20

)

$10

DATE DUE
MAY IB
1968

MP

py.4-fr86»ir g

Cornell University Library

PK 801.S75
Sanskrit syntax
/

3 1924 023 201

183

B Q

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023201183

SANSKRIT SYNTAX.

SANSKRIT SYNTAX
BY

Dr. J. S.

SPELTER

WITH AN INTRODUCTION

Dr. H.

KERN.

—=§>$<§>?<§-=

LEYDEN. —

E.

J.

BRILL.

1886.

©

!

In order to comply with-, the. wishes of Dr. Speijer I take
the liberty to introduce his

work with-the students
is it

of Sanskrit.

Indian grammar,
Pacini's

which

virtually
is

the same as saying
respects to any-

grammar,
is

superior as

in

many

thing of the
antiquity,

kind produced among other
professedly
deficient in
its

civilized nations of

treatment of syntax.

As
so

all

Sanskrit grammars published "by Western scholars are,
as
,

far

the

linguistical

facts are

concerned

,

almost entirely
,

dependent

either directly or indirectly,
is

upon Panini

it

cannot

be matter for surprise that syntax

not adequately treated in

them,

although

it

must be admitted that Professor Whitney's

grammar shows

in this respect a signal progress.

Some
ment
will
sive

parts of Indian syntax have received a careful treat-

at the

hands of competent scholars, amongst
All
,

whom

Del-

briick stands foremost.
,

who

are grateful

to those pioneers

it

may

be supposed
the
first

gladly receive this more comprehen-

work,

complete

syntax

of

classical

Sanskrit,

for

which we are indebted on Vaidik Syntax

to the labours of Dr. Speijer.
,

May it

be the forerunner of a similar work
tious
,

as copious and conscien-

H.

KERN.

Lbyden, 13 July 1886.

PREFACE.

This book aims to give a succinct account of Sanskrit Syntax
as
it is

,

represented in classic Sanskrit literature, without ne-

glecting however the archaisms and peculiarities of vaidik prose

(brahmana, upanishad, sutra) and of epic poetry.
laid

The

facts

down
in

here

have been stated chiefly by
writings,

my own

observa-

tions

perusing Sanskrit

and

accordingly

by

far

the

great

majority of the examples quoted have been selected
if

directly

from the sources,

not, those suggested by the Pe-

tropolitan

Dictionary or others have, as a rule, been received
,

only after verification. Moreover

valuable information was gained
,

by the statements of vernacular grammarians
nini,
to

especially of
is

Pa-

whose reverenced authority due respect
are
referred
to at

paid and

whose

rules

every

opportunity.

For some

useful intelligence I

am

indebted to Mr.

Anundoram Boeooah's

Higher Sanskrit Grammar Calcutta 1879.
cious
assistance

A
,

welcome and pre-

were to

me some

treatises or occasional hints
,

of

distinguished

European
have

scholars

who
But
scope

as of

Delbruck
this

,

de

Saussueb,

Whitney,
falling

explored
philology.

tracks

scarcely

trodden region of Indian
of the
subjects

for the greater part
of this compilation,

within

the

VIII

PEEFACE.

monographies and special investigations of a sound philological

and scholarlike character are

still

wanting, and
reason
I

I

have
fully

felt

that

want often and deeply. For
that

this

am

aware,

many
Europe.

deficiencies

and inaccuracies
first

will certainly

be found

now
in

or appear afterwards in this

Sanskrit
felt

Syntax written
that
profit

Notwithstanding,

as

I

convinced
of some

my
by

labour,

however imperfect,

might prove

facilitating

both the access to Sanskrit literature and the study of

Sanskrit language, and that on the other
afford

hand

this

work might

some base
it is

for further investigations

on special points of

Syntax,
it

placed before the public with the confidence that
,

may be judged

what

it

is

,

as a first attempt

,

and an attempt

undertaken by a foreigner. In arranging materials I preferred following
,

as best I could,

the nature and spirit of the language I was working on, rather

than clinging too closely to the classification familiar to us by
the Syntax of Latin and Greek generalizing
limited
;

in stating facts I have avoided
rest only

from such instances as did

on

my own
h^ri-

experience,

remembering the wise words
(friid'H

of Patanjali

^iP<

5t*s^i OTlnQsra':

ui*<yj

iiuUild&itn-HjjPftuRj

The whole

of this Syntax

is

made up

of six Sections.

