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Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Assistant Professor (SG)
Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
Amrita School of Engineering
Coimbatore 641 105
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Fluid mechanics for Chemical Engineers
 Introduction
Contents
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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What is a Fluid ?
What is Fluid Mechanics ?
Physical / Chemical process
Properties of fluid
Density, Specific gravity & API gravity
Viscosity & Kinematic viscosity
Surface Tension & Capillarity
Vapor Pressure and
Compressibility
Difference between a liquid and a gas
Classification of fluids based on their shear properties
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What is a Fluid?
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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A substance which has no definite shape
Yields easily when subjected to external pressure
In simple terms, Which is able to flow easily (How
easy ?)
What is Fluid Mechanics?
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Mechanics Brach of Physics that study the forces
acting on a body and their effect on the motion of
the body on which they are acting
Fluid mechanics Study of forces acting on the fluid
and their effect on the fluid motion
Basic Ideas in Fluid Mechanics
Principle of conservation of Mass
Principle of conservation of Energy (First law of
Thermodynamics)
Conservation of momentum
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Physical / Chemical Process
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Process is anything that under goes a change in the
system
In fluid flow
Change in the system = Volumetric flow rate
Driving force = Pressure Drop / Change in Pressure
Resistance = Fluid Viscosity (internal resistance),
Gravity (external resistance) etc.,
Resistance
System the in Change
force Driving System the in Change
1
o
o
Properties of Fluids
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Density
Specific gravity
Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity
Surface tension and
Vapor pressure
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Fluid Density
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Density is defined as the mass occupied by unit
volume of the fluid
The Fluid (Liquid) density is measured by using a
measuring jar or specific gravity bottle
The Solid density is measured by using the same
technique
Solid bulk density is measured also in the same
way
How to measure the density of the gas?
)
1000
1
(
1000
1
3
cc
g
ml
g
m
kg
Units
V
m
Volume
Mass
= = =
Fluid density Gas density
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Gas density is determined by using some gas laws
called Equation of state (EOS)
Example Ideal gas law
Ideal gas law is the simple form and may not be
applicable for all the gases (You will come to know in
detail when you study the Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics)
nRT PV =
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Effect of Temperature and Pressure on
Fluid density
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Liquids
Temperature Lowers the density down
Pressure Very minimal effect (Not significant)
So we call the liquids to be incompressible fluids
Gases
Temperature Lowers the density
Pressure Increases the density
Fluid Specific gravity & API gravity
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Specific gravity
Reference fluid
Liquids Water at ambient conditions (1 atm and 25
o
C)
Gases Air at STP conditions (1 atm and 20
o
C)
API gravity
fluid reference
fluid
g s
= .
5 . 131
5 . 141
=
sg
gravity API
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Fluid Viscosity
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Viscosity is the property of the fluid that offers resistance to its own
flow
It is denoted by the symbol ()
Units
Effect of pressure and temperature on viscosity
Pressure has very less effect on viscosity
Increase in temperature decreases the viscosity of the liquids
Increase in temperature increases the viscosity of gases at normal
pressures and the behavior is similar to liquids at high pressure
Forces (Stresses) acting on the fluid
Compressive
Tensile and
Shear
2
.
10
. 10
1
100
.
) (
m
sec N
sec m
kg
cP
sec cm
gm
P Poise = = = =
Fluid viscosity Shear Stress
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Shear stress
Shear strain
Shear relation
For fluids
Newtons law of
Viscosity
A
F
= t
h
s
=
t G =
dy
du
dt
dx
dy
d
dy
dx
dt
d
dt
d
x
t
t
=

.

\

=


.

\

= = =
.
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Fluid Kinematic Viscosity
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Kinematic Viscosity
u =
sec
cm
sec
m
Units
2
4
2
10 =
Fluid Pressure
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Pressure is the ratio of force per unit area
Static pressure It is the pressure exerted by the still
fluid (Both liquid & gas)
Dynamic pressure Pressure caused by liquid flow
(liquid velocity)
Total pressure = Static pressure + dynamic pressure
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Absolute pressure and Gauge pressure
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Pressure is measure using a
pressure gauge
If P > P
atm
If P < P
atm
level sea Mean at kPa or mmHg or psi P
P P P
atm
atm gauge absolute
3 . 101 760 7 . 14 =
+ =
gauge atm absolute
P P P =
Absolute pressure and gauge pressure
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Fluid Surface tension
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Surface tension is a property of
the surface of a liquid that
allows it to resist an external
force
Units Force per length (N/m)
Question to students How
can we reduce the surface
tension of water?
Vapor pressure of the fluid
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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At all temperatures, both liquid and vapor will be in
equilibrium (The quantities may vary)
The pressure exerted by the vapor on its own liquid is
called as vapor pressure
A liquid boils when the vapor pressure is equal to the
surroundings (external) pressure
Vapor pressure is a function of temperature and
composition only
Water has a vapor pressure of 760 mm Hg @ 100
o
C
So, Water boils at 100
o
C when the external pressure
is equal to 1 atm (760 mm Hg)
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Liquid vs. Gas
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Liquid Gas
Molecules of liquid are
together because of forces of
attraction
Molecules are relatively apart
(Low intermolecular forces of
attraction)
Higher densities Lower densities
It has vapor pressure No Vapor pressure
Difference between a Scalar, Vector and a
Tensor
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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Scalar Only Magnitude
Vector Both Magnitude and direction
Tensor Magnitude, Direction and variation of
magnitude in other directions
dx
du
dy
du
y
xy
x
yx
t
t
=
=
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Sign convention for Newtons law of
Viscosity
Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
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( )
( ) decreases velocity the If
dy
du
Convention Negative
increases velocity the If
dy
du
Convention Positive
x
yx
x
yx
t
t
=
=