Passage- 536 words

A GMAT VENTURE

Romantic ideology has descended to us, says McGann, largely through the lines of thought that have developed from Coleridge and Hegel (the German ideology). But while the Romantic ideology of 1789 to 1824 was articulated, to a large extent, by poets skeptical of many of its features, this ambivalence and self-consciousness largely disappears in the debased forms of Romantic ideology we encounter today. McGann censures his own 1968 study, Fiery Dust: Byron's Poetic Development, because of its absorption in Romanticism's self-representations and its presumption of the poet's linear development (a biographic teleology that cripples much critical thinking about art). The uncritical acceptance of Romantic ideology, however, poses problems for more than the study of Romanticism. The effect is all the more disastrous when, institutionally reified, this ideology continues to be the basis for the reception of postRomantic poetry by an influential segment of what McGann calls the clerisy, that is, literary academia. In this light, the grotesque, yet systematic, misjudgments about twentieth century poetry by a critic of Romanticism such as Harold Bloom become more understandable, if no less excusable. MGann's sometimes humorous selfconsciousness, true to his own didactic intentions, specifically keeps the focus on "that narrowest and most cloistered of spheres...the critical work produced by the literary academy" . It would be a mistake to ignore the pervasiveness of the same debased Romantic ideology as it informs much contemporary American poetry. Indeed, a broad range of seemingly antagonistic tendencies in current writing share a conception of poetry as giving a "voice" to unmediated "basic truths" of "imagination" and "feeling" through "direct expression" of human "creativity"; they also share an allergic reaction to any intimation, in a poem, of intellectual or ideological selfconsciousness. Absorption in Romanticism's self- representations, then, is not only a problem for critics; it is also a problem for poetry. This is the kind of reciprocal interaction in our own time that McGann sees as central to understanding the ideological context and reception of past and present literature. I take McGann's various explications of Romantic ideology to be provisional, that is, a stage in the development of an historical criticism informed as much by the contemporary ideological climate as by Romantic "texts." While McGann rejects René Wellek's view that there is a basic unity underlying the various manifestations of Romanticism, he does not quite adopt Lovejoy's skepticism — Romanticisms not Romanticism. The first step in breaking from the spell of a unified Romanticism is to recognize its particular and parochial ideological formations. McGann notes the fundamentally Christian character of the Romanticism formulated by Coleridge and formalized by Hegel. It is not surprising, then, that Heine — a poet inclined to consciously resist absorption in Christian Romanticism — would write a work McGann

2. Giving support to extreme viewpoints.which facilitated self-criticism in the earlier days is lacking nowadays.finds paradigmatic for historical criticism.4 From the first paragraph one can infer that ambivalence or hesitation as also self consciousness. An ability to criticize itself. 5. a crucial division of sympathies and knowledge" Q1. 2. 3.consciousness which can lead to introspection. 4. Q. 4. In fact it is this positive belief and absorption. German Romanticism. 5. He is qualified to take up this problematic matter because he contains in himself. A distinct hesitation about its presumptions.which is opposite of ambivalence which is criticized by McGann. The Romantic School. A positive belief and absorption into the tenets of romanticism. So option 1. 2 and 3 are lacking. Seeing all elements of Romantic ideology as being united in essence. Option 4 seems to be the trend of the modern times. Viewing his explications of Romantic ideology as provisional. Heine "writes between 1833 and 1835 as an expatriate German Jew to a French intellectual audience about a cultural phenomenon. Rejecting those theories of Romanticism which have evolved from particular contexts. 1. Which of the following is in line with McGann’s approach of handling Romanticism ? 1. Both 1 and 2. . 3. as it were. An attitude of self. German Romantic literary works.2. Viewing the fundamentally Christian character of Romanticism with circumspection. which is now historically concluded … At every point Heine is concerned with the problem of the immediate relevance of removed cultural resources — in this case. Option 4 is the best available choice. The romantic ideology nowadays seems to lack all the following characteristics except 1.

