhe I shihe diect on of lhe mo\€menl of lighi lo dorkocross flgue. ll willolsope\€nt the ihe ighl fromjumpingto hil formsfromdlfferenl direclions, lending destroy I unit In lhus to ihe rendering mojorforms solsohelptuio runo il I ne down ihe formsto seporoJe light oleo the fiomthe shodoworea. holtlpne The oreofo ls alonglhol line.

TNE SS DORSI LAT N4US MUSCTE org n:

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qnd with lhe Modeling Bock Lighl Shode
Lol lhoi dorsi T..i$r. orqesuperfic muscles cover sheetoi ihe lalissimLrs The mossbeI m.J cf ihe bock lolissimus ond lro tu€enihe bo1lom lhe rbcoge ondlhelop dors of Deziis. ore relotively lhin folher ike o of lhe pevh is represenled lhe externol by cookei ond o€ thereforeinfuenced by oblique(ll. lie torms lhe deeper Lrnderlyjng of muscles As lhey ore shownon onoiomlcolchodrs, obo\€ ihee o€ no lines Ln sdrowingihe ltr moss ona modelS ofihe bock(AJ bockseporot, ihe spineol ihe scopulois forrnedby ihe ing musclemosses. formsoi the bock in The lropezius ond lhe underyingsuprospinolus.o finshed drowing ore dep cied by smol The mosses 1r^o betweenthescopu (Bond mosses lghtond shode, ch orepadolly in wh oe C) ore lomed by lhe rhomboideus lra- embedded n lhe greol mossof lhe bock ond pezius muscesA smollrnoss belowlhesplne lseI l€rnemberlhotdark nlhe ghl oi\4oys of lhe scoplo (D) is caused by th-. n- oppeordorkerlhon theyreollyorc. some The frosp notus musc e.liismosiimporlonlio noie oppliesfor relecied lighl ln shodow lhe thot ihe infrospnofus ockswilh,or tres lghls ov/oysoppeor ghterihon theyore.lf inler posses onto,lhe moss lhe deltoidmusce l1cu lowo simpe rue,lhe vo ues),ouuseio of fo (E). The ow€r end of ihe scopuloond the shodelhe bock w be moredynomc and or€rlyng leres mojor form o smoll egg occurole Whenmodeling lhe ightoreosol shopedmoss(F)Theie€s major is locoied tour flgurc, mokethe dorksLghter ihon they d recly on the iop borderof lhe lolssmus oppeor lo you, ond when working n the dorsi(GJThegreol coumngof lhe ereclor shodoworeos,moke lhe ighlsdorkerlhon splnoe [H) ore v]sibleihroughthe lenclon meyoppeorrc you

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lhe Boloncing Body Gidle: Pelvic The
sf,eelo grdleson lhe body, Thee ore tuvo I ihe shou qifdleond lhe pevic girdle der g Thefuncton of ihe shoulder rdle s mob lilY s ghllyollachedlo lhe restof ihe ske' Only eion, 1 olfordslhe upper lmbs lreedomoi Thefunclionol ihe pelvc g rd e s stoblily aswellos ocomoion oflhe owerlimbsThe lwo orge ho\es of the pelvs (meonng ''basinl ole limly olloched n bock to the socrum, in l|onllhe hvopubc bonesore ond frmly connectedlo eoch other Thepelvs, which €sts on iop of lhe heodsol lhe luo hods up Thebocklhghbones.or l6murs, Theonlyporlsof lhe pevislhot o€ vsible on the bock ore ihe pevic,or ilac, cresl(4 The ond lhe sacrum(B). os socrumCsocred co bonel, os t wossomelimes ed, \doslhe bone ofleredup lo the gods n socriiceby early rnon ll i5 ociuoly fve !€rtebroeihol ho\,€osslied, iusedlogeiherio iorm one or is bone,The socrum nollot lfionguor-shoped but cufi€s ouhv]rd (con\€x)from iop lo bol tom.On is boseond nd coiing ls widlhore pevic,or ilcc, spines ond Dl, (C the posierior of whichoppeor on ihe surfcce the body os londmorks fat ole andmorkd mpes.These womenlhan on men becalse therqpcrrton ond pe visorewiderthon the femolesocrum iv/o ihoseofihe mo e. These po nls,logeiher wlh lhe po ntlhatindcoleslhe bofiomof ihe (E), on socrum formo usefuconslruci lr ongle of for clorlyingthe posilion ihe pelvs ln ony g\€n pose. line TLrnning ihroughpo nis (C A ond D)wouldindcofe ihe iill of lhe pevis. lhe socrumore lhe four verysmol Eelow of o bonesthoi represeni ihoi remoins lhe toi, ihotformlhe humon or cocc\,l. veriebroe The coccll s nol reo y of nteresllo orlsts ihe becoLrse cur\€s lnder ond betuv€€n li lv/o bullocks and does nol oppeor on lhe surfoce ihe fgure. of lhe lhe posilion the pevh delermines of ihe I o\r'ero pose of the figure Lf model is rcsl_ ng herwelghlon eg,lherghi eg jnlhis one drowing,lhepelvsisplshed Lrpon lhe rghi sideA sdeond dropsoweron the opposile lhe smollerformsrnustbe correspgfldingy liled To mointain ihe modelis boonce den coLrn shou ogoinslthepu ofgroviv,lhe lerocl lhe d reci on ol lhe pelvis by tilt ng n lhe opposiledlreclonjthot s, ii ihe pevis s w h gher on the rght sde,lhe shoulder lle hgher on ihe eft side

C IHE PELV C IDLE

SIUDYOF CIASSICALFEN'IA[!FOQM 101h , 71h 125.72 t. 19.45 ml

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Moximus Gluteus
ond mo/mus[A] ihe orgesl The qutelrs I th clesl musc of lhe bodv formsihebul e lock ll ariseslrom bockfourlhoflhe i ac the m, of creslihe sccru ondthe cocc)r(Soflre ils n orfoscio,on fberslerminole sheeis bers, off lhe th gh; oihers nsed nio lhe bock of the shofi oi ihe femur lusi beow The greoTer (Bl, trochanier o orge,squoreprojecTion of lhe femur ocoied jlsi beow is heod ond neck Dependng on ihe conirocion of exponsonollhe g Lrleomusces oroundii,ihe grealer lrcchoni-.r ppeors lhe sudoce o on of lhe b,ody a c ndmcrkdepress or pfoiecas on pedecly stro ghl lon.Whenlhemode slonds wth weghiequa y dslrbuted bolh egs, on ore eve Howe\€r ihe greaierlrochonlers when the weghi is ploced on one eg, ihe grcoter trocho of the sloncl eg slhru$ nier nO oui ond oppeorsas o proieclonon lhe sur reloxecl on The eg loce Thelrochonleroflhe opposle sde appeors o depresson os ThegluieLrs mus s bock ke in shope, mox bll the foi ihol occursorj Ts ower border solTe.is shapelhereand creoles g u lhe the 1eo loLd(C) Nollcehow MicheLongeo hqs manp'r olecl lne n lhs oreo of lhe drownO io nclcaie lhe unclerpane of lhe q uleLrs wThthe Thigh moxmls ol ilslunclure Theg {rleus lhe or nroxr'n!sexiencls f execl, bent, thsh,thot s,pu s I bdck rlo ne wih the lrlnk More rnporlonl,ii monlons lhe ir body,whoserrlnk wo!d olherwise for posion vlqrdol lhe hip jo nl, n on Lrprght Ar LongbeloreDorw lheoryof evolufon, s f\ iolle coled ihe giuleusrnoxinuslhe mosi ng Dur dhilngLrsh mlscleofmon ngiheevo (rionory process sze ncreosecl, iwos ils ond for ui rnoleLy responsrbe ihe roiolon of ihe pevs iroma horzonioio o veriico posiion HerelVchelongelohos ceory inclcoied ihe lbers ol the gllieLrsmcximus inserlng behreenlhe homstr moss(Dlatlhe bock ng exTurnus e lEl musc ofihelhlghondlhevoslus

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NUOF 1534ond | 545,blaak cholk | 9t r 7./t 12.1.13 fi.42cn) Domo9ed

FIVE CHAPTER

LIMB UPPER THE

SI!D FSFORINE5 SJNECEIING VARIOUS lhklltl" , 74'(236 t 194 cn)

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siudyor the Ll ere s onothermogntfcer]t I I fe ofonsh/pbehtu€en musceson lhe the bock oi the orm ond on the scopLrlo lhe smollegg ke mosson the owerend of ihe scopuo is ihe teresmajor muscte(Al.The rnossobove I oi B s rnode up of ihe inlrospnolug muscle ond the ieresminormuscle.Secouse ofthe bockvcrdposiiion the of orm,you con notce lhoi ihesefofmsof the upperbockorebulglngn o sioieof conlroc iion.Resi overlhe lop of the shou ond ng der receiv o lot oi ght isthe lropezius ng muscle of us {Cl.Theseparotion the tropez and ihe deliod muscleis indlcoiedby o chonge in The direciion lhe lineol D Doube curves of (E and D deine lhe shapeof lhe deto d Inih s beniposiiion lhe ormlhe forms of on The bockondlnsideofihe ormoreVtsib e,The exiernol heod [G], ihe nterno heod (H), ond the ong heod of ihe lriceps(t)orea tcteorly seporoTed from lhe lower border of ihe de lold.the commoniendon (J tiesabovethe poiniofihe elbow(l()lo lhe lnside ofthe point of lhe elbowis the inner owerend,or con dyle,of lhe humerus wh ch forms prom (L), o nem iondmark lhe abilly of the scopuoe lo mo!€ on jhe rb coge ]sextensive. lhe shopes mus Thus of clesin lhiso€o wllllorygreolly occordln'g lo ihe poseoi ihe modet.