Page.

Section
Section

I.

General remarks on the structure of sentences
Syntaxis convenientiae and syntaxis rectionis.
I.

.

1

— 13
23
29

II.

y

Chapt.
,;

Concord

...

13 24 29

II.

How

to denote case-relations

III.

Accusative
Instrumental

42

IV. V.

42

— 58
81

Dative
Ablative
Genitive
,
'

58—67
.

„ „ „

"VI.

.

67

VII.

VIII.

Locative

81—101 102—113

PREFACE.

IX
Page.

Chapt.

IX. Periphrastic expression
I.

of case-relations.

.

.

.

113

Prepositions

113—134
.
. .

II.

Periphrase by means of noun-cases

134—141
141
145

HI.


like

„ participles, gerunds

and the

X.
III.

Compounds
the different classes of nouns and pronouns.

—145 —178

Section

On
I.

Chapt.

Substantive. Adjective.

Adverb

179 193
.

—193 — 201 — 215

II.

Pronouns
1. 2.
3.

Personal pronouns and their possessives.

193
201

Demonstratives, Relatives, Interrogatives

.

.

Pronominal Adverbs Pronominal Adjectives
of

215—221
221—222

4.

III.

On nouns

number

222—227

Section IV. Syntax of the verbs.
Chapt.
I.

General remarks. Kinds of verbs. Auxiliaries. Periphrase of verbs
.
.

228

—235
— 296

II.

On

voices

235—241
241—278
278

III and IV.

Tenses and moods


V.
VI.

Participles and participial idioms

Gerunds

296—300
300—309

VII. Infinitive

Section V.
Chapt.

Syntax
I.

of the particles.

Particles of emphasis

and

limitation

310

—315

„ „ „

II.

Negation

315—320 320—326 326—329
329

in. Interrogations
IV.
V.
Exclamation
Connective particles
the connection of sentences.

— 336

Section VI.
Chapt.

On
I.

Coordination
Subordination. Periods and clauses
Relative sentences introduced by pronouns Relative adverbs and conjunctions
.

337
347
.
.

II.

— 346 — 352
— 357 — 372

III.

352 358

IV.

V.
VI.

The The

conditional period
direct construction;

372—379

^H
J.

379—388
S.

Amsterdam, July 1886.

Speijee.

PREFACE.

Before perusing the book, the reader
p.

is

begged to change

12 21 51

§
§ §

17

Kam.

-

into
~„

Kad.
s.
t.

31 serves to

determine

qualify.

68

„ „
,,

185

R.

1.

43
born.

and 43,4.

SECTION THE FIRST.
GENERAL REMARKS ON THE STRUCTURE OF
SENTENCES.

1.
Sl Ct

ind ^te."

The subject of the sentence ') is put in the nominative case. The predicate of the sentence is either

noun or verb;

OTt

TO"fpT (the horse runs), R^UTtJSP

(the horse is young).
2.
Ver-

bum
substanti-

To the noun-predicate the so called verbum substantivum is commonly not subjoined; from a logical
point of view
it
is

indeed of no use, and

its

obliga-

vum.

tory employment in modern western languages rather
to be called an abuse.
lord ,
51^:,

Pane. 26 ^. i^irm snf <^qun

;

(he
=et

is

a

we

are

mean
isrfg

people)

,

Nala 1,30
frgmfd
:

fst

=5^

jt\

-l

I

(luit

R^w

qafr

Qak. I

^Pr<Hl
It

•ssr

(is

perhaps the head of the
Pane. 100 wrre>

family near?).

may, however, be added.

srprt BR&ftefifT, Kathas. 16, 115 a^iioimj imfoi

(I al °

ne

am guilty.)