2. 4. Show that the uncritical acceptance of Romantic ideology results in problems.2 The author is trying to show that uncritical acceptance of the presumptions of Romanticism results in problems as the ideology becomes debased and this debased ideology starts permeating or informing other branches like poetry . 3. Argue that the present conception of Romantic ideology is provisional.4. Poets looking down on the debased Romantic ideology.pristine. From the 2nd line it can be inferred that Mc. 3.5 Refer to the last paragraph. Option 4 is the author’s view and not Mc Gann’s. Antagonistic tendencies which favour constructive criticism of poetry. The conception of poetry with a contempt for intellectual self-consciousness.Option 3 is not the main argument of the author. American poetry going through a phase of self-criticism. Challenge the debased Romantic ideology which informs present poetry. Option 5 in line with Mc Gann’s approach of skepticism or circumspection. Q. 5. Option 3 is incorrect. Option 4 is again incorrect as the author is not only challenging the debased Romantic ideology – but showing that the reason for this is ‘ uncritical acceptance’ of it. Option 5 is partly true but it is also general and exaggerated.Gann does not support extreme viewpoints.2. 2. Option 2 is rejected in the same line by McGann. Infact Mc Gann advocates recognizing paraochial ideological formulations. Q 3. 5. . The primary purpose of the passage is to 1. Also he is talking about the problems resulting from it. Option 1 is partly correct but not the main purpose. It can be inferred that the uncritical acceptance of Romantic ideology results in 1. 3. The author does not call the ideology. Option 5 is adopted by Heine and Mc Gann supports his work. Purport that Romantic ideology does not have a sound basis. Rejection of debased Romantic ideology by American poetry. 4. Illustrate how a pristine ideology can become impure by acceptance.

So like Mc Gann.he is generating skepticism which would lead to criticism. 4. Options 4 and 5miss the point and are exaggerated. Options 1 and 4 are not indicated in the passage. Browne notes that Wallace was thinking in terms of statistical generalizations. Passage 2 As has been pointed out by Browne and many others.2 Heine in the last para is in line with Mc Gann’s approach. Options 1 and 3 are incorrect and differ from the purport of the last paragraph. Option 3 is also not seen to be happening. The antagonistic tendencies favour acceptance rather than moving into constructive criticism. etc. He is questioning the immediate relevance of far-removed texts or the source texts which were considered the main influences in German Romanticism. Wallace envisioned a selection process operating at the group level. Suites of peculiarities defined species.) he was applying at the time. and producing new populations derived from varieties characterized by distinct adaptive suites. 5. 5. Search for German literary works. 3. Option 5 is not fully substantiated by the passage. In fact the debased Romantic ideology is seen to inform American Poetry rather than being rejected by it. Validate the existence of far removed sources of German Romanticism. In "The Origin of Species and Genera" in 1880 Wallace later discussed this as follows: . Generate skepticism in the far removed Sources of German Romanticism. Make amends for being expatriated from France. neither were they likely to mirror the only relevant population-dividing forces.4. Heine in the last paragraph is trying to 1. If single characters were untrustworthy distinguishers of species from one another taxonomically.2 Option 2 can be inferred from the last para which talks of Antagonistic tendencies in poetry developing an allergic reaction to intellectual self-consciousness. It requires more data. at least one verification of this surmise appears in the rules for systematic revision (multiple character trait-based analysis. Display his dual skills of knowledge and compassion. 2. 5.

