On the Cultural Front

Ritwik Ghatak

We are witnessing a curious phenomenon to-day. We are witnessing an unprecedented expansion of progressive influence in the cultural sphere. By their art creation and by professing, many common artistes of professional and other are showing that they are drawing more and more near the people. Artistes are taking up the cause of the people. What is curious in it? It is a matter of rejoicing for us. But it is curious all the same. It is curious because no communist artiste is working among them, no communist influence by example is guiding them to-day. In fact, our artistes in those spheres are miserable figures and are glad, for all practical purposes, to remain so. This is curious. This is not only curious; it seems monstrous when we remember the particular smug complacency we are in. We are hurrying and bustling and talking and running, and all the while we are actually sitting on the movement; we, the communist artistes. Not a single art-work of high value has come from us in the last four years. We are reviving the past works of ourselves, or rehashing it and giving it a new name, or else creating amateurish third-raters. And all the while, we remain "talkers-in-chief". This is definitely monstrous. And the few truly creative artistes among us are going away and away from the Party day by day. The facts are telling us so. If and when asked, we have stock answers to these things. The most repeated among them are - "There is lack of any Party line on Culture," "party itself does not care", "Party is glad in the way we are working"," Joshi's Golden Period should descend again for the sake of Culture", etc., etc. Another sort of answer one may hope to get old shoulders. Any uneasy question will immediately draw vague allusions to the condition of the Party, the Country, the Organization and then silence. Sometimes one may look forward to the pleasure of having presented with statistics and figures of repetitions our works have gone through, sometimes even numbers of cadre engaged and groups of workers functioning, will come to you as answer to the query concerning high artwork. Have they no value? This is the crux of the matter. Everything has value; but when one loses proportion, one substitutes value of one for value of the other. It seems that we are doomed to remain where we are to-day. But blaming ourselves only is injustice unto us, though to our minds, we have had quite a measure of over-justice and deserve some injustice for a change. Anyway, Party must come in for criticism. It is, in fact, the superficial, coaxing manner of the Party that has allowed these things to grow. Party generally sees cultural front in two ways - one, as a 'money-earning machine' (these are harsh words we know, but it just cannot be helped), and, two, as mobilizes in meetings and conferences, to keep the crowd (and not masses) engaged with whatever we can offer. And when Peace Council or some such body gives a slogan on Culture, Party, through its Committees at different levels, calls us and asks us to execute the routine. This is disheartening. More disheartening it is when even really serious comrades of Party Committees and other fields of activities become reticent, indifferent rather, whenever anything concerning Culture comes up: "That is culture, comrades, and we know nothing of your problems, and we have such and such jobs at hand, we have such and such engagements, and so-and-so is busy with those problems, and we are overworked, and we are fighting to cope with sudden expansion of Party's influence, and with the building of mass organizations, and with the Democratic Front, and all and sundry.......... Some other time, comrades," That other time never comes. At least it has not come in the last few years. Something or other has bobbed up like proverbial Cromwell's head, and attention of the Party becomes focused upon it. This is extremely disheartening. It is sad but truthful to admit that if we are to get the ear of the Party, we must show the benefit accruing to the Party as a whole, and not Culture, party is more interested in getting things from Culture at present. It is very difficult to determine how much Party cares for culture as the peoples' property. It is also sad but truthful to admit that all that is going on among us, all the sayings of us and other comrades, show a singular lack of understanding of what is needed, what we are losing, and what is the way out. Such is the condition to-day. It has to be declared unequivocally that the problem of culture is basically the problem of organization-at all levels-the Party, the Platform, the Art. It has to be declared unequivocally that attitude of diffidence of the comrades, however sincere, is objectively broadening the gulf and cleavage between the Party and the cultural workers.

It has to be declared unequivocally that all that is needed from the Party is legitimate Party attention and no more; special problems of art, comrades, concerned themselves are fit to solve. It has to be declared unequivocally that Party is losing much by this attitude and is allowing a grave chance of danger to develop within the Party. It has to be declared unequivocally that our lack of creation is not the result of lack of party-line on Culture, but lack of organized and serious effort in ourselves. It has to be declared unequivocally that a golden period is not what we are after, but

methodical. a possible source of reserve forces. Organization is the key to the whole problem. In our work. and to the end. the source of new cadres. be brighter than many. a potential sinking fund. face slower. through stages of development to final Art-product. This task is on the order of the day. But we must understand that we have to look at them from that angle. We shall divide our discussions in three parts. All these have to be declared unequivocally and in clear-cut language to-day. Logical thinking gives birth to analysis of oneself and one's art. We have tried to remember this fact in our discussions. one Mukunda Das we find among them through development extending over years. the propel through our Platforms. This form is of decisive importance today. In such an academy. It means learning the whole process of it.SPECIALISTS of high standing and ability. Among them there are sparks. That is the main reason why they should be drawn into the Federation. will see the whole thing to the last and fight to the last. To push our creative pieces of primary nature towards and among them. in this paper. tenacious work is what is called for. and people may be made to think. It means learning the trade. honesty of purpose and artistic caliber. we can not rigidly fix down phases of the process. our job is well done. and not one. slow. Those. they are a part of mass organization building problems. which they contain in profusion. and reach our conclusions which are logical conclusions inherent in them and are crying for release.mainly. They present three sets of problems. this is why we should work among the amateurs. We shall take up special problems pertaining to our work and we hope to show that they are nothing insurmountable. though intricately interconnected. Such plain talking also. from the inception of theme-content. We hope that Party will circulate this among the comrades. We must strive to make them accept such primary works so that they may come to know and then to respect our sincerety. harness them to our purpose. Because such artistes from among the workers and peasants. and we cannot expect any radical change in that approach. theory and practice of art-forms may be discussed. secret of inspiration and intensity and sublimity of feeling. 'Slogans' will never do here. Our comrades should work among these artistes. we can understand our tasks in building the Democratic Front and people can be roused and enthused through our art-work. the fountainhead. It means the respectful study of past with scrupulous care and learning the past experiments and achievements recorded. It is an Adults' business-to start with. It means learning that other truth. That is bound to reveal the pattern and hence bound to bring out in sharp relief the . But they are rarely to be found in that illumined state. such a Forum is AN ACADEMY FOR HISTRIONICS AND CONSERVATOIRE FOR MUSIC. work creatively. We have to search for them. If we succeed in making common artistes and amateurs think consistently and logically. We must work among them. one Nazrul. Songs written and put to tune by our composers and allied creative pieces are to be pushed towards common artistes continually. that is the form. we come into contact with the Party. educate them. we must get a Central Forum from which we can be able to propagate our theories and practices of art. we mean really non-Party people and really artistes . In all probability there are more sparks in them than are dreamt of by many of us. the mode of handling philosophic content. to do all this and reach quality. This task has to be executed to-day. We do not mean the non-Party minority (who are mostly close sympathizers). in the form that we think will best clarify our points. mainly.the proper place in the body of the Party and share in Party rights and responsibilities. all 'evolving round the central point of organization. It can be done only in one way-high artistic value and sincerity of content. and hence try to arrive at a conclusion. in its variety of approach and utilization. From our standpoint. and to make them accept these. There is another place of contact from our point of view. but many are sure to be found. is our task. This last is the point. work to learn "melody and speech" and method of "utterance". Then we have to proceed to reshape them to achieve our goals. if developed and not spoilt by glorifying. views may be exchanged. who are with us today and who are a valuable possession. those Promethean sparks. to show that the problems are of organizational nature and not ideological. at the same time. the approach of the Communist We also know that the moment we start to do these. Dramas by our dramatists. To guide the whole Federation to our channel more and more. and mainly. the other side becomes immediately important. is no mean job. Actually. this is a question of two-pronged offensive. And finally. we have ever so much to learn – indeed. We will be well-paid. because it is a creative process. bring them in Federation. because we may lose balance and defeat our own purpose by becoming isolated. we think. learn life through them. Production services of our Reissues. We are giving vent to whatever we think needs to be uttered. We have already said that from overall Party point of view. Such a place. . so that Party can impose discipline on Cultural Front. teach them. Generally. if developed will last longer. is on the order of the day. They are the breeding ground. We know that to give expression to all we hold dear and to take them where they belong to among the masses. How should we proceed to fulfill them? We must proceed by admitting that we are in a very poor way indeed so far as Bourgeois Culture goes. enthuse the worthy among them to be more serious. We propose. They are amateurs of localities. from the standpoint of Culture. they are treated as such. it means learning that all this process is not so simple as 2 plus 2 = 4. and with our own Art. so to speak. This last is what is needed. If one Sarat Chandra. our job is half done. And in such matters "haste and sweeping measures are worst possible things". we have to take all that is good in them.

