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Multiphase Flow

Introduction p. 382 Specifying Fluids for Multiphase Flow p. 387 Multifluid Model p. 389 Phasic Hydrodynamic Equations p. 392 Interphase Momentum Transfer Models p. 394 Heat Transfer p. 407 Turbulence Modelling in Multiphase Flow p. 411 Multicomponent Multiphase Flow p. 415 Additional Variables in Multiphase Flow p. 416 Sources in Multiphase Flow p. 421 Boundary Conditions in Multiphase Flow p. 422 Modelling Advice for Multiphase Flow p. 426 Restrictions p. 429

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Introduction

Multiphase flow refers to the situation where more than one fluid is present. Each fluid may possess its own flow field, or all fluids may share a common flow field. Unlike multicomponent flow, the fluids are not mixed on a microscopic scale in multiphase flow. CFX-5 includes a variety of multiphase models to allow the simulation of processes which transport and bring into direct contact multiple fluid streams to effect mixing, reaction, and separation. Multiphase flow in CFX-5 uses a EulerianEulerian multiphase model. Two different sub-models are available for Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase flow: The Homogeneous Model This is the simplest model, in which all fluids share the same flow field. It is suitable for modelling: Free surface flows where the interface is well defined. Dispersed flows of extremely small particles. This model is discussed separately, see Homogeneous Multiphase and Free Surface Flow (p. 431) for details. The Inter-fluid Transfer or Inhomogeneous Model Each fluid possesses its own flow field and the fluids interact via interphase transfer terms. Two different sub-models are available which differ in the way they model the interphase transfer terms. These are: The Particle Model. This is suitable for modelling simple dispersed multiphase flow problems, for example: the dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid, the dispersion of liquid droplets in a gas or in immiscible liquid, the dispersion of solid particles in a gas or in a liquid. The Mixture Model. This is suitable for modelling more complex multiphase flow problems, for example:

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Gas-liquid flow containing both continuous and dispersed gas and liquid phases. Churn flow. This chapter describes how multiphase flow is modelled and also includes modelling advice. The corresponding information for single-phase, single-component flow can be found in the following: Details of the models used for single-phase flow can be found in Physical Models, Fluid Properties and Boundary Conditions in CFX-5 (p. 207). The mathematical implementation of the single-phase flow can be found in Mathematical Models and Solution Algorithms (p. 249). Advice on modelling can be found in Advice on Flow Modelling With CFX-5 (p. 469). You are advised to read the relevant sections in the single-phase documentation before reading this chapter, since this chapter extends the information given in the single-phase documentation. The notation used in this chapter is defined in List of Symbols (p. 250) and in Multiphase Notation (p. 385).

Terminology

The following terms are used in CFX-5 multiphase flow. Multiphase Flow Multiphase flow is a flow in which more than one fluid is present. In general, the fluids consist of different chemical species, e.g. air-water. In some applications, they may represent different thermodynamic phases of the same species, e.g. steam-water. It is important to distinguish between multicomponent and multiphase flow. A multicomponent fluid is assumed to consist of a mixture of chemical species which are mixed at the molecular level. In this case, we solve for single mean velocity and temperature fields etc. for the fluid. Examples are gaseous mixtures, and solutes in liquids.

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The fluids in a multiphase flow are assumed mixed at macroscopic length scales, much larger than molecular. Examples are gas bubbles in a liquid, liquid droplets in a gas or another immiscible liquid etc. In this case. it is necessary to solve for different velocity and temperature fields etc. for each fluid. These may interact with each other by means of interfacial forces and heat and mass transfer across the phase interfaces. For example, if cold wet particles are injected into a fast flowing stream of hot air, the particles will be accelerated by interphase drag, they will be heated up by heat transfer across the phase boundary, and they will be dried by evaporation of water into water vapour at the phase boundary. Multicomponent Multiphase Flow It is possible to combine the notions of multicomponent and multiphase flows. In this case, more than one fluid is present, and each such fluid may be a mixture of chemical species mixed at molecular length scales. An example is air bubbles in water in which ozone gas is dissolved in both the gaseous and liquid phases. In this case, mass transfer of common species may occur by diffusion across the phase interface. Morphology Morphology is used to describe the connectivity or distribution of the fluid whether it forms a single continuous medium, or whether it is present, for example, in small droplets which are not connected. Dispersed Phase A dispersed solid or dispersed fluid is one which is present in discrete regions which are not connected. Examples are water droplets in air, bubbles, and solid particulates. Continuous Phase A continuous phase or continuous fluid is one which forms a connected continuous region. An example is air, when modelling rain drops in air.

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Volume Fraction Multiphase modelling employs the notion of interpenetrating continua. Although phases are mixed at length scales much larger than molecular, they are also assumed to be mixed at length scales smaller than we wish to resolve. Thus, each phase is assumed to be present in principle in each control volume, and assigned a volume fraction equal to the fraction of the control volume occupied by that phase. Eulerian-Eulerian The Eulerian-Eulerian model is the multiphase model that has been implemented in CFX-5. Future versions of CFX-5 will support other multiphase models, such as the Lagrangian Tracking model. Within the Eulerian-Eulerian model, the interphase transfer terms can be modelled using either the Particle Model, the Mixture Model or the Homogeneous Model.

Multiphase Notation

Different phases of fluids are denoted using lowercase Greek letters , , , etc. In general, a quantity subscribed with , , , etc., refers to the value of the quantity for that particular phase. For example, the volume fraction of is denoted r. Thus, the volume V occupied by phase in a small volume V around a point of volume fraction r is given by: V = rV It is important to distinguish between the material density of fluid , the mixture density of a fluid, and the effective density of fluid . The effective density is defined as: = r The material density, , is the density of the fluid if it is the only phase present, i.e. the mass of per unit volume of . The effective density is the actual mass per unit volume of phase , given that phase only occupies a fraction of the volume, i.e. the mass of per unit volume of the bulk fluid.