. being replaced by two species. None of the above. Again. just as we find them in nature. each brought about by the pressure of changed conditions. each becoming adapted to one extreme form. 5. of covering. In this way several series of changes may occur. The most extreme variations in this direction will then have the advantage. this one extreme form will replace all the others. Conditions necessary for adaptation for a particular species can intensify. while. Competitors from other countries do not affect the phenomenon of variation. 5 Options 1 to 4 are entirely the views of “Wallace” and not the author. or the temperature may increase or diminish during long periods. each distinguished by a combination of certain extreme characters which had before existed in some of its varieties. For example. of length of bill. or by swifter flight or greater wariness can escape their new foes. 1. and thus what was before a single species may become transformed into a group of allied species. If this change of condition should extend over the whole area occupied by the species. Which of the following is true according to the author 1. The climate may change from moist to dry. the peculiar physical or organic conditions that render one part of the area occupied by a species better adapted to an extreme variety may become intensified. 2. is a general characteristic of animals in a state of nature. competitors or enemies may arrive from other countries.” Q1. differing from each other in a number of slight characters. we may fairly draw the conclusion that analogous variation. So the best option is option 5. So nothing can be said about them. so extensive as regards the number of variable characters and so large in absolute amount as has now been proved to exist in many species. and will multiply at the expense of the rest. or the reverse. and with such materials to work with it becomes easy to understand how new species may arise. The original type of the species will then have become extinct. of vegetable or of insect food--to be met by the selection of variations of colour or of swiftness.“From the fact of variation. if the area should be cut in two by subsidence or elevation. 3. the conditions of the two portions may be modified in opposite directions. giving the advantage to such varieties as can change their food. The changes of conditions which lead to such selection of varieties are very diverse in their nature. 4. An area adapted by a particular species can divide into two creating variation in the characteristics of the species. in either case requiring some corresponding change of constitution. and new species may thus be formed diverging in many ways from the parent stock. A single species cannot become transformed into more than two species. sometimes of less and sometimes of greater extent. or of strength of claws.

3 Refer to the 2nd paragraph. Which of the following would be true if the peculiar physical or organic conditions that render one part of the area occupied by a species better adapted to an extreme variety become intensified? 1. Variations in the direction of the extreme variety would have an advantage. Option 3 is a definite outcome of the intensified conditions. para 2. But unless the conditions “change” and this change is “diverse” there would be no pressure created to adapt and develop “numerous” variations. The tendency in species to adapt to a number of conditions at one time rather than just one or two conditions.2 and 5 represent possibilities which depend on other conditions or assumptions.4 The question is asking about – not just the reason for variations but the reason for the numerous variations in species. The pressure of natural conditions which forces species to develop variations to survive. Options 1. 3. Q. 2. Option 4 answers the question.3. 3. 4. Option 4 is not indicated in the passage. Hence the variations are numerous. The intelligence inherent in species which drives them on to survive even in face of competitors. The numerous variations in the species in nature can be chiefly attributed to 1. 2. 5. Option 3 cannot be inferred from the passage. 3. 4. The passage nowhere says that species cannot adapt to just one or two conditions. 5. The chief reason for the numerous variations is that the changes in natural conditions which create pressure on species to adapt-------are “diverse” . The original species would become extinct. The extreme variety would replace all the other forms in the other parts of the area occupied by the species. 2. Two or more new species would get formed from the original species. Variations in a direction away from the extreme variety would be protected by the extreme variety. . Option 2 is too specific an answer.Q2. The tendency of a species to adapt to the environment in which it lives. Option 1 is definitely a reason for the variation but it does not explain the reason for the numerous variations. Option 5 talks about the ‘pressure of natural condition’. Refer to line 7. The change in the conditions in nature which are diverse.

” This vitiation of Marx’s philosophy of liberation is “but prelude to the hammer and tongs approach to Lenin who. Cardan claims. this subjective factor. Never mind that the “single” will was not a reference to foremen or managers of production. As proof of the slanderous statement. Cardan quotes from one of Lenin’s speeches.” Never mind that the Taylor system was never introduced in Lenin’s lifetime. The references to “single will” and “iron discipline” are sufficient basis for Cardan to conclude: “We believe these conceptions. namely power over production in day-to-day life. four years of imperialist war. ”The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government” and then only those passages which relate to the possibility of utilizing the “Taylor system. was always ignored. Never mind the objective situation. Real power. “Marxists have always seen the achievement of working class power solely in terms of the conquest of political power. The point of contention in that first year of revolution when the discussion revolved around “single” vs “collective” referred to parallelism in organisations since the first national trade union organisation arose only after the revolution. the backwardness of the economy. was “relentlessly repeating from 1917 until his death that production should be organised from above along ’state-capitalist lines’”. we will let it stand in order to call attention to the foundation for the diatribe.Passage 3-(427 words) “For some strange reason”. civil war and countless counter-revolutionary attacks which were still going on as the new workers’ state was struggling for its very existence That speech was made when the state was but four months old. writes Cardan . . for the time being. I know of no greater lie. just when factory committees and Soviets likewise laid sole claim to running production. but. played an enormous role in the degeneration of the Russian Revolution … we can see today the relationship between the views he held and the later reality of Stalinism”.