This rousing and educating and elevating and negating is in relation to other things. this urge.is the reason and guarantee of the success of the Party and Revolution in the last analysis. his organization of creative work does not change. This one organizational stroke will help immensely in building Democratic Front. this by itself does not solve any of our problems. tasks differ. two sets of factors: the objective and subjective. a stage of classless society on the earth where classes and their state machines and their Parties will wither away.….historic tasks of the artistes. These are vary hard tasks. in the total activity of the Party.(*) Why? Because it is his . In fact. haste and sweeping measures are the worst possible things. considered in its ideal condition." (Better fewer. Our tasks indicate that only artistes can handle the jobs. PART I: COMMUNIST ARTISTE AND THE PARTY What are the basic tasks of Communist artistes? And how should they do it? In other words. and kept constantly on the proper level by tireless vigilance. and to negate alien influences in them. There is no such things as Art-Organizers. find slogans corresponding to the stage of development. And this tendency. Subjective attitude of the masses themselves at the moment is. and will be solved. among the masses or in the ranks of the enemies . (State and Revolution -Lenin: Anti-During . sought and found in correct relation to each other. from Party point of view. Watch continually. weighed.Selected Works Vol. Many of our young writers and Communists should get this well into their heads..…. . II) He was contrasting quality with quantity in matters of organization at the moment. we will have to regroup our forces.844 . from party point of view. They arise because both these sets are remembered. This is the task of FRACTIONS at all levels. making ourselves conscious of the magnitude of our tasks. but these arethe tasks.to rouse. Our Party-artistes have to organize these tasks and execute them. and then only. We have to think in terms of available human materials.. Party juxtaposes these two sets of facts. checked. And then. Towards that we are subjectively moving. practice we must strive to show through our own group-functioning and creative achievements. We have to come to grips with these problems. Economic and cultural growth. can-we derive the full benefit from the policy of keeping MODELS in practice. We must regroup our forces. these are the weapons to be used.pp. from artistic point of view. Subjective in this case is the mental caliber of the Party itself. this constant striving. much more interesting manner than is possible in any other way. and allot tasks. All the tasks here are to be executed by artistes themselves. it will be to do all these so that they proceed onto revolutionary action. Theory we must relentlessly pursue and strive to establish as the most superior outlook in the Academy. What are these ? How does he proceed to fulfill Partytasks ? His method is . his public. Such is the nature of our tasks concerning Democratic Front and our hegemony in culture. This way of thinking is nothing but shallowness coupled with a dangerously wrong approach to organization.culture can and should contribute in bringing the conditions desirable by the Party. thoroughly. to elevate the masses and to negate alien influences in them so that they mobilize in mass organizations. To-morrow. and this is his warning. This in one hand. What other things? Party's overall basic tasks primarily. because communist artiste are the organizers.Engels). Wherever subjective attitude is thought of . This is the proper relation. The success of Democratic Front depends upon this work. these basic tasks are specific slogans of mainly ideological--organizational level. For. complimented by new thoughts. to educate. may be. through different revolutionary levels. through the platform where he is creatively employed. Basic subjective attitude. artiste reaches out to the People. a part of objective situation present. Accounting and control on all planes. and way of our approach to the people. and watch. In order to do these. weighed. This will help build necessary atmosphere for serious attitude for guiding them on to new pastures and also. it is a monstrous tautology in terms.in the Party. Objective is the historical development of a particular land at a given period including in it Political. It follows that art and culture should always serve the Party's Work -. A quotation will not be out of place here : ". All these. Such an academy. to educate. systematically. Different periods in the development of the Revolution give rise to different tasks. the day after. where lies the place of culture? Determination of Party-Line on Political-organizational plane depends upon two aspects. This is the most important job in the Federation. and Party tasks arise. No such job exists. Art and Culture is concerned with soul and mind. it may be to do all these so that they settle in the tasks of reconstructing the land and consolidating the revolution. Artistes' mode of work remains the same all through these periods. Nature and method remaining the same. Will see the building of Democratic Front in Coactive Arts.In matters of culture. Now. In the last article of his life. is the determination of all Communists to establish. But this cannot be all. the most popular ones in art-forms. when coordinated. Comrade Lenin opened with a Para dealing with the problems of culture. Such is the problem of mass contact in our activities. where most eminent specialists can and must be mobilized for teaching is on the order of the day. level and position of the cadres themselves. tackle them and overcome them. and throw our cadres in the jobs in the most effective manner possible.through and mainly through in striving to fulfill Party's basic tasks of the period. No artistic artOrganisers will be able to solve any of these problems exactly to the extent that Eskimo hunting songs will rouse and guide Hottentots to revolutionary action! This is not a mass-organization where problems are of general nature to a degree. Contradictions will arise. but better . to elevate the masses. Now. Today it is to rouse. In such academies we can inculcate Marxist thought in much more profound and. put stress where it is necessary.

at the same time. That is all nonsense. '23 ) has this to say on the score of Bourgeois Culture : “. bureaucratic or serf culture etc.. Knowledge. or clerks.. in our case. It is such a time still in our front. are leading. distinct platform. What is the lesson we should draw from Comrade Lenin's clear and unambiguous statements? An obvious one. and.. Heritage presupposes -Study. but that does not make any difference for his general opinions on culture.. that impact is felt not in the same way as in political sphere and should not be given expression to in the same way. to carry forward and reshape National heritage. condition prevailing in the cultural life of the country etc.. Are these two incompatible? Is there any contradiction between these two? No. who are bound with us by common love of cultural pursuit." "Proletarian Culture (PROLETCULT was raging in the Soviet Union at the time as a Sectarian school..) is not something which has sprung nobody knows whence. His whole attitude he clearly defines in his speech delivered at the 3rd All-Russian congress of Young Communist League. And Heritage. Our platform here must be a separate. without the other. From here we are in troubled waters of controversy. Culture reshapes heritage. Strict division in periods is too mechanistic.e. Our physical responsibility is primarily unto others of our same trade. our tasks in such Platform will naturally be to mobilize artistes . This division is completely notional. For this reason. we are for a specialized people. Culture moves in an unending line. We cannot unite with other artistes on Party's platform though that remains our maximum programmed. Trouble is. there is the question of stress. has not arrived in the Soviet Union of 1923... we have no duty direct to mobilize doctors. these allies are other artistes. comrade Lenin. the broad strata of oppressed masses. for a start. we have to admit." (The tasks of the Youth Leagues). which he attacks here. urgency of immediate tasks. As communists. It definitely has.. That start.in order to do this. even six years after the Revolution ( March 2. Party artistes' task is two-fold to serve the party's basic slogans of Democratic Front and . not before it. is NATIONALHERTTAGE. according to the law of operation of dialectics. Without one... but that depends upon so many practicalorganizational factors.”(ibid). a thousand times no...THE WRITER AND HIS CRAFT. Let us have not the notions of a simpleton . He first shows that Marx did nothing but reshape human knowledge acquired up to and including the Capitalism.. the caliber and level of cultural cadre. can be geared towards fulfilling basic tasks of the Democratic Front. So.. All these are common sense. We would be satisfied with real bourgeois culture for a start. We should remember these words.. Proletarian culture must be the result of a natural development of the stores of knowledge which mankind has accumulated under the yoke of Capitalist society.. We communists are but as drops in the ocean.. slightest shift in Political-Economic balance of forces does not give rise immediately and palpably to sharp cleavages in cultural spheres. and continue to lead to Proletarian Culture . We have to bring them under our ideology more and more and help them to be of Peoples' service. Whom? the artistes and art-minded people in general. that is this: CULTURE MOVES IN AN UNENDING LINE.. on which will stand this platform.. Minimum agreed points and grounds are to be struck.. we shall not be able to solve the problem. question of degrees. It is our duty to mobilize and guide. And in mobilizing and guiding the masses we need allies. The real problem starts here. Learning. But these waters are not of the ocean of ideology or party-line.. in reality both reside in one and the same art work... or just youth. for instance.. is reshaped again and again by the class who is historical leader of the epoch.. we can conclude : On creative plane. Only by reshaping it and carrying it to its logical conclusion can culture come in the service of working class. Then he proceeds to say: ". exact knowledge of the culture created by the whole development of mankind and that only by reshaping this culture can a Proletarian Culture be built. to be able to dispense with the cruder types of pre-bourgeois culture i. Culture reshapes past heritage.. tested it on reality and drew logical conclusions only. is a natural development of previous culture. drops in the ocean of broad strata of people.Unless we clearly understand that only by an Incidentally to-day Flya Ehrenburg expresses the same idea of quality versus quantity in his recently published article . What has been said before does not mean that change in political-economic sphere has no impact on culture.. same specialized profession. which is an activity of man and who are scattered all over the strata of the masses.considered and oft-expressed opinion that new culture is nothing but reshaping of accumulated human knowledge acquired under other class societies. Otherwise it will defeat its own purpose. Of course. But times come. when one has to invoke Marx-Lenin or Mao to restore normalcy.. it is not an invention of those who call themselves experts in Proletarian Culture. landlord society and bureaucratic society" "All these roads and paths have led. it is horrible to imagine any art at all. we shall now take up the physical aspect of the task. who are never a mass. Our organizations for mass-contact must be upon this clear and firm basis: We are not out to mobilize the masses Physically. a work does not remain a Communist's work. in Lenin's opinion. who will also be engineers of their souls. will turn into its exact opposite with a revolutionary revulsion. But why? In order that Party's task is carried forward more vigorously. We should remember that it is one of the remote superstructures of economics. and his mode of work on the other. These are practical question primarily and should be treated as such. Communist artiste's task is to mobilize and guide the masses through creation and through physical participation. and we would be glad. And these questions are inseparably bound with the question of artiste's art work and his standard on one hand.

much less important is his task of mobilization physically. even as mobilizes. Standard. Professionals. Semi-professionals and Amateurs. It is perfectly sure that no other class is historically capable of holding the flag high than organized proletariat. being unable to solve the big problem. there is arising a sharp contradiction. intensity of feeling. Whatever professional job he is working upon at the moment is his Party task. must be with humility. the reasons for his taking such and such a job. the third are followers. What happens then? Party. the manifestation in reality of such an attitude. by establishing our superior logic. it cannot have compartments for progressive and money-earning activities. approach. nothing of value can be created. They are mentally as serious as professionals. That principle is: An artiste's soul is indivisible. but are bound to waste the best times of their lives after other works. Secondly. which is extremely difficult and hazardous in countries like ours. If Party also accepts it thus. Attitude is a subjective factor. which. their problems tangentially touch the problems of culture as they are members of other strata members and followers of mass organizations where culture is an activity. On the other. Why? Primarily. environment and aptitude does not allow in them that amount of seriousness which makes this process of creation a matter of utmost importance in their existence. From the standpoint of attitude we would like to divide artistes in three categories. Let both points of view exchange experiences. where lies the place of Professionals in the Party. But. he takes a professional interest in culture and we can do nothing but to accept them at their words. And an artiste serves his party and his people through his art. Unless this attitude develops. comes to the fore sharply. But immediately questions will arise. they will add to the strength of our contention. Both sides contain truth. creative talent. This guiding must be tending them through persistent process. which sometimes degenerate in scandals and become vehicle of personal backings and back-biting. At such times. being a matter of one's own mind. meaning and goal of life. his economic position. Men want. not the activity. Semi-professionals are those unfortunates who have a leaning and willingness to accept art-creation as their sole productive activities. These are the inner-lying levers which motivate him towards art. it follows that an artiste's all art work is his party work. They are not common recipients of artistic products they are that section which takes intelligent interest in enjoying them and re-creating them. these comrades find a singular lack of sympathy and understanding of the economic situation in which they have to go on creating. We should accept everybody at his declaration. sifted and . Now. and as we know from oft-quoted saying of comrade Stalin. Anyone can easily claim. and external forces operating which radically alter sometimes the purpose and intention of their creations. but total desertion. And this has to be dealt with the question of artiste's attitude to work. proceed logically. reasons for his existence.and then to guide them onto our maximum programmed. Because there is a principle involved here. SECTARIANISM-IN-DEED which is the bedrock of culture do-day in the Party. seeks justification and enthusiasm for his quest of happiness and security. We will discuss them briefly and separately. entertainment. They want to enjoy the process of creation. Even such supposed non-political words as inspiration. they prove that with such attitude they have fought and won a livelihood for themselves in their loved vocations. must learn the conditions in which he is working. They may not be as regular. all this. from creative point of view. However much we glorify the latter. we are witnessing a gulf between certain comrade's professing of Marxist philosophy and practice of downright reactionary art creation. What is the utility of such divisions then? We will take them at their works. enlistment from his immediacy.. But it qualifies reality completely. We call them the amateurs. If these two points are agreed upon. may seem extremely indeterminate in practical life.reasons for his making such and such a compromise are learnt beforehand. any way many an able comrade is going away and away from the party. the former is powerful thousand fold. to start with. Only this organized and class-conscious section must be persistent enough to take the flag and then proceed. But there are some who are not content by receiving. Among Party members who are professionals.all arise out of attitude. checked. by example of art and personal character. They seek and find satisfaction in occasional and more or less casual creative activities. As the position of the National Bourgeoisie is perfectly clear to us. He seeks and finds all these in art. That sort of thing is not compromise. We in this paper are trying to concentrate on the first two categories. But their mode of life. for his sufferings. If in many cases it is found that men with professional attitude are actually professionals in economic sense. alas is so absent in us. What is the objective nature of their problem? On the one hand. relaxation. but of as high standard as any professional. lack of Party education and Party contact. This last question of persistency is key to the whole problem. They are also part of the problems of mobilization in the mass organizations. We discard generally accepted yardstick of money earning because it seems inadequate. and will continue to desert. by' persuasion. study. in order to help him in his work. are bound with this attitude. The question of artiste's art work and standard: This is the central factor in any assessment. and then. continually. Humanism is a banner which our bourgeoisie is deserting more and more to-day. what sort of picture emerges? Party Unit extends its check-up and control wherever and whenever he is creatively employed. in one word.. convenient use of Party form etc. The Amateurs. We must understand that Revolution is an adult's business. No amount of evading can efface this principle. Minimum programmed for such platforms is to-day NATIONAL BOURGEOIS HUMANIST CULTURE.