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Currently, you are allowed to select five fluids for multiphase flow. To select the fluids for a multiphase flow, set the number of fluids on the domains form, and select distinct fluids from the library of fluids which have been defined under the fluids editor. In general each fluid possesses its own velocity, temperature and volume fraction field, although it shares a common pressure field with other fluids. If more than one fluid is used in a simulation, then the volume fractions of the fluids must sum to unity at any computational point in space and in time. Fluid specific attributes are defined on the Fluid Details form in CFX-Build - see Fluid Details (p. 1082 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4). Morphology: see Morphology (p. 1040 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4). Mean Diameter: see Mean Diameter (p. 1040 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4) Minimum Volume Fraction: see Minimum Volume Fraction (p. 1041 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4). Maximum Packing: see Maximum Packing (p. 1041 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)

Multiphase Examples

The following are examples of multiphase flow. Water droplets in air Water droplets in air constitute two different fluids which are mixed at the macroscopic level and not the microscopic level. Hence you need to use a multiphase model and define two distinct fluids, Water and Air. Each fluid contains only one component comprising of one material (air or water), whose properties can be defined. Air is the Continuous Phase, and Water is the Dispersed Phase.

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Air bubbles in water As above, you need to use a multiphase model and define two distinct fluids, Water and Air. In this case. Air is the Dispersed Phase, and Water is the Continuous Phase. Gas-solid and liquid-solid flow It is possible to model the motion of a large number of solid particles in a gas or a liquid as an Eulerian-Eulerian two phase flow. Examples occur in pneumatic conveying, sedimentation in rivers, and fluidised beds. For example, the two phases may be Water, the Continuous Phase, and Sand, the Dispersed Phase. In such problems, you should assign the solid phase a small insignificant molecular viscosity. This is permissible, as the physics is dominated by inter-phase drag and turbulence effects. The solid phase should be assigned free slip boundary conditions at walls. Three-phase flow It is possible to have more than one dispersed phase in a continuous phase. For example, certain regimes of water-oil-gas flow in an oil pipeline may involve both oil droplets and gas bubbles immersed in a continuous water phase. Poly-dispersed flow The above dispersed flow examples assume a single mean particle diameter for the dispersed phases. Poly-dispersed flows involve dispersed phases of different mean diameters. In these cases, it is necessary to define a different phase for each particle size, as the particle size has a strong influence on interphase transfer. For example, to model the flow of air bubbles in water of different diameters, you need to create three fluids, Air1, Air2, Air3 say, each with the same material properties as air. Then set the number of fluids equal to four, and select Water, Air1, Air2 and Air3 as the four fluids. Next, under Fluid Models, designate Water as the continuous phase, and the other three fluids as dispersed phases of desired mean diameters.

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Multifluid Model

In the multifluid model there is one solution field for each separate phase. Transported quantities interact via interphase transfer terms. For example, two phases may have separate velocity and temperature fields, but there will be a tendency for these to come to equilibrium through interphase drag and heat transfer terms. Phases are labelled using Greek indices , , . The total number of phases is NP. The volume fraction of each phase is denoted r, where = 1 to NP.

Interfacial transfer of momentum, heat and mass is directly dependent on the contact surface area between the two phases. This is characterised by the interfacial area per unit volume between phase and phase , known as the interfacial area density, A. Note that it has dimensions of one over length. Interfacial transfer can be modelled using either the particle or mixture models. These essentially provide different algebraic prescriptions for the interfacial area density. The Particle Model The particle model for interfacial transfer between two phases assumes that one of the phases is continuous (phase ) and the other is dispersed (phase ). The surface area per unit volume is then calculated by assuming that phase is present as spherical particles of Mean Diameter d. Using this model, the interphase contact area is: 6r A = -------d Non-dimensional interphase transfer coefficients may be correlated in terms of the particle Reynolds number and the fluid Prandtl number. These are defined using the particle mean diameter, and the continuous phase properties, as follows:

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Multiuid Model

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U U d Re = ------------------------------------ C P Pr = ---------------- where , CP and are the viscosity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the continuous phase . The Mixture Model This is a very simple model which treats both phases , symmetrically. It may be appropriate as a first approximation or as the basis of user supplied interfacial transfer models for a calculation of non-disperse liquid-liquid or gas-liquid two phase flow. It does not make any assumptions about the morphology of the phases. The surface area per unit volume is calculated from rr A = ----------d where d is an interfacial length scale, which you must specify. This is done on the Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4) form in CFX-Build. By way of example, suppose we have oil-water flow in which we may have either water droplets in continuous oil, or oil droplets in continuous water, in the limits r 0 , r 0 respectively. Then, a simple model for interfacial area density which has the correct behaviour in these two limits is given by: 6r r A = -----------------------------rd + rd rd + rd d = -----------------------------6

Non-dimensional interphase transfer coefficients may be correlated in terms of the mixture Reynolds number and Prandtl number defined as follows: U U d Re = ------------------------------------------

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C P Pr = --------------- where , , CP and are the density, viscosity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the mixture respectively, defined by: = r + r = r + r etc.

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The following is a summary of the equations of momentum and mass transfer for inhomogeneous multiphase flow in CFX-5. The equivalent for single-phase flow can be found in Transport Equations (p. 262). The equivalent for homogeneous multiphase flow can be found in Homogeneous Hydrodynamic Equations (p. 434). Momentum Equations ( r U ) + ( r ( U U ) ) t = r p + ( r ( U + ( U ) ) ) + S M + M where: SM describes momentum sources due to external body forces, and user defined momentum sources, see User Specified Sources (p. 270). M describes the interfacial forces acting on phase due to the presence of other phases. See Interphase Momentum Transfer Models (p. 394) for the models available for interfacial forces. The above momentum equations are valid for fluid phases only. For dispersed solid phases, additional terms are present representing additional stresses due to particle collisions. Continuity Equations ---- ( r ) + ( r U ) = S MS t where: SMS describes user specified mass sources, see User Specified Sources (p. 270). Volume Conservation Equation This is simply the constraint that the volume fractions sum to unity:

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(Eq. Sol.-74)

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=1

r = 1

(Eq. Sol.-75)

Pressure Constraint The complete set of hydrodynamic equations represent 4NP + 1 equations in the 5NP unknowns UV, W, r, P. We need NP -1 more equations to close the system. These are given by constraints on the pressure, namely that all phases share the same pressure field: p = p for all = 1,......, N P

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Interphase momentum transfer, M, occurs due to interfacial forces acting on each phase due to interaction with another phase . The total force on phase due to interaction with other phases is denoted M, and is given by: M =

Note that interfacial forces between two phases are equal and opposite, so the net interfacial forces sum to to zero: ( M = M )

M = 0

The total interfacial force acting between two phases may arise from several independent physical effects: M = M + M + M + M + M + M S + .... The forces indicated above respectively represent the interphase drag force, lift force, wall lubrication force, virtual mass force, turbulence dissipation force and solids pressure force (for dense solid particle phases only). CFX-5.5.1 provides a wide range of physical models for the most important of these forces, namely interphase drag. These models are described in Interphase Drag (p. 394). CFX-5.5.1 also provides a simple model for the turbulent dispersion force. See Interphase Turbulent Dispersion Force (p. 404). Models for other forces will implemented in future releases of CFX-5.