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lhe /l n e\ce ent way to obsetue r! ll of on Flort slisin lire dfowinqoflhe fo sedorm. n th s areo ihere ofe ihree muscles thoi orig, noTelrom ihe corocoid processof ihe scopulo. The ftrslrs lhe peclorolismino[ o smallmusc lhot scovered the pecloro s e by mojorondgenefolydoesfoloppeoron lhe surfoce ihe body lhe second s ihe shori oi heod ol lhe biceps.lhe third is the coF ocobrocholis muscle, whichoppeors lhe on nside ofthe ormwhenlhe orm sroisedtiihos lhereiorebeen coled ihe brucfixon mus cle" SmoI and siender s visibeoiA. lt exil lendsupuordfromlhe ormptond nserhinio The upperorm oboui hal6,\oy the shafiof up lhe humerus beiween bceps (B)ondthe lhe ong heod of lhe lrlceps (C) The corocobrochios musce is on adduclorof the orm;tholh,il pu sihe armlo\rsrdthe sde of Aso visbe ln ths drowng s the ntefno heod of ihe triceps(D),lhelnnercondye of lhe humerus the smollmossof ihe ieres (E), mojor(F), oncllhemoss ollhe loiissimus dorsi (G).Theleresmojorond ihe oissimus dorsl exlend fromthe bockoflhefigureand pcssn froniof ihe longheod of the fceps io iermi, nate n ihe froni01lheshofiof ih€ humerus. Theolssimus dorcifofrns backiop oi the the ormpt wh e the peciorolsmolor (H)forms lhe ffonlilop. Mlcheangelomode mony siudies ihe of foised orm,Hedd soaso wayof knowing the forms lr1this oreo and how ihey chonge posilions. origns shopens ghty ditferent The ond insgriions ihe muscles of inlol\ed in ihe roised orm moy present chollengeat frsl, o buiwiihsludyloushould oblelo drowthis be complicoiedoreo of lhe fgure wilhoulony dificu1yol o/1.

CORACOSRACI]IALS MUSCLE

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Thes!eleton orlhe foreofmsdrownhere n I lhe posilion dernipronoJion s,wrlh of lhoi lhe pa m of lhe hand iurned holtutqy beh{een pronoton,or ioc ng downwcrd, ond supinolon, foc ng upwsrd, or When hond ihe s in supinolon, hvobonesofthe foreorm the ondlhe musc oi ihe foreorm nexl one es lie lo onolhetBLrlin pronoiion,lhe rodius rololes, or crosses, 1h6ulna,and lhe mlscleso so o\€r crossTheforeorm then chonges frcm a flot bockke moss to become cylindricolin shope In dempronolion, lv!4,bones lhe lhe rodus(L), lhe thumbsde of lhe foreon orm, ond lhe ulna (lvll,on ihe liiileJnger sde ond lhe foreorrn musc ore in o pos es Tonwheretheyore beginnng lo cross lhem At ihe elbow ihe iop of lhe u no jo nsihe bollom of lhe humerus os o hingejotnt (N) which permls flexlon(bending) ond exlenson (stroighlen ng)oflheforeorm iheorm. on Thetop or heod,ol the rodlus s shoped lol likeo horzonloldsc,whlch shollo\red oulon lop This holowed-oui disc fis up ogo nsl o bo l-like shope,ihe copilu urn,on lhe boltom of ihe humerus, wh ch tsp ns Thespinnlng on moton oflhe d sccouses rodiusto the roiole oround u natlhe polm oflhe hondisthus lhe lurned downv/ord ond upv/ord through mo!€menis pronolonond supernol of on Theproject of bone oi P represenh on ihe ponl oflhe elbowor olecronon. pfolecThe lon of bone on lhe rodius belowlhe heodoi Q isihe b cipiialiuberos 1owhichihe i-^ni\/1 don ofihe bceps s olloched There e ghlbones nihewrisi(R) noi ore liis necessory drow a I eighl wfhl or carpus, io bones whenyoudfowtheorm,butii is mpor, toni lo indicolethe moss shopelhot lhey or creolebetu/een fofeorm ihe ond lhe hond From iop of ih-. om lo the ilngers the ihe sections lhe orm become progressve of y shorlerond nofiower. The foreorm s ihe englh of lhe upper orm essone-fifih. The hond equos ihe lenglhof lhe foreormless one lfth Themass oilhewrisisiwce aswide os t is ong, ond lhe meioco.polbones(S), whichfomlhe bodyofihe hond,oreirce os long as lhe wlsi. Thelineof the knuckles (Tl mokslhe meelingofihe melacorpolbones ond ihe lirslof lhree sections phoonges, of Jhe bones of lhe ingels. Thh mporlont junciure is m dv/oy betuveenlhe lop oJ the wrslandihe endsoflhe fngers. lengihof The y lhefngersole rough equollo lhe w si ond On the onoiomcol orm on lhe lefi o ffol

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ond 0f Ihe Muscles theFoleorm Thumb
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of Ll ere ore o seresof siudles ihe orm ln I ldiihrofl posilions ond direciofs in spoce Theorm o1A s seporaied frcm ihe bockg.ound a bold line, whichdefnesils by form Thereore some fu/enly muscles n tho foreorm, ore bulin frgure drowing lheseiorms mossed ntolhreegroups lhe llexor muscles as one group Theerensor mlsclesos on olhet ond lhe longsupnoloros o lhkd moss of lhe foreormArnoslolof lhese musces o glnolefrom lhe condyles the humerus ol ond ofioch io the bonesol ihe wrhl ond hond. Becouse muscies lhe become tendinousobout hoif\4oy down lhe foreorm, ihe conlour ol the am chonges.The egglke shape of the lpper holf of lhe foleam h cousedbylhe fieshytbersofthe esi musc lhe ke blockl shopeof lhe lo\irer sformedby holf the iendonsond ihe fu/obones lhe rodus ond u no of ihe foreorm. (B), lhe fexor muscles on the fronl of lhe foreorm, orginoielromihe innercondye of thehumerusondconslsiof fourrnuscleslhe

plonolorlerest ieror of ihe wrsl on ihe the rodius, fexor corp rod olisiihe pomors or ongus; the llexor ihe wdsion'iheulno, ond of or fexor corpl ulnors The pronolorteres, which ierm noles ho fi\oy down ihe ouief is bords of the rodius, one ol the musces respons for the roioiionolmo\,emeni ble of lhe foreorm, wrlslond hond li controcls, ro loing (cfossngllhe rodluso\er lhe uno, wh ch ploceslhehondpo m down[srd (pro noion) The olher three supericlolfexo6, whlch inserlinlo lhe undersde of the wrlst ond hond,ole responsible bendinglflex for ngl the wrsl ond hond fotu'ord, iowqrdihe fronl ol the foearm. Beneoth thesefour supedcio flexols lso deeperflexor musc e,lhe llexor digtorumsupefiiciols I s vsibleony where is lendons oppeoron the wflstbehdeen lhetendonsof lhe mo€ superfic iexors.Deeporsii ond ol not visibe on the surfoces the llexordgiorumprofundus,d reclyunderiheflexdidgiiorumsuperf s,the powerfL{l ciol lendonsof

