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Project Work Submitted in the partial fulfilment for the award of BACHELOR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGG. (YEAR 2011-2012)
GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Project Guide: Mr. Durgesh Sharma (Technical Head, CMC Agra)
Submitted By: Shwetank Gautam
BONMAHARAJ ENGG. COLLEGE , VRINDABAN
I am greatly indebted to Mr. Sukrit Gosswami, H.O.D. of Computer Science for providing helpful environment for the successful completion of the project.
I am deeply indebted to my project guide Mr Durgesh Sharma for the initial idea of this project and for all the guidance and encouragement he gave in the subsequent months. His help and advice has helped me immensely in working on this project to my satisfaction. Whatever intellectual effort may be reflected from this report is the direct result of informative and stimulating discussions that we have had in the course of the semester.
It was a really good experience working in the company and learning from such good and knowledgeable people. I hope it would really help me in the near future.
Last but not the least I must express thanks to all my friends and family for their moral support, which led to the successful completion of this work.
SHWETANK GAUTAM B.TECH (VII Semester) Table Of Contents
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
Project Content Introduction Scope of the Project About the Project Technology Used Advantages of .NET Software and Hardware Requirement Software Development Life Cycle Software Requirement Specification Block Diagram Data Flow Diagram Entity Relationship Diagram Data Diagram Web Forms Tables Used System Testing System Implementation & Maintenance
Page No. 07 09 10 24 29 31 33 38 42 43 44 45 46-78 79-87 88-90 91-92
Introduction 1.1 Company Profile 5 .
CMC continues to focus on consolidating its dominant position in India. services and business process outsourcing organisations and a part of the Tata Group. working professionals and others. • Undertake develop projects and provide services in IT and related areas. CMC Americas Inc. 520 non-resident locations and over 3. Africa and the Middle East. while CMC branch offices in the UK and Dubai market the company’s products and services in Europe. which is a leading IT solutions company and a subsidiary of Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS Ltd. CMC Ltd. 150 service locations. • Develop and implement new schemes of courses in emerging areas as required by industries and others.500 employees worldwide. 6 . provides a wide spectrum of unique Information Technology solutions and services to a clientele of premier organisations in the government and private sectors. one of the world’s leading Information Technology consulting.). CMC Limited has been conducting computer-training program for various organizations since 1978. • Facilitate education and training institutes in the non-formal sector. CMC has an enviable record of successfully building IT solutions for massive and complex infrastructure and market projects. while expanding its reach globally. is a subsidiary and services clients in the US.CMC Academy is an initiative of CMC limited. India’s best-known business conglomerate. With 18 offices. Large and complex project management capabilities since its incorporation in 1975. • Impart continuing education/refresher training and corporate training to engineering graduates. Company Objectives: Company Objectives are the following:• Establish itself as an institute of excellence for imparting education and training to generate quality manpower in areas of information Electronics and communication technology (IECT). CMC Limited a Tata Enterprise is a premier information technology company with an all India presence having ISO 9001-2000 certification for its R&D centre & System Integration.
2 Objective and Scope of the Project Scope of the Project 7 .1.
so you don't have to hurry or worry about finding a parking spot. Furthermore. like information on a large variety of topics or communication with distant friends have become so simple that anyone can have access to them just by using a computer.Since the development of the Internet many things that were pretty hard to obtain or to do. You can use a shopping directory that contains categorized links to stores from a specific region or from all over the world. first you choose the category under which your item is listed. If you want fast deliveries and low shipping fees then try to search for the shops that are in your country. If you live in a big country you'll be surprised to find out that there are thousands of online shops available where you live. The main advantage of online shopping is that it allows people to browse through many items and categories without leaving their house. Well. and also to order as many items as they can afford without having to worry about how they will transport them. and others try to keep it as simple and short as possible. online shopping is the best solution for both those who consider it a chore that they try to avoid and for those who do it on a daily basis. Shopping is a necessity for all of us. Among the many advantages that the Internet gives us. some of us really enjoys it. together with reviews from other customers. because the online shopping websites also deliver the things to the buyer's home. 365 days a year. from baby products to dog houses and motor oil. and 8 . to compare the prices of as many shops as they want. one of the main ones is online shopping. and these shops sell everything that can be sold. If you plan on shopping from the Internet then first use a search engine to find online shops. and then you can select the item that you're looking for. the Internet is open 24 hours a day. Most of the online shopping websites have the same pattern. an activity that many have become addicted to.