1)

tence
ever

Vernacular grammar has no term to name the subject of the senor grammatical subject. The term kartr signifies the agent or
In the same
its

logical subject.

way karma means
;

the logical object, whatso-

may

be

grammatical function

it

thus implies the object of the

active verb as well as the subject of the passive or the objective genitive. In such sentences as »the knife cuts", the grammatical subject is both
kartr (agent)

and karana (instrument).
1

2
It

§
must be added,
if if

2—4.
exist" or
is

»to

be" means »to

uto be
to

met

with;" likewise
pressed.

the

grammatical tense or mood

be ex-

Rem.
tain

It is

even wanting sometimes in such sentences, as con-

a predicate in the optative or imperative

mood;

especially in
fj

some current phrases, as
hail to you), crt
(v. a.
cjizrr

.^h^

(adoration to him), ^j"

[sc. itoth]

(why make mention of

)

sTT^fW or strt

tpw

malum absit),
UdittW

etc.

Prabodh. Ill p. 66 the Bauddha monk entreats
instruction of his doctrines

the Qaiva fo let
firrcriT'St

him enjoy the

ai-sM^d

it <TT(lScrff fsrw^(be you

my

teacher, I your pupil,

initiate

me

into the doctrines of the Qaivas).

3.

Besides ^TTFT and >T^frT, the verbs

felR\
')

frT^TFT,

^rTrT and the participle
less

JTrT

may
p.

be used more or
fa^f
j? T

as verbum
is

substantivum.
to eat),

Schol.

on P. 3, 4, 65
^jfttPT

stj^ (there

something

Ven. Ill

94 ^cr

a^rt ^nfHr^r-

UiyinqfaKRH'irfrl (hero D. is sitting

down under
is

the shade

107 oiiuy^lsft

srrf^"

am the
it

),

Hit.

king of the crows

at the door).

From
it

the given examples

however

sufficiently appears that the original

meaning of those verbs has not wholly faded.

Accordingly

is

sometimes not indifferent which verbum subst. to choose.

So fspj^
=fffer,

especially denotes the »being met with" fr. il y » likewise t but not uaf^; rnr expresses the »being in or on", as f^HJ H
i :

(v. a.

painted);

5[ffi7

comp. Lat. versatur.
consequence, nsriH
is

Eem. By
some
stress

the proper verb, if there be laid

on the predicate,

in other terms, if it

be pointed out that

the subject

is

invested with the dignity or possesses the quality prediit is

cated of it. Ch. Up. 6, 16, 1

said with respect to

somebody, seized
gjrfir

on account of a theft
HEjf?T

,

apparently committed by him
,

f^ ^£j

[not sjfef]

;

Pane. Ill

57

sFrrfSr <^rft
is

aj: w&T

iraffr

1TOT. (when

the

fire

burns the wood, wind

his mate),

Mhbh.

1,89,2 ot fgpraT

4.

The same character
1) f&tJrT in

is

exhibited

by the predicates
(wonta meaning
to

this sutra

is

one of the

sg^j-qr;

be).

,

§

4-7
,

3

made up
seeming
,

of

a noun
,

and a verb of becoming
,

growing
like.

remaining

being called -considered

and the

Comp. 32.
5.
predicate
-

The
f

noun-predicate
the

itself

deviates

by no
It

means
thus

rom
is

common

use of other tongues.

may

be any kind of noun either substantive or adjective,

and

put in the nominative case, provided that
is

it

be

pointing at the same person or thing as

pointed out
,

by the subject,

as 5TTfTt<Tr fTT%'<

(the night is cold)

for

and the predicate STtrTFIT are relating to one and the same thing. This we may
in that sentence the subj. J\T%'<
call the

noun-predicate proper.
other nouncases, adverbs
37QT rTT^FT
'

Nothing, indeed,
like

forbids

and the

doing
is

duty of the predicate, as
the pit,"
crow
is),

when
[will]

=

water

in

Pat.