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The Muscles theHond of
otlhe polm ofe1l!omLrscle n n lhe su'foce \rqfoups. Themossundef the thumb,the (4 thenormoss n M che onge ot drowingof the handolihetop ofihe poge,ismode up ofthe musc ofthe lhumb There fourof es ore them an odductoror adductorpo icisian obductotor obductorpo lics brevs;o short fexot or flexorpol cis brevs;ond o musc e, opponenspo icis,which rfakeslhe thumb workln opposilion lhe fngers,Underlhe lo (B), lllle fingerore the hypolhenor muscles whichcontroi lilllelinger the Onthefronlof theforeorm, where hond the meehihew sf,orelhec€oses, orwr nkes, of the skinco ed w sl brocelels, in the drcwC ng to the r ght They mosivslble whgnihe ore hondond wrisi pulledtowardihe frontof ore lhe foreom. The oreo on the po m of the hond,befiveenihe ihenarond hypolhenor (D) mosses, n the top drowing,s formedby lhe podding, whichpfolecis hond,Asthe lhe skln lhe hondfoldsoverlhe Jonls, nkes on w ore formedon ihe po m these nesofe occenilaled by ariisis express lo form, the Crossing bockofthe hond,in lhe r ghlhand drowng, ond extend loward lhe ng ihumb,islhe tendonof ihe ong extensor of (E). ihe thLrmb On lho ouhldeborderof ihe wdsiore lv"otendon9 tho shorloxiensor the of ond ihe ong abduclorof tho ihumb.on ihe surloc€ iheseforms oppeorosonelorgeiendon (F)Belween theselostlv/oiendons and lhe iefdon ot the long exlensoro depfesslon (Gl called ihe "onatomcalsnutlbox" apis poreniwherithe lhumb s pulledbocku/,ord. At one tme, men snffed lobocco ffom thls Thekeylo drowinghondswe s o com p ele understond of lhe skeleiostructure ng ond oi ihe n-oshy forms ihol fi t oul.Youneed nol leorn e\,erysmollmusclebul only ihe groups, muscie lhe shopeslhoiorcos lhe ormossume ol n posilions cleody foreshorlened ore depicled n ihe lowefdrowingTheseclions lhe orm of poced n shouldb-. visuoized cylinders os fronlol one onolherThe coniour ne usedfor the rightormot H s ocluolyo serles ofsmo , cun€d, o\erloppng nesthot indicotethoi lhe deioid moss sin fronloflheupperorm {l (Jl moss ond lhollhe uppercrm isin fronlof the foreorm (K The lell orrn n lhe lowerdrowlngot L is exlremelyforcshorlened,Theseclionsof lhe ormoppeoroso\l3soregglike foms p ocod one in frcntof onolher

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SIX CHAPTER

LOWER THE LIMB

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STUDIES SKETCHES AND FOR LAST ITE J]JOGEMENI 1534.35, block chalk 11' t 161/.i ' 127.94 4191ch)

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eroluqcnureLuoceq lueulLuord rnuro,oql lo pue rei o eq+p seipuoc eql puo 'no peL-lcla4s s€psnlueql uot+lsod ao stL+ urieeq oql lo dol eql tD sedoLts tculstp 'tueq s ieql jo ouos esol sdor|ponb eL.+ SJoeqaqlueq^ d q eqlploql lurolpuoces o sessorc puo sned eq+ uo dn sr ur6ro ll eql sf esnooeq ^poq eq1 lun4 eul ot q6 L.ll to soq 6uxeuJouotpurytolo$tppoeq+ qrourq snpaj eL.ll '6e le,4o eql Jo loFlelxe eLll sltll]ledq3q/n',{uoleeq eql uedo q6tqieql buLlcv eqll6q+e6o{ lo luorleqt uo sepsnui q0lql eq+ eq+lo gdec|llor. so ecoJlns uo rDeooo eorq aql 01relel uegoqspo op pql sqcsnLrj eql i\luenbesuo3slslD lo] eco]rns uo Llrol rolouro lou $ { arcJeleqlpuDe csnL!snureye deep sl 'snlpeurulel snlso^ q+Deujepun eql -ul sruso dnor6 qql ]o elcsnu q+rnol eql oelo eeu)leql oNt Atonporose^rncqqq,r 'snureye le+no elll snFo eql Jo€ul lno+uoc seop uoql |e e )a\ol o +opuo ilploq eror,! eeq eql lo do+ eq+ o+lJler'Jncol sloeddo eul snurelul snlsDo!116u[uese]der rnoluoc uorl olFloo leuulel']l'NoUeq+ pd\el^ ueqrlA plro uopue+ uourLuoc to o6pe 16!!leqi eql olutsl]6sulpuo rnuJsl e|']lrolloqseqlro eps sqso^eql reulleq+uoI sestro snure{u E) q6lqleql ro )icoq eq+LJo csnur+sr eqi qeour ll 6laqj!\ )cDq e ] eq+ eq+ prJo ol SllouJq sn+cer ol lolDrooslJnl punoro eql spue86 I ereq/v\'oet ro.luoteLl{o{ UOLT.TLUOC O6pele+noeql o+ul eql 'O I UOpUel 6ql Eiosll puD leNor]corl le+Der6 lo Luolloq eql rDou1nL!e, Jo uoqsaq+p loo leq eql -dn eq+ eq+ uot sostro qOql eql ]o ep s+no I uo papco sl tcj epsnLu snulelxesnFo^aq_L lJ) o q$ eqt]o atcreqnlro'tupdoltFaq eq+ ol olutpesul lJlol eaui aql ouFsora lueuots| ollepd eq so pro. u,rop senu&oc uopue+ !o!!L!oc 6ql aeq eq+ luorl oql s+colord lo '€colns xe^uoJo q+r ron6uol4^qonod tr 'uopuel qql ut pepp€qure q 'otlalod ro '(gldoca€Dieqt dnorostr{p sepsnlu eql o o] uouruloc s Llcll/r sloluel soecrrponoeq+ lo uopuel uoururoc orll lo ool eql o+uleeLil puo o oql e oqo eclolqp lroL.ls selouur,|el uroj uopuel s|^edoqljo eups30 llle^ oleq+ eql 6uo4sD sDselDulolo ssour p uol+rod I elppllu eql saldncco M sroLirejsnlcer€ql 'snlpeLUrapl pLro sqso eL.ll SnureNl snFo^ aL.ll'slroual srucer srusDeql'snure+xa eql sepsnu rnol lo dn epoLusl I sroure, sdel ponb oL+pelloJseJsnurrosualan e6roto srL.t6rql Jotuo4 eql ulli' oll lo ssolu

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Thot the Muscles Move Thigh The
iheuppefporloflhelhgh nnlhe nsideof ry s o lfionqulof-shoped moss[A]. Theodduclormoss g natesal the pelvsond tero minotes the innersde of the shoftol lhe in femurlhe ower porlionof lhis mosss cov eredby lhe quodrcepsfemorsmlsclesThe odductormosss boundfromobove by lhe iold oflhe groinond lhe obdominolmuscle pu Theodduclors I lhe lh gh bocklo\4ord lhe body fromo poslon of obduclon, n which the ihigh s oMr'oy the body. from l^r'o olherimportontsma muscles Ier onthe lh gh ore lhe lensorfoscioeloloe ond lhe sarlorus. tensor The foscioelqtoe (C), whjch principollyoiihe pelvc po ni (Bl, orignoles or onlerorsupeToT spne,oppears o ioc as smol mass jusi in fronl of lhe greoier irochanier ol ihe femur Jusl below ihe greolerlrochonietlhe musce exlends inlo the oiibol bond (D), longbondol f berson o lhe oulside ollheth gh ca led ihe toscioala Ths band posses overand holdsdown the vosius externus. the outsde of the Crossng kneeloint,the bond lerminoles lhe ouier oi condye of the libo Generolly lhe iolblol bond s noivslbleon lhe oLriside ofthelh gh, bul when ihe lensormuscleconlrocls, the i oiibol bond couseso s ghi ridge on ihe ouiside lhe kneeond o \€ryshoilow of Oroovg on ihe wsiusexiernus muscle Thesodorusmuscle(9 o so orignaiesoi the anleriorsuperior oc spne. ll exlends down\tord ocfoss insde ofihelhigh ond ihe sweeps orcundlo ihe nnersde otthe knee, whereiiierminates neartheupperparioflhe innefsurfoce ihe ibo,lhe sorlo us s only of obouf /o fingers wde, but ii h lhe longest musceofihe body tspirohdownthe nsld-. of ihe ihgh n o beauiful c!r\,€ lhoi sepo rai,,.s quodrcepson lhe lronlol lhe lhigh lhe ffomlhe odduciormoss the insdeof ihe on ihgh. Thesodoriuss knownos the 'io or's muscle"becouse in the posi lallors soi crcssegged top of Iorg€\dork on tab6s. In that postion the sortorius cloory conis The sortorils musc ond th6tensor foscioo e lotoeworkogoinsieoch other ihetefsor rololesih-oeg nwsrd, toword body {medi lhe o y),ond lhe sododus rololesitoLrluord, o\roy fromthe body (lateroy).When boih muscles acJtogether ihey help lilithe thigh Lrp\eord,