and thousand such pricks. and through mobilization of non-Party artistes from wider circle will be the result. his suffering was uttered in the form of great poetry. a State of oppressed masses . where an artiste does not always know how much of him will be kept and in which way. "That undiscovered country. The economic position. I have god's gift to utter what I suffer.. But quest in this sphere. from whose bourn no traveler returns" .. When one runs back. the great artiste spoke.what are those slings and arrows of said fortune. He mentions it in the second half of the alternative he puts before him in the beginning. cursed spite! that he was ever born to set it right. Let us quote another one..pangs of despised love. He should have been living at this hour! What bearing has this upon our point of contention? Why. otherwise who would bear . and came down transcending time and space to us. Party gains immensely. or not to be : that is the question. We shall quote Goethe : . a comrade will be bound to state beforehand all that he has to say and bow to the collective decision. and 'oh.and nurtured them. We must now enter his life to understand them. He did not take arms against this sea of troubles and did not end them by opposing. He opens his heart in his poem (which has been so ably set to tune and popularized by com. or it was Hamlet.pangs of despised love. And the principle mentioned above is the truth. He knows the solution. Probably he was cut short.. probably the rest was silence. the rest remained silent. insolence of office. that very untruth starts losing proportions and boils down to a thing of amazingly small dimensions. Comrades will have the Party backing and Party sanction in their work to save them from unnecessary slanders and black-painting that goes on in the interests of serving peoples' Culture. Why does he think of committing suicide? Because. Whether ‟tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous future. It has been admitted many a time that art work is a specialized work.Nature has left us tears. his "melody and speech" came forth. he has left me melody and speech To make the full depth of my anguish known.. we must admit that his reasons for such fatal thoughts are impersonal. If we accept his words for them. That fear is in all spheres today.this gives him the pause. where artiste enjoys supreme authority within the art work. These two events have radically qualified the content of UTTERANCE of the poet and the method of it. And when man in his agony is dumb. -. character and mode of work of persons controlling employment also will have a sob rising effect upon "Revolutionary Zeal" of many enthusiasts. It was Shakespeare. But one has to stand up for truth and fight for it. the time was out of joint.. suffer for it. And it will be interesting to note our Sukanta's attitude. etc. They pressed him like a milling . Truly. the question arises in his mind whether it is nobler to suffer slings and arrows of an outrageous fortune. Truly. conditions of employment.. and establishment on this very earth on the basis of this body of knowledge. . Shakespeare is Hamlet. that urge. will draw a blank each time in hundred times. or what the outcome of resultant art work will be. this time from Shakespeare : Hamlet contemplates suicide and utters the lines. Law's delay. that discontent. True compromises and vacillations will be differentiated. it is the function of all artistes.when one can finish off everything with a bare bodkin? Thus he reasoned. This is not only the poet's job. they are . there is no escaping.weighed by the coactive. what happens here? And how does this man's procrastination come to throw light upon artiste's function? Who is Hamlet? A prince of Jutland in 5th Century. Fear of abuse is there. does not matter. or is it better to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing end them? One must ask then . enter into his personal aspect. noted them and hated them. He took up the sufferings and agonies and unbearable pains of fellow men. He did not do them. And most of all To me..To be. But here we are in quest of artiste's function. and secondary art.. Unit also must learn to differentiate between primary art.the Soviet Union. Thus his native hue of resolution' was suckled over by the pale cast of thought. Hamlet was performing the function of the Poet. And the rest did not remain . Law's delay. He has watched these outrages from after. And to fight in the Party means to persuade and hammer reality in the comrades. we shall come later. On the other hand. the suffering became ours. But what actually are needed by a Communist artiste to successfully execute his job? What are the necessary components? He who becomes an artiste must have a spark of that Promethean fire in him.stone. The major changes which have directed the flow of events are : Oppressed masses have wrenched from History its scientific world outlook through the agency of Karl Marx. He thinks better of it in consideration of life beyond death. and what is that sea of troubles? He enumerates them.. When one stands and becomes a fighter. Now. Party influence through more and more progressive content in culture. insolence of office. watched them. ^enthuses us through that pageantry of merry and sorrowful fools created by him. Or to take arms against a sea of troubles And by opposing end them?.. the cry of pain When man can bear no more. Shakespeare comes down to us and consoles us. that naive creativity. and if necessary.' He was a man born some centuries earlier. proud man's contumely. even in his future life.most of all through Hamlet. untruth looms large. So. probably not a historical figure. his personal aspect. Salil Chowdhury) From Goethe to Sukanta.. and his music. oppressed men . from his high office. after shaping what light will be thrown on them. How. proud man's contumely. even in the party. life has moved on.

Two events of mighty magnitude have occurred.. All great art.. like Rolland. The specialists are all bound by one thing. (Tempest). are specialized functions.. its production curves showing a fall of 10% from 1953.. about the latest New York Stock and Bullion Market reports. this 'sufferance‟.. ... animating it in his imagination.. All artistes throughout the ages knew in their heart of hearts that one day this will come to this : . What Goethe defined. the actors are revealed.. They 'utter' and become distinctive. there was action". When Goethe defined the function. IT IS HERE.. the rising bourgeoisie : . about its admission of having 3 1 /2 millions unemployed as opposed to 1 1 / 2 of the previous year. Shakespeare exemplified. are specialists in their own crafts. through many a winding path... This gathering of collective feeling and bodying forth. radically qualifying all his horizon. reason for his existence. IT IS HERE.. the function of artiste. and on the light of it. see all and note nothing... the common man has all these. But. standing there. Oppressed mankind has wrenched from history its world outlook. as we have noted before. Their giving expression. life has moved from Goethe to Sukanta. and the remedy of it.. gives vent to his thought through special effort. the performance is about to ensue : … Our poet has sought and found his SUMMUM BONUM. and how that buoy is pulling at the chain and queer noise arises. but all are different in accepting what nature around them holds forth. he has come. about U. This is not a very apt way of exemplifying the point what we are driving at. Time has moved on.. the musicians have taken their places. But today he seeks not only to utter it as he sees. The genius that he was. that 'fatal' generalizing tendency. With his transcending vision he sees the end of his own class. but. Somewhere. or even fly back to his past and reminisce.. They share with the common men the faculty of imagination. And finally Just a common man will stand there.. Yeats. .. the new oppressors. "Even the weariest river finds its way somehow somewhere to the sea.S.. in fact. all through the history of mankind. Then start the process –this 'agony'.. An Engineer. Otherwise. He will not note the sun going down in the west. We are such staff As dreams are made on. They have trained themselves to gear this propensity to fulfill their special jobs.. And Shakespeare. his cause ultimate. their proper worth. in his last testament. at the dawn of civilization . thereby making their feeling more sharp. the contradictions that will choke them in futurity. we shall start to think about the artistes again. They are specialists whose going in search for content is a special way of looking at things. has set on this very earthly earth a beacon. he knew that-"In the beginning.Sing on! O.. And we learn : NATURE OF THE ARTISTE'S JOB IS TO BODY FORTH COLLECTIVE FEELING. he has taken time to come. though we daresay he will see them. He will not note them. who goes to the waterfront of Calcutta and stands to survey the site of a proposed bridge will have to imagine a huge cantilever bridge suspended over the stretch of water.. where the flag flutters upon which is emblazoned this curious legend: 'IF THERE BE A PRADISE IN ALL EARTH. History is now beginning. and we have arrived at the twilight of civilization.S. we serve the order they animate. about U.silent.. the slogans that will embosom their needs and hence will mobilize most of them. these poor burghers.. or other things affecting his own life. that inductive 'leap in the dark'. the whole question of two camps and Moscow Economic Conference for peace.A's policy of backdoor trade with New China through Japan. A Trade Unionist will watch the swarthy bodies bent under the pressure of their burdens trudging up the quay . All of them are necessary. He will not note how the water laps on that particular buoy over there. He may all the time go on thinking about his problems at home. It comes to them as a result of prolonged effort. Silence is broken. watch the panorama. they cannot hope to retain grip over their arts. its effect upon its foreign policy.Our revels are now ended. he meant also the 'action' of seeking causes and remedies. the music is started. to be more exact. IT IS HERE... curtain is rising. except the last. which is the DEWAN-E-KHAS of down-trodden humanity.because we are leaving behind prehistory. and all our little life Is rounded with sleep. nor the lazily busy barges and launches plying. IT IS HERE." and we who were. An Economist. nor the glistening on water. is to be understood in its collectivity in order to be 'uttered‟.. As Rolland says :Gods of 'Humanity' and ' Liberty ' have passed over to the new order.. we think. will start immediately thinking about those ships. declare again and again this same truth.'s getting into a slump. but seeks to learn the cause of it.. who are their worshippers. He looks to life in a special way.. We shall learn that sleeping is not death. the ships at their moorings.. The quest has let him. it serves the present purpose of showing the workings of specialized mind..onethird of the globe is speaking it out today.and think of their conditions of organization. The rest is silent no more. Now.. Thus the content and form of their creation come to them as a result of sustained effort. but the point is. but has not utilized them to that degree. He may think of these or such subjects chosen at random. and not word. their eyes for relevant details hawk-like. All of the abovementioned persons. at some new moon. has this to proclaim. it spoke out." (swinburne).. They are creative to start with.. a State where men are moving to that state of things inexorably where there is no oppressed. we follow them: that we may serve them. It is thanks to their flame within my breast . about the latest Indo-soviets Trade pact and its results. He may even fall in love with that particular buoy.and such other questions. But their utilization of this faculty marks them out. hence their imagination is intensified. A Poet or a film-maker may stand there and get food for thought. He will gather nothing from this reality. but constantly strive to better their faculties. to all these it is also a specialized effort.