84 -a^r g^raT
^ttsj:
,

cfrrer:

(yonder [house],
(he

where that
able to

Mudr. 23

U M T gM gTT

not

[be]

E. 2,42,7 qrf OTT * ft qn (I have nothing blot out [that] in common with them nor they with me) and sim.
stain)

6.

As

to

the

verb-predicate

,

the

same action may

v

"^.

thfaJT
tive

be expressed as well by the active voice as by the is put in P assive When active, its agent or subject
-

voice ia or in the passive.

^ ,r^rTf

the nominative case and
-^

its

object in the accusative;

f-

^TST
,

^"TTrT

(N. N.

makes a mat). In the

pas-

sive sentence the object of the action is subject of the sen-

tence and accordingly a nominative the agent
;

is

invari-

ably put in the
(the
pass,
7.

i

n s t r u m e n t a 1.
N.)
;

^^fTR
^FTPF

1

37S"!
(I

IWOtT
the

mat
form

is

made by N.
^UJ Fplrf

of

sleep)

is

(it is

slept

by me), and

so on.

Sanskrit

has a

decided predilection" for the passive

,

4
Passive
voice.

§

7-9
it
is

voice.

In translating from that language

often

necessary to transform passive sentences into active. For inst. Pane. 43 R^chM* SjTTt mr HdNdi^ (it is a long time I
;

hear blame you),

Daeak. 133 chmfq

f

^ichi^

i

cMtJlunfllEiRi

(a

maiden of heavenly appearance respectfully approached me), Hit.
43
fnr

ar nn
Ijlf

y<£t

mrmfz^;\ ^iwi<iy n-^rii a^r
*T5FTp

yl^R:

gasfi ^s:

i

rfrRrPT

»4jt

f^rnr

W^UI
is

spT:

8.
'ronai"

Since this preference
sitive verbs
,

of course not limited to tran-

p™

nothing can be more
Hit.

common than
^rrft

the use
fer-

1'

of impersonal passives.
fpt

93

hm^jhch-h

(some guardian of the crops was standing aside), Dagak. 18
cfrfTrfr

iraf^HM

f^rff

g,:Hfa<ilffi

(the

lion,

after

having slain the
sr:

elephant, disappeared), Ven. Ill p. 79 dnmdt n^TOTT
RZTT
Qriii
i.

sr^WT ^ tQuUl -

Even the verb

subst. has occasionally

a passive form

cp.

32

6).

Imperverb«

Bern, Apart from the said impersonal verbs, we have to recor ^ *^ e

°^

dings and meaning.

an ^ g enu i ne impersonals with active or medial enIn classic Sanskrit they are scarcely used,

being but remnants of a more widely employed idiom of the elder
language.
avails such
Ait. Br. 1,9,2 ftot

stm&
is

cfi<J<rr>

qf^ f5&K)rH

i^rfit (it

community, as where
'

a hotr knowing
(if

this),

Acv.

Grhy.
fires

4,1,1 aiferilfH

^<iMH 4tiri° '^H

a worshipper in the three

^

be affected by

illness,

he -should withdraw); snfe

Pane. I an

ofzi

^

RimPi
snSHrT

(if it
(it

does not succeed notwithstanding the effort

Likewise

rains)

= 5^7

).

(cp.

Tajn. 1,136 with Kac.

on P.

1,4,89)

and so

on.

9. Participles, especially those in FT and rT^rT ^[e^'and the krtyas are frequently employed as d D if tn ey were finite verbs, without the atd uty of * eri dance of the verb subst. In simple prose mte

a great deal
shape.
(he

of

the
,

sentences
i

are moulded in that
:

Hitop.