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Muscles Homstring The
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ihe right-hond drawng,wh ch ismode up of threemuscles bicepslemors, sem the the tendinosus, lhe semmembronosus ond Ths rnoss flexor of musc orignaies the bock es on of lhe pevs, or ihe heelof lhe schum,be' (B) neolh the g uleusmoximus Thenro ten' dons of ihe homslrngmuscesbronch oul ocrosslhe bock ot the knee The nner homstrnstendon (c) crcsses kneeond the nserisnto ihe nsideedge of lhe lbia jusl beow lhe knee Theolier homslaing lendon (D)crosses outsdeof the kneejoni ond the nserls niolhe heodoflhe fbLrlo. ls enl rely n the homslr moss shcpedverymuchlike ng is o foolbo tsfuncton islo bencl knee, lhe ihls fex ng the ower eg on lhe thigh. Thedrowng on lhe efl provdeson exce lenlopporlunlyio observe sp ro quo t the of the sortodus musce (E). olsoshows lt the sroc is (Fl,on oddlcior muscleocoled di recty beh ndthe sorior The us. groc ls(meon' ns sendef' ln tatinl orsesfrom ihe ower porloflhe peLvs, point ola neorihe meelng of ihe lvlo plbc bones Ths musce,wh ch clelines The nsideconlourot ihe ihgh, exlendsdownlvordr olonO thesoriorius with ond ihe nnerhamslrins lendon t nsertsnto the inner surloce ofihe tbia ot o po ntltrst ow be the knee Thetendons ofiheselhree mLrscles sweeporoLrnd insdeoJthe kne6,whore the ihey{orm lhespircmoss known osihe goose foor tcl Becouse homstrngtendonsore !€ry lhe shorl,I is dffcul io lfl the thgh when ihe knee s unbenJ. I the knee bends, the homstng tendons releosed iththen ore ond eosyio ro sethe thightowordthe trunk. itl Try n theseonotomco drowngsof the leg, M che ongeloco refulydel neoiedihe forms Whendfowng frorn fe, howe\€r, dld nol he seeor drowmonyof the musc ndivduc yl es nsleodhe d€w them os mossesln o ile drowng,ihe hamstring moss wouldoppeor on lhe backofihe ihighnotosthreemusc es bli os one moss n the rshl-honddrowng nol ce the line(H) runnng \€ri co y downihe cenleroflhehomsft ngs,This seporolion does nol exlsl mosimodes lJ /o or moremuson ces ho\,e somefunction, sepcrotion lhe the behleenlhe muscesw noibe ndicoledol c in o drowng or wi be ndicoted ony slghiy by nes or shodng. li i\ro or more muscles hovediffe€ntJunctons,lhe seporo I on betu/eenthem w / be ind caled by strong inesor shodng,

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ol lhe Ihe Relofionship lhighto thePelvis
I rrthisdrowingyoucon cleoryobse^€the p of I reoiionsh ol lhe muscLes lhe lhigh to The lhe musc ol lhe pelvc oreos. extenlof es lho lensorfoscioeloloe (Alfrom ihe pelvc po nl (B)downwsrdond boclolqrd to lhe ouie.Ihe exierno sideoftho lhlgh sc eorlyvisib on e obliquemusc (Cl resis the creslof ihe pe visobo\,ethe gLuleus medius musc (Dl e (El Ihe grooler lrochonter oflhe lemurond it thoi sLrfioundore olsoc eoly dethe forms ined; ihe tensorfoscae loloe musce (Al in loms on egglikemoss frontof ihe greoler trochonlei lhe sphericolyshoped gluieus (Dl mox rnedius isobo\,eil, ond the g lTeus rnoss blocklike mus lFl formslhe rounded, musce (G) is behind t. Thewstus exlernus (Hl moss by o fromlhe homslring seporoied lhol lhh seresof shortInes 0. Remember defniiionoflormsindicoios cearlyrendered funclions ihotlhesemuscesho\€ seporole lhe The ine represenling fronlof ihe lhgh expo ns ihe anolomyl ond knee beouilulLy (.J), externus femoris ihe \l]sius noieihe rectus ond lhe potelo 10,the commoniendon(Ll, (M)

FGURESIUDYF lltE B,AntE CASC Ot M 15u, pen ovetbbckchdtk 10.4" t 6rA [26.U \ 71.44cn] Domoged bl donphds

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The knee is one of the oreosof lhe body I whelethe boneisc oseto the surfoce ond y uences form, si'ong infl ih Allhough knee the hosmonycomponenls, ol mokesense ihey joinl in iems of lh funclionos o compound lhe lowerend of ihe femurwidensinb n{o prcjeclions boner lhe inner condyle (4 of ond lhe outercondyle (B). these condles l€sl on the lop or ploifom, of the tbio (g lhe poiella,or kneecop (Dl,hos okeody been described o smollroughylriong!or bone os wlh o con\,ex surfoceembedded lnio lhe orge commori tendon of ihe quodriceps, whichcrosses iiont of the knee Thepothe telo les ln ffonlof the lo\der of lhe femur end ond forms o projeciion on the flont of lhe kneejthe ower border of ths prdecfionis le\€l wlth ihe poni of seporollonbeiween lhe femw ond ihe lbio. Theligomenlof lhe pdte lo (EJ terninotes ot the kneellngpolnl,or jhe iubercle ofthe iiblo(0 ]heiuberce ofthe iiblo ls on unmstakoble andmark whlch morkslhe lowefboderofthekneejit19c y eo vslblewhenthe eg isviewedln prolle.

fhis diogrom af lhe benl kn6a shows rckrlbnshiqaf the tibla lhe ond tenut ta tha pate a

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Forms theKnee of The

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flecouse lhe l,neeiswder in bocl,lhon in l, front. someforms the boci.of the [nee of oreopporenlinthisdrowingoflhe frcntvew Theouler homslring lendon (Al is visibe on ihe oulsideof the knee lhis lendon insefs The intotheheodof the libuo (B). spko moss lol,whichsmodeupofihemed ol homstring oflhe sortorius ond iendonond the tendons groc ismuscLes, su€eps oroundlhe insde of on lhe knee, whereil lerminoies ihe shoflol lhe lib o Ths spiro mossof lendons cu^,€s down lowordlhe f.oni of lhe eg, wh e lhe outer homsfing €ndon exlends slroght dowa nlothe heodof the nbuloon lhe ouler sideof ih6leg Abo\eond be ow lhe pofelo (D on the frontof the kngeorelhe lol mosses ond E)whlch ore esponsibefor lhe greoi vorioions lhol orlisls encounljgr when drowkneesore ditferenl lng the knee.Eyeryoneb ond ihe fot masses oroundihe poleliocon show!p os smollproject foms mosking ng They o€, ihe rest ofthe onoiomyoflhe kriee. howe\€tnot o grealilcior on th€ benl knee os l-e) €c€oe nlo o hollowc eoled bv 'he oo-or oll_e fecr.'o"o'^e op ol lre'lbo