State-capitalism first arose during the world Depression. 2. B. Option 1 is Cardan’s view which is being refuted by the author. Showing that Lenin’s comments have been distorted from their actual meaning. Drawing attention to and discussing the other comments made by Lenin in the same article. on the one hand. 4. The Taylor system was never introduced in Russia’s factories. than the passages singled out for quotation. Were we to acquiesce to anything so foolish that a single article could sum up a period covering the greatest proletarian revolution in history. 2. C.Cardan is standing everything on its head. 3. . Option 5 is again Cardan’s view which is being refuted by the author in the second last para. 5. and. Lenin was against giving power to the workers over production. assumed its most mature form in Russia during the Five Year Plans and Stalin’s most notorious Moscow Frame-up Trials. Option 2 cannot be concluded as the author mentions that the Taylor system was not introduced during “Lenin’s lifetime”. Option 4 is something to which the author would agree as he refutes Cardan’s argument by interpreting the meaning of Lenin’s statement as “ Organizations should be parallel’ or “ Organized in a similar fashion”. It could have been introduced later. No “subjective” factor could ever have produced an objective situation – the new stage of capitalism. Cardan believed that Lenin was fundamentally a Marxist. Using factual data to de-link the cause and effect linked by Cardan. on the other hand. Stalin was significantly influenced by Lenin. The author would agree with which of the following statements ? 1. a great deal more. Lenin wanted the organization of production to be based on a certain philosophy .5 Option 1 cannot be inferred as the meaning of Lenin’s statements or the “single” directive is interpreted by the author as “making organizations parallel”. 1. Option 3 again is not indicated or implied in the passage. would it not be incumbent on the analyst to consider that article in its entirety? That speech consisted of more. The author primarily uses which of the following to disprove Cardan’s views ? A. Q1.

The terms when taken for their literal meaning lead to Cardan’s incorrect interpretation. period.C and D. C and D 4.1 Option 1 is correct. 3. Argumentative is the method used by the author and not his attitude. It is a stunning achievement and one of the least sentimental boy-meets-girl films you will ever see. Regretful 3. C and D 5. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards Cardan’s views? 1. 2. A. The author does not appear frustrated but seems quite clear that Cardan’s views are foolish. The tone is extreme. Questioning is a mild tone wheares the author’s tone is extreme here. The terms “parallel organizations” and “discipline” etc carried a different meaning when seen in a particular context-.D. For eg. A.regret is normally felt for one’s own wrong actions. Statement A is what the author mainly tries to indicate as the flaw in Cardan’s reasoning. The subjective-objective connection is delinked by the author in the 2nd last para by pointing to where capitalism originated. Describing how subjective factors cannot produce objective outcomes. Dismissive 4. B . The first shot is a harbinger of things to come – a long and steady take depicting . B and D are only referred to by the author and neither discussed nor described. Frustrated 2. phlegmatically unravelled with painfully authentic performances delivered in front of vast and vacuous backdrops soaked up like a sponge by Thornton’s wide and searching lens. follows the gradual partnership of two indigenous teenagers who live in a small impoverished rural community outside Alice Springs. He calls it a lie and also calls it foolish. 1.B and C 3. ‘Dismissive – is appropriate here as the author is totally dismissing Cardan’s views. Argumentative 3.3 The author is totally denouncing or dismissing Cardan’s views. Passage 4: 480 words Samson & Delilah.The author is not regretful of anything here. Questioning 5. the Cannes-selected breakthrough feature of writer/director Warwick Thornton. A and C 2. It is a film of slow and menacing beauty.when the state was four months old. Statement C is also correct as factual data is used by the author to delink cause and effect. A.

