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1

Sanitary Drainage systems

2

Table of Contents

Chapter -1 Chapter -2 Chapter -3 Chapter -4 Chapter -5 Chapter -6 Chapter -7 Chapter -8 References

Sanitary Drainage Fixture Units Vent system Storm water & drainage systems Sizing the Underground Sewage Network for Buildings Septic tank capacity General example problem Sanitary Appliances & Arrangements Applications

Page 1-21 1Page 22- 39 22Page 40-51 40Page 52-74 52Page 75-87 75Page 88-96 88Page 97-103 97Page 104 Page 122

Chap-1 Chap-

3

**Sanitary Drainage Fixture Units
**

The suggested values of DFU ( table 1 & 2) were designed for application in conjunction with the probability of simultaneous use of fixtures so as to establish maximum permissible drainage loads, in terms of fixture units rather than in numbers of specific types of fixtures or gallons per minute of drainage flow, for each of the various parts of sanitary drainage systems. In general, the sanitary drainage fixture unit value assigned to a particular fixture is based on the average volume discharged and the average rate of discharge for the fixture. This value is determined from the fixture’s total discharge flow, in gallons per minute, divided by 7.5, or, in other words, its total discharge flow in cubic feet per minute.

Table 1

4

Table 1

5

Ref [2]

6

Table 2

Ref [2]

1/2”2” 1.1/2”2” 3” 1.1/2”2” 4” . For example example the floor drain with 2” pipe diameter . Bidet 8 Bath 4”UT Numbe r 1 1 1 1 1 Total DFU Fixtures Lavatory Bidet Floor drain * Bathtub W.s (flash Tank).By Size of trap 7 Is used for fixture not listed in the previous table.the corresponding DFU is 3 Ref [1] Junction Box System Bidet W.U Diamet er 1.C.C. DFU 1 1 3 2 4 8 F.

A shower head over a bathtub does not increase the F.1/2”2” 4” Shower 1 1 1 2 1 Total DFU . DFU 1 1 3 2*2 4 10 F.1/2”.C.s (flash Tank).9 Number 1 1 1 1 1 Total DFU Fixtures Lavatory Bidet Floor drain * Bathtub W.1/2”.s (flash Tank). 10 Numbe r Fixtures Lavatory Bidet Floor drain * Bathtub W. DFU 1 1 3 2 4 Diameter 1.C. in the calculation.U * Some references does not include F.2” 4” 8 F.2” 1.D.U.1/2”.2” 3” 1.1/2”2” 3” 1.U Diamet er 1.1/2”2” 1.

2” 4” Clean out System Total DFU 7 F. corresponding number of fixture units may be determined from design load charts or tables (1.02 L/s). the velocity. the amount of flow entering the stack through a branch may be greater than what would be permissible in a building of many stories.U Drainage Stacks and Branches 12 Based on the computed drainage stack flow capacity for stacks flowing 7/24 full at terminal velocity. 1 3 2 4 1.1/2”. For example.2 &3) so as to establish the total load which may be placed on a tall drainage stack.C. which may be. it is necessary to limit the amount of flow. allowed to enter the stack at each of the branches. This is the total load that may be received from all branches on a 4-in (10 cm) tall stack.11 Number Fixtures FU Diameter 1 1 2 1 Lavatory Floor drain * Bathtub W. the computed flow capacity for a 4-in (10 cm) 4stack flowing at 7/24 full is 143 gpm (9.1/2”. Thus. in a building of just a few stories in height.s (flash Tank). 4However. it may be found that this rate of flow is equivalent to 500 fixture units.2” 3” 1. From design load charts or tables. . to avoid excessive interference between flow entering the stack and that coming down the stack.

height.the maximum loads permitted on any horizontal fixture branch of a short stack.Table 3 for sizing drainage stacks provides different permissible loading for stack of more than 3 stories in height. Included in the table . 13 Table 3 14 Horizontal per floor Vertical for each floor . stack.