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I u + c 5 l h e r eo r e t a o b o n e . n l h e r o r e o r m , t, rhere ore tuo bone5 n ihe o^er leq lhe o r g e ri b a , o c o i e d o n i h e n s d e o i i h e e g , s o n d l h e s m o l e rf b ! o , o c a i e d o n i h e o u T d e T h e n n e rs ! r f o c eo f l f e s h a f l c f l h et b o o n d lhe shorp anlerlor cresl cre enirey on ihe The cutue ofihe ibo from ihe boi surfoce. iol.noflhe knee lA)down loihe proiecion on l h e n s d e o f l h e c n k e k n o v r 'c s t h e n i e r n o n n a e o u s( B l s c e a r y v s b l e T h e p r o j e c l o n o n t h e o l t s d e o f t h e o n k e . l h e e x l e r n c. n a fbu o iThe worcl rio eo us comes irom the L a i n i o r " h a n r m e l ' o r " m a l e t : l T h e h - - a do f TlreibLr.r rs ocoied on lheo{rts.le s!rfoce ol The knee Ofy ihc uppor and ower ex lrem tes of th-a l b! r ore v s b e on irre sur facc. The shofi Lrn.leres tlre m|rsces oT lire .q i o l h e o l h r 1 ! - ' . r lfh . -i-b o s i h c i r r r . ' s a n T - r o r ( D l . l e x o r t r r ( r s . r l-h a i o r l l i r x r l c s . l ll h c d L r p p - hrv o t h ( l s o l l t i eI b r r T t t l . J i ! l o r i o f l l r \ nrrn:u pdjlrs I iurl ol ihlicf kc.rf.ld sop i l r r f , o f l t t r r n u 5 ! . o l l h o l o o l .w h e r c I pa$.s L rdint.rlh .rf.l rnscrls inTollrc lros.l ol rtlr rfch rxlir l)ornr oi lic ltrc.rl lo.. llrc l . 5 lr f c l N l o r n r L hj j i l . l ( ) f J V c r vo r g c o n c i s T !i be wheie t cr.rsses troft (n llre ()w.:r lhe ,o! cn.l.rnke isnrnclon slo b,-.d (l--rlthe iooi nrv]l.l The eq, wheri ih,- t.rot D n ihit posi.D. iiie Tcl].lor.or be mod c,-ary D re.J y lo ih,- o!lt|.ie ofih,- Ubo sornerrr is The .,nq ollcnsor ol The To,4s. ,Frl,Fns.] or . l . l l o r l n r o r . l L s ( E )l l i s m | ] s c e o s o o r s , - s f r o n r h - .L 4 ) t ) , -w ( )l t i ( l : r . ) l i h { r t r t r o n . i p o r l l lr i of Tlre bLro lhe T.nclonoTTh ri|]sc e crosses f s into ire nonTollhe.rnke, wh,-r,ai div cl,qs l.rLrr sflro erTenclons llr.rTlonouton iir--T.rpback, or .lors|]mol Thefool fhese imo er len.lo15 n s e n n t o l h e o s t p h a o n g e so f t h e s e c o n d l h r o u g h h . rf i t h i o e s A s l s n o m e i m p e s . l l r e i ong erlensor oi llre ioes exlends (uncursl t h e s e o e sa n c lh e L Ffs x t h e f o o i B o i h i b o i s i e c1renrcrssed anleror oncl ihe ong exTensor lnto one lorm or the froni ofihe eg is The ghl n ih s dravr'ing ironr the efiironi of ihe fgure Youfab ly to clrow n ghl ond slrade greoiy mproveswhenyoLr reo zeilrol ghl os i oppeors on o lgLrre n noiure s noi necessorlylhe besl ol-tl lor drowng Ari$s u s u o l y e v s eo s n g e i g h l s o u r c e , s n c eg h l d hlifg ihe igure lrom d ilerenl clreclons iends lo breok up the lorms oflhe igure, creongelodd nol copy iohlng os l ex$ed n nanrrebut creoted h6 own

FD ESFORTNE CRUC]F HAMA\ STUD \ 1511,edchalk1t 31,UA& t 2A96cn) 6

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l w o p e r o n e o m l s c e s a r , e f r o ml h e f b L o I on ihe ouhde or ihe eq The rorcl PeF f o n e o m e a n s p e r l o n si o i l " r e b u o f C e o r l y vs b e on ihe ouls de of ihe eg s Tl-teong peronecrmLrsc or percneus ongus,A nfhe e, i r i g h t - h o n c l d r on g . w hc h a r s e s i r o mh e u p w p e r t w o i h r d so i i h e i b u o T h e i e n d o n TT hs o o mlsce posses rolno lhe ouiet moleous and exlenos Lrnderond across ihe fool lo ierm nole n ihe base olihe meloiorso oiThe g r e a i l o e l s m o l n f u n c l o n s l o e N T e n dl h e of lool;howevei beccLJse lhe poih of is ien clon acrossthe soe of lhe fooT,ihrs 'nuscle oso s responsib ioriLrrnrrgihe so e ouiwrr.l e leverirfg tl The short peroneo nLsce. ol two p-.roneus brevis[B], orses fforn ifre ovr'er r.ls of lhe lbLr o. Theferr.lon oi Th5 nusce th oho posses oroln.l ihe exlerno molLeoLrs, inTolhebdsc ofTlrenrekrt.rrsoof blrl 1 rserTs ol.rrso The mnld o The l!e lol]. or ifih rrrer ibre5 of lh s m!s.e ore covejed rry Theten tuf ol ihe of.l fr:]rofeo Togel'.J wilr The The orq peri]nl:].l1. pe(/re!s brevs ext--n.]5 rg Thel.rn by tflnq Thehee wh .r pLrslr th€l olc ThertAofca mLr5c-as rorey s,oerior .lrowr oj n.lvil|ro nrrj.l.rsr on-.1 on(l slcnder Theyt--f(l io nrosi log--lh.J formrnq ih--llcncra cy n.lri.rr shopcolThe ow.rr cg. the eg s I o iT.rieot llcol Vhef. lrowcver. o.Ji{)f ior nn.rncc. wh-^n llic --ni re weighj .rt Th,- b(rly s on The l.r--5 lfrcse musc,-5 nr.'ss 1'|row os sep.lruie fttffis onTh,-lor9-^r up o f t h - -e q M c h e o n q e ( ) t ) l l . n . i e c o r o T e . i l h e oLrls ol ih.- fooTwlh no.rrlons oflhelen cl,dons ol the nto p.'roneol n|]sc es \,vroppnq oro!fil ihc bcrckol lhe exicrfol nro eourr r ths dfowng lh,- smo niossof Th,-short el1ero oi ihe loes, of --xiensordSLTorlnl brevs(Cl, s cleory visbe Th. ne rLrnnnll ls clownlhefronioi lhe eg r,-prer-6n ihe I blo s onler o| the te r.)on oth s m(rsc,- lDlcreoies o hondsornecurye on ihe fronl of ilre onke. Rememberthot the eg oLuays lo.s ihe fool noje ihai lhe eg shoLrdr]ol os o cLrrveALso o p p e o r i o e n l e ro l l h e i o p o i t r e c r c h o r l h e fooi; ihe aciuo meellnQpo ni s allhe bock

SIUDESFONIHE SANLE CASCNA OF NIO T GURT 15U, pen ond btd.k chotk 1 A 1 ' . 1 . k 1 2 6 1 7/ 1 9 3 / c n )

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of Ihe Muscles theCoff
The colf of lhe leg is rnodeup of hi/omue(4 I cLes. The gostrocnemius (the nome vsimeonstrog3be ly'l h a bulgingmuscle ble on lhe surfoceof lhe leg,lt hoslwo heods, wh ch orig nole frcm ihe bock of the con dyles the€mur,ond it inserls lhelop of nlo of the pchilles lendon,on lhe bock of lhe leg Thepoinlotwhichihefibers musc n ofthe ejo (B) thol l,endon \cr esfrom person person lo downlhe bui usuolly occurs obout holfvi/,oy is bock of lhe leg lf ihe gostrocnemiuswe I de\€loped or In o sloteof controclion, the juncfure the mlsc e fibers ond lendonwll of be cleorly denned,lheinnerholfoflhe gostrocnemlus on o lo\der ls le\€lthdn sthe olier holfjlhe Innerholf thefefore Inserls the lnto Achiles tendonon o le\€lslghily owerthon pont of the ollier hoi Theinthe lnsertlon lefno moleolus,how€\,€f, on ihe higher ls moleolus ond le\el lhon lhol of the exiernol ln shoudbe so epTesenled o drcwlng, ls The soleus (lhenone meons'floifsh') lC) o llot nluscle ihoi esdlecily underthe goslrccnemlus,ll glnotes lhe upperpodlon or oi of the bockof the tblo ond fbu o ond Inseft intothe Achilles tjendon wellbeow ihe go!' lrocnem us.Exceptfor ilsriower fbers,the 5olgosels s covorodby tho moIe superfcioL lheAchilles tendon(D)lswlde oi lh upper bofderjlilaperctouordlhe backollho onke and ihen wldensogoln os t nseds intolhe (E) heelbone,or calconeug Thepow€rlul mlscleso€ lhe extengor colf muscles ofihe fooi.Theyenoble person o lo putthe enl rewelghtofthebodyon lhe toes. In lhis drowingthe iendon of lho tbiols (0 onterlor lscleorlyvis on lhe lronioi ihe ble onkLe.lhe dorsum ofihe fooi sdol ned bylhe iendon of lhe extensor ihe greoi toe (O). of

MUSCLES TI]E OF LOWER LEG

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O r gn : underneoih soslrocnemllrs, the rfomihe upperpodon oi ihe bock ot the libio nsedion: cM€rthongaslrccnem us,