D L LUB VM TD

Interphase Drag

The following general form is used to model interphase drag force acting on phase due to phase . M = c ( U U )

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(d )

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Note that c = 0 and c = c. Hence the sum over all phases of all interphase transfer terms is zero. In this section, we describe how the coefficients c may be computed from a knowledge of dimensionless drag coefficients. We also describe the range of models available for drag coefficients. For low Mach number flows, the drag exerted on an immersed body by a moving fluid arises from two mechanisms only . The first is due to the viscous surface shear stress, and is called skin friction. The second is due to the pressure distribution around the body, and is called the form drag. We denote the continuous phase by and the dispersed phase by . The total drag force is most conveniently expressed in terms of the dimensionless drag coefficient, D C D = ------------------------------------------2 1 -- ( U U ) A 2 where is the fluid density, ( U - U ) is the relative speed, D is the magnitude of the drag force and A is the projected area of the body in the direction of flow.

(d )

For spherical particles, the coefficients c may be derived analytically. The area of a single particle projected in the flow direction, Ap, and the volume of a single particle Vp are given by: d A p = -------4

2 (d )

d V p = -------6

where d is the mean diameter. The number of particles per unit volume, np is given by: 6r r n p = ------ = -------3 Vp d The drag exerted by a single particle on the continuous phase is, 1 D p = -- C D A p U U ( U U ) 2

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Hence the total drag per unit volume on the continuous phase is, 3 CD - D = n p D p = -- ------- r U U ( U U ) 4 d Comparing with the momentum equation for phase , where the drag force per unit volume is: D = c ( U U ) we get,

(d ) 3 CD - c = -- ------- r U U 4 d (d )

which can be written as: CD (d ) c = ------- A U U 8 This is the form implemented in CFX-5. For a particle of simple shape, immersed in a Newtonian fluid and which is not rotating relative to the surrounding free stream, the drag coefficient, CD, depends only on the particle Reynolds number. The function CD ( Re ) may be determined experimentally, and is known as the drag curve. CFX-5 offers several different models for the drag curve, and also allows you to specify the drag coefficients directly. This section describes drag correlations specific to dispersed multiphase flow. Specifying a Drag Coefficient You can choose to specify the dimensionless Drag Coefficients CD directly. This is done by selecting to use the Drag Coefficient option on the Multiphase Options form in CFX-Build, and entering the appropriate Drag Coefficient (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)

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You can supply your own drag coefficient correlation as an expression and are free to define your own interfacial Reynolds number, or any other dimensionless group. Dilute Solid Particles At low particle Reynolds numbers (the viscous regime), the drag coefficient for flow past spherical particles may be computed analytically. The result is Stokes law: 24 -, C D = ----Re Re 1

For particle Reynolds numbers which are sufficiently large for inertial effects to dominate viscous effects (the inertial or Newtons regime), the drag coefficient becomes independent of Reynolds number: C D = 0.44, 1000 Re 1 2x10

5

In the transitional region between the viscous and inertial regimes, 0.1 < Re < 1000 for spherical particles, both viscous and inertial effects are important. Hence, the drag coefficient is a complex function of Reynolds number, which must be determined from experiment. This has been done in detail for spherical particles. Several empirical correlations are available. The one available in CFX-5.5.1 is due to Schiller and Naumann (1933) [7]. It can be written as follows: Schiller Naumann Drag Model 0.687 24 ) C D = ----- ( 1 + 0.15Re Re CFX-5 modified this to ensure the correct limiting behaviour in the inertial regime by taking:

0.687 24 C D = max ----- ( 1 + 0.15Re ), 0.44 Re

This should only be used for solid spherical particles, or for fluid particles that are sufficiently small that they may be considered spherical. For non-spherical particles, the user should supply the drag curve from experiment.

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You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Schiller Naumann Drag Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). Dense Solid Particles As the Schiller Naumann correlation is derived for flow past a single spherical particle, it is only valid in the dilute limit of very small solid phase volume fractions. On the other hand, the Wen Yu correlation is valid for solid phase volume fractions at least up to 0.2, and possibly higher. Wen Yu Drag Model CD = rc

1.65 0.687 24 max ------- ( 1 + 0.15Re' ), 0.44 Re

Re' = r c Re

Note that this has the same functional form as the Schiller Naumann correlation, with a modified particle Reynolds number, and a power law correction, both functions of the continuous phase volume fraction rc. You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Wen Yu Drag Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). You may also change the Volume Fraction Correction Exponent from its default value of -1.65, if you wish. For very dense gas-solid or liquid-solid flows, such as occur in fluidised bed applications, the Gidaspow correlation is recommended. This uses the Wen Yu correlation for low solid volume fractions rd < 0.2, and switches to Erguns law for flow in a porous medium for larger solid volume fractions. Gidaspow Drag Model C D = C D ( Wen Yu ),

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You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Gidaspow Drag Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). You may also change the Volume Fraction Correction Exponent of the Wen Yu part of the correlation from its default value of -1.65, if you wish. Dilute Fluid Particles (drops and bubbles) At sufficiently small particle Reynolds numbers (the viscous regime), fluid particles behave in the same manner as solid spherical particles. Hence the drag coefficient is well approximated by the SchillerNaumann correlation described above.