The total fixture unit of each bathroom consists of (water closet.’s the 4” pipe diameter is selected which can handle W.15 As a sample example : Calculate the total number of DFU . FU’ As can be seen from table (3 ) for any horizontal branches . height. Table 4 for sizing drainage stacks provides different permissible loading for stack of 3 stories or less in height and for stacks more than 3 stories in height.’ up to 160 DFU. and size the horizontal branch connecting the two adjacent bathrooms .C. lavatory and bathtub or shower) = 8 FU’s FU’ Total fixture unit of two adjacent bath rooms connected to the same horizontal branch pipe is : 8 x 2 = 16 FU’s. height. Included in the table are the maximum loads permitted on any horizontal fixture branch of a short stack and at any 1 story of stack more than 3 stories in height. knowing that. 16 Table 4 Ref [2] . the 3” can handle up to 20DFU but . bidet. due to the presence of 3” the W.C.

04% . DFU is 180 .17 Slopes for horizontal drains are shown in (Table 5) . Table 5 18 For 4” Pipe diameter . Readers should note that the carrying capacity of horizontal drains is substantially lower than that for vertical pipes. service tunnels. Which are applicable for building underground sewers and drains as well as those running at the level of the ceiling of basements. the Max. etc. However if the slope is 4.2% . the DFU becomes 250 . Diameter of a vertical stack may have to be increased when it runs horizontally due to its reduced capacity in that position. having a slope of 1.

Vent pipe 20 Vent pipe Vent pipe Figure 4 . The Y-branch fitting longoneYmay be rotated so that the branch is at 45 degrees angle above the the horizontal when the one-sixth bend is to be used and at a vertical angle onewhen the long-sweep one-quarter bend is to be used. To load. each branch connection to the building drain should be made to its upper half upper or its air-space portion. This may be achieved for 90 degrees branch airconnections by means of a one-sixth bend and a 45 degrees Y branch or onea long-sweep one-quarter bend and a Y branch.Connections to Sanitary Building Drains 19 Sanitary building drains are designed to flow half full at peak load. Less invert longoneelevation is lost with the one-sixth bend and Y combination (see Fig ). avoid backup of flow from the building drain into branches.S. one- Two pipe system S.

(Most popular ) 21 Vent pipe Ref [2] Chap-2 Chap- 22 Vent System .S.One pipe system S.

24 A vent system is a pipe in a drainage system used : To provide a flow of air to and from a drainage system so as to ventilate it. aspiration. arrangement. The sizing. 2. .5 cm) of water column above or below atmospheric pressure. and installation of attendant vent piping should be designed so as to limit air-pressure variations in all fixture drains to a differential airnot exceeding 1 in (2.23 Introduction Sanitary drainage system of a building should be provided with an attendant system of vent piping designed so as to permit gases and odors in all parts of the drainage piping to circulate up through the system and escape into the atmosphere above the building and to permit the admission and emission of air in all parts of the system so that siphonage. To insure the rapid and silent flow of waste 1. To provide a circulation of air within such a system to eliminate trap siphonage and reduce back pressure and vacuum surge . or back-pressure conditions will not backcause an excessive loss of trap seal under ordinary under conditions of use. 3.

This table is applied for vent stacks and branch vent sizing. Developed length of pipe = straight length of pipe + equivalent length of fittings 25 26 Ref [1] . lengths of vents are less than those computed by formulas (in which additional allowance need to be made for the equivalent length of pipe fittings) that the stated length may be applied directly as permissible developed length of pipe . Permissible loads.Table 5 is used in sizing vents in accordance with drainage capacity loads.

27 Ref [1] 28 .

29 Ref [1] 30 .

is a U-shaped section of pipe Uof the necessary depth to retain sufficient liquid required by code. Ref [3] .31 32 Traps. All fixtures and equipment directly connected to the sanitary drainage system are required to have traps. except for specific conditions waived by local code requirements or authorities. . A fixture trap. illustrated in Fig. All traps must be vented in an approved manner.