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The Arch The Fool: Bony
Voucon leornogreoideolo boutlhe onolI om/ of lhe fool from studying Micheange 03 drowngs Theformsof ihe fool o€ determined more by skeelal slruclure lhon byo nyotherfociorOnihe dorsum lhe fool ol ihere s only one sma musce,the shoriex tensor theloes, of ondthelendons lhe ong of exiensor the toesond olher muscesthat of ore ocoled on ihe frontof lhe eg.Theonkle, lhe orch,ond lhe heeloflheloot oreformed by lhe se\,enlorso bones lhe coconeus, lhe oslaogalus, ncviculorbone, ihree the ond the cubod bone.The cuneiform bones, co con-auslorms hee (4, osnoledeorlier the Abole i the oslrogolus restsn the covt formedby lhe lowerendsoflhe iibo (B) ond lhe fibu (CJnlhiscovt lacls keahnge o joinf, wh ch o owsihe fool lo mo\,€ up (flex ionlor down(exiens lhe novcuor bone, onl lhreecuneforms, lhe cubod bone form ond lhe archofthe loot ol D Beyond lorso bonesore ihe i\e meio lhe lcrso bones, ch formlhe bodyofihe fool, wh connecing lhe lorsus lhe loes Eochloe 10 hos threepho onges, of exceplf ihe greolloe, which,ikethe thumb,hosony 1wo

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oby s mibr io ihe hond. The fool h remorf however; greol ihe I lhere ore dfferences, loe isnol os mobib oslhe lhumb. Aso,unlike posilion lhethumb,whose onthe honddlfferc pos the fromtholofihef ngers, greoJloe's lion on ihe fool isnot \,eryd fferenlfromlhol of lhe othertoes. Whenlhe g€ct loe h lified, len' o downlhe center lhe of don-runnlng stroight loe-is cleory vsibleon ihe dorsum lhe of fool. Ths h ihe lendon (4 of lhe exlensorof lhe greol loe, whch orises from oboul holfwoyup lhe shoflof lhe fibuloond lermnoigs phoanxoflhegreoiloe.on inihe osi(dsto) ihe fronloflhe leg,this muscle complefely h co\eredby the moresupernc rruscles ai ond soh noivis e,lislendon imporlontioorlsls b ls becouse morks hlghpoinl,or rldge,on il the the dorsum lhe fooi. n thisdrawingnoiice of thol,ffomlh s fidge,N4lchelongelo mode hos groduoly onep oneoflhe foolseemloslope iowrrd ihe litl e ioe, downvr'ord ond oulvr'ord whiLe pdne ot the insdeol the fooi op" ihe peofslo drop downobruptyThefuncilon of lhe exiensofof the greol toe h lo extendthe greoiioe by llfilngt up io\dord fronlof the lhe leg The y muscleon on ihedorsum oflhe foolis lhe sho exiensorofthetoeg, foisd eor loi os whch orignalesotihe h6elboneond lorms s o smoIegg-shoped mass onlhe oLtler deof ihe fool (B),direcily n fronl ol ihe externo molleoLus, lendonsextendffom il ond Fouf ioes insed the pho ongosof the ffrslfour inio poss These iendons underlhe fendons the of long exiensor ihe toesond iherefore of are fololyvisibeon the foot Theskeletoorch on the innersideof ihe byihe abdLrclor footlsflledoulond sofiened of the greoitoe,or obduciofhol uc s (c) on (dlsfal)end ihe metolarsc iheforiher of bon€ (D) of ihe g€oitoe s o proleciion ihoi s an mporlonl ondmokforihe odlsl Theouiside conlour ihe fool isdeflned oJ byihe obduclor of ihe tlle ioe, or obduclordjgitiminim (El and by o second londmorkprcleclion(D, whichiscoused c bytheenlorged oser(prcximoI end oi ihe meiolorsol bone of the tt e toe ln ihh drowng, l\/lcheongelo emphosized powertullendon lhe tbio lsonielhe of riormusc (G)os l crosses onke loinllo lho e i,.rm nole n ihe nsideborder of the fool,

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SIUD FOR LEGS ES THE OFTHE LORD CREAT IN ON OFADAMHEAD THE OF NUDE 1511,ed chdlkdet blo& cholk prepbollo* \ 11C3', 7Cf [2953 t 29.69m)

ot the boseof ihe meioioGo

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nfowinglhe egsolthe hlmon flguresnoi l, thol d tierenlfromdrowng lhe orms.lhe on iricepsmass lhe fronioflhe lh gh resem blesfhel cepson lhe bock ollhe orm.One grolp openslhee bow ond slroighlmuscle lo enslhe foreorm olgn wllhlhe lpperormj openslhe ond the olher group of muscles leg kneelo slroghlenlhe lo\der ond olgn il wlh lhe ihigh muscle exlernus Thef bersof lhe voslus {4 connectlo the commontendon (B) In the forms projeclion o while lhe drowing muscle porlrot€d os o llol oreo Ihe the iendon h t cepsmuscles lhe fionl ofthe thighho\€ on o common furlc'lontlherefore Mcheongelot linesIndcoiing ndivduoL musc are es subilyond ghtydrown t isimpodonlloren_ ond lke deriheth gh aso lofge,cyllndel moss ihe l ceps muscesos deloih portolly embedded n ond wroppingaroundthelorgel moss bet$€enmon one of ihe g€dldifferences up" ond ihe ofhercnimosisthotmonslonds drowings rghi l isevdent n M cheiangelo3 ihoi he knewvreI thot monyof the muscles hove ihe funclon ol hodng lhe body up ogolnslihe force of glovljy.porexomp e, ihe obdomnus rbcoge moss heldup by r€cius ls splnoe irom elec'lor on the lloni ol ihe torso, muscles on obl b€hind, ond iho exiernol qLJe max lhe sldegi ond gLuieus muspfewnh lhe pelvlsfrom foling foMald. And, os con be s6en In the deto ol lotl, ihe knee lolnt h ol muscle the thlgh supported lhe irlceps by (D) (C)ond ihe homslrlng moss

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Befarao.iding lhe deloils ol mus ci€ mosses ond prcilberonc€s ol bane, lhe lhlgh shautdfnn be conceved as a long .yfindtl.nl
flGURE SI]JDT FOR IHEBATILE CASCIM OF 1504, btlck cholk \ 15q3', 14',[39.69 , 25.40.n]

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CIIAPTER SEI/EN

DRAPERY

TI]ECRUC X ON OF 5I PEIFR F 3 715 . 5 1Ei {2623e' 1553ecn)

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'ornol 3qtlo esodaqt uo DuLpLrad 'slol lDr ep 'Drclsro'lrrr\ T^! oqD Aolr.r 11 epur aqi ry aro qlrod lloddnt asellal3q^\ oo srapsuo.tsrlFfo aqllloodnsJoslLJ uroll sp dorp13qlrit ^or0lo,^q eql ol Llrrollloc ol s^D ^ rapune\11 )iLJLL-]1 V slsor I arnollOULI ]o eLlls€)ioltuadorc \13 Lro Lta uioleLttlo edoqs iradDrp ot s€rKldooqD- o|€p lnoqo 6ul qs irro,r erolaqssouJ qoFe slo,^^lo-ern61 ueq^ e lesqo no^ enl aulos eql 6uL^\orp ra6ro aLll./sorppuo s Dlap su-lrol aqL lsrLt aqt puoiaq loot po]ire o r'doc^qs^os ol ueqM tuossaceu s l lradDrp 6u.'v\Drp lou sarn6,€l.]1 sluro] ]o e5uoq €r+ ronasnur'6uorls {no oulq pLro sasn oeouoeqc r\ san ol Lr€ arsllfuedDrp -6,€qt punorDi quozrrotl dor^ loql (VJsnu A.ra^ a4 q6nopio srrpLr bur^rn) Llf,nur I tAtr rqtlo sporaqI aro6u aorpsr+urtu€dorp

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The Geslure Rhylhm Fobric or of
on Cince droperyresls o f gurethot hoso lrgesiue or oclon he fobrictoo musf ho\€ o rhyihm, geslureThe linesof the or iods olA spiro downthe nsideof lhe lhigh much ke ihe sorlor musc underneofh, us e n o studyof the workoi Mlcheongelo, ii s nol olwoysceor whch drowingswere ocluoly mode by him ond whlch drowngs ho!€ been lnoccuroleyoliributedlo hm, N4ichelongoo schoorsoflen disagree, my sellh nkthollhls s nol one of Nliche onge ob drowings despileils ollribulion him The to nes do nol hove lhe sureness ond spon ianeiy ot hk oiherworks. do lhey deflne Nor lhe underlyngonotomy n lhe unheslolng v"qy lhol ho\,e come lo expecl in his skelches, ihe honds, Also heods, ond feelore rolherweoky porlroled

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ll IIREEMENIN COIIVERSAT ON 1526,peh ohd ink 14th \ 10 t3).8 | 25 cn)