Together they create the kind of painfully real performances that has critics. Samson lives near a trio of reticent musicians who endlessly rehearse a handful of simple riffs. their partnership presented as a natural progression born more of necessity than desire.a wizened. The title characters build enormous screen presence despite very little dialogue and few moments of overt emotion. In addition the handful of ensemble cast are a memorable bunch: Delilah’s Grandma and a friendly hobo who goes by the name of Gonzo bring a little humour and light to the story. they are stolid personalities the audience come to understand over time. On this uneasy note the film’s harsh but seductive mood begins. giggly old gal who spots romance well before it blossoms. Our protagonists seem drawn to each other organically. . and Delilah cares for her elderly grandmother . reaching for his trusty tin and taking a long. deep whiff of petrol. choking themselves on superlatives.Samson’s (Rowan McNamara) morning ritual of waking up. though some audiences will inevitably describe it as too much of a downer. the second half carrying a heaviness built on top of the commonplace details illustrated in the first. Samson & Delilah is the cinematic event many Australians have waited decades to see: an extraordinarily powerful picture that frames the debate about Aboriginal living standards in an intensely personal context. but give it time and a close affinity between themselves and the audience develops. heartbreaking and technically proficient. Beautiful. In opening scenes romantic chemistry between 15-year-old Samson and 16-year-old Delilah (Marissa Gibson) consists largely of the characters throwing rocks at each other. and this is when the film really takes off. for a good reason. more out of routine than pleasure. Eventually they will leave their isolated community and venture to the big smoke. without loading up on cheap shocks or political didacticism. Rowan McNamara and Marissa Gibson appear naturalistic and effortless and their acting unconsciously nuanced.

1. But it leaves out the context . . What according to the author is most remarkable about the movie ‘Samson and Delilah’? 1.The unraveling goes against the expectations of the audience. 2. 3. Clearly highlighting the fact that aboriginal living standards need to be improved. The unraveling of the movie Samson and Delilah is best described by which of the following 1. 2. Portraying love without getting involved in political rhetoric. Portraying aboriginal living standards in a personal context. The unraveling is meant to cause pain to the audience. Portraying love between two characters without much display of overt emotion. Option 4 is true. Option 3 becomes excessive as a harsh/stoic treatment does not mean ‘cruel undertones’. The unraveling occurs in a sentimental mode. Portraying love as an organic progression rather than a desire. 3.2 ‘Phlegmatically unraveling’ as well as the ‘harsh’ treatment of the film make it explicit that the unraveling is ‘non-sentimental’ and ‘stoic’.2 Option 1 is part of the movie but not a remarkable thing. 4. 5. 1. 4. Option 3 is not explicit in the passage. The unraveling is stoic in its treatment. Hence option 2 scores as the best option. Option 1 is incorrect. Options 4 and 5 are talking about the effect of the unraveling on the audience – not how the unraveling is actually done . Option 5 distorts what is given. 5. The unraveling has cruel undertones to it. 2. The remarkable aspect is portraying aboriginal living standards through ‘personal love’ without taking resort to political didactism. 2.

5 Option 1 generalizes the meaning of real characters from the specific context. The critics lauded the film because they felt choked with emotion and pain. The audience does not want to see what is painfully real and feels let down. By ‘painful’ the author is referring to his and the viewers’ experience of the movie. 4. The critics choked on superlatives and not on pain and emotion. . what is meant is ‘that which is close to the actual real life situation’ and not ‘those without overt emotion’. The film got due credit for creating a realistic feel which also touched many viewers. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage ? 1.Q. 2.3. We cannot extend this to the whole audience. Also ‘painful’ with reference to acting would mean a role which demands effort and not literal pain. From the last line of the passage. it is given that some audiences will describe the film or its humour as a downer. Real characters are those characters which are portrayed without resorting to overt emotions. By real. Option 4 again distorts things. 3. 5. Option 5 can be clearly inferred as the author emphasizes the ‘real characters’ and also its effect on audience and critics. Option 2 cannot be inferred as nothing has been said mentioned about the experience of the characters. The title characters in the movie must have gone through a lot of pain while enacting their roles 3.

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