33 Ref [3] 34 Ref [3] .

35 Ref [2] 36 Ref [2] .

37 Ref [2] 38 Ref [2] .

39 Ref [1] Chap-3 Chap- 40 Storm water drainage system & Rain Water pipes .

Can cause a serious damage . type of roof. 42 It has been found that a storm producing a rainfall intensity of 75 mm/hr may occur for 5 minutes once in 4 years.001 [ m 3 / s ] that is 1 liter / sec . 3600 × 1000 . R = Rainfall intensity mm/hr.The runis calculated as follows: A × P× R Q= [ m 3 / s] 3600 × 1000 Where Q = The rate of run-off from roof and balconies.9 × 75 = 0. runA = effective area m2.Roof drainage systems 41 A roof drainage system is composed of storm-water collection devices stormlocated in the roof and piping . ( 75-100 mm/h ) 75For example: Calculate the flow rate from a concrete roof having an effective area of 50 m when the rainfall intensity is 75 mm/hr. Q= 50 × 0. location of pipe chases.9 (concrete) For asphalt in good order is (0. P = impermeability factor which is 0.875). which transforms the runoff out of the building to the ground. Consideration should be given to such criteria as the local climatic conditions. connected to the collection devices.The rate of run-from roof +balconies . Spacing and location of the roof drains are dependent on a number of local local conditions and building characteristics. and available ceiling space to install install piping. slope of roof. devices.

Roof Drainage Design Procedure

43

The following procedure should be used in designing a roof drainage drainage system: (1) Lay out the position of the roof drains, deck drains and rainwater rainwater leaders. Consideration should be given to placing an overflow drain drain adjacent to each roof drain. (2) Determine the tributary area to each roof drain, deck drain, scupper, scupper, gutter, or rainwater leader. The tributary area is the surface area of roof that drains towards a specific drain. This tributary area should include the effects of runoff from adjacent walls which drain onto the walls, fig walls, (R-1) indicates the wall area that should be added to roof area to (R determine the total tributary area for each drain. (3) Determine the routing and slope of the storm-water conductors. First, stormdetermine the points from which, and to which, the conductors must be must installed. Then determine the space available for installing the stormstormwater conductors. Finally, the routing and slope of the storm-water stormconductors.

44

Fig (R-1) (R-

Ref [2]

45 (4) Determine the rainfall rate to be used in sizing of the roof drainage drainage system. The rainfall rate (also known as the rainfall intensity) is a term that relates the quantity of rainfall to a unit of time. Such rainfall rates rainfall are usually expressed in inches per hour or centimeters per hour. hour. (5) Determine the flow rate (volume per unit time) of equipment such as pumps, ejectors, air-conditioning equipment, and similar equipment airwhich discharge into the roof drainage piping. Then convert these flow these rates into equivalent roof area. Flow rate is a term expressing a volume of water over a period of time such as cubic feet per second (cubic (cubic meters per hour), and gallons per minute (liters per second). The The following equations determine the roof area which will produce runoff at runoff a flow rate equal to the flow rate of the equipment: Equivalent roof area = 96/R * flow rate of the equipment ft² equipment Equivalent roof area = 359/R * flow rate of the equipment m² equipment where R is the rainfall rate used in the design of the roof drainage drainage system in inches per hour (centimeters per hour). The flow rate of the equipment is expressed in gallons per minute (liters per second). second).

46

(6) Calculate the total roof area drained by each segment of the roof roof drainage system. This calculation should include all roof areas calculated in step (2) and the equivalent roof area calculated in step (5). in Express the total area in square feet (square meters). (7) Determine the size of the roof drains and storm-water conductors or stormthe gutters and rainwater leaders. Sizes can be determined using table 1 through table 2. These tables list the maximum roof area in square feet (square meters) which can be handled by storm-water drainage piping of different sizes and slopes stormfor various rainfall rates. An example of Roof rain water distribution is shown in figure (R-2) (RArea supplied by a drain pipe = = (Area of the balcony) +(area of the adjacent wall) + Part of the roof area.

47

**Size of drain pipe or leader (inch)
**

2 Rain fall rate (inch/h) 3 4 5 6

Maximum tributary area (ft² ) (ft²

1 2 3 (4) 5 6

2,880 1,440 960 720 575 480

8,800 4,400 2,930 2,200 1,760 1,470

18,400 9,200 6,130 4,600 3,680 3,070

34,600 17,300 11,530 8,650 6,920 5,765

54,000 27,000 17,995 13,500 10,800 9000

**Table (R-1), is used to size, roof drains, vertical rainwater leaders or storm water conductors.
**

Ref [2]

48

Rainfall rate (in/hr)

2 3 (4 ) 5 6

Pipe sizing (inch)