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INCONCLUSION

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FOOT Of COMAAI HORSEMENAND SOTD]ERS cfr) 15A4,peh7 r 97h{1773t 25.03 ash N n Museun, AnaId. nal

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GTOSSARY
Iheljollow;ng o ris'otterrrsleqLe1ty e^coJnlered he sfudy in ofo.rolomv, h qt duc'ljor o musclelhol pullstiM/lry from the mid Ine of the body oclduclor o musclethof pu lslowqrd ihe midline of lhe body condyle o orge bump on o bone cr€sl o rldge on o bone od€nsor c musclethol cousessome port of the body to slrolghlenout llexor o muscleihof cousessome port of the body to bend ins€rllon lhe end poln' of Tusce ottochrren' o gln the flxed polnt of muscleottochhent pondlor a rnusc thdt lurns polm of lhe honddownword e the proluberonce lube|o6ily o smollbumpon o bone or splne o shofprldgeof bone suplnolor o muscle ilrng ihe polm of lhe hond lpword thot lemor o muscle lhoi pedorms ughlenlnq o flnctlon ,

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'troL '69-89 ',19-99',99-t9 ',t9-09',8t '9ffi9'rg-fln' 6L-A L-ZL'9W9'69-8 L'e '68-ge'Qe-ze 'et-zr 'Le-oe '99-29 '9t dd :urauoDH'ulnssnn rede_L't -w 'Ev-zv

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'LZ '92-ra 'OZ'dd -gel,E r-z , :rosput/\ tuorqtl to^cu 6er-SetLet '98 iE'eZ ZZ '68-88 ',t9-99 'SV-VV ',EL-Ow'6242 Ed 'gL tt do rprolxo'urnesnnuDeloLurlsv re+uolutpodoS €louopDN oesiy\l sepoN lc 'lt,L-9i|dd racuaoH'[orouon€ ot^tr]crv 'gLNL '9t vzr'rz,ozl 'dd '+,IV uDllpdo4er! 4q{ aeN lo u.in€sny\l '96-96 11-9L E A9 00 'qcupua) puo tuuaH r$uc,wo ecnporoer 01uolsqlLreo qclpuol s eaooe s \eqdeu slq lq uopc 'surnesnu 'e tur.raH/lJouen utagzr-vzl'89a9 roJsuo[ce]loc 'seLrorqll puo p 6ul4\ol ur puote elc od rpuoteeo !v lo LLrnesny\l - o' eqf o+epDL!I luauropel/v\ouiconjelDie

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musc es,62 Abdominol ingers,'104 1oal,126 um Aceiobu of hiploinl6T Achi esfendon,122 process, 18,75,77 17, Acromion moss ofthlgh,108 109 Adduclor grocllh, 110-111 thigh,108 109 lhumb,99 col Anolom drcwn9, 16,71,100 46 col Anotom soltbox, 102 col Analom snutfbox, 125 Ankte.17,21,124 of Anler supeioriliacsPne,19,66 Anihe x, 34 34 Antirogus, Nch,124 125 pit, ArnT 62,95 Ar$oie, 84 see Arm-bone, Humerus Arms,88-105 bonesot 17,89,96-97 ond exiension flexon, 96 97-99 exiensors, 104 89, loreom, 96-97,'100-101, dorsi loiissimus ond, 78 lengthof, 96 of, movement 74,78,96,99 musces,89-97 scopu ond,92-93 o 100 lendons,98, t ceps,90-91 upper 89 Axilo,62,95 Bock10,7219,8A-81 toms ol 70 80 modelng, 81 musc of, 72 79 es 50 Bockbone, Boonce, 82-83 Biceps, 90,94 95 89, orign ond nsettion,89 short heod,95 58, Bicp tal groo\,€, /5, 78 96 Bicpiol1rrberosiv olis, Brcch 97 see Breoslbone, SlernLrm Breosls, 68 plocemenlmole/femole, 68 Buuocks, 85 84 18, 122'125 Colconeus, 19,

Coli muscles,122 123 Coninus, 41 Copilulum, 96 Coracoidprocess, 89 Corpus,17,96 Costshodows, 36 Cheekbone, 17,4'l Chesl,58 59 Ch n $rop 32 '12, , C avtcle, 17 18,21,46,52,56,58 Cacc\x, 18,19,82, 8A Colarbone,see Clovicle Commonlendon,21, 93,115 92 Composlon,24 Concha, 34 Condy ol humerus, e 92-93,98-99 Condy of bmur 122 es Contour drowng, 11 Corccobrochio 94-95 s, Corocod process scopuc,17 of Corcnod process, 42-43 Cron um,19,29,40 relolonshp to foce,29 C.icod cori loge,44 Dollvn, Chor es,84 Delold muscles, 62,68,89,92-93, 58, 94 95 oclionoti 89 on lomoe,68 orign ond lnsedon, 89 roised orm,94-95 Dep€ssofobi inferor s,41 D giloiions, 62,64 60, DofsoLspnes lhoraciclertebloe,78 of Da'srm,122, 124,'126 Dropery 130-137 gesture 136 of, slmpting, 132 po support nts,'131, 134 132, Dtaw)ng,'t2,110,128,139 drapery130-137 wiih line,12 Eor34 Eorobe,34 propodons, Egypton 21 ElG€co, 23 ELbow'17,89,96, 100 pointof, 96 Ereclor noe,72 sp Enendorl 96, 123,124 Extensorgitorum d longus,1'18 119,126 Extensor lhe greotloe, 126 127 oJ Extensors, 97,98 99 96

at.r'96 97,104 fnger '104 '126 laat, 118-119, 124, 122, ]egs, , 118-119, 147 126 thumb,99 Externol molleolus, 118 19, Exlernol obique muscle, 66,68 64, Eyes, 32,4a-41 34, eyes, 32,40 4l 30, lghl ond shodeon, 34,36 mouih, 38 mlscles ol40-41 nose, 38 pocemento132,38 prcporlionol syslem, 32 Fdscio, 84 Femo e/tvlole oiions,68,82 lor pe vis,82 socrum, 82 iorso,68 Femur 17,'18, 19 r bato, 17 18,19,118-119, 124-121 , heod of, '19 muscles 120-121 of, Fingers, 96,100, 17, 104-105 Flexian, 123,124 96, Flexor rnuscles, 98-99,'110-111 bockof €9,110-11'l loreorm, 98-99 lowereg,'118-119 Foldof lhe groln,66-67 Focn, 124-127 124, bonyarch,124-125 leg le olonshlp120 muscles 126-127 of, Foreshofen 52,56-57,89, 102 ng, Form,'10 27,38 bock,70 desgn ng, 24 25 fofeorm, 100 lneond,12-13 moe/lbmoe voriaiions, 68 overlopping, 89 60, p ones ond,54 shopes ond, 14 15 slmplfuing,26 30,52,131 skeLelol slrlclureond, 16 19 underdrapery131 undeiyng structure, 10,16-27, 131 Go$rocnemius, 123 122 Geomelrc forms,52, 60 Gesfxe, '11, 24, 136 16, GlobeLo, 38 Glodio 58 us,

'e3oos urpoaq 0€ LUep to 16 96 urrD uorrouorc '0uruoursod

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,61, ,lutod6u eeu) tz Dta+Dd dmeeu) aes ',Lo ,z suoloooro lrL-9r, 10 sLUro,L 9tr-tlt'1o seuoq 9w 9t, vt|z aeuyL wZ'WAVL^al

8Zr'rLtblrdn g8 z8 'puo sr^leo g8 z8 1o ecuotDq '9r 'rL'asod 00t'eg z8 99',rq',s3uod z0 urnrutqd gZt-VaL6tt Ll saol vot L6 96 Lt e6r! lL re6uotoqd tzt-02, 3e csn!! to€uorod tr'uueauued
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tt lt'D[xDl,\ 9t'gt'sse:)od plolsol et Lt'epsnurral€ssol,\ t€t epoqspuDlqonqu zet t€t ^reoorpr€pun '3oD3qr 0q 'puo paurasqd 6t 89',02',s]^ed ',eloure] uo 89 !€-og'puoou lspoLu t 9t zt 6z poeu l,0' 001''urrDsroJ t8 09 2coq '0urssol V' 89'6V',92',L Zl ssoN 89 urnqnuol\ tt'lt'etq puon ,sn oellon 6t suoloug\ eton/elo!!el e€s'suolorD etourel/eton lL rqDn