You can also remove items from your shopping cart if you desire to do so. After you've done some online shopping you'll see how easy it is and you'll quickly get used to it. 9 .add it to your shopping cart. search for the lowest shipping taxes and make sure that what you've found can't be found cheaper anywhere else. check for discounts. If you want to buy other items. you click the "add to cart" button near them. saving a lot of time and trouble. Soon you will know what the best shopping websites are and you will be able to buy the things you need very easy and fast. Payment is usually done by credit card. and the total amount that has to be paid. After that you can see a list with everything that you've ordered. economical and fun method of shopping. that is perfect for everyone. Online shopping is the most practical. Remember to always compare the prices. The buyer enters the data on the credit card and the shop charges the price and then delivers the items to the buyer's house in a few days. and when you're finished you check out. The transaction is perfectly safe and the credit card data you send is encrypted so it can't be stolen.
More savings with online coupons. The advantage of this project is that the user can perform online shopping easily. Convenience Saves time Environmental Benefits 10 . Seven reasons it makes sense to shop online: • • • • • • • Lower prices. The main advantage of this project is that it is very much user friendly.the real benefit for the user is that a new customer can get full details about the individual product or fully complete branded computer.About the Project The online shopping cart project is useful for the customers who want to purchase various computer parts or branded computers . which he wants to purchase. The whole process of purchasing and money transaction is very easy. Research capabilities Increased selection.
* To provide a code-execution environment that the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments 11 . but only small part of them remains in the competitive world. * To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code. including by an unknown or semi-trusted third party.NET * SQL Server Why to use . executed locally but Internet-distributed. NET is the latest technology. * To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts. which is in use nowadays and has proved to be the most reliable development framework.NET? The .TECHNOLOGY USED The strength of any project depends upon the technology on which the project is based. Today we are living in a world where technologies related to computer science are evolving every day new technologies are taking an edge over the older ones. Every new technology is provides some new benefits. The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The technologies we have used in the development of the project are: * ASP.NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives: * To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether objects code is stored and executed locally. or executed remotely.
code execution. code safety verification. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime. while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensures security and robustness. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time. and system services. registry access operations. depending on a number of factors that include their origin (such as the Internet.* To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications.NET Framework has two main components: The common language runtime and the . 12 . This means that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file-access operations. object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP. such as windows-based applications and Web-based applications. the other main component of the .NET framework. enterprise network. The class library. With regards to security. thread management. is a comprehensive. The . In fact. providing core services such as memory management. Features of Common Language Runtime The common language runtime manages memory. compilation. while the code that does not target the runtime is known as unmanaged code. The common language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework class library. managed components are awarded varying degrees of trust. thread execution. and remoting.NET Framework.NET. the concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime. Code that targets the runtime is known as managed code. such as web Forms and XML Web services.
greatly easing the migration process for existing applications. The runtime enforces code access security. the runtime automatically handles object layout and managed references to objects. For example. releasing them when they are no longer being used. while strictly enforcing type fidelity and type safety. While the runtime is designed for the software of the future. and components written in other languages by other developers. Any compiler vendor who chooses to target the runtime can do so. the class library. users can trust that an executable embedded in a web page can play an animation on screen or sing a song.NET Framework available to existing code written in that language. The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type. memory leaks and invalid memory references.or other sensitive functions. but cannot access their personal data.rich. the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common software issues. even if it is being used in the same active application. it also supports software of today and yesterday. The 13 . This automatic memory management resolves the two most common application errors. For example. Interoperability between managed and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary COM components and DLLs. This means that managed code can consume managed types and instances. The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. The various Microsoft and third party language compilers generate managed code that conforms to the CTS. For example. The CTS ensures that all managed code is self-describing. Languages compilers that target the . The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate Internet-deployed software to be exceptionally feature. yet take full advantage of the runtime. In addition.NET Framework make the features of the . file system. or network.and code-verification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS). programmers can write applications in their development of choice.
Meanwhile. such as SQL Server and Internet Information Services (IIS). Finally. This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to write your business logic. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services. while still enjoying the superior performance of the industry’s best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting. . the runtime can be hosted by high-performance.runtime is designed to enhance performance. A feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of the system on which it is executing. managed code is never interpreted. the memory manager removes the possibilities fragmented memory and increases memory locality-of-reference to further increase performance. server-side applications. NET Framework Class library 14 .