**Maximum tributary area (ft² )
**

1,644 3,760 6,680 10,700 23,000 41,400 66,600 109,000 1,096 2,506 4,453 7,133 15,330 27,600 44,400 72,800 822 1,880 3,340 5,350 11,500 20,700 33,300 59,500 657 1,504 2,675 4,280 9,200 16,580 26,650 47,600 548 1,256 2,227 3,566 7,600 13,800 22,200 39,650

3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15

Table (R-2),is used to size conductors or rain water leader installed at a slope 1/8 in/ft (1cm/m)

The balcony area is 10 m2 each. This part of roof has a 65 m2 area ( refer to figure R-3) R2.One pipe is used to collect the rain water from two adjacent balconies and part of the roof .Roof Rain water Drain 49 Figure ( R-2) R- Example : “Sizing Rain water pipe” 50 Suppose we decide to size the rain water pipe ( shown in figure R-3) for a 5 floors building having the following data : 1. 3. . The 4 inch pipe is selected for this example.The adjacent balcony wall area is 15 m2 each ( refer figure R-1) Solution: Area supplied by the drain pipe = = (Area of the balcony) +(area of the adjacent wall) + Part of the roof area = [(2 x 10) x 5] + [(15x 2)/ 2 x 5) +65 = 195 m2 .6 ft2) [(15x From Table (R-2) a D= 4 in at 4 in/ hr Rain water intensity can handle flow from (Rfrom 2500 ft2 are . that is (2166.

51 Roof Drain AREA OF ROOF PART = 65 M2 WALL AREA = 15 M2 BALCON OF AREA = 10 m2 WALL AREA = 15 M2 BALCON OF AREA = 10 m2 Figure ( R-3) R- Chap-4 Chap- 52 Sizing the Underground Sewage Network for Buildings .

53 Type of underground Drainage For buildings Separated Sewer & rain water system Fig (U-1) (U- Combined Sewer + Rain water Fig( U-2) U- Drainage below ground connection 54 Fig ( U-1) Separate System of drainage URef [3] .

(U-4). (U- . necessary to provide a trap before the rainwater pipe . (U-3). In the case (Uof separate system ( Rain water only).It is connected to the surface water drain. (U- 56 Fig. (U- Fig. it is not only). and therefore a rainwater shoe. rainwater water). (U-3). may be used.55 Fig ( U-2) Combined Rain + Sewer drain U- Ref [3] Connections of the rain water Drain In the case of combined system ( Sewer +Rain water). as shown in Fig. to prevent the smell as shown in Fig. must be connected to the foul water drain through a back inlet gully. (U-4).

Grease Traps (Fig. (U- Garage Drainage 57 Garage Gully trap Fig ( U-5) U- Ref [3] Special gullies for the collection of grease are not required for houses. which at the same time collects the grease.U-6) (Fig. it is in the form of an emulsion. anything that may injure a drain or sewer or interfere with the free flow or treatment and disposal processes. petrol stations and indeed small garages should be provided with some means of intercepting petrol before it enters the drain or sewer. so that the grease is solidified and floats on the surface.The public Health Act 1936 section 34 defines certain prohibited discharges into drains or sewers as 1. (U-5). but for canteen kitchens where the waste water from the sinks and dishwashers contains a considerable amount of grease they are essential. When grease is hot or contained in hot water. This means that the floor washings of large garages. which will generally be cool. it is sufficient to provide a garage gully as shown in Fig. the tray is lifted out of the trap. petroleum spirit and calcium carbide. At periodic intervals.U- 58 Grease Traps Fig ( U-6) URef [3] . 3. hot liquids with a temperature exceeding 43. The principle of operation of the grease trap is that of cooling down the grease in a large volume of water. 2. For the floor washings of a small garage. and if it is allowed to flow into the drain it will cool and adhere to the sides of the pipes.3 C.