We must understand that man. In fact. This is not the place to go all out for discussion on this subject. Because it is perfectly clear. Where is his place in .. such effort will give birth to Leader or Leaders of National stature from among our ranks. Such a theory will have to grow in opposition to idealist aesthetic theories of the ruling classes of the land. But we do not need to wait for them. we fear. no such childish thing. We know that this way of reasoning may seem cheap or flippant.over a road dark and strewn with obstacles. not easier. Indian Revolution is inextricably bound with this question of History and Philosophy. we think. He declares : "For whom do 1 write?" -.. Such a situation will toll the death-knell of all creativity. before such a sifting is done and manifestations of those are located and pinned in reality. that Revolution will be an unfortunate one. Much of it is good.including many of the age-old idealistic aesthetic theories of our own land. who is Mao. So. Our own country has its ancient theories which still are operating on reality. The marching column never stops. Future .. Gandhi. So. Among them.and here we meet the whole Party. and dangerwill be tenfold. in the last. if any. And he has learnt the other tenet: Unite your thought with your action. And these philosophy and religion are nothing but superstructures of Economic History of India. but actually that is where we are led step by step. we summon the laggards to hurry up. We do not mean that aesthetic attitude should be thrown into a set format.. And. For. should immediately be welcome. It must be something with a living link with reality in terms of concrete human materials.that I have arrived at length in the new world -. Which things he used as levers and how. which must be admitted to be very strong to day. we must wage aware on philosophic FRONT. "Socialist realism' 1 is the sort of thing that we are aiming at.P After Goethe. which must be materialistic fundamentally. invites them to rush in. One must also form an idea of expression in human terms . But it will be harder task then. Creativity is now wedded to Marxism. we must understand. May the free spirits leaven the free peoples. is carrying the flag and making its way. Jawaharlal? How does he retain grip over the masses? Is it only by pursuing a liberal policy in international spheres? And. for those who are waging the great international battle. whatever we may think. his won logic brings the artiste here. that is the aesthetic theory. Our Party today has a class-composition (from the source point of view) preponderantly pettybourgeois who are vehicles of such alien philosophy and who are the last barricade of the bourgeoisie. this national Philosophy is constantly operating. ourselves. That never means we need to philosophy over the masses. But it is a necessity. most complete. the problem does not remain ours alone. on organizational place. the writers. at a distance and with desertions and withdrawals more than once.. at the same time all sorts of attitudes are always roaming around us . Communism is today the only worldwide party of social action which. out of it.For those who are the vanguard of the marching army. We do not mean the oft-quoted adages. What is this other man. Comrade Mao dealt mainly with this problem in his Yean Lecture. May that flame burn ever more brightly. can become part of national thought. most total outlook that man in his quest for truth has yet discovered. as the stakes will be incomparably high. falling at times or going as tray. Present also. we must not forget that subjective factor. though the whole basis and approach is extremely harmful." (I will not rest). whose union shall impose peace upon the world and joyously fling open to human toil a field of unlimited progress! . we must combat the manifestations thereof in everyday life with the weapon of „Marxism wedded to Indian Reality. Why must we have such a theory? Because nature does not allow any void to exist in her. one must better his 'melody and speech‟. that is the form. towards the conquest of high mountain lands. So. It is up to them to overtake us. with a considered and courageous logic. no better. In order to 'utter' in a better manner.. and so forth. to understand the whole case. . in order to defend and nurture such a Revolution. Inexorably. that to bring out the masses from the yoke of Idealism to make the Indian Revolution successful.. But an overall theory is needed. But here the labor does not end. bruised often. and what he did to the Indian peasantry and petty-bourgeoisie. we must bring out the living kernel. The rest of the army will follow though." WILL NOT REST) M.. We do not have such an agreed standpoint. Our class must form its own notion and stick to it. this operation of alien philosophy is one of the main reasons for our going off to the wrong track again and again in the past. will forebode the same tendency. And in combating this can Marxism strike root in this soil. the culture and aesthetics of this land have grown up. A blank attracts the surrounding matters. We must reshape it. We. the artiste turns Marxist.. We will still have to wage the struggle on this unprepared ground. Under the shadow of idealism. Life has moved today the artiste has come to understand that-Dialectical and Historical Materialism is the most comprehensive. Discussions on these points. victory in which should ensure the establishment of the human community with our frontiers and without classes.. the peoples of Universal Socialist Republics. We will be much hard-pressed for time. if the Revolution is brought about by national and international events and certain chains of coincidences etc. we must understand the character and idiosyncrasies of this culture. An artiste sometime or other in his life comes to collide with this necessity.. New problems arise. Because. it may be. It can be studied properly when Idealism of India in its philosophy and religion is sifted and weighed. as it is. without reservation and without compromise. a study of History is what is called for. picking myself up and stubbornly resuming my march. the central part.

How to guide them? They are to be guided mainly in two ways . Party artiste's organizational job is to mobilize and guide. But for 'Party life 1 (in generally used meaning of the term) and for co-ordination of these physical activities Local committees are a 'good.through example of creative art. tearing the shreds of illusion. But there are others. For the Party as a whole. we think. It is as important. For examples. Any Union or Federation of Unions can join or secede from T. Our activity is never a local one. But let us inculcate in us this idea that this is Party-building task. the question of Philosophy assumes a practical importance. a mass 'font'? It cannot be. 'Form 1 confuses more as the term is. but no less is the question of the People and the words that stir their heart. We should take specific jobs individually and collectively. A leader is a poet.C.U. rather within the framework of living reality. For physical leadership we must get help from the Local committees. It is a platform of creative artistes.professionals among us must do this job mainly. Lenin drafted the "Resolution on National Question" which was adopted by the April Conference of the Party in 1 91 7. Whom? Artistes in general. Then they will rise up breaking the age-long slumber. applicable to the class organization of basic masses only.the right to self-determination. Our problems we ourselves can solve. a special part. inseparably bound with the question of the party.--should start. We shall now touch upon another point. the words are new. by a majority vote of its members. . will solve. near and dear to each of New china's teeming millions? Question of leadership is a very important question in a Revolution. special approach. We have our approach to them. workers and peasants. Some of our art(mass) organizations are not. We shall discuss that approach later. is based upon this. Question of position of amateurs in our activity.. if not more. They should be. these artistes and artorganizations are specialized persons and groups with the objective to create art and thereby serve the people. it has a bearing upon much larger slice of land always. In the solution of this question lies the solution of problems of culture. Now. liquidation of wrong line etc..' solution. This is the main foundation of democratic organization. Only then will it always be kept in mind that what is needed is not voluminous works (though they are also necessary. These groups and their guidance is mainly a problem of Party's other mass organizations.both of which sometimes will coincide: Primarily and deeply . secondly. -.Economic. he bodies forth collective feeling. college Groups. through creation. much more lofty. We have workable materials to start work.Youth. Our T. It should be a democratic platform of artistes and art-organizations. we think. but none the same. Following the report of comrade Stalin.repeated so long as the whole body of the Party is not swept into the waves of discussion and study. And this question should be treated as such. -. Bustee Clubs. -. for the specialists). through leadership and training physically.artistes and art-lovers of more or less casual attitude of Mahallas. Kisan Sabhas. on National plane. a grave danger is brewing! At the same time.their artistic activity should be guided by us But one thing has always to be kept in mind. in our specialized and limited sphere.U.. The professionals and semi.--in order that all these are done vigorously. Communist artistes must unite with others of the same craft upon a common platform. allow us artistes to meet yearly on party plane and discuss our work . Bustees. Students. We should take up responsibilities of Trade Unions. And campaigns must be vigorous.the life of the nation ? Is he merely a Party Leader? Or the father of the nation. strictly speaking. based on democratic lines. It assumes that importance to the Party's basic tasks even. Who are they? Mainly . but a profound decision and verdict of a class on National Tradition. forthwith. is this platform a mass platform. Our Trade Union congress is based upon this fundamental principle. lack of understanding the nature of the task. In it. in order that Party's ideology is propagated by communist and no-communist artistes. objective condition will find subjective response. His way is much more broad much more mighty. repeated. Are these artistes and art-organizations mass organizations? Or. Such conferences should start forthwith. There lies the crux of the matter . which is part of party's approach. . Comrade Lenin has this to say on democratic basis: "It is only the recognition by the Proletariat of the right of nations to secede that they ensure complete solidarity among the workers of various nations and help to bring the nations closer together on truly democratic lines". in order that anti-people culture is combated and alternative to it is put forwarded by more and more common artistes. Local committees and other higher bodies always consider their problem from that angle. We know that such campaigns will leave a big portion of the Party cold in the initial period. Where does the mass enter? It is the source and gale of all such creative work. etc. Masses are guided by these persons. study of Marxism on the basis of Indian condition and in contrast to the Philosophy of backwardness. Such a platform must be a democratic platform. It is. organizationally much can be initiated forthwith. its cadre. Such idea shows a poverty of thinking. we have our won creative activities. as other tasks of the party. it should be treated so in all planes . They should be started as special party campaigns when comrades have to take organizational quotas for study and fulfill it. in his way. Political and Cultural. After four years of reorganization. but not new at the same time. We appeal to the leadership.never isolated from. and we will find it very hard to reconcile it with practical mass-work. Artistically much lower but numerically much stronger is the stratum know as Amateurs. Such CONFERENCES are long overdue. Words that remind them that one among them has risen and is speaking. Thus.C. speaking out what they were vaguely sensing. Professionals are necessarily the leading artistes. its method and extent of work. All idea of „mass‟ organization do not correspond with reality. and in context of party's mass organization building tasks.creation. This thing has brought immense good in China 's Party. PART II: COMMUNIST ARTISTE AND THE PEOPLE In order to reach out to the people.