NET applications. you can use the . you can use the Web Forms classes. the class library includes types that support a variety of specialized development scenarios. the . . * ASP.NET Framework. the .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. 15 . This not only makes the. For example. If you write an ASP. but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the .NET Framework.NET Framework.NET Framework collection classes implement a set of interfaces that you can use to develop your own collection classes. In addition to these common tasks. including tasks such as string management data collection. For example. * Windows GUI applications. * XML Web services.NET Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks. the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that vastly simplify Windows GUI development. For example. The class library is object oriented. and file access. * Scripted or hosted applications. In addition. As you would expect from an object-oriented class library. NET Framework types easy to use. third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the .The . database connectivity.NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services: * Console applications.NET Web Form application. * Windows services. providing types from which you can own managed code can derive functionality. Your collection classes will blend seamlessly with the classes in the .
multiprocessor servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 Data Center Edition. It also has the scalability. yet at the same time can provide easy-to-data storage services to an individual or small business. The SQL Server 2008 relational database engine supports the features required to support demanding data processing environments. availability. SQL Server 2008 distributed queries allow you to reference data from multiple sources as if it were a part of a SQL Server 2008 database. indexed views.OTHER TECHNOLOGIES SQL SERVER: Microsoft SQL Server 2008 is a family of products that meet the data storage requirements of the largest processing systems and commercial Web sites. the distributed transaction support 17 . and security features required to operate as the data storage component of the largest Web sites. Microsoft SQL Server TM 2008 features include: Internet Integration. Scalability and Availability. The SQL Server 2008 database engine includes integrated XML support. and large memory support that allows it to scale to the levels required by the largest Web sites. SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition supports features such as federated servers. The same database engine can be used across platforms ranging from laptop computers running Microsoft Windows98 through large. The database engine protects data integrity while minimizing the overhead of managing thousands of users concurrently modifying the database. Enterprise-Level Database Features. while at the same time.
protects the integrity of any updates of the distributed data. and users. These features allow you to rapidly deliver SQL Server applications that customers can implement with a minimum of installation and administrative overhead. deployment. while ensuring that the separate copies remain synchronized. only the database administrator needs to work with the physical implementation. * Create keyboard shortcuts for frequently used queries (custom query shortcuts feature). Typically.NET is the latest Microsoft programming framework that allows for the rapid development of powerful web applications: 18 . The physical implementation of files is largely transparent. Replication allows you to also maintain multiple copies of data. you work primarily with the logical components such as tables. A database is also physically organized as two or more files on disk. procedures.NET ASP. and use. Database Architecture Microsoft SQL Server TM 2008 data is stored in databases. Advantages Advantages of . views. and using SQL Server across several sites. SQL Server 2008 includes a set of administrative and development tools that improve upon the process of installing. Ease of installation. managing. The data in a database is organized into the logical components visible to users. When using a database. deploying.
In the past. .NET automatically recovers from memory leaks and errors to make sure that your website is always available to your visitors.0 for DLL Development: It is C+ + multi-tier.NET.Faster web applications Two aspects of ASP. the code is compiled into “machine language” before your visitor ever comes to your site.NET languages (including VB. Multiple language support Programmers can actually write their code in more than 25 . Memory leaks and crashes protection ASP. the code was interpreted into” machine language” when your website visitor viewed your page.NET). This allows programmers to develop your site in the language.NET make it fast – compiled code and caching.NET application Its built 19 specifically for Platform. VB Executable Code Runtime Executable Code C+ + Executable Code Runtime VB C Code Executed Duwamish 7. C#.NET. Now with ASP. IL L distributed the Microsoft enterprise R . and Jscript. design.