R = Hydraulics radius (Area/wetted perimeter). after carrying out a series of experiments . the slope S can be determined as follows : Since the flow velocity is the same and the depth pressure does not change . S 2 (U . (half pipe cross sectional area) N= roughness of surface from table( ). Change in elevation divided by change in distance yields the slope : dimensionless S = ( Z1 − Z2 ) / L = ( hL / L ) ( ft / ft ) or dimensionless From the above formula . .5 -1 % from Chezy formula 1. Calculations : V = 1. the general energy equation becomes : P1 V12 P V2 + + Z1 − hL = 2 + 2 + Z 2 γ 2. is a measure of the roughness of the channel .Flow under gravity conditions ( Manning Formula ) 59 Manning . g Z1 − Z 2 = hL We can express this equation on a unit of length basis by dividing both dividing sides by the length of the channel under consideration . On the other hand the hand variable n known as Manning s . g γ 2. (chapIn an open channel . S= Slope 0. Table (U-1) lists the values of n for some of the more common (Umaterials .486 2 1 R 3 .S units ) n Q = A× Where Q= flow rate ft3/sec. Hammoud lecture notes).486 × R2 / 3 × S 1/ 2 n The determination of the hydraulics radius R for flow not running full 60 was explained before (chap-10 Dr. deduced the following equation which is the most commonly used for open channel flow and for water. sewer flows freely in pipes and conduits when both ends are open to atmospheric pressure . it is clear that the flow down is caused by caused the difference in potential energy or gravity . A = Wetted area ft2.

Note : PVC pipe is used where n = 0.5-1 % . flow Running half full & recommended slope is 1% . recommended underground slope “S” S=0. (3) From load tables convert the DFU to gpm or L/s.01 . S=0. 62 Values of Manning’s n Table (U-1) (U- .5(6) Use Manning formula to determine the pipe diameter. “n (5) Select a value of “S” .61 The following procedure should be used in designing a the underground sewer pipe system: (1) Lay out should be drawn (2) The total DFU connected to the sewer pipe should be calculate. (4) Select the value “n” based on the pipe material.

S 2 = (0. Find the slope of the water .013 . 25 m P 1.1 n 0.2777 A.013 2 2 1 1 1 0. A = ( 3.5)2 =0.1 / 8. 57 4 Given discharge . S 2 = 0.25) 3 .R 3 .1 m3 /s flows through a 1 m pipe diameter vitrified sewer when the sewer pipe is half.013 S = ( 0.14/8) (0.full .Example 63 Water at the rate of 0.14× D/2 = 3.I. 393 D = = = 0. unit 64 .477 )2 = 1 /7186 Q= S.2777 m2 Wet Perimeter Hydraulic radius Manning s constant Find the slope S: P = 3. Solution : n = 0. if halfManning’s n is 0. Q = 0.1 m3 /s Diameter of pipe D = 1 m Area of flow .57m RH = A 0.14/2= 1.

65 66 .

providing that they are not in a road or waterlogged ground. which sometimes called inspection chamber built in 113 mm of brickwork. (U-7) (U- Ref [3] 68 Fig. (U-7) shows a detail of brick (Umanhole whereas Fig. Shallow manholes. precast concrete or plastic.Manholes Usually constructed of brickwork. (U-8) (Ushows A detail of a precast concrete manhole. 67 Fig. (U-8) (U- . Fig.

3 m are 900 mm x 600 mm.7 m are 600 mm.3 man access shaft may be constructed above the main chamber. For depths above 3.69 Dimensions of Brick Manholes Cover sizes for depths up to 2. Precast Concrete Manhole 70 . x 600 mm. and for depths up to 3.

at a bend or change of direction. and (U-11) show the positions of access points. on long runs.71 Sitting of Access Points The Building Regulations 1992 require access to drains at the following points: 1. R- 72 Fig ( U-9) U- Ref [3] . 4. 3. (U(UThe distances marked “A” depend on the type of access. On or near the head of each drain run. 5. at a junction. 2. unless each run can be cleared from an access point. at a change of pipe size. Figs (U-9). see Table R-.

74 Ref [1] .73 Fig ( U-10) U- Figure (R ) Junctions between drains and sewers.3 and 4 are alternative positions of the inspection chambers. Note: 1.2.

From table (S-1) the daily (Swaste water per person is between 75-150 gpm /person/day . The vent pipe size for the septic tank is shown in table (S-3) (SPractically for ordinary buildings a value of 200L-250 200LL/Person/day is satisfactory. 75 If we select 110 gpm as an average value Then the daily waste water flow is: 110 gpm x 10= 1100 gpm /day . . {Rain water is not included} Rain S { For example : Suppose we decide to determine the septic tank capacity for a luxury home having 10 persons .Chap-5 Chap- 75 Septic Tank calculation The Septic tank capacity is calculated as follows: 76 The type of building & the number of persons is first calculated and then multiply by the average waste-water( table wasteS-1& S-2) per person a day . The volume of the septic tank should be sized for at least 10-15 days (if no city 10sewer net work is available ) & for 2 days [if a city sewer net work is available + pump (electricity cut -off)].