. Primary workers are of those persons: Dramatist. Another there is. probably many a non-political artistes who are as erratic in their professed political opinions as it can be. the more democratic will be its character. But. Authorship in general. Drama Regisseur. Individual art 'such as Poetry. These groups and organizations are creative units just as a Poet in the individual art is a unit.we will call them primary and secondary work in the collective. donates to its funds. as far as composition is concerned. All who loves his art and his people may unite on specific issues upon one platform. in progressively shorter intervals. Such attempts. In the Federation they are led ideologically. which depend upon collective effort in the creative process. this time a film artiste. those are the secondary works of the collective : Actors. Their work is also creative work. Ballet Choreographer. in fact. what is needed is AN ARTISTIC PLATFORM BASED ON TRULY DEMOCRATIC LINES IN ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND COMPOSITION WHICH WILL INCLUDE ALL SINCERE ARTISTES OF DIFFERENT CALIBERS HIGHER OR LOWER. If they are not mobilized. But on the level of ideological minimum. Semi-Professionals and Amateurs. Each of these groups have their own problems. In such a Federation Communists will work. can and should be organized. they may move on strictly professional basis. Different groups and collectives of artistes form their own organizations and then join together in such a Federation. Singers. They are too valuable to be lost. the Party. though there will always be people of the border region. painstaking attitude and . not by offensive manner. These are individualized jobs to a degree. hence. etc. India will rise up one day and give leadership to the world. These and such other people will join with us Communists on one specific issue and disagree with us in three. And that through revival of past heritage of India. and through them. This principle is a workable one. but considers going to the masses or standing on a platform and proclaim. This characteristic has been kept in mind in the past while forming our organizations. So. Now. He sincerely believes. . This will be a federation of ideological unity rather than a homogeneous organization.. And to guide them is our task: Guiding by persuasion and logic. which presupposes conference of power from above. even in collective art there are degrees of responsibility. To make the issues on which we both agree occur in more frequent succession. At the same time. is beneath the dignity of an artiste. It is not a case of autonomy. Lyricist. they will be as heterogeneous as possible. and allowed to solve then. whether he professes to create art for art's sake or not. steadfastness. For instance. Backstage artistes. Only with such a composition will we be able to maintain uniformity on ideological Plane in our activity. These groups will have conditions peculiar to themselves. Shall they be mobilized? They shall be. or may be a group of art-enthusiasts of a Mahalla who come together to appear once in a year on the stage. organizational forms bind them so that the ideological unity is maintained. must be organized. Each of these collective organizations will hold the right to secede. We are mainly concerned with collective art and shall limit ourselves to that department. Dancers. Such a platform should compose of all the three of our categories of part-I-Professional.and to impose our point of view upon the whole federation is another. This is one. We must get it into our heads that by personal and collective example of creative work and character. Composer. They are full of confused thinking. Hence form is much more important in their work than content. and how should they strive to do them? They will work so that the consciousness of artistes are raised to such a level as to carry on the tasks of the party in the best possible manner. it is a case of affiliation of independent groups joining together ideologically. The more they are brought within the fold. Ballet and Dancing etc. their artistic ideals may and will be different. Individual art and its organization is a domain about which the present writers do not know enough to suggest anything. And. Such is the platform we should have. there are some. Instrumentalists. Collective art. Within the general framework of minimum programmed their distinctive approaches may and will be widely divergent. What will the nature be of those works. Music and Singing. we must constantly be in contact with them. but they influence the masses profoundly. so that they serve the people. painting and such other crafts which depend mainly upon one individual to be produced. such as Stage and Drama. we have come in contact with and artiste of truly great talents who is hateful of present Congress Regime and considers all its attempts and declaration about culture as nothing but hoax. they cannot be guided.And. he has no faith in the Soviet Union and its achievements. We shall call our platform by the name of Federation of Collective Arts. they should be allowed to be thought of as adults.to mobilize and guide artistes. We can divide artistic activity into two sections: Individual and collective. All humanist artistes. are bound to defeat their own purpose -. Conductor etc. But this creation is dependant upon the original vision. on the questions of national interest. who believes in the cause of peace. they will confer voluntarily their initiative to the centralized leadership. that is fatal to the work itself. on the broad platforms of basic problems facing Humanity such as problems of world Peace. in the fullest sense of it. they should also be democratic. Their own organizational forms they themselves work out. to body forth the feeling of content is mainly their jobs. Such attempts are bound to turn into their very opposites according to inexorable law of dialectics. Broader and broader circle of artistes must be brought under our ideology. Their arts depend upon a collective to be given birth to. upon one platform. Any such attempt at homogeneity do not correspond with reality.

an atmosphere of intimacy. We must reach out to them and bring them in it. But that is still no matter. we will yet see really unimaginable numbers of artistes on our flanks. put forward correct slogans. It was born as a result of rigorous discussions among a group of Party comrades mainly working in IPTA. as it should. along with that we must mobilize artistes in our organizations and constantly strive to show these artistes by example what should be the function of art to-day. We ourselves will vegetate and will become a high-brow coterie. in an extremely superficial way . that will toll the death-knell of Revolutionary art. No MODEL Will be left. Whenever we go to common artistes. What does this term convey? It conveys a high degree of cohesion.U. at Calcutta . That sort of thing may benefit anybody but decidedly not the Party. Why? because we fall to grasp the point. gradually. They reside in places which we have hitherto never trodden. sometimes elbowing. "In matters of culture. We are but as drops in the ocean. that is. most important one in many questions. During and after the last conference of A. sometimes stooping to coaxing. certain of them came together. or try to lift them up at a snatch. This keeping a MODEL before the Federation makes our artistic activity among common artiste all the more imperative. Let us remember. We shall go down to them. Let both of us flourish'. can it be possible for a reasonable length of time." ideologically and organizationally. their artistic achievements along with their individual fibers. After performing this. Revolution is an Adult's business. If we go down. both of our mode of work. they have perused art all their lives with utmost seriousness. We must lift ourselves. we remain followers. the leadership will be able to guide the flock on to pastures new and evergreen. which we can point at. These have contributed materially in clarifying ourselves on some points and . But we are reminded of our past and present. which will leave us where we are to-day absolutely isolated. imposing these are the methods which recur in our work. In the course of fifteen months following the 7th conference of IPTA at Bombay . Such a thing will be meaningless. thorough understanding on cultural and aesthetic questions. in them must not be taken in the wrong manner.C. Do not spoil the artistes. Need for concretization of those problems and a comprehensive discussion over them was failed by all the seriousminded comrades. they are not easy staff. Well. put proper stress on the proper point. At least. Let us reflect it in our organizational composition. the authors had some opportunity to put some questions to our General Secretary. We must reach out of them. in spoiling them we spoil our cause and ourselves. we start moving in a patch-work manner. but must be conscious that we represent a cultural face. Sometimes boosting up a supposed celebrity. however tall talks we may emit.clarity of understanding. it will be singing a song in wilderness. We must. by diligent service to common ideals of the platform. during last week of May and first week of June. Among them we have no consistent work.I. That guarantee is the calibers of the cultural cadre of the Party. This question of MODEL is the key question in building the Democratic Front in culture. cajoling. We can win. There can be no other guarantee. Analyze the phases. But we have to reach out now to the really common artistes. certain things become apparent in the government. That is the working out in practice the tasks of building of the DEMOCRATIC FRONT IN CULTURE. let them join together and start serving party's basic tasks forthwith. Party has no benefit in bullying them in set forms in the organization. pondered over them. That is we must strive to keep a model in art and working methods constantly before them. We must understand the nature of the task. let us not shirk the truth. of course standing on and owning allegiance to common agreed programme. and find proper relation between different tasks. That such a Federation can be geared more and more towards fulfilling tasks of the Party can be guaranteed. some of whom are of truly artistic mould. That. So. We proposed that creative groups should be taken as units. haste and sweeping measures are worst possible things. and the resent writers prepared this paper on the light of their views. In this connection slight correspondence followed the talks. drops in the ocean of cultural workers. By creation we must help to mobilize the masses in mass organizations. among the masses. we will be in a bad way. We all can understand how far we have been able to create that guarantee.T. it is absolutely bound to happen. But key question is only one in many. we know. it is possible to be leaders. Is it possible. who have integrity of artistes along with entity of human beings. Let the Leadership emerge. So is Revolutionary Art. We hasten to add that it is the major task of building Democratic Front.None of these things can happen. of course standing upon and owning allegiance to common agreed programme. building a model in void. And let our friends of the federation be encouraged to form groups and create after their hearts' content following whatever aesthetic theory and practices they like. We can win over the common artistes first. even to foot-licking. all who agree with us. so long as we fail to grasp this point and prove ourselves. through art-work among them. strive to uplift them. We can call them CREATIVE COLLECTIVES. Now we have around us friends and sympathizers. to create Communist art in a unit where totally non-party artistes of high caliber are trying out their say? Can the communists lead artistically and carry out party's task in the organization in such a Place? Can a standard of maximum programmed be possible where communist and non-communist elements are at least equal? . we are in a bad way to-day. This document has been prepared during the month of July 1954. To start with. Party is interested in guiding them ideologically. It does not follow that this job needs a huge quantity of cadres or all available forces should be geared to fulfill this one task. in the midst of mass action. We must be gentle.