12 sren aniprr cam
ibid.

fcrt

mRrifti (the
f5Mj]aiMm
;

tiger

killed

him and devoured him)
entrusted
his

7

jtct

tnrr*

SPTTfosrw
i

sons "to the foresaid Vishn.), Q&k. I [d-DddNU

§

9-10.
,

5

hmWuEj
modest
dress).

=ttit

(surely

the hermitages should be entered in

Rem. The
10.
U
im.°

participles of the present
3,

and the future do not par1

take of this construction, cp. P.

2, 124 with 126

).

The subject of the sentence
expressed. Often
and ^TTTT are quite
it is

is

not always

implied by the verb. For

^TrT
^~

as intelligible as^T^T

^TR and cT

^Tm> and
suffices
,

likewise in the third person the sole <^llrl

if

there can be no doubt as to the giver meant.

Nevertheless,

the personal

pronouns denoting the

subject are not seldom added, even
for the understanding, certainly

when not required much oftener than in
3,9;

Latin and Greek.

See
is

f.

inst.

Nala 2,19;
,

Kathas. 6,133.

But the omission
on the pronoun.
Agent
plied,

impossible

if

stress should

be laid

In passive sentences
the agent
is

,

the personal pronouns denoting
,

may

be wanting likewise

but of course
327

this

not by far done so

Pane. 127
aiK
>s

^

often as in active sentences.
-a^r], ibid.
ifr fqsr

RfartJ iu
i

ft^ [sc.
why

fSf^ar

mn-

fritewii H

(say,

friend,

do [you] run away thus by false

fear?).

The omission
softened hear)

is

regular with passive imperatives that
,

are expressive of an injunction or

commandment
(go),

in a

or

polite

manner,

as

JIWTFT

^dl^

Pane. 87 the panther thus addresses the hungry lion, his

P. 3,2,124 states an exception for the case, that the added to the participle, in order to signify an imprecanegation qT Qicupal. 2,45 quoted tion. Of this rule applied I know but one instance by the Petr. Diet. s. v. rrr, V p. 680; but it is not improbable that the
1)

A

vartt. to
is

,

author of that

poem has done

so designedly to

show

his

own

skill

by

applying an out-of-the-way grammatical rule.

, ,

6
master ^iffifeh^rim q' 'w

§
httt:

10—13.
tnmtn^cr
i

^fcraFrarrf

erra:

ssttt

i

jt*t

11-

But
be

in

sentences without a finite verb the personal
It

pronoun denoting the subject cannot be missing.
said

may
full

promiscuously ^rT^T'TTFF and Wir\c\ M«^*j

+H e hrdfrfH at
forms

and SfiFT^Fr^T and so on. *\ c
t
,

The

^JrT^T'TTFT, pf =h rl =ft rU t^TCT are of course
provided that

also available.

Kern. Occasionally they are wanting even then
it

,

be beyond doubt, which subject

is

meant. Pane. 214 the crow
ill

Sthirajivin relates to the king of the owls the

treatment he has
=rlrT:

endured from his
as
is

own king
[sc. rof]

,

for

^r ^-mch
;

l

EirH^i ^srt

[sc.

5^T

perspicuous by the context]

ibid.
;

53 the lover addresses the
ibid.

princess (id<J& wri
l

f§F btt srmfsr

38 stm imrsfe Urinw

dUtt d far^#rnior: [sc

FoFr].

Cp. ibid.

137, 13; 154, 10.

12.
raisub-

A

general

subject

may

be
(it

expressed
is

by
'Mtfrl

using
(it

the passive form, as 3^?JrT
taught).
active as
sagf),

said)

,

is

Likewise by the plural of the 3 d pers. of the

M\^'
(it

(they say,
is

when

m\<
is

known),
this
(**
*s

= it ^M^rl

is

said; germ,
is
d

man But

at

told).

not seldom also the singular of the 3
active

pers. of the
34 chuun germ, man)
feHf

employed in
EFI^mi5.frl

manner.
is ft

Pane. II,

P^MHIMfri

W^HIM.

not without cause,, one becomes

a friend or a foe).