bug fixing. Now in version 8. and performance testing has been completed in almost every environment. Clients can expect world-class technical support and the largest single collection of product literature 20 . and deployment provide insight into how developers can various features of the .development. Clients can be sure data will not be lost.NET as there I is no need of registration of DLL. with millions of people having used it. the deployment is as easy in .NET Platform to build reliable. Tree view.NET we can use Tab Strip. SQL was tested and used in the in the field for several years. configuring. User Control. Deployment is Easy As compared to ASP application. and managing the database. Incorporating SQL means many clients’ IT staff will already have experience installing. b) Advantages of SQL Server SQL is widely used and accepted in the high-performance database industry. and data will be secure. Its current version has recently been compared to Oracle. and well-performing applications. also it is having the advantages of in-built sorting and paging logic. and Data Grid Control using which we can do ADD/EDIT/DELETE in the grid itself. Powerful Web Controls In ASP. scalable. Microsoft supports SQL. and their staff will often already have already used. in terms of overall market acceptance. connections will not drop. the database leader. tweaking. List View Control.
the database has been designed to take advantage up to 32 processors per server. expandable and multiprocessor compliant. allowing for instant fail-over should one of them fail.and support documentation on the Internet. 21 . and will be able to use the valuable data they collect in other software programs and systems now and well into the future. With SQL Server. SQL is extendible. the client can expect greater acceptance and satisfaction from staff. On top of all that. two identical servers can be identical and redundant. in case one of them fails. As well. An SQL server can be installed on RAID-5 or Windows extended volume to allow a redundant copy of the database to be available at all times.
Software and Hardware Requirements Software requirements: * Operating System: Windows 2000 and above * Development Environment: Microsoft Development Environment -2002 version 7.NET Framework 1.9466 Microsoft .194 SQL Analyzer * Languages Used: C#.0 version 1.00.0.3705 *Database Server: Microsoft SQL Server Service Manager Version 8.NET ASP.0.NET * Word Processor: Microsoft Word 2007 * Image Processing Tool: Microsoft Paint *Web Browser 22 .
Microsoft Internet Explorer Hardware Requirements * Microprocessor X86 Family 6 Models 8 Stepping 6 GenuineIntel~930 MHZ * RAM 512 MB * Hard Disk Space Required 100 MB * Hard Disk Drive 40 GB * Visual Display Unit HCL-56V * CD ROM SDLC 23 .
the information processing function means not only the transformation of the data into information but also the 24 . Since then. give and take of information is in practice. Infect. commercial or any other. The general model of system has an inputs. Everybody talks of the system such as an educational system. process the data according to the instructions and outputs the result which itself has some information. It receives the data and collects the information and instructions. government concern. A system is a set of interrelated elements that operate together to achieve an objective. but this has been considered as an important discipline for the last few decades. Today’s data manipulation and information processing have become the major tasks of any organization small or big. Information is the requirement of every organization. perhaps since the beginning of civilization man is manipulating data. scientific. whether it is educational institution. An information system in which storage methods are also added. financial system. process and output. computer system. and information system.INTRODUCTION: Human is dealing with the data and information since a long time. Most talk about system is information system. transportation system. System is a buzzword today. A system can have many inputs and many outputs. large organizations have started having information systems whose work is together the necessary data and to process those data into meaningful information. accounting system.
storage of the data for later use. what a nervous system is to the body. The information system receives data as input and converts them into information. but exists in organization to support the organization process at different levels. information systems in any organization. Information system uses the various tools to collect data. Requirement Analysis: 25 . The data can be processed using some manual methods or electronic method. Timely information is required at every level of any organization to take the important decision. They do not operate independently. An information system can comprises of both human and machines. are available at different levels. Then these tools data is processed into information. Then the information that they get after processing of data is the output of that information system. An information system is to an organization. These tools can be humans as well as machines. To cater the needs of organization. It is not that an information system simply means machine.
software. Perform economic and technical analysis. Create a system definition that forms the foundation for all subsequent engineering work. A complete understanding of software requirement is essential to the success of a software development effort. Allocate functions to hardware. people. • • Establish cost and schedule constraints. database and other system elements. It can be termed as a process of recognizing problems and opportunities. System Analysis Overview: Problem recognition means detailed study of the current system being used by the user. A detailed study of system being currently used must be carried out of sessions with customer and end user. System analysis is conducted with the following objectives in mind: • • • • Identify the customer’s need.A systematic investigation of a real or planned system to determine the function of the system and how they relate to each other and to any other system is known as system analysis. It enables the system. The problem evaluation and solution synthesis is the next major area of effort for analysis. engine to redefine the software allocation and build model of process followed Identification of need 26 . Evaluate the system concept for feasibility.