in formulating our ideas in concrete shape. But the conditions prevailing today in our midst do not allow this question to come to the fore sharply. and the other is by Com. nor can we hope to serve Art. but that atmosphere is not present to-day. assumes importance. we shall try to remember them. Since we consider the problem of IPTA is basically apart of the problem of Culture in general. make that way of thinking articulate. which we in this paper are trying to negate. Incidentally. the opposite camp forces the issue of culture on to the sphere of practical politics as a burning day-to-day issue. But still. But today.. handling of the theme-content itself also come in this domain. We have a nodding acquaintance with those problems. And we find nothing contrary to the spirit of that Party document in our thinking. MAIN WEAKNESSES. All our discussions are limited in scope essentially. one is by Com. in the last. C. and in context thereof. We will concern ourselves with the problem of creation in Collective Arts. Hoards of money are being spent lavishly to build up a cultural army which will definitely play a key role in the coming General Elections for the camp of Congress. Without this. Scientific approach to art is the pre-requisite upon which we can build a theory and a practice of Drama Production. Only after a thorough study of Culture can we come down to restricted subjects such as IPTA work. with General Secretary.the story and drama construction. to find parallels in other arts of the problems tackled here. and the manifesto itself of the conference). the problems discussed here will benefit such workers. but communists' work in IPTA. base ourselves upon a firm theory of Production.first Party congress period and legacies of second Congress. etc. such as. So. In our discussions. Specially. General Secretary's Articles in the NEW AGE (Nos.. And by form we do not mean acting and staging a play only. to a degree. How. we think. Jaswant Thakkar. (b) We have scrupulously avoided spheres with which we are not familiar. we have not touched the problems facing the workers in Muffussai. the All India General Secretary of IPTA. We also cannot hope to resolve these problems. and we have tried again and again in the past. It is prepared at a time when the State Government has started taking uncanny interest in matters of culture. situation and character building. in this connection. It is connected with our practical work. with this background. Being painfully aware of all these and other limitations in us. we sincerely hope that these brief summingups will be taken as ground for further discussions. 2. It is possible we think. Foreign and National experiments and assessments we can and should gear to build such a theory. of course. in limited spheres. and as such. among others. this paper does not propose to cover all the fields. but organizational! these comrades with their thoughtprocesses unchanged {it seems ) got themselves elected again. Not being much conversant with detailed problems of Ballet.Drama being the most complex of these forms excepting the films. all the provinces.at least so far as form is concerned. Two such limitations must be mentioned here. That is.. the people and the Party. We consider their approach is' a menace to the Party. in our work. which should have been one of the main documents for our study. A sort of cultural 1NTUC 1 is being brought into being. this may not be regard as a major shortcoming. after all. we consider any isolated investigation in one sphere will never deliver the goods. among doing other mischiefs. Special note. the Joint Secretary of All India IPTA. if the Party considers it to be of any help. that is a matter of another enquiry. So. Our works are at par with the most backward of hack actors. Party cannot hope to derive benefit from our work. and our discussions.4 & 6). it is not IPTA work. PART III: Communist Artiste and Art We shall now limit ourselves in a narrow subject which is very important from our point of view. it may reflect. this document stands to accuse and consolidate the ranks at a time When events are fast-moving in the cultural activities of the country. there can be no question of responsibility anywhere else. We will only aspire after touching the moot points here. This. SO. but that cannot and should not form a basis of serious study. we are forced to concentrate on Drama and its Production which cannot and do not reflect all the aspects of these other arts. . With revolutionary greetings. (a) It was prepared before we had the opportunity to go through the Organization of the C. at the same time proposes to discuss art in general. And . The other significant part of the background for this document is the position and level of IPTA leadership and its organization. By this recognition of culture as a major weapon in their agit-prop arsenal. But the hope is. in its Wide application. Music etc. is to be taken of two articles published in the August issue of UNITY. Two points about the background of this document 1. their problems. lastly in the Bombay Conference. Since the formulations are strictly our own.-. they voice that line of organization. time has arrived to come to grips with these trends of thought. But our study of such complementary documents. which are an admixture of 'clubbing tendency 1 of the late past . To proceed: We must. And it is quite apparent this USIS has direct interest in the affair. To be more exact. have probably neutralized to an extent this weakness. is the result and proof of correctness of our thinking and activity. Not only for their impossible language which makes laughing stocks of both of them to the common readers. nor can we dilate upon them at length. Niranjan Sen. These two articles are highly significant. The document may be published for general circulation among members as some fundamental questions concerning Marxism and Art have been tackled. Ideologically that was done (it can be shown from the deliberations of fractions etc. to liquidate and wipe out this way of thinking. but for the dangerous content and ideology they preach.

S. there are more to it than banters. The role of social Democracy in post-war Germany . . We have to build "Creative Collectives" A total whole comprising many souls. hunger and need of the People for them.-all these are mixed up. original actors are no more. We have to develop according to the taste and need of our people. It is not a matter of the Federation. but in art. But actually there are differences. not the other way round. those dead. these were stormy years. pondering over the menace of "Expressionism". is known to us. Popularity of these very art forms. First and foremost. We see that they are unable to make both ends meet. full value for our labor cannot be extricated. though the original Producer or the players pass away.sometimes. They prove that to go on consistently. the communists. charities. "Nabanna". We can build a stage and . fuse. the original producer Stanislavsky himself is no more. effect synthesis of past heritage of our stage with this theory. but experiences of our people as portrayed by our writers can help to soothe. There are others. no drama movement has ever flourished. the accepted norms Discussion and profound controversy on theories of production. Not only the classics. The figures and statistics involved will force us to this conclusion. mechanistic and critical approach of "Epic Theatre" of Bertolt Brecht. one can go on and on. A play contains much more food for soul than is suggested by us. Independent Theatre of London. and such other things. -. We need a pulpit. "Fourth Wall" theory of realism and its limitations.ultimately it collapsed. Profit motive has made superb fools of them. -. Repetition of a play has become the sole criterion of quality. That earning can be more than what we may need. We can learn from its rise and decline. To perform a play continually to a dud. And we can look into the account books of the most miserable of these moribund Public Boards of the city. distant discords. (theatre which gave us Max Reinhardt.the Group theatre in New York. Years full of desertions and confusion. people are willing to part with money. do help to soothe. a single unit.Berlin Peoples' theatre.all these will sound like deliberate banters. we have to aspire after Group or Ensemble Acting. Most apt example for us is Frie Volksbeutione of Berlin. Confusion and anarchy are reigning supreme : theme-content-form-quality -popularity. It is a practical matter with us. Group acting presupposes Repertoire. other organizational details. We can accommodate others. Bertolt Brecht. the MAT. this 'democracy' the primary task is to restore scientific attitude.Popularity of the Party and its mass organizations. and the theatre must preach to and inspire the masses for the Party. would have been performed even to-day. It had its influence upon the theatre. . if we better our works and organize properly. nor of Democratic front. however strongly or weakly. Specially we should remember the each earnings in muffussal engagements were thousands gather to see our works. at least in Bengal. Once staged a play does not die. . But they still earn a decent sum with those nonsense.) the theatre organized by Bruno Wille and drawing inspiration from the Social Democratic movement of Germany. the flaws of bio-mechanical theatricality of Meyer hold. It tells of. Objections on the score of lack of objective development of the country is too lame. and then to discard it for ever is a terrific waste of valuable emotional material.in fact. Erwin Piscator. the method of Moscow Art Theatre . Not to-day. solely for ourselves. We have to learn. no such thing is thinkable on a long-term basis without stage. We do not even know where to look for what. In order to build such units. by rotation. allows maximum development of the individual. for instance. massacre of Sparta cists. and in no distant future too. Irish Abbey Theatre of Dublin . broad points on which basic scientific attitude may be restored.-it would enthuse these other dead. . this is absolutely certain. the Party must be behind a theatre. even today. but we must accommodate them. a people's stage. A cursory glance to the pages of Dramatic history will reveal that without a stage. Unless we hit upon this system of rotation. And we would like to draw attention to our own earnings. there are food for thought in many a school. New Theatre League and Theatre Union of U. Repertory system needs some preconditions to exist. We will have to tackle them some day. Sanghai Theatre inspired by Lheo Sun. swindling. peoples' need for their own stage can be fulfilled by us. the conclusions and formulation of content itself fare on better in our hands. but what each group earns in terms of gross receipts for different funds. That can be done by standing upon the Stanislavsky System. In this anarchy of thought. "Super-realism" of Taivov. Moscow Art Theatre . If we had a Repertory System. which is most democratic of all theories of stage. Today we have to declare some fundamental. Frie Beutone of Berlin . Wille organized this theatre by penny contributions of thousands of workers and built a huge theatre hall in workers' district. these were politically conscious attempts. to bring back the forms of our art. but we fail to see that they have extended these two ends out of all proportions and are suffering under a star system.satirical. That can be done on the basis of group Acting. on an austerity budget. It goes on. . What is a repertoire? It is nothing but repetition of plays once staged. all other factors are conveniently forgotten. specially during the Wiemer Republic . This is one of the out-forms for which. corruption and court litigations. systematically staged year after year. notions about them hazy. We think. Repertory system. For instance "Lower Depths" was staged forty years back. and enthuse the hearts of these other men. The rift within the movement. rise to power of Nazi gang. separation of each is almost brain-racking. but one can go and witness the production this year in winter season at the Moscow Art Theatre. not what we actually get. Theatre Libre of Paris. coming out of Sparta cists led by Karl Leibnicht and Rosa Luxemburg.