0.687 24 ), 0.44 C D ( sphere ) = max ----- ( 1 + 0.15Re Re

At larger particle Reynolds numbers, the inertial or distorted particle regime, surface tension effects become important. The fluid particles become, at first, approximately ellipsoidal in shape, and finally, spherical cap shaped. In the spherical cap regime, the drag coefficient is well approximated by: 8 C D ( cap ) = -3 Several correlations are available for the distorted particle regime. CFX-5 uses the Ishii Zuber and Grace and correlations. Ishii-Zuber Drag Model This is applicable to general fluid particles (drops and bubbles), for any pair of phases. In the distorted particle regime, the drag coefficient is approximately constant, independent of Reynolds number, but dependent on particle shape through the dimensionless group known as the Eotvos number, which measures the ratio between gravitational and surface tension forces: gd p Eo = ---------------

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Here, is the density difference between the phases, g is the gravitational acceleration, and is the surface tension coefficient. The Ishii-Zuber correlation gives: 2 12 C D ( ellipse ) = -- Eo 3 You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Ishii-Zuber Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). In this case, CFX-5 automatically takes into account the spherical particle and spherical cap limits by setting: C D = C D ( sphere ) C D = min ( C D ( ellipse ), C D ( cap ) ) if if C D ( sphere ) C D ( ellipse ) C D ( sphere ) < C D ( ellipse )

The Ishii Zuber Model also automatically takes into account dense fluid particle effects. See Dense Fluid Particles (p. 401) for full details. Grace Drag Model This model was developed using air-water data and produces better results for air-water systems. Here the drag coefficient in the distorted particle regime is given by: 4 gd - - C D ( ellipse ) = -- ------- -----3 U 2 c

T

where the terminal velocity UT is given by: c 0.149 ( J 0.857 ) U T = ----------- M c d p where: c g M = ---------------- = Morton Number 2 3 and:

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ref = 0.0009 kg m-1 s-1 is the molecular viscosity of water at some reference temperature and pressure. You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Grace Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). In this case, CFX-5 automatically takes into account the spherical particle and spherical cap limits by setting: C D = C D ( sphere ) C D = min ( C D ( ellipse ), C D ( cap ) ) Availability Both the Ishii Zuber and Grace Drag Models make explicit use of the gravity vector and surface tension. Hence, both are only available for buoyant multiphase flows with specified surface tension. The fluid morphologies must be Continuous and Dispersed Fluid respectively. Dense Fluid Particles Ishii-Zuber Drag Model The Ishii Zuber drag laws automatically take into account dense particle effects. This is done in different ways for different flow regimes. In the viscous regime, where fluid particles may be assumed to be approximately spherical, the Schiller Naumann correlation is modified using a mixture Reynolds number based on a mixture viscosity. if if C D ( sphere ) C D ( ellipse ) C D ( sphere ) < C D ( ellipse )

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Dense Spherical Particle Regime (Ishii Zuber) 0.687 24 ) C D ( sphere ) = --------- ( 1 + 0.15Re m Re m c U d U c d p Re m = ----------------------------------m m r d 2.5r d * ------ = 1 -------- c r dm d + 0.4 c * = ------------------------d + c

Here, rdm is the user defined Maximum Packing value. This is defaulted to unity for a dispersed fluid phase. In the distorted particle regime, the Ishii Zuber modification takes the form of a multiplying factor to the single particle drag coefficient. Dense Distorted Particle Regime (Ishii Zuber) 2 12 C D ( ellipse ) = E ( r d )C D , C D = -- Eo 3 2 12 C D = -- Eo 3 ( 1 + 17.67 f ( r d ) ) E ( r d ) = --------------------------------------------------, 18.67 f ( r d )

67

c 12 f ( r d ) = ------ ( 1 r d ) m

2

3 C D = -8

The Ishii Zuber correlation, as implemented in CFX-5, automatically selects flow regime as follows: Automatic Regime Selection (Ishii Zuber): C D = C D ( sphere ) if C D ( sphere ) C D ( ellipse ) C D = min ( C D ( ellipse ), C D ( cap ) ) if C D ( sphere ) < C D ( ellipse )

You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Ishii Zuber Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)).

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Grace Drag Model The Grace drag model, as described in Dilute Fluid Particles (drops and bubbles) (p. 399), is formulated for flow past a single bubble. You can select this Drag Curve by selecting to use the Grace Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). For high bubble volume fractions, it may be modified using a simple power law correction: C D = r c C D Here, C D is the single bubble Grace drag coefficient. For the dilute limit, leave the Volume Fraction Correction Exponent at its default value of zero. For non-dilute flows, set a non-zero value, depending on the bubble size as discussed below. Small bubbles tend to rise more slowly at high void fraction, due to an increase in the effective mixture viscosity. To capture this effect, a negative exponent p < 0 should be used. The Ishii Zuber correlation gives p = -1 in this limit. p = -0.5 has also been used successfully by some investigators. Large bubbles, on the other hand, tend to rise faster at high void fractions, because they are dragged along by the wakes of other bubbles. This effect may be modelled using a positive exponent, p > 0 should be selected. The Ishii Zuber correlation uses p = 2 in this regime. The value p = 4 has been used successfully by some investigators [46].

p

In the mixture mode, we define a non-dimensional drag coefficient CD, as follows: D = C D A U U ( U U ) where D is the total drag exerted by phase on phase per unit volume. The mixture density is given by:

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= r + r and the interfacial area per unit volume A is given by: rr A = ----------d where d is a user-specified mixture length scale. The mixture model is primarily a tool to permit advanced users to specify their own interfacial transfer models for complex situations. Hence the only drag model available is the specified Drag Coefficient model. This may be a constant, or a function defined using expression language or user fortran.

CFX-5 implements the model for turbulent dispersion force due to Lopez de Bertodano (1991) [34]. Lopez de Bertodano Turbulent Dispersion Model Mc

TD

= M d

TD

= C TD c k c r c

Unfortunately, there does not exist a universally valid value of the nondimensional Turbulent Dispersion Coefficient CTD. Values of 0.1 - 0.5 have been used successfully for bubbly flow with bubble diameters of order a few millimetres. See Lopez de Bertodano (1998) [35]. for a general discussion on recommended values of CTD. You can select this model by selecting to use the Lopez de Bertodano Turbulent Dispersion Model on the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). Under this option, you may set the Turbulent Dispersion Coefficient as a constant or as an expression.