The analyst meets the customer and the end user (if different from the user). Timely Customer-Analyst communication is an important ingredient of a system analyst’s work. The specific objectives are: • Reducing the Duplication during manual Processing • Designing and Developing User friendly interfaces through which user will interact with the package • Interaction of these GUI with the Database • Managing the Database • Improve efficiency and quality of services There are a number of factors that needs to be actively handled. 27 . the system must track the data and be able to manage it as well as give the detailed account of the comparative study in the forms of graphs and reports. which is easier. less complex and easily accessible to the less trained user.Preliminary investigation Identification of need: The first step of the System Analysis process involves the identification of need. which is needed to be simplified so that we can achieve a system. The intent is to understand the products objective and to define the goals required to meet the objectives. Every system must have some complexity attached with it.
the development of a computer-based system or product is more likely to be plagued by the scarcity of resources and difficult delivery dates. Preliminary investigation: During the analysis phase of the project. And found that the basic functionality is divided into 12 major modules. Feasibility study: All the projects are feasible given the unlimited resources and infinite time. Unfortunately. thousand or millions of rupees. searching for tender management. Months or years of effort. first we decided to sit/talk /and understand the current workflow. It is both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of a project at the earliest possible time. supplying and purchasing of tender management. 28 ill-conceived . generation of reports for each requirement and searching for many other facilities etc. each having its own criteria makes it entice the official to look for a system which can operate with a such a complex nature of data and be developed in such a way so that it becomes relatively easier to operate by the end user.The above stated complexity being faced by the staff in respect of such a large number of departments and variety of programs being run by each department. and untold professional embarrassment can be averted if an system is recognized early in the definition phase. which deals with registration management.
anything seems possible if me right assumptions are made. The considerations normally attached with the technical feasibility: Development Risk: • Can the system element be designed so that necessary function and performance are achieved within the constraints uncovered during analysis? Resource availability: • Are skilled staffs available to develop the system element in Question? Are any other necessary resources (hardware and software) available to build the system? Technology: 29 . A clinical attitude should prevail during an evaluation of technical feasibility. we confine our attention to: • Technical Feasibility. • Economical Feasibility. and performance are somewhat hazy. Technical Feasibility: A study of function. the feasibility of producing quality software is reduced. and constraints that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptable system. performance. functions. However. If project risk is great.Feasibility and risk analysis are related to each other. It is the most difficult area to assess because objectives. • Operational feasibility.
• Has the relevant technology progressed to a state that will support the system? • All of the above consideration also applies to the work I have done.NET and Oracle 8i can be really helpful in case of developing an information system. Economical Feasibility: An evaluation of development cost weighed against the ultimate income or benefit derived from the development system or product. yes necessary functions and the constraints under which they have to perform have been identified and divided into modules so that each module perform its own assigned task. As far as developments risks are concerned. The use of GUI tool VB. I am the only person performing this task and I have fully understood the problem. The use of programming language enables the programmer to develop software that can help end-user to operate the system more easily. The tool comprises of all the components required to solve me problem system. I am sufficiently equipped with the use of programming and can perform this tasks in the given time constraints. It includes a broad range of concerns such as: • Cost-benefit Analysis • Long-term m corporate income strategies • Impact on other profits/products • Cost of resources needed for development 30 . • As for skilled staff for development is concerned.
This will facilitate easy use and adoptability of the system. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION A document describing the requirements of a computer system from the user’s point of view. An SRS document specifies the required behavior the system in terms of input data. Operational Feasibility: This study helps us in finding whether the work to be done will be operational with the available staff and with in the given time. I did receive the necessary monetary help required to develop this software. Based on this. output data.• Potential market growth • The work being done is economically feasible since the work is not being done at very large scale. The IT literacy is of good order and the software has been made in such a way that it becomes easier for the user to answer queries being asked. With the use of menus. it was felt that the proposed system would be operationally feasible. 31 . The staff is fully capable of handling information system. security. required processing. The cost of resources needed to do the work was not big. although it might be a bit complex. simple command buttons and proper validation required it become fully understandable to the common user and operational with the user. operational scenarios and interfaces and the attributes of a system including performance.
