Connect Education • Unit 3 VCE Chemistry Suggested Answers 2012 • Edward Cliff

Multiple-choice questions
Question Answer Explanation 1 2 3 4 B C D B 3-chlorohex-2-ene Isomers: 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 2chloro-2-methylpropane - 4 isomers. Covalent bonds between phosphate and sugar, hydrogen bonds between complementary N-bases 16% adenine and 16% thymine. Therefore 68% is leftover - half guanine, half cytosine = 34% guanine All statements about protein structure are true. Glutamic acid has an acidic (polar) side chain. The shape and tertiary structure of the active site are altered when enzymes are denatured, so II is incorrect X is methanol as an ester is formed. Y is aspirin Ethyl Propanoate Molecular ion peak has a single positive charge No broad O-H peak at 3000, but has a C=O stretch at 1600 Increased concentration = increased peak height and area. Rt should be the same as conditions are identical c1V1=c2v2 gives c2=2.00M (don’t forget that V2=75mL as you have added water!) 0.5 x 200 x 109 mg = 100,000kg (0.157/12) x (14/47) x 16 = 0.0624g n=pV/RT (don’t forget to convert pressure and temperature units)

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

D A C D A A A C C B B C

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Connect Education • Unit 3 VCE Chemistry Suggested Answers 2012 • Edward Cliff

17 18 19 20

D C B D

pH starts at 1 - strong acid - and equivalence point is at 7 n(Br) = 8/160 = 0.05 mol = n(alkene) M = m/n = 2.1/0.05 = 42 g/mol. Hence C3H6 +5 IO3 is reduced. Reduction is gain of electrons, so they must be on LHS.

Short-answer questions
Question 1ai Glucose Question 1aii

2CO2 (g) + 2CH3CH2OH (aq) Question 1aiii C2H4 (g) + H2O (l)  C2H5OH (l) (+ acid catalyst e.g. HCl) Question 1bi 3 methyl esters, 1 glycerol. Question 1bii Stearic acid Question 1biii C18H36O2 (l) + 26 O2 (g)  18 CO2 (g) + 18 H2O (g or l) Question 2a Tyrosine – read off table and chromatogram. Question 2b Alanine is the lower spot in the middle of the chromatogram, as it shares its Rf value in both solvents with another amino acid. Question 2c In solvent G, alanine and threonine have the same Rf value so their spots will not be separated – and this results in 3 spots for 4 amino acids on chromatogram 1. On chromatogram 2, all 4 amino acids will be separated to form 4 distinct spots. Even though alanine and arginine have the same Rf value in solvent F, they have already been separated in one direction by solvent G, so they will remain distinct spots.
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Connect Education • Unit 3 VCE Chemistry Suggested Answers 2012 • Edward Cliff

Question 3a

H2N-(CH2)6-NH2 (probably wouldn’t hurt to expand amino groups as they did with carboxyls on the other monomer) Question 3b Nylon – amide Protein – amide or peptide Question 3c The nylon monomers are a diamine and diacid, meaning they each have 2 of the same functional group. When they link to form nylon, the amide links are thus in alternating directions. Each amino acid monomer has both an amino and carboxyl group, so when they form a protein polymer, the amide links are all oriented in the same direction. Question 3d

Question 4a Propan-1-ol and propanoic acid Question 4b !!! CH3CH2OH (l) + CH3CH2COOH (l) !H 2SO4 (l ) → CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 (l) + H2O (l) Be careful with states and don’t forget the catalyst! Question 4c Split the propan-1-ol into two beakers. Oxidise half of the propan-1-ol using acidified Cr2O72- to give propanoic acid Add formed propanoic acid to other beaker of propan-1-ol with H2SO4 (l) catalyst to produce propyl propanoate (esterification condensation) Extract propyl propanoate from the mixture using fractional distillation. The final step is important to ensure purity of the final sample.
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Connect Education • Unit 3 VCE Chemistry Suggested Answers 2012 • Edward Cliff

Question 4d GLC – a single peak on the chromatogram at the appropriate Rt value would verify the purity of the propyl propanoate, whereas multiple peaks would show its impurity. OR IR Spectroscopy – if a broad –OH peak is present at between 3000-3500 cm-1, this would indicate the presence of the alkanol or carboxylic acid, indicating the sample is impure. Ideally this broad peak would be absent. Question 5ai 2 carbon environments (number of peaks) Question 5aii 3 hydrogen environments Question 5aiii 7 subpeaks = n+1  n = 6 equivalent protons bonded to the adjacent carbon. Question 5b The IR spectrum displays an O-H (alcohol) stretch at 3400 cm Question 5c The compound is propan-2-ol:

-1

Question 6ai Ensure your calibration curve intersects the y-axis at 0.06 and runs through or close to all standards but does not exceed standard 5. Question 6aii Average [Fe] = (330 + 360 + 390)/3 = 360 mg/L As we are measuring 100mL of solution, there are 36mg of Fe on average in each tablet.

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Connect Education • Unit 3 VCE Chemistry Suggested Answers 2012 • Edward Cliff

Question 6b e.g. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy UV and visible spectrum of light Electrons absorb light and are excited to higher energy levels. As different metal atoms have different electron configurations, they absorb different wavelengths of light, which allows us to identify the presence of a metal qualitatively based on the wavelength/s of absorption. Furthermore, the concentration of metal ions in solution can be measured (qualitative) because more concentrated metal solutions absorb more light proportionally. Make sure you are specific in your answer and answered the entire question in as much depth as possible Question 7ai Pb2+ (aq) + 2I- (aq)  PbI2 (s) Question 7aii To ensure all water was removed from the sample Question 7aiii m(PbI2) = 0.0939g Question 7iv m(Pb(CH3COO)2 (aq)) = 0.0939/461.0 x 325.3 x 100/20 = 0.331g Don’t forget the dilution. Question 7b Lead nitrate is very soluble in water and so did not form a precipitate

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Connect Education • Unit 3 VCE Chemistry Suggested Answers 2012 • Edward Cliff

Question 8ai HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) Question 8aii n(NaOH)initial = 0.400 x 0.01 = 0.00400 mol Question 8aiii n(NaOH)excess = 1/1 x n(HCl) = 0.125 x 0.0147 = 0.00184 mol n(NaOH)reacted = n(NaOH)initial - n(NaOH)excess = 0.00400 – 0.00184 = 0.00216 mol n(NH4Cl) = 1/1 x n(NaOH)reacted = 0.00216 mol Question 8aiv Take the dilution into account n(NH4Cl)total = 0.00216 x 250/20 = 0.0270 mol Question 8av m(NH4Cl)in 5mL = 0.0270 x 53.5 = 1.45 g in 5 mL Solubility(NH4Cl) = 1.45 x 1000/5 = 289 g/L at 20°C Question 8b Calculated solubility of NH4Cl would be lower. HCl was more dilute, so more was required to neutralize excess NaOH. Thus, calculated value of excess NaOH was higher than it should have been, so NaOH(reacted) would have been lower, and thus a lower n(NH4Cl) in total, and a lower m(NH4Cl) and solubility.

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