S-1 77 78 S-2 .

S-3 79 80 1/3 L 2/3 L S-4 Length and structure of a septic tank Ref [1] .

S-5 Septic Tank Capacity 81 Ref [1] 82 S-6 Ref [1] .

or other point of disposal.83 Water -Drainage Pumping (Fig. ( S-7) S- Ref [3] . the water pipe or point of disposal is above the drain. This type of installation is used for basements and boiler rooms to deal with seepage of water. two pumps should be installed. however. floor washing or the draining down of the boilers and heating pipe work. ( S-7) may be used. SFor larger installations. so that one of the pumps may be used for Stand –by purposes. For the pumping of surface water. In some cases. and pumping is therefore required. 84 Fig.) Wherever possible. drains should be laid so that the liquid flows by gravity to the sewer. a pumping installation as shown in Fig.

pump (No 1) will start first.When the liquid reaches a certain level. 85 Fig. For further safety. next to the second level. two parallel sump pumps accompanied with automatic switches are used. ( S-8) S- 86 Fig. Usually. Figure (S-8) shows the operation (Sprinciple of the pumps set . a submersible pump will be used where the motor and the pump section are submersed in the liquid. the system is accompanied with an alarm signal. in this case. ( S-9) S- .Sump pumps (For waste water drainage): The sewer pipes are located below the city network. pump (No 2) starts according to the position of the level switches.

= 333 L/min= 88 gpm Select the pipe size that can transfer 88 gpm at the recommended pressure drop.5” flow velocity is about 6. the material is smooth pipe type L.52 = 1.5” and corresponding 2.2 m Pout = γ x QV x hA = 9.2 x 9. the diameter is about 2.68 hp 9.2 ≅ 9.3 hp.00555 = 0. From the pipe flow chart of smooth pipe. The height is 8 m and the total effective length L = 20 m.68/η = 0.81x Pelec = 0. Take the unit head loss for 6 ft/100ft.5 Kw ≅ 0.2 m hA = Z1 – Z2 + hL hA = 8 + 1.68/η Chap-6 Chap- 88 General Example problem .2 ft/s.81x 0. 0.87 Example: Estimate the sump pump power required to evacuate a tank of 10 m3 in 30 minutes to the city network pipe. From the general energy equation we get: hL = h1x L = (6/100) x20 = 1. Assuming an overall pump efficiency η =52% Solution: 10 m3 /30 min.68/0.

C. DFU 3 4 2 6 DFU Total 24 12 4 36 Diamet er 2” 2.S diameter can be 4” since it can handle up to 90DFU per floor which is sufficient for the 76 DFU that connected in at each T-Y connection. 3 urinals –wall lip and 2 Lavatories (1.c. 8 Bathtub × 3 = 24 DFU 3 urinals × 4= 12 DFU .s (flash valve).S.1/2”)on each floor connected to one single S. Number Fixtures 8 3 2 6 Bathtub urinals – wall lip Lavatory W. × 6 = 36 DFU .89 Example 3.s.s (flash valve).1/2” 4” 90 76 DFU Per floor The Total for five floors =76x 5= 380 DFU =76x . riser. Determine the diameter of the main waste and soil stack for a five-storey Motel. 2 Lav × 2 = 4 DFU Total = 76 DFU in each floor .C. The same table shows that the vertical S. 8 bathtub. From Table 1 .1/2” 1.2 & 3 Each floor 6 W. having 6 W. From table (4) horizontal fixture branch for the 76 DFU .the 4” is selected because it can handle up to 160 DFU.