8rr'6t'snpeDurDurelu souDlDlsn€esaqsu 86 26',t8 08',91 tl sr4DutosDrju zL L9 &t1ll 9tt'60|, Sot puoqtoquoI 8r lOLe$Od loleluo 6L loUeOnS co 6t'8t,'lt'eutds tl vg 8t'v9 Lt lsel..aI z0r 3sourroueqlod^H tt euoqpo H €6 Z6 p etlploc 16-96 9t',99',tZ',6t',ll,snreurnH

t8 z8 sLrolloroe oLriel/ololu 'puo ecuDtoq e8-28 1t 9t sntei '61, 'lu od cL^tei 99 c 6t +serc ^led S[Orol3oi t6 1OU[_r_] '89 '68 ',29'09 lotolu slDroped t6 9tt-9t, 10lueurooI 9w ,fi'6t'L',a eIDa 9t seuoq oleroi '68 'se! zot | ouddotro o '09 sLrrotouddotre 68 c)

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qlo |,t sl)oslDlnc 'lnco slrolnc qro 0t ',8t uouol3ao 96 68 '0t 3 3co ,t toluo4-olo 8r'elroqtoldtcao sn!re$esnnbrqo t9 snurLLropqo z! Jo lueLlecoLd t9 lo secsnL! '8e 'ze '00 '3soN tP ',e ou 89 OlrJate luauJaaoo selddN 6' 1O€OrqAlrO^ 91',9t',tt to sacsnu 'lo sLr.rrol ,f/ '9e )1ceN t't l|seuoq tosoN 'uoBserdxa sacsnf\ lo |,t 0t os/o uoFeEpuo uorsuelxl e6s 'uorsserdxe tt 0t lo IL aL V9 lr luewe/ou-r prro^ etoLu/etDura] 89',suo a6 rg ,L'vg lo ual.Dltra. 'selcgnn

',sorqeuaroqurnl 6L roqLLlnl 8l'slsorneuodo buot rolouldns lolourdns ees 6tt-8r|, 5€ol eqllo rosueyobuol 'te 'puo onto 90 o 00,'t9 puDseuo t8-08 )lcoq eqlouLtepour 'q,o oouoteqcln 8ll 't8 $elnpel olcq 90

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96 ^^oqF 96',1t'tuole6uH 'qq6tq6 98 H ttxoH sneuoc eos euoq |eoH 03 te lDuoc oufoaH ',91 ',9t '0e p 88 t0 1$ 'lo uotlDlor 9t ',a3ol o+otqsuolo ar 6Z 'ecDds uo!+Fod u oe 9l'p!o )perJ '62 '6u ssDul z8 opoJ 8e'te'20 serruoei lt 1o saloq zv-6z poeL]' t0,'z0t suopuel q0, t0,'6utA[dL].rs t0r'zot:lo sopsnul 'L_t16uo 96 96 10 sauoq '96'puoH q0r 20l, ',t[ 'tg sepsnul 9,|/ ]o 0tt 0[ Jo uoll3o 6uL4surDH 9r!',r[-0tr'r8'ssoLu

l,r '8e'ze'09'!+nou\ ')poqeq+ spol^ 6u t8 o8 ,zt,,6tt 8 .,tt sosrololen 96',tt sLodrocotan

ze 1oluaurecop ,t 1o sa3snur

tt! otl 36urlsLloL] tzt zzt'aar'prD+oa! €zt zz,'saf,snur JtDr 56el tt'xul]o'l 'L!rD pesor 96 t6 'uofesu puD! olo 8l 81 1o uoll.D 96 V6 '18-08',81 ',09',srop ',29 snll]rss[o] 9Zt'rt,'a6 69'r8',28 tz rlalJ-rpual

89 elourq uo p or9 99',19-991ool',u 'suolodod tz rcere 06 4 soleqq reloorS tg 6r'8, Fluoqcot reloe€ ttt qat,N^da ,Lt 0[ s]tcDr3 tr, 0tt looJssooe ,sn 98 89 peursnertS Snqnte 98 t8',SnUJlxOU_r 68',8'it^Dc p|oueo

prof e of lorso,86 pronolion hond,99 oi rb coge n spoce,52 see ng femorh, HomsTr moss Posleror Posler iLoc ne.18 or sp lgoment 66 67 Pouporls 12, Pren'r noryskelches, 23 32 locio feollres, knee1obody 21 ol lgr'e.2o 23 22 Reno ssonce, 23 syslems 20 23,32 ot Pyramidolis,62 108 Quodiceps,21,84,107 ociionol 107-108 common tendon,107 on, org n ond inserl 107-108 17, Rodus, 18,19,89,96-97 of, movemenl 96-97 Recius obdominus,62 107, Reclus femoris, 115 '116 proporions, 22-23 ssonce Reno 74-75,80-81 Rhombodeus, 24-25 Rhyrhm, Ribcoge, 21 of, mosslng 50,52 poslon ng in sPoce,52, 57 56 t pped,64 Ribs, 19,50,58,60,62 18, o150,58, 62 corliloge Rimot eat seeHelix 72,82 84 socrum,18,19, vraotons,82 83 mole/femole orion ol ereclorspnoe,72 34 orign of g uleusmoximus, orign oi lol ssmusdors,78 108 110 111 Soriorius, 109, oclon ol 108 '108 ofign ond nserlion, 109 es,44 Scoene musc a. 18,21,56 ScopLr 17, oi musces 60,74 75,78 p ocemenlol 74 75 p rcohonsh io orms,9293 splneol l8 onier Serfo'tus ot 95 rrognJs,60,64 Serrotus 36 Shodows,

Shope, oi dropery131,132 ol fornrs, '15 14 oulside,14, 134 smp fuing,132 Shinbone, Tbio see Shorl exlensor lhe loes,126-127 of Shou blodes, Scopu der see o Shou girde,46,56 57 der Shou jo nl,17 der Shou muscle, der 58 Shouders,82 83 fromework Skeletol 16-19 Skul, 40 Saetrs,122 123 Spoce,lorms 30,52,56 57,60 n, Spne ofihe scopuo, 18,75 ng, Slond 128 129 Sternoc domostoid, e 46 Sternomoslod,34 Stefnum, 21,46,50,58 17, Portsol, 58 Supnolor 97 99 Suprosp noius, 74-75 pubis, 66-67 Symphyss 19, Torsq bones,124-125 Torsus,17,21 Ternpora 41 43 is, Tencion sheeh,76,78 Tensor e oioe,108-109 fosc Teres 93, major62,74-75,80-81,92 94 95 inseriion, 75 Teres minoi 74 75,80-81,92-95 Thenor mass,102 Thigh, 113 107 ironi ot '107 homsir ond, 1'10-111 ngs movemenl 108 109 ol p reloiionsh lo pelvis,l'12-113 Thlghbone, Femur see Throol46,56,58 Thoroc orch,62 c Thumb,99, 105 104 mLrscles of,99,104 reolionship fingers,104-105 1o Throid codioge,44 \bia, 17 18,19 21,118-119 , , lLrberc ol '19, e 21 Tbiohonterior 119,126 118 lt t, ol heod,30,34,46,76,83 for of pelvis boonce,82 83 Torso, 86 48 onlerior 48 69 of, bonesol 17,58

iormsol chesl53-59 formsol 6l overlopping po$eior ot 70 87 prof e ot 86 rb coge,50 52 gkd shouldef e, 56 57 Trogus, 34 Tropez 46,56,76 77,8o 81,89 us, orign ond nserlion, T6-77 Tro\,erse lendons, 62 Tr ceps,89,90,92-95 ociionol 90 externoheod ol92-93 nlerno heod ol 92 93,94 ong heod of,92 93 90 orlgn ond inserlon, Ir cepsfemoralis, Quodrceps see Iuberce lhe libo,19,21 of 100 Uha,17, 19, 18, 89,96-97, 101 moss 100-101 ng, mo\emeniof, 96 97 Uprght pose,128 \(rue, 34,36,38,80-81,134 mode ng ihe back,80-81 \tstus exlernus, 115, 107-108, 116 orginond inserton, 107-108 \bsluslniermedlus, 107 ,l07, 116 \hsiLrs iniernus, 115, \brlebrae,'18, 19 ceNical, 19,14-15,76 eeclor spinoemusces ond, 72 latssimus ond, 78 dorsi trmbat.19,72,78 scalene musc ond,44 es scopu ond, 74 75 oe lrapezius ond, 76 thotaclc,19, 50,7 75,78 4 vtetgfi , 68, 84, 86,124,02 on egs,84,86,120 a.t laes,122 plocemeni 68 ol Whiiene,62 Wist, 17,96, 101 100 Wistbroceleis, 102 Xipho process, 21,58,62 d 17, Zygomol orch,40 43 c Zygomotclsmolor41 /gomotcusm not 41

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