developed and given a place in our overall Scheme of Repertoire. dilated. Poster Play. which is the theme content. a single group can do this. Dramatist ever.vision. Aeschylus to Ivanov. Now. -we need actors of such caliber which only group action and Repertoire can give birth to. In fact. It does not remain an idea any more. Many of our Folk histrionics (Gambhira Nilpuja. Vakhtangov defines such as . the group has living contact with great dramas in its practical work. inspiration etc. labor halls. Their potentialities have to be tapped. skits. Comeillen. Without a stage. need we mention any more?] And Dramatists must find his group. to be artistically in one piece needs a special kind of training. His basic idea is sometimes hidden.we have to break the theatre by doing theater. and also. we think. it becomes issue or issues.and then go on playing night after night in one place and create systematically.storms of emotion. He never undertakes to write without something to say. to act under these conditions and in villages. Lope De Vega.will get a rude shock when we learn Maeterlinck's "Blue bird" is so different from Aeschylus "Oresteia". centring which -storms rage. moves everything. Schiller. all other complimentary jobs can be performed by these three.these are the aspects of Repertoire. Frie Volksbeutione sets an example from that angle too. And to act in the midst of mass action -in street corners. Our common error of fixing easy models of dramaturgy before us and with that yardstick criticizing everything. we have to continue to serve the People in another way. are continually cropping up in our discussion. Jigir) and Foreign forms {interludes.) open up a vista for experiments. a member of the group. Seeming spontaneous."the thorough action". Producers and Actors. This is the all round approach from which we have to think of Dramatists.hidden. it gets diffused. our Dramatists. Repertory System can be initiated but cannot be kept up. nor are they adequately developed.M. Synge's "Playboy of the Western World” has nothing to do with J. and at the same time. sometimes comes froth on the surface. Recine. Repertoire needs a well-rounded approach to drama selection. . as far as possible. He undertakes to write about it. picket lines. the members of the group work together as creative community. and group should find its Dramatist. but he gets inspired. our fractions. adaptations and translations of foreign classics. He must be reborn on the particular stage. This whole process is never something schematic. conscious say we mean. it is resolved and gives birth to the synthesis."an ideologically cemented collective".keep it going. flourished without a stage and a group. and organizationally too. [Shakespeare. community singing. He sees a vision . wherever they are working. Marlowe. otherwise nothing of value will ensue. All sorts of pressures have been brought to bear upon this idea . And. Commedia Dell'arte etc. of course. Ben Jonson. all other works are to be performed by them so that the correct atmosphere is created. .though they all are models of superb dramatic construction. ramshackle that stage may look like. but we just do not find any substitute for them). What is the approach for building a Repertoire? That is the approach of Creative Collective. So Dramatist should be a part of the collective. from Shakeapeare to Ibsen. A Dramatist must be. We shall now start with Drama and Dramatists. These forms are not fully utilized by us. creates and delineates characters and situations with utmost life-like detail. Who is this man with overall view. spilled all over. Because Group acting is a whole time activity. interludes and farces are to be taken up by us. and how he subsequently came to the group of Moscow Art Theatre. no true drama has been born without it. It is like life-process itself. . this theme-content may be not always sharply defined. Actually. He depicts conflicts. and that immensely broadens its horizon. pantomime. of course. Our units. Along with this. from this standpoint. which only a well rounded approach can shape into being. at last. since all in our group is a communist or a sympathizer. we have an ideologically cemented collective. but constantly motivates all actions. Such mobile forms as Living Newspaper. The Regisseur. within a course of some years. presents contradictions. but powerful. Starts inventing things. just as we run our newspapers. Thespis Aeschylos. Moliere. -. basic thread of Philosopy. most of all. can mobilize their whole strength around this slogan of a Peoples' stage in workers' quarters and get it. Otherwise that working together as a creative community will remain a myth. may be he becomes aware of its vague urge in himself. processions. heaps up lies to tell this truth. It must support the comrades and workers who are engaged in it. Kalidas's "Avignan-Sakuntalam" has no parallel in Sophoklas' "Oedipus Rex". Who are these members? Dramatists. Still in human theme. and. Bhasan. .Barrie's "Peter Pan" Shakespeares' "Hamlet" has no link with Odets' "Golden Boy" -. however. Goethe. But the theme-content gets established this time on a higher. Aristophanes. and why is he necessary? Let us start from the drama.it comes like a concentrated gem to him. . But artistically also we must cement ourselves. In this process of translating that idea in human terms. the definite "say" of the play-wright. Nationally beloved dramas. Even. more complex level of the spiral. We have to consider playwright in his relation with the next ring of the ladder. This approach to selection is taken with a view to serving the people and educating them culturally. which Stanislavsky calls . The Group will have to honor the vision of the Poet (these correct words . plays depicting day to day struggles. Sophocles. specially the great ones. if they are persistent enough. we should remember Gorky. Synge. Organizational measures for such drives can be taken by discussion. not bogged down to one point of the play. We should remember what happened to Chekhov's "Sea Gull" in Imperial Theatre. the Dramatist writes for a purpose. No. far from it. All party comrades can join in this one job and start working. But this is not necessary.

by the light of truthful insight immediately gained through the emotional experiences of recent imaginary events. lynical.Thus far. vigorous indictment upon all fetters that bind Labor in its earth-building tasks. Sambhu changed not a line. It has been witnessed on the stages of the world again and again. it came out sharply from Sambhu Mitra's recent Production of Tagore's "Rakta-Karabi". This course is to be followed all through the breakdown in detail of the physical aspects of production. of course. showmanship. We must take up another example at least to understand the job of Regisseur tolerably well." That was all. He emphasized the characters in their milieu rather than on the individual hero. . by creating a new technique and new staging: the Group method. is of amazingly wide range. mise-on-scine. It has become creation. which was romantic. atmosphere building. elongating the original idea inherent in the art work. criticizes. is as futile as it can be. by pulling off its false emotions and mystic ornamentations. his consumption took a bad turn. His attitude becomes apparent in his mode of presentation. yet changed the whole tenor. brining out the kernel of social content hidden under them. decor. and no further shall thou proceed!" is a maxim which is best utilized when not played any heed to. the rehearsals. One can accept. They both went to Anton Checkov. It was performed at the Alexandrinsky Imperial Theatre of St. It becomes illuminated. Such is the course of thorough action in a Drama. This can radically reshape a play. the Regissiur walks in. (But -. just and excellent provincial troupe. He would not hear of it. he does not remain playwright's sentinel pure and simple. It is creation itself if it is interpretation it is of that degree and quantity .-which motivated the author sometimes without his knowledge even. make up. he can only be experienced". presentation. we can assert that the Regissiur is necessary for this reason from the Dramatist's point of view. It is broken down in the preparatory periods so that it can be established more forcefully when the curtain goes up on the first night. We can safely say. . and all's well with the world!" The other example that we have promised --Checokov's "Sea-Gull”. So. Without delving deeper in the subject. That was all. within the channel of original vision. Sambhu carried forward logically and came here: if the seeds were not in Tagore. accepts and comments on the theme-content. But they convinced him at last. lately. or one can reject. thereby it becomes qualified. And. Petersburg. For us. he does all these through creative action. he would have to break Tagore to atoms. Presentation becomes in his hand a powerful weapon of creation. Next world historical event for theatredom after Shakespeare took place. This was his approach to the Drama. casting. and critics suavely prophesied Checkov would die in a ditch a leper. Checkov did not live to be even hundred years old. This thorough-action is to be kept in mind dubbing all these "hack-works" . acquired a banner for itself depicting a fluttering white sea gull as its emblem. they sought more than ever for the inner emotion of this tenuous tragedy. so to speak. But walking in. But that also one does by loving and respecting. Idealistic mist of mysticism yielded place to sharp. ethical in form but innately genuine discontent of that mighty artiste of all times. presented "Sea-Gull" became world's most significant theatre. One cannot implant what is not there. As Stanislavsky says: "Checkov cannot be presented. Though this is a function one has to perform to a degree whenever one is confronted with non-realistic approaches of even the best of other classes. Without him. Is this interpretation? It cannot be. turned out to be a miserable flop without redeeming features even in the performances of the best players in the land. he is inspired again and sees a vision. became words of rousing action.where it does not remain such any more. a good play can be performed (?) but the Dramatist cannot hope to be understood. and this labor of those men. and becomes a subject of emotion rather than of reason. Sambhu is doing that function which we are not. Rather defender is the term that should be used." Nemirovitch Danchenko the Dramatist persuaded his friend Constantin Alexeyen (Stanislavsky) to take up this flop for their joint new venture founded in 1898.kept as a vigorously fresh idea. by respecting and reshaping dreamful. This defender is the Regissiur. in the field of theme-content. That is not Regisseuring.and started to shifty the world's capital of Dramatic Arts from London to Moscow. Sambhu could never elongate the line and arrive at the logical conclusion of these oppressed men born of a class. "Cherry Orchard" and "Three sisters. Let it not seem that all that a Regisseur does is to come to loggerheads with dramatist or starts radically reshaping him. changes quality lively. but he worte and tried to produce the plays of the stature of "Uncle Vanya".from all sides. not if I live to be seven hundred years old. the Moscow Art theatre. Aware that a new failure might be fatal to the ailing and discouraged Checkov. it would not have remained Tagore. He thereby puts the seal of his creativity on the art work. Two years after the Alexandrinsky Theatre Fiasco. vague dissatisfaction. the Moscow Art Theatre. His independence. Checkov blessed those critics. He surveys the field weighs. that is. Tagore did not undertake to write "Rakta-Karabi" with the nonchalant attitude of "God's in his heaven. he brings in a creative element. elements of light. .) If Tagore did not love man and labor. Sambhu has only started fulfilling the tasks of Regisseur. and he retired to his quiet country corner declining: "Never will I write these plays or try to produce them. that is Meyer hold.and critical attitude or passing of judgment on this demarcation line. to us. and one can try to understand the artiste.