Input/output design Design is the first step in the development phase for any engineered product or system. grades and registrations. The main area of the I. a process or a system in sufficient detail to permit its physical realization”. audit ability. dept. or a plain for a solution for a system.T. was described in module description. The software requirement specifications produced at the culmination of the analysis task. functional specification. The function and the performance allocated to software as part of the system engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description.] SRS was evolved based on brain storming sessions and active interactions with the following set of stakeholders: Assistant registrar (PGS) Superintendent (PGS) Assistant Chairman. The design of a system is a blueprint. The design 32 . which had to be automated.maintainability. and other data pertinent to requirements. [Pressman Roger S. Alias: user requirement specification. It may be denned as “the process of applying various techniques and principles for the purpose of defining a device. reliability. a detailed functional and behavioral description. an indication of performance requirements and design constraints. appropriate validation criteria. availability and safety requirements and design constraints.
We identifying what risks might create problem in the life of the system. as estimated. 33 . Software design sits at the technical kernel of the software process model that is used. to complete the system. It translates the system requirements into ways of operating them. Risk Analysis: These steps are performed in risk analysis for designing the system because: • The future of the system is our concern. technologies. Risk Identification: We were able to identifying the risk under the following categories: • Project risk • Technical risk • Business risk • Following list was identifying under the categories mentioned above: • Enough number of people was available.a solution a “how to” approach compared to analysis. • We also identified that what change in the user requirements. Design provides us with a representation of software that can be assessed for quality. • All staff involved in the system was not folly trained on the platform to be used for die development. hardware and all other entries connected to the system will effects the system. Design is the phase where the quality is fostered in software development. We also had to study various things about the platform and the system. a “what is” orientation.
There was a risk on the technical grounds because the system was developed with a new technology hence the experience on the tools was taking which faced the management to think whether the choice made was right or wrong. It provides the understanding and procedural details necessary for implementing the system recommended in the feasibility study. Several activities were carried out during Design. This important phase is composed of several steps. Therefore. They were: • Database design • Program design Data base design: Databases: Database is an organized logical grouping of related files. resources. In a database. But a survey done on the use of new platform gave us the confidence of continuing on this decision. Probability of risk: The probability for the project risks such as schedule.• The staff involved in the system was committed for the entire decision of the project. The entire member worked fulltime on the system. data redundancy. and data 34 . As we know system design is a solution a “how to” approach to the creation of a new system. requirement problems and their impact on the system was negligible. data are integrated and related so that one set of software programs provide access to all the data. data isolation. alleviating many of the problems associated with data file environments. customer.
which identifies the type location. or ordering of the records. and relational. Database Management System: The program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database is known as a database management system (DBMS). The Hierarchical Database Model: The hierarchical model relates data be rigid structuring data into an inverted “tree” in which records contains two elements: • A single root or master field often called a key. 35 . The DDL is essentially the link between the logical and physical views of the database. (“Logical” refers to the way data are physically stored and processed). network. A DBMS contains three major components: A data definition language (DDL) is the language used by programmers to specify the content and structure of the database. The data manipulation language (DML) is used with a third/fourth generation language to manipulate the data in the database. combining both DML and DDL features. Logical Data Organization: There are three basic models for logically structuring database: hierarchical. and data can be shared among all users of the data.inconsistency are minimized. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Structured Query Language (SQL) is the most popular relational database language.
• Power to combine information from different sources. • Ability to add new records without disturbing existing applications. Therefore. especially accounting and financial data. they are not easily changed without a major programming effort. directories. • Simplicity of design and maintenance. Logical Database Design: 36 . these designs have low flexibility.• A variable number of subordinate fields that defines the rest of the data within the record. The Relational Database Model: While organization have been organized in a hierarchical fashion. most business data have traditionally been organized into tables of tables of columns and rows. and indices must be specified in advance. Once specified. All the access paths. Hierarchical and network structures have several disadvantages. Relational database designs have flexibility in regard to • Ad hoc queries. The Network Database Model: The network model creates relationship amongst data through a linked-list structure in which subordinate records (called members) can be linked to more than one parent (called owner).
normalizing relations. which specifies the relationships between data. deleting and updating data. 37 . This approach we used is based on the one described by Turban.It is necessary to develop a conceptual model of data. This is used to group data into a number of tables. The tables are organized to: Reduce duplication of data. This analysis is then used to organized data as relations. and obtaining a relational database. Simplify functions like adding. The collection of tables of data is called a Database. Retrieving data The method of organizing or structuring data into tables is known as Normalization.
Data Diagram WEB FORMS 38 .
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