The pronoun omitted
(one

(=

one

,

,

which
|9r
1

is

also

sometimes added. Pane. 1,216 <zrm

=r

t&vrsfir
in

yjflrch^lRlPwfriHlMUlry:

must not lose courage oven
one's position in time).

distress;

by courage one may regain

13.

The accessory parts of the sentence, such as are
point out the
the fact where
,

to

the

when

,

the why

,

the how of

related, the qualities and other attributes of

,

§

13—14.

7

the persons or things involved, are embodied into speech

by the same or nearly the same grammatical apparatus, as serves that purpose in other languages.
It is

the relative frequency or rareness and the distribution
of

these

instrumentalities
style
its

of speech, which

gives to

Sanskrit

proper and peculiar character, the

main
14Clia-

features of which

may

be sketched as follows:
of finite verbs.

l'y.

Sanskrit,

in

comparison with western langua-

racter

ges

,

does not avail itself
of gerunds,

much

Hence

San S _
st *ll

abundance
sentences.

participles,

absolute locatives,

noun-predicates and a relative scarcity of subordinate

Accumulating

short

coordinate

phrases

is

likewise avoided

by using gerunds.

Dagak. 19 sn^r srtst-

U5l^Prlch Tl 4lHdi-iRrr
for
it

»I took off the

baby from the

tree

and sought
his order

the fair one in

the forest, but not discovering her I carried
it

I

to my teacher, and gave now have brought the boy

over in his hands.
you."

By

to

In Sanskrit style the predicate of the sentence

is

many
fer

times expressed by means of a nomen adionis

to be translated
fff/ffi^

by a

finite verb.

Pane. 21
does

35^^

1

<srr-

fSterrtTTcrerRiT

(Dam. said:
o
o

why

my

master stop

and stay here?)
Jpy.

Abstracts in
either simple or
,

FIT

or

pi

may

be made of any

noun

compound. Since they are available

in all noun-cases

they afford an easy expedient to bring

a whole clause into a shape as concise as possible and
to express logical relations in the very sharpest and

most

distinct

way.

Hence they are often employed

in

treatises,

commentaries and similar works.

A

more

detailed account of

them

will

be given hereafter.

8
ni'y.

§

U.

A
is

great and important place in Sanskrit comfilled

position

up by

compound nouns.
is

This syn-

thetic expression of

thought

applied to the most variit is

ous and manifold logical relations, but
in the

especially

more

flowery style of adorned literary compo-

sition, that

they are used at a considerably large extent.

Eelative clauses are
IV'y.

commonly avoided by them.
is its

An

other characteristic of Sanskrit style

pre-

dilection for the oratio directa.

Words and thoughts are
and thought or sup(thus,

related just as they have been spoken

posed to have been, but they are not moulded into the figure
of an oratio obliqua.
so)
is

Generally the adverb

£>\r\

put behind the words or thoughts related. AcSanskrit
So
f.

cordingly the English sentence he asked his friend, why
he had not left this town
is

^t^l^tH 1^1^15=1
utt. i
this

witqrfltlliri

fa

-A

H fJ^HL
is

but
for

m^^hum
reason I beg

dfeammfM Q^MriiffitH (Mylady Her to take Her rest).
V'y.

tired;

The system of correlation between relatives and demonstratives, though sufficiently developed as to the number and variety of combinations, has retained a
great deal of the unwieldiness and prolixity of its ru-

dimentary stage.
old Latin.
*tot

It often

reminds of the solemn style of
Pane. 2
fulfill

Mostly the relative clause precedes.
f%f§;
q- :

iw

amI^kii:
ibid.

?nf^T rren-rrfejrrra^ (act
g-^t

so
,

as

to

my

wishes),
1

70

g^ft

•sm&ct ct,gmMN

and the

like.

likes rhetorical interrogations, that is, such as do not put a question, but contain a state-

VI ?. Sanskrit

ment

either positive or negative.
in

more employed than

As this turn is much modern languages, such inter-

§

14-16.

