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Connect Education Unit 3 VCE Biology Suggested Answers 2012 Edward Cliff & Lex Ituarte

Multiple-choice questions
Question 1 2 3 4 5 Answer C A D C C Explanation A triglyceride contains glycerol and three fatty acid tails. Enzyme activity is decreased by the presence of an inhbitor. Synthesis is energy-requiring. tRNA carries amino acids. Note, the question says nucleotide pairs. 25 adenine bases means there must be 25 thymine bases. This leaves 150 guanine-cytosine base pairs. RNAs have nitrogenous bases. M is last, as secretory vesicles secrete proteins. Haemoglobin includes protein. MHC class I molecules present foreign antigens to B and T cells Phagocytes engulf bacteria. Before the response, signal transduction occurs (a series of reactions) Scratching is a type of injury, which was given as a stimulus for ethylene production in the stem of the question. C is incorrect because although sometimes ethylene causes fruit to become rotten, it initially causes it to become sweet and ripe, which would make it more appealing to animals. Increased absorption of calcium from the intestines is the only change that would directly increase blood calcium levels. Jonahs core body temperature is lowest during sleep. Jonahs activity is independent of other variables. Agglutination occurs when antibody-antigen complexes form, therefore type B antibodies and type AB blood will allow for agglutination. Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft Baby 4 must have been exposed to the virus during development because IgM antibodies cannot cross the placenta

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A C D C B C B

13 14 15 16 17 18

D C B D D D

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Connect Education Unit 3 VCE Biology Suggested Answers 2012 Edward Cliff & Lex Ituarte

19 20 21

B C B

Immunisation is active, as antigens are recognised and produced in the individual, and artificial, as immunisation is induced by humans. The stem of the question says that thyroid hormone production is unregulated, which results in overstimulation. Sunlight is the original source of energy for all reactions. It would be reasonable to suggest that the energy for this reaction comes from glucose but it originally comes from sunlight. The electron transport chain releases many ATP molecules. Interferon protects uninfected cells from viral attack. Molecular specificity is needed for antibody and antigen to bind. Patient S has been exposed and responded as indicated by the positive result.

22 23 24 25

D B D C

Short-answer questions
Question 1a Structure X is the plasma membrane. Description: a fluid phospholipid bilayer composed of hydrophilic heads (facing outwards) and two hydrophobic tails (facing inwards) as well as other substances such as cholesterol and embedded proteins. It regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Question 1b The presence of a cell wall, chloroplasts, or other characteristics such as large storage vacuoles often found in plant cells. Question 1c As mitochondria are responsible for aerobic respiration and therefore provide energy for many cellular processes, a reduction in metabolism would result from less efficient mitochondria, which may mean less ability for cellular repair processes involving protein production, for example. Question 1d The cytosol is the intracellular fluid which includes water and dissolved substances. The cytoplasm includes the intracellular fluid as well as the organelles that sit in it, excluding the nucleus. Question 2 Before an allergic reaction occurs, the body becomes sensitised to the allergen by producing
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Connect Education Unit 3 VCE Biology Suggested Answers 2012 Edward Cliff & Lex Ituarte

IgE antibodies and lining the mast cells with these antibodies. During an allergic reaction, the allergen (1) binds to two IgE antibodies (2) on the surface of the mast cell, which is called crosslinking. This crosslinking causes the mast cell to degranulate, and release histamines (3), causing inflammation and a range of other allergic symptoms. Question 3a Proteins Question 3b Primary structure refers to the specific linear sequence of amino acids in the macromolecule, joined by peptide bonds Question 3c Pig. The alpha chain in pigs is the most similar to that in humans and insulin may therefore have a specific enough structure to interact with insulin receptors in humans, even though the beta chains do differ. Question 3di The reason for the difference in the nucleotide sequence is due (at least) to the first base of the DNA triplet, which is thymine in human insulin sequence and codes for thr, and is cytosine in the cow sequence which codes for ala. The difference in codon will result in the production of a different mRNA codon and this will be complementary to a different tRNA anticodon, resulting in a change in amino acid sequence. Question 3dii The DNA sequence may or may not be identical for cows, pigs and sheep because four different triplets all code for ala due to the redundancy of the genetic code. Question 4ai Plasma cells (or B cells) Question 4aii The four month old child would have higher antibody concentrations than the two month old, as s/he has had a second vaccine.