Forces due to solid collisions may be taken into account by introducing additional solids pressure and solids stress terms into the solid phase momentum equations:

Interphase Momentum Transfer Models

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( r U ) + ( r s ( s U s U s ) ) = r s P f + P s + ( r s s ) + S M + M s t s s s Here, Pf denotes the fluid phase pressure, Ps and s denote the solids pressure and stress tensor respectively due to inter-particle collisions, SM describes momentum sources due to external body forces and user defined momentum sources acting on the solid phase, and Ms describes interfacial forces acting on the solid phase due to interactions with other phases (e.g. drag). CFX-5 implements the model due to Gidaspow [32]. This ignores the solids stress tensor, and assumes that the solids pressure may be expressed as an empirical function of solid volume fraction, Ps = Ps ( rs ), so that: P s = G ( r s ) r s , P s G ( r s ) = -------r s

Bouillard et al (1989) [31] assumed the following functional form of the Generalised Solids Elasticity Modulus: G ( r s ) = G 0 exp ( c ( r s r sm ) ) You can select this model by selecting to use the Gidaspow Model for solids pressure on the Fluid Models form in CFX-Build for dispersed solid phases. (see Fluid Details (p. 1082 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). Under this option, you must set the Reference Elasticity Modulus, G0, and the Compaction Modulus, c. There are no universally accepted values for these. Values used by Bouillard et al [31] are: G 0 = 1 Pa, c = 20 to 600

The parameter rsm is the Maximum Packing Parameter, see Maximum Packing (p. 1041 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4). Fortunately, results tend to be insensitive to the details of the solids pressure model. The solids pressure gradient is only activated in regions close to the maximum packing, where its tendency is to prevent solid volume fractions from becoming too large. Using this simple model, in conjunction with the Gidaspow drag model (see Dense Solid Particles (p. 398)), it is possible to model the large scale features of bubbling fluidised beds.

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There is a more sophisticated class of models which use the Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow to model the solids pressure and stresses. These will be implemented in future releases of CFX-5.

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Heat Transfer

In the multiphase model, there are separate enthalpy and temperature fields for each phase. The phases are not in general in thermal equilibrium, so heat is transferred across phase interfaces via interphase transfer terms.

Phasic Equations

Heat transfer is governed by the multiphase thermal energy equations for sensible enthalpy: ( r h ) + ( r ( U h T ) ) t where: h, T, , denote the sensible enthalpy, the temperature, and the thermal conductivity of phase . S describes external heat sources, see User Specified Sources (p. 270). Q denotes interphase heat transfer to phase across interfaces with other phases. See Interphase Heat Transfer Models (p. 407). Note that the total energy equation option is not permitted for multiphase flow in CFX-5.5.1. = S + Q

Interphase heat transfer occurs due to thermal non-equilibrium across phase interfaces. The total heat per unit volume transferred to phase due to interaction with other phases is denoted Q, and is given by: Q = where: Q = Q

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Heat transfer across a phase boundary is usually described in terms of a heat transfer coefficient h, which is the amount of heat energy crossing a unit area per unit time per unit temperature difference. Thus, the rate of heat transfer, Q, per unit time across a phase boundary of interfacial area per unit volume A, from phase to phase , is: Q = h A ( T T ) This may be written in a form analogous to momentum transfer: Q = c ( T T ) where the interphase heat transfer coefficient, c , is modelled using the correlations described below. Particle Model Correlations For particle model the interphase heat transfer coefficient is modelled as: c = h A Hence, in order to specify the interphase heat transfer coefficient (and subsequently the interphase heat transfer term), it is necessary to specify the interfacial area per unit volume and the heat transfer coefficient h. The interfacial area density calculation is described in The Particle Model (p. 389). It is often convenient to express the heat transfer coefficient in terms of a dimensionless Nusselt number: Nu h = ---------d In the particle model, the thermal conductivity scale is taken to be the thermal conductivity of the continuous phase, and the length scale d is taken to be the mean diameter of the dispersed phase: N u h = -------------------d

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For laminar forced convection around a spherical particle, theoretical analysis shows that Nu = 2. For a particle in a moving incompressible Newtonian fluid, the Nusselt number is a function of the particle Reynolds number Re and the surrounding fluid Prandtl number Pr = CP / . The available models in CFX-5.5.1 are given below. They can be selected in the Multiphase Options form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). Ranz-Marshall Correlation. The most well tested correlation for flow past a spherical particle is that of Ranz and Marshall [8]: Nu = 2 + 0.6Re

0.5

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0 Re < 200

0 Pr < 250

This is based on boundary layer theory for flow past a spherical particle. Its restriction to particle Reynolds number should be noted. Hughmark Correlation. Hughmark [9] proposed the following empirical correlation for flow past a spherical particle. Nu = 2 + 0.6Re

0.5

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2 + 0.27Re

0.62

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It extends the Ranz Marshall correlation to a wider range of Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds number cross over point is chosen to guarantee continuity. Nusselt Number. Specify the Nusselt Number directly. This should be based on empirical correlations, if available, for your application. Heat Transfer Coefficient. You specify the Heat Transfer Coefficient directly. This should be based on empirical correlations, if available. Interface Flux. This is an advanced option which permits experienced users to implement interphase heat transfer models which are not of the simple form of a heat transfer coefficient multiplied by a bulk temperature difference. The user specifies directly the interfacial heat flux F12 from fluid 1 to fluid 2 of a specified fluid pair. This is the rate of heat transfer per unit time per unit interfacial area from phase 1 to phase 2. Hence the heat transferred to fluid 2 from fluid 1 per unit volume is given by:

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Q 21 = Q 12 = A 12 F 12 F12 may be given as a constant or an expression. Typically, F12 will be a function of the fluid 1 and fluid 2 temperature fields, and possibly other variables. In this case, the user may accelerate convergence of the coupled solver by also specifying optional fluid 1 and fluid 2 heat flux coefficients. F 12 h 1 ----------- 0 , T 1 F 21 h 2 ----------- 0 T 2