.he starts carbon-copying the Producer in voice and manners. Danchenko suggested this name to Gorky ) "a series of faithful observation of reality. that is not necessary from Regisseur's point of view. his profound assertion. Both one and the other have died in him.In the end. In fact. he would have popularized him to the coarse by playing on the base instincts of man. Without style no art is individual. the sharp sabre-thrust of the news cutting like winter-wind through this joy of collective knowledge. They are thought so because through them and through them only can all other workers reach the audience.. That sort of thing will never do. But they must see visions. from childhood to this very evening. who has hung himself! All these leave these men cold. and that attitude is manifested in the Group method of work. Actors are concerned with each character. they cannot start and fret their miserable hours upon the stage as they will of course. there will be much more dangerous abuses than are dreamt of today. style of movement and gesture. His main weapons in this field are composition. not the players. and. This ensemble gives birth to and captures that elusive quest of all art. Actors have to play to that tempo and that scale. the news of a wayward. but they can and will be checked if the scientific approach is kept up. play and Production.. it makes the spectator painfully aware of a hidden iron-hand all throughout the play. he is moreover concerned with each situation. We have now come to the last rung of the ladder. first of all. finds in "Lower Depths" (incidentally. movement etc. In fact. that is not necessary from Regissuer's point of view. the founder and Regisseur of Group Theatre of New York. Thus. social and human vision. he would have made mincemeat of Gorky . The essential or philosophic realism of Gorky . they cannot lord over their supposed " . actors are concerned with the thorough-actions of persons. the actors.regarded as a unity.the actor. he is moreover concerned with the thorough-action of the play from which all others spring. Ashley Dukes. . In presenting the play. and the mighty Beethovenic Symphony of collective emotion surging and rising like a classical column when this problem is resolved. you must yield wholly to the actor.of course. Regisseur sets the tempo. which are their visions as much as of others. though in a less dramatic manner. they will never be allowed to have fits of divine 'moods' and break composition." Why so? Is it only to coax and cajole the actors. actors become megaphones and mouthpieces. That can only be done by inspiring them and channelising them on to desired visions. The actor speaks and not the author. when you watch a performance. Gorky cannot be presented without "Group Method". to console them for taking away their rightful possessions? That way of thinking is nothing but a silly one. even as have died and become resurrected the innumerable observations and impressions experienced by him in the course of his whole life. the Regisseur in a Group takes each for all and gives back each to all. He will be a flop any time he is played otherwise. because they represent interchangeably the ideals of Content and Form. a critic and Regisseur of celebrated and premier theatres of London . you must forget even the author. ". that is detrimental to the cause of Regisseur. In a Group theme-content becomes more important than individuals.and they cannot go beyond them without loss of totality. of which the true focus is a group of actors. and art is born. "man." Harold Clurman. that indefinable yet palpable something which lifts craft to the realm of art. All these. He would have found pleasure in emphasing and gloating over the slang and unbalanced sex-releases. made concrete and beautiful through their spontaneous organic embodiment in the complete medium of the theatre. To do these. is resurrected under the pressure of that force which is embodied in a theatrical performance. and alters it time and again. you must forget not only the Regisseur. He can gratify you.-. the play loses spontaneity. group or ensemble. has beautifully Summed up the method: "The modern theatre stems from Danchenko and Stanislavsky." He uses reality in a derogatory sense. both interact upon each other. If allowed to handle. We should quote here Nemirovitch-Danchenko. He takes the eyes of the spectators from particular to general and general to particular with the help of these and light. the Regisseur and the Drama. He brings out hidden nuances and motives and imparts them by means of there plastic motives. . Of course. That can never be done by making them megaphones of the author or the Regisseur." Next from Stanislavsky himself: "the only king and ruler of the stage is the talented actor. decor etc.What happened? the Regisseur understood the Dramatist "experienced" him. they cannot play any more according to their interpretations only or without interpretation at all . at the same time. how proved the word rings!" the quest for truth of all miserable creatures though all the untruth that surrounds them. the milieu. or distress you. express themselves. the co-originator of Group method.the style.for totality. hit upon the correct form of presentation. his work can fully flourish in a Group only. of course. the fool. So. This drain inspector would kill Gorky . and to do them on the basis of realistic of Realistic approach to art. The same happened to Gorky . the Regisseur comes into contact with other men. the unhealthy jokes and diseased pastimes of these suffering creatures of darkness.. commented upon it creatively. choreography.. the actors.. the Moscow Art Theatre. strayed child lost in the wilderness. and not the Regisseur. and Drama is an art which is collectively individual. Group presupposes submission of each for all . elongated the content..and from their joint creation. and critics became silent. as though long since passed away. For instance. of course. It is a total creation resulted by collective effort. he fixes up the scale of music. the Artistes. Abuse there is. That never means actor becomes subordinated to the Producer in a physical way.

We are puzzled and leaderless. ~ for the Group. But we wanted not to discuss things.concerning the party. We must be urged along this road. This is the road to democracy. They have to see visions to create them. and bring order. in . This is all-important to-day. Our honest and sincere reactions are such.their own domain: to create full-grown. There are technical and economic aspects of Group building. they help him to be intimate with his environment. whether this is possible by us. It is all for one . But we must remember the distance. Moscow Art theatre with its innumerable studios. We think that work should start along this tine. Group building is not possible without a long-term view. Secondly. We hope that some light might have been thrown on them. mainly. We are painfully conscious that we have not been able to do full justice to the subject due to our incapacity. and character creation is possible by keeping within these general principles. This is what we must utilize by setting it among and fusing it with our reality. One more point of clarification. We are confident that work can start on this ABC . Within the general line of choreography and interpretation. They will be solved them. they can do none of these things. This is what we must master. makeup.and all united on the basis of these Principles of Stanislavsky system. Ever so many practical questions arise. accounting and control. but one stroke of organization sweeps away much of it. We have sometimes gone tangentially off into seemingly academic discussion. such experimental theatres as Tairov's Kamerny. Our aim is to create that atmosphere where creation can be done organizationally. Repertoire needs Regisseurs. By-play and Sub-text. Because firstly. At the same time. Group acting is not something iron-clad. They must be mastered by the workers of the Group. these undergo a tremendous modification at the hands of an actor. Firstly. It is rather a basis. state theatres of different Republics. . those imaginary creatures. they cannot parade or display their voice or body as something by seeing which the spectator will Swoon forthwith. and at the same time. knowledge and working of these are imperative. for the Ensemble. all else is for it. theatre of the Red Army. many among the actors can and should be turned into Regisseurs and have production to their credit. there are so many ways of creating a character which are almost boundless. of course. during the process of and connected with concrete work. Whether or not all bur suggestions are workable is more than what we can say. he must have and element of Regisseur in him. Secondly. Of course. confers the right of full-growth as a man.and even the big film Studios and actors. but find it hard or impossible to implement. In order to be an actor in the Group. . . all abuses from all quarters are to be checked at any cost. Vakhtangov. It is not possible for any other man to enter into his soul and create an unending line of character which proceeds through all the uttered and unuttered moments of the play. purpose of Regisseur and other elements. is bound to neglect itself in the work. Group acting demands discipline from the actors. here in no distant future. Only work matters. And in a communist Group. they remain actors in other plays. we have spoken. Then and there only can he find his place in the pattern and build his house there. Decor.basis. to us. management of office. We consider many things to be good while discussing. but to get things done. one has to develop that overall eye. It can be compared. Strolling theatres.charms" of idiosyncrasies as virtues. Such is the task of our building creative collectives. the People and our Art. with the operation of theory of "socialist Realism" of soviet Union in the Literary field. Whether it is possible to clean this Region stable. from that angle. different amateur Groups in Trade Unions and Kolkhozes. They are given a domain instead.and one for all. This is a long road.. theatre Maly Theatre. even of personal nature. We introduce the subject. . Because Group acting presupposes another thing: the discord and harmony of the Group outside work. as they should. because of it leading towards it. which will have to be mobile at the same time be capable of maintaining quality in a settled place.we are actually at a loss to understand. at the same time. whenever we come to think of to-day's reality. Let not any amount of discussion make this point get lost in a maze of sound and fury.. Lighting. so much is to be clarified. Sometimes many problems rack our brains. One by one. The seeming contradiction of collective and individual is all now existent. PART IV: IN LIEU OF A CONCLUSION We have tried to touch upon all the major problems arising in our work . Questions will crop up. It allows to throw problems from so many sides. our hearts sink. alternate casting is an important factor.these are 'hack-works' but precisely the selfsame things spelt doom to all group activity. Understanding of the market. Whatever has troubled us in our work. to understand the Drama. -these do come in the domain of an actor. the problems of our art creation. these were absolutely necessary. And practicability many a times. This has happened before with us This may happen again. backstage. And Repertoire offers an opportunity to develop that element.-as it is the most realistic of all art-theories. . as it is not possible to contemplate without men and women of utmost seriousness.and in all these literally thousand of Regisseurs are working with very many different views on art. a flexible body of accepted principles on which many schools can develop: many ways of production. Group must be understood so that individual may flowers. For this. different theatres of nationalities and minorities. Same goes for the economic aspect. but. finds its way into our discussions. Still. We must. the MAT method. plays tricks with us. Theatre of the Revolution. allfaceted men and women. subjectivism is a thing which we all have in profusion. our people. that we think that this paper is not the place where to go through the whole hog of it. We strove to outline the structure in a rudimentary form.

(c) Towards establishment of our hegemony in such a Democratic Front by models of creation. we just initiate it. Democratic art-organizations. (e) Towards Study Campaigns for the rank and file of the whole Party. We just cannot help it. History has chosen this path. may be the speed is not to our liking. This is an absolute necessity . Reshape the Past. all the depths of demoralization. and Party cannot take them without such discussions. resulting again in a swing. full of indiscipline. (3) Towards scientific approach in our art-works. by examples of worth. proletarian grit. Inexorably History is moving. There are on the move to-day. That sort of thing will put stress on one aspect of the problem and leave aside the other. (b) Towards Democratic Federations of individuals and groups on the broad principles of Right to self-determination and broad-based. Study of Marxism based on Indian Reality: leadership is long overdue. Balance is the key-word today. sense of lacking "justification" in working and "sacrificing" search for finding one's own worth in the personal sphere and drawing blank each time. So. (b) Towards a Stage. in a word. Towards an attitude of serious acceptance of Revolution as a matter of arduous hard. as soon as possible. which came to the fore from '50 onwards. (c) Towards serious efforts in creations more and more. Such are the thoughts that should guide us to-day. (a) Because of this and other factors. in Histrionic singing too. Do not await the descent of such feeling on your soul. sustained effort. and Sectarianism indeed is the greasiest danger in our work. Towards a CONVENTION OF PARTY ARTISTES. We must grasp this with reason and emotionally experience it. That has nothing to do with reality. an Academy. RITWIK GHATAK 24 BALLYGUNJ PLACE.feeling of being "lost". and to a great degree. balance may come after a thorough shifting of pros and cons. (b) Party line on culture : To gear all art-activities towards fulfilling basic tasks of Democratic Front. hammer the present and forge the future! (c) Towards extension of Party life to include all creative activities .to-day's quality of cadres makes it imperative.in fact. . discussion is what is called for. Towards helping the task of mobilizing the masses by creation and by mobilizing the artistes. in Ballet. -. in this land. That does not correspond with realty! The other side also does not correspond with reality. a CONVENTION OF CULTURAL WORKERS is on the order of the day. But organizations for specialized workers. previous "enthusiasm". And this subject. we are isolated. attempt to impress the main points of our discussion: (1) The major shortcomings arising in our work today is precisely because of lack of Party attention. Mature action born of mature thinking is what is called for to-day. Forget all that about previous "elation". (a) Group method of creation in collective arts: in Drama.professional and otherwise. relentless struggle. all that guided all of us up to 1950 at least.that romantic feeling of Revolutionary "zeal". Drop the idea that Revolution is around the corner. And finally. We can only prepare for long-drawn offensive. An attempt at implementing measures chosen at random from among these suggestions will spell disaster to the movement. Such are our tasks. (d) Towards conferences on Culture . carrying forward National Heritage by reshaping it and continuing it on to Proletarian ends. Hence. Even wrong stress will upset this balance. We shall fulfill it. That side. and at the same time. we must come to the question of basic attitude itself. Specially this is true of parts I and II. and a conservatoire of Music. not at all drawn into the Party activities. tasks of mass organization building. if they are not thought of in their totality. in Opera. Party has to take measure in this sphere. It is not. wide composition.the last. CAL-19 . Legitimate attention is our slogan.break this isolation even among the artistes. (2) Towards building of broad-based. (a) Towards organization which are not mass organizations. Revolution is an Adults' Business. Great dangers await us if we show total slackness about this: Party Building task. .

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