As a Summary: The horizontal branch in each floor is 4 inch The vertical riser for the whole Motel pipe is 4 inch. The horizontal connection at the ground floor or basement is 5 inch. 40 Bathtub × 3 = 120 DFU W.c.s. The slope. 10 sinks × 2 = 20 DFU The Total for five floors = 380 DFU According to table (4) the horizontal branch connection at ¼ in 1 inch ft ( basement connection at high level) should be 5” . 15 urinals × 4= 60 DFU .c.s.Since the 4” branch pipe can only handle 216 @ ¼ in per 1 ft whereas our requirement is 380 DFU @ ¼ in per 1 ft slope. 5” branch pipe can handle 480 DFU @ ¼ in per ft which is enough. .91 Horizontal per floor Vertical for each floor At Basement floor connection Table 4 92 The total DFU for the whole Motel is 380 DFU: 30 W. × 6 = 180 DFU .

The pipe diameter of the vent pipe handling 540 DFU at a 5050150 ft effective height is between 2.S.Size the vent pipe From table(5) four values of DFU is available for the 4” S.pipe is 500 Roof 76 DFU each floor 5 x76 =380 DFU less than 500 D Vertical 4" S. Total @ 1 story or 1 branch interval For 4" pipe ( maximum) 90 DFU 2" V. 4" SS. 140. 5" SS.S.S 4” that is. 320 & 540 DFU .1/2” 3” higher value is selected (3inch) Refer to the following schematic drawing Table 5 93 94 For 4” S.S. FU 2" V.pipe Any Horizontal short fixture branch For 4" pipe ( maximum) 160 DFU 4" SS. Building drain or sewer connection pipe For 5" pipe ( maximum) 480 DFU @1/4 in per ft . 43. The 2. is enough 3" V. Our values is 380 which is between 320 & 540 DFU The higher value is selected (540 DFU ).1/2” & 3”. pipe the max.

96 . The value of n =0.Now it is required to size the underground pipe diameter. As mentioned previously the total DFU = 380 .01 × 0.01 = = 0. R 3 .01) 0.01 n 95 A ×R 3 = n × Q 0.01 Q= 2 2 1 1 A.flow half full.01 m3/s .001 S 1/ 2 (0. S=1% .the corresponding flow rate is 105 gpm = 6.15 m (6”) → This is the minimum diameter for the out flow of the building.5 D= 0. S 2 = 0.63 L/s (from load table for flash tank) = 0. L= 100 m .

Chap-7 Chap- 97 Sanitary Appliances & Arrangements Types of Sanitary Appliance WC 98 Two-trap Siphonic WC Twopan Single Siphonic WC (most popular) Ref [3] .

99 Urinals-types Ref [3] 100 .

101 Baths There is a large variety of bath shapes Ref [3] Kitchen sink 102 There is a large variety of kitchen shapes Ref [3] .

Kitchen sink 103 Ref [3] Chap-8 Chap- 104 Applications Fixture Connection & Pipe sizing From Reference [4] .

105 106 .

107 108 .

109 110 .

111 Ref [4] 112 Ref [4] .

113 114 Ref [4] .

115 116 .

117 Ref [4] 118 2” 2” .

W.119 H. n 875 120 1425 950 Draw & size the drain pipes The location of the Sewer Stack are shown 575 25 dish washer fridge dish washer 338 1175 500 fridge 338 .

each floor.W.c.s. having five WC. and five basins on eightWC. Find the septic tank capacity for Motel serving 4. assuming public use of fittings. riser pipe serving eight-balconies 10 m2 each . and the corresponding vent pipe. assuming public use of fittings. Example 2 Find the internal diameter (If the soil and waste stack for a four storey office having four W. Knowing that the septic tank must be recovered weekly. 100 persons ( no sewer net work). 3) Draw & size the rain water pipes 4) Draw and size the underground septic tank Project. 2) Draw & size the drainage riser . Find the internal diameters of the Rain water 3.c.s.s.121 H. and four W. basins on each floor. Size the pump . building . Find the internal diameters of the soil stack for 1. an eight-storey office. taher” . Example 1.s. The drawing entitled “taher” consist of 7 floors Project. eight- Example 3. 122 Example 4. It required to: 1) Draw & size sewerage layout for each bathroom include the location and the size of the vent pipe.

3. 4.Harris.123 References 1. .1998. Mechanical consulting office. Third edition. Dr.Building Services & equipment . F. 2-Practical Plumbing Engineering .ASPE.John Wiley. 2000.Upland engineering . Cyril M. Hall. Ali hammoud. 1994.Mechanical & electrical equipment for buildings –by Stein/Reynolds. Ninth edition .

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