For numerical stability these coefficients should be positive (or zero). The partial derivatives need not be computed exactly; it is sufficient for the specified coefficients to simply approximate the partial derivatives. Specification of heat flux coefficients only affects the convergence rate to the solution of the coupled heat transfer equations, it does not affect the accuracy of the converged solution. For example, the simple model using a heat transfer coefficient multiplied by a bulk temperature difference my be recovered using: F 12 = F 21 = h ( T 1 T 2 ), Mixture Model Correlations If you are using the mixture model, interphase heat transfer may be specified using either: A specified heat transfer coefficient A specified Nusselt number. The interface flux model In this case, the Nusselt number is defined in terms of a mixture conductivity scale and the mixture length scale: N u -, h = ----------------------d = r + r h1 = h2 = h

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This section describes the extension of the single-phase turbulence models to multiphase simulations. You are encouraged to read Turbulence and Turbulence Models (p. 211 in CFX-5 Solver and Solver Manager), which describes single-phase turbulence modelling, before reading this section.

All models available for single-phase calculations are also available for multiphase calculations. It is even possible to use different models in different phases. For example, a recommended model for dilute dispersed two-phase flow uses a k- model for the continuous phase, and an algebraic eddy viscosity model for the dispersed phase, which simply sets the dispersed phase viscosity proportional to the continuous phase eddy viscosity. The Eddy Viscosity Hypothesis The eddy viscosity hypothesis is assumed to hold for each turbulent phase. Diffusion of momentum in phase is governed by an effective viscosity: eff = + t Algebraic Models If using the zero-equation algebraic turbulence model, there are several options: The default zero-equation model uses a formula based on geometric length scale and the mean solution velocity. This should be used with caution for multiphase flow, as it is correlated for single-phase turbulent pipe flow. The turbulence viscosity is modelled as the product of a turbulent velocity scale, Ut, and a turbulence length scale, lt, as proposed by Prandtl and Kolmogorov,

t = f U t l t

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where f is a proportionality constant. The velocity scale is calculated to be the maximum velocity in phase . If you specify a value for the velocity scale it will be used for all phases. The length scale is derived using the formula:

1 -3 VD

l t = -----7

where VD is the fluid domain volume. You may supply your own prescription for eddy viscosity, using a constant or an expression. For dispersed phases only, you may invoke the dispersed phase algebraic turbulence model.

Note: The algebraic equation model is only available for the disperse fluid when the continuous fluid is set to use a turbulence model (i.e. not laminar)

t c d t c t d = ------ t d = ----- ------c The parameter is a turbulent Prandtl number relating the dispersed phase kinematic eddy viscosity td to the continuous phase kinematic eddy viscosity tc. In situations where the particle relaxation time is short compared to turbulence dissipation time scales, e.g. bubbles or very small solid particles, you may safely use the default value = 1. If the particle relaxation time is long compared to turbulence dissipation time scales, e.g. large solid particles in a gas, it may be better to use a value of > 1. This is highly model dependent. Several models are available in the literature. Two-Equation Models The k- Model For the k- model the turbulent viscosity is modelled as:

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k2 t = C ----- The transport equations for k and in a turbulent phase are assumed to take a similar form to the single-phase transport equations: t (k) ( r k ) + r U k + ------- k = r ( P ) + T k t t () ( r ) + r U + ------- = r ----- ( C 1 P C 2 ) + T k t For definitions of the terms, please see The k-e model in CFX-5 (p. 279). The additional terms T and T represent interphase transfer for k and respectively. These are omitted in CFX-5.5.1, though they may be added as user sources. Reynolds Stress Models As for two equation models, the multiphase versions of Reynolds stress models are equivalent to the single phase version, with all flux and volumetric source terms multiplied by volume fractions. See Reynolds Stress Models (RSM) (p. 286) for the single phase versions. By default, no additional exchange terms are added, though they may be added as user sources.

(k) ()

Turbulence Enhancement

In dispersed two phase flows, large particles tend to increase turbulence in the continuous phase due to the presence of wakes behind the particles. This is known as Particle Induced Turbulence. Sato [36] successfully modelled this for bubbly flow using an enhanced continuous phase eddy viscosity:

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tc = ts + tp where ts is the usual Shear Induced Eddy Viscosity, and tp is an additional Particle Induced Eddy Viscosity: tp = C p c r d d p U d U c This may be selected in the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)).

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CFX-5.5.1 allows the modelling of multiphase multicomponent flows. Please see Multicomponent Flow (p. 3-367) for details on multicomponent, single-phase flows. Transport equations for the mass fractions of components YA are assumed to take a similar form those used for single-phase multicomponent flow: ( r Y ) + ( r ( U Y A A ( Y A ) ) ) = 0 t A One component in each phase must be calculated using a Constraint in the same way as for single-phase multicomponent flow refer to Multicomponent Flow (p. 367). The limitations that currently apply to single-phase multicomponent flow also apply to multiphase multicomponent flow, and you should note that the molecular diffusion coefficients A are given by A = DA, where DA is the Kinematic Diffusivity set on the Component Models form in CFX-Build (see Component Models (p. 1086 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). If you need to model interfacial mass transfer of components between the phases, you are recommended to use Additional Variables to model your flow. Source terms in multicomponent multiphase flow behave the same as multicomponent mass sources, but on a per fluid basis. See User Specified Sources (p. 270).

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Additional Variables can exist in all fluids or only a limited number of fluids in a multiphase simulation. In general, interphase transfer of additional variables can occur between any two phases. When using the homogeneous model, additional variables can only exist separately in each fluid and interphase transfer is not permitted. For the particle and mixture models, the treatment of additional variables in multiphase flow is very general. Given an additional variable and a fluid phase , any one of the following choices is permissible: exists in phase , and is governed by a transport equation. exists in phase , and is governed by an algebraic equation. does not exist in phase . When exists in phase , the corresponding field variable is denoted . If it obeys a transport equation, it is given by: t () () () ( r ) + ( r U ) r D + ---------- = S + T Sc t t

(Eq. Sol.-76)

Note: is the conserved quantity per unit mass of phase . is the conserved quantity per unit volume of phase , where = D is the Kinematic Diffusivity for the scalar in phase . This may be set for each Additional Variable and each phase separately. S is a the external volumetric source term in phase , with units of conserved quantity per unit volume per unit time. These are explained in Additional Variable Source (p. 1096). T represents the total source to due to inter-phase transfer across interfaces with other phases.