Question 4b Advantages of having memory cells for future immunisations include: More rapid detection and initiation of immune response Larger/stronger immune response Decreased side-effects from the vaccine Question 4ci
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Connect Education Unit 3 VCE Biology Suggested Answers 2012 Edward Cliff & Lex Ituarte

Logical and likely reasons for the increased number of cases in adults may include: As it has been a long time since they were immunised, so they may have fewer or no memory cells remaining and would take longer or be unable to respond to an infection More recent forms of the bacterium with different antigens may not be detected by adults, as they have undergone mutation - this is called resistance. Question 4cii Reasonable processes for reducing adult infections may include: Providing funding for booster vaccinations that would increase the number of memory cells for those vaccinated more than 10 years ago Providing education to adults so they can reduce the spread of infection Ensuring adequate antibiotics are provided to infected people to slow/prevent the spread of infection Question 4d No, this is a test of humoral immunity where circulating antibodies (produced by Plasma B cells) agglutinate antigens in the extracellular environment. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Question 5a The line indicating polypeptide concentration from the sample incubated at 10 C should be the same (*or greater than) as the sample indicated at 37 C. The point for 80 C should be at or close to 0. Question 5b Explanation The sample at 10C would contain the same amount of polypeptides as lowering their temperature does not destroy them, it just causes inactivation. *OR, the sample at 10C would contain more polypeptides, as the action of pepsin (digestive enzyme) and other proteases would be reduced at a lower temperature The sample at 80C would have little or no polypeptides as they will have been denatured (that is, had their secondary and tertiary structures altered permanently) by the high temperature. Question 6ai Homeostasis is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment in the face of a changing external environment. Question 6aii For example: Blood glucose levels They are tightly regulated as if they are too low then there may be inadequate energy for vital cellular processes and survival, and if they are too high, energy will be lost in the urine, and many other harmful side-effects can be caused, especially cardiovascular. Question 6bi A rod cell is classified as a receptor as it senses information from the external environment. It
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Connect Education Unit 3 VCE Biology Suggested Answers 2012 Edward Cliff & Lex Ituarte

contains chemicals such as rhodospin which are responsible for detecting light, and is capable of sending this information to other cells. Question 6bii The series of events does form part of a negative feedback system, as when light enters the eye, the electrical impulses activated through this system cause the pupil to constrict, allowing less light into the eye and thus decreasing the effect of the initial stimulus - light. Question 6c For this question only two differences are required. Differences 1 2 3 4 Aspect Type of message Rate of transmission Length of effects Site of action Nervous System Electrical Faster Short-lasting Local Endocrine System Chemical Slower Long-lasting Local and/or distant

Question 7a Viruses are non-cellular pathogens as they require the machinery of a host cell in order to replicate - they cannot replicate on their own. Question 7b The first line of defence protects against viral infection by: Intact skin - provides a physical barrier which helps prevent entry Chemicals (enzymes) in tears of eyes/mouth; mucus in nose, Respiratory system and intestine; and pH and digestive enzymes in intestine. Question 7c Requiring proof of vaccination for re-entry significantly reduces the likelihood that a person entering the country still has the virus after possible infections. Unvaccinated people wanting reentry may need to wait in quarantine for a safe period, or be tested for the presence of the virus. Question 8ai Input X is any of H20, ADP + Pi, or NADP+ Question 8aii Compound Y is ATP, or, depending on the use of the term compound, O2. Question 8b Process Name of process Site of process

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Connect Education Unit 3 VCE Biology Suggested Answers 2012 Edward Cliff & Lex Ituarte

M O P

light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis glycolysis stages of cellular respiration

grana of chloroplast cytosol mitochondrial matrix and inner membranes (cristae)

Question 8c As Chlorella is also able to photosynthesise, some of the carbon dioxide output from respiration can be used for this. Importantly, it uses more CO2 to photosynthesise than it produces during respiration, so it causes a net decrease in atmospheric CO2. Question 8d Conditions needed to be controlled to keep growth optimal in a pond farm include: Light intensity Nutrient supply Temperature

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