() () ()

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It is possible for an additional variable to be coupled to a different additional variable across a phase interface between fluids and . Such a situation may arise, for example, when modelling the evaporation of water in a solid phase to water vapour in a gaseous phase. The only restriction is that and have the same physical dimensions. The total source to per unit volume due to interaction with other phases is given by: T where: T = T

() () ()

T T

()

()

= 0

The simplest models for interphase transfer between and take the driving force to be proportional to the difference in bulk additional variable values across the phase interface: T = c ( ) T = c ( ) The first of these is used if the additional variable is defined per unit mass. The latter is used if the additional variable is defined per unit volume. The coefficients c are defined by analogy with heat transfer, as described in Interphase Heat Transfer Models (p. 407). Transfer of an additional variable across a phase boundary is described by an additional variable transfer coefficient , which is analogous to the heat transfer coefficient. It is the amount of crossing a unit area per unit time per unit difference in across the phase boundary. Thus:

() () () () ()

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T = A ( ), T = A ( ), So, we have:

()

c = A It is often convenient to express the additional variable transfer coefficient in terms of a dimensionless Sherwood number Sh, analogous to the Nusselt number in heat transfer. Sh = --------d The diffusivity scale is the kinematic diffusivity D for a volumetric variable, and the dynamic diffusivity D for a specific variable. Particle Model Correlations In the particle model, the diffusivity scale is that of the continuous phase, and the length scale d is the mean diameter of the dispersed phase: Sh = ------------------d For laminar forced convection around a spherical particle, theoretical analysis shows that Sh = 2. For a particle in a moving incompressible Newtonian fluid, the Sherwood number is a function of the particle Reynolds number Re and the additional variable Prandtl number Pr = / (D). The available models in CFX-5.5.1 for the particle model are given below. They can be selected in the Multiphase Models form in CFX-Build (see Multiphase Options (p. 1088 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4)). Ranz-Marshall Correlation: Nu = 2 + 0.6Re

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0.5

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Sherwood Number. You specify the Sherwood Number directly. This should be based on empirical correlations, if available, for your application. Additional Variable Transfer Coefficient. You specify the Additional Variable Transfer Coefficient directly. This should be based on empirical correlations, if available. Interface Flux: This is an advanced option which permits experienced users to implement interphase additional variable transfer models which are not of the simple form of a transfer coefficient multiplied by a bulk additional variable difference. The user specifies directly the interfacial flux F12 from additional variable 1 in fluid 1 to additional variable 2 in fluid 2 of a specified fluid pair. This is the rate of additional variable transfer per unit time per unit interfacial area from phase 1 to phase 2. Hence the amount of additional variable transferred to fluid 2 from fluid 1 per unit volume is given by: T 21 = T 12 = A 12 F 12 F12 may be given as a constant or an expression. Typically, F12 will be a function of the fluid 1 and fluid 2 additional variable fields, and possibly other variables. In this case, the user may accelerate convergence of the coupled solver by also specifying optional fluid 1 and fluid 2 additional variable flux coefficients. F 12 c 1 ----------- 0 , 1 F 12 c 1 ----------- 0 , 1 F 21 c 2 ----------- 0, 2 F 21 c 2 ----------- 0, 2 if volumetric

if specific

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These should be positive (or zero), for numerical stability. The partial derivatives need not be computed exactly; it is sufficient for the specified coefficients to simply approximate the partial derivatives. Specification of additional variable flux coefficients only affects the convergence rate to the solution of the coupled transfer equations, it does not affect the accuracy of the converged solution. For example, the simple model using a transfer coefficient multiplied by bulk specific additional variable differences my be recovered using: F 12 = F 21 = c ( 1 2 ), Mixture Model Correlations If you are using the mixture model, interphase transport for additional variables may be specified using either: A specified interphase transfer coefficient A specified Sherwood number. The interface flux model In this case, the Sherwood number is defined in terms of a mixture diffusivity scale and the mixture length scale: Sh -, = ---------------------d = r + r c1 = c2 = c

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Sources in multiphase flow are very similar to those in single phase flow, except that they are implemented on a phase basis. It is important to note that phasic sources do not automatically include a volume fraction term. If the intended behaviour of the source is for it to reduce to zero as the phase volume fraction reduces to zero, then you should multiply the source by the phase volume fraction. The single-phase source documentation can be found in User Specified Sources (p. 270). Also see Sub-domain Sources (p. 1027 in CFX-Build: Chapter 4).

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The implementation of boundary conditions for multiphase flow is very similar to that for single-phase flow. This is described in Boundary Conditions (p. 230) (physical description) and Boundary Conditions (p. 309) (mathematical models). The main differences are: Boundary conditions need to be specified for both fluids for all variables except the shared pressure field. Volume fractions of both phases must be specified on Inlet and Opening boundary conditions. These must sum to unity. For multiphase flow, pressure boundary conditions at Inlets, Outlets, and Openings are always defined in terms of static pressure. There is a new option, applicable only to dispersed two phase flow:

For a discussion of the degassing boundary condition, see Degassing Condition (p. 238 in CFX-5 Solver and Solver Manager)

For multiphase flows, it is convenient to allow two distinct methods for the user to specify wall boundary conditions: Bulk wall boundary conditions are defined as boundary condition attributes of the wall, and subsequently shared amongst the phases in a well defined manner. The algorithm for sharing wall fluxes amongst fluids depends on the concept of a wall contact model, to be explained shortly. Alternatively, wall boundary conditions may be defined on a per fluid basis. This is a more advanced option, permitting the user complete flexibility in the definition of multiphase wall boundary conditions.

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Bulk Wall Boundary Conditions This is the simplest and most useful option. In most applications, wall boundary conditions are known as attributes of the wall. It is then part of the modelling procedure to decide how the consequent wall fluxes are to allocated amongst the phases in contact with the wall. For example, for bulk heat transfer, the user may specify either: a bulk heat flux to the wall, Qwall, or a bulk heat transfer coefficient hwall and outer temperature To, or a bulk wall temperature, Twall. A specified bulk wall heat flux Qwall determines heat fluxes Q to each phase as follows: Q = A Q wall Here, A is the contact area fraction of phase at the wall. This is assumed by default to be equal to the volume fraction r of phase in the control cell adjacent to the wall. However, this default may be overridden, as explained below. A specified bulk heat transfer coefficient hwall determines heat fluxes to each phase as follows: Q = A h wall ( T o T ) A specified wall temperature Twall is allocated to all phases in contact with the the wall, and resulting wall heat fluxes are partitioned amongst phases using the contact area fraction. Area Contact Model As explained above, a sensible default model for the contact area fraction A of phase at the wall is that it be identical to the volume fraction in the control volume adjacent to the wall: A = r

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However, there are situations in which an alternative model may be required. For example, for annular gas-liquid flow, the liquid forms a thin film at the wall. so it is sensible to assign: A liquid = 1 A gas = 0

Similarly, in dispersed gas-solid flows with spherical solid particles, the wall contact area of the dispersed phase may be considered to be negligible relative to the continuous phase. Hence, CFX-5 includes a facility for the user to over-ride the default wall contact area model by providing a value or an expression for the contact area fraction for each phase. Note: Contact area fractions must sum to unity over all phases. To facilitate this, a constraint option has been included which may be applied to at most one phase at each wall boundary condition. Specified contact area fractions are applied to all transport processes at the wall, that is, wall stresses, heat fluxes, additional variable fluxes, etc. You should only use the simple model: A = 1 A = 0

in situations where phase does not vanish at the wall. Otherwise, it is possible that you will be applying a non-zero wall flux to a region of zero volume of phase , which could cause the calculation to overflow. For the same reason, your initial guess should not set the fluid volume fraction to be zero at a wall when that phase uses a non-zero area fraction. In general it is desirable, though not essential, to express contact area fractions as functions of volume fraction such that: A 0 as r 0

This ensures that finite wall fluxes do not enter regions of zero volume of phase .

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Fluid Dependent Wall Boundary Conditions This option is included to give the advanced user complete flexibility in assigning wall boundary conditions to individual phases. For example, for heat transfer, the user may specify either: the temperature, T of phase , or the heat flux Q to phase , or phase specific heat transfer coefficient h outer temperature To, in which case: Q = h ( T o T ) Note: These options may be mixed arbitrarily amongst the phases. Heat fluxes arising from phase specific isothermal boundary conditions are automatically multiplied by contact area fraction. However, specified heat fluxes Q are not automatically multiplied by contact area fractions A. You should include these as multiplicative factors in your expressions for Q or h, if this is the effect that you require. Care should be exercised to ensure: Q 0 as r 0

to prevent overflow errors due to finite sources being applied to zero fluid volumes.

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Turbulence Models For flows in which a dilute phase is dispersed in a continuous phase, we recommend using the k- model for the continuous fluid. For the dispersed phase, we recommend the Dispersed Phase Zero Equation turbulence model using the Free Slip option for Wall Influence On Flow. This type of flow can occur in bubble columns. For a liquid phase dispersed in a continuous liquid in which the phases tend to separate, the k- model is recommended for both fluids. This type of flow occurs in oil-water separators. The Turbulent Prandtl Number for an algebraic model should be unity, except for large heavy particles, in which case it should be greater than unity. Minimum Volume Fraction Setting The Default option can almost always be used. If this causes numerical problems, then set the value to be several orders of magnitude less than the minimum expected physical value, but larger than machine zero. Buoyancy See Buoyancy (p. 217 in CFX-5 Solver and Solver Manager). Initial Conditions Always set slightly different initial velocity fields for each phase to ensure a non-zero slip velocity. The difference should be a fraction of the expected terminal slip velocity. We recommend you avoid using the default values for the initial Fluid Volume Fraction. A sensible initial condition can be a suitable fraction of an inlet condition. For bubble columns which include a riser and a downer, you should use CEL to ensure the riser has a

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non-zero bubble volume fraction, while the downer should have zero bubble volume fraction. Note that you can leave one fluid to use the Automatic option the remaining volume fraction will be assigned to this fluid such that the volume fractions sum to unity. Timestepping For bubble columns, use a fraction of the bubble rise time for a total of one rise time, then increase the timestep to a fraction of the fluid circulation time. For dilute particle cases, use a fraction of the dynamical timescale for the momenta. This is essentially a fluid travel time through or around the region of interest, but is not always trivial. If volume fraction convergence is slow, then the timescale for these equations can be increased suitably. Convergence If convergence stalls completely or becomes very slow, check the conservation and imbalances at the end of the output file. If these are acceptable, plot the residual fields. It may be that the residual fields are good almost everywhere except for a few hot spots. In this case the solution is valid. You can also monitor some important quantity, for example in a bubble column you can monitor if gas hold up has reached steady-state. For a case with a very dilute phase, the continuous phase will have a volume fraction very close to unity everywhere. Rounding errors will affect the residuals at a much higher level for the continuous phase in this case. By default the volume fraction residual target is 10 times the global target residual. Transient Simulations The CFX-Build default of 3 coefficient loops per time step is rarely adequate to resolve the strong non-linearities present in multiphase flows, especially during the initial transient. You should set a large maximum, say 50. Eventually, the code should settle down to only using a small number of coefficient loops per time step.

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If possible, a transient should be started from a small perturbation of a converged steady state result. This may reduce the number of coefficient loops required during the initial transient.

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Restrictions

Various restrictions apply to the implementation of multiphase flow in CFX-5.5.1. These are summarised here. Interphase mass transfer is not supported for CFX-5.5.1. Conjugate heat transfer is not supported with multiphase flow. Radiation and multiphase flow is not supported. If you specify more than two phases, then CFX-Build requires you to set one phase to be continuous, and the other phases to be dispersed. Phase pair interactions are only allowed for continuousdisperse phase pairs. This restriction does not apply to CCL. Additional variables are not supported in CFX-Build for more than two phases. This restriction does not apply to CCL. Total Pressure and Total Temperature are not calculated and written to the results file for multiphase cases.

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