9
So

rogations
sft:

are often to be translated rather freely.
g?f

is

not rarely an other expression of »nobody" and
gnr:
is

»

every body;"
^T^T1

»y es "

^ an d
,

qTT

frequently

=

»because."

Similarly %pj

fer —

^

»certainly ," cp. the idiom

^^

37

^

and

other turns
chapters.

more

fully to

be dealt with in one of the subsequent
,

Compare Engl, why

when

=

»now, well," Greek ovkovv.

VlPy.

The

predilection for the passive construction has
(see 7). It is of course

been already mentioned

not restric-

ted to the finite verb, but applies also to participles.
15.
Or d er
f

Like
flections

all
,

languages, that possess a rich store of in-

Sanskrit affords a comparatively great freedom
1

words

-

as to the order of words in the sentence

).

Yet,

it

is

frequently not altogether indifferent in what order one puts
one's words.

We

ought to distinguish between the tra-

ditional or regular

arrangement and the various excepexigencies of style
,

tions caused
etc.

by the

enphony

,

metre

Therefore though tracing a general

scheme, we

must keep in mind, that it bears but on the most frequent employment as it has been observed in perus,

ing the best writers, but

it

cannot claim to be a set
2

of fixed rules rigorously to be followed throughout.
16.
Traditional.

The
1.

traditional

order of words
is

is

this.

)

The

predicate being verbal,

it

ordinarily

closes

the

sentence, which
expressed.

headed

by the noun-subject,
of the sentence

when

The other elements

are taken in the midst, but placed so as to
1)

make the
UejOTfUH-

Compare

Pat.

I,

p. 39,1. 18^gFJrJr

^WRI

q^FUrUitl'H

fTEft

2)

Qn
,

.this

subject

we have an
aus

excellent treatise of Prof.

Delbkuck
Yet,
of

Die

altindische
it

Wortfolge

dem

Qatapathdbrahmana

1878.

course

does not go beyond the archaic period of Sanskrit literature.

10

§ 16.
its

verb have

object immediately before it ,

^^tT!

^tfrT

(JOT.

makes a mat),

^rft ^HPT:

^

3R7T

TRT"

JFTQ^T SJTFItP (N.N. has parted for Pataliputra with
his brothers).

In a similar manner the attributes and

other accessories of nouns precede them.

Moreover, as

one

is

inclined in

Sanskrit to

avoid subordinate senoften occurs, that the

tences, by availing one's self largely of participles, ge-

runds and the like
chief sentence
of accessory
is

(14,

I),

it

preceded by a greater or smaller

amount

elements of the kind, put according to

the exigencies of
tanjali
xrraT

grammar and
it.

style either before the
,

Subject Or Subsequent to
(I,

This sentence

taken from Pai

p.

39, 10)

may

illustrate tbe

above statement, qq

umTT

3T-

aMNfoMmRii! sr-ciiotdchisr nraw 3n(Bmti ^hi jiffi scz nmtifri w. ^ rS 5-v O O Here the subject preceded by its attribute stands at the head,

then follows
subject,
3'y
5'>'

^MnQam
its

i

lui

:

formally a predicative attribute of the
,

but as to

meaning an accessory of the gerund aqQutl

the other accessories of the said gerund, 4'y the gerund itself, the accessories of the chief predicate
,

finally that predicate itself.

Rem.

In passive sentences the agent, as far as I

have observed, seems to have the precedence in the traditional order of words
Pane. 126
irfsfir:
,

not the nominative of the karma.
ysMtrUiPi
jhiPi

ydd^f^

f&STtrr

#mi^,
is

Hitop. 92

the predicate be a noun, it fore the subject. Pane. 38 g*np ^njT'Str
2.

If

put

be-

rrii|^^d>uq^

rr^fsrsf:-

Similarly in the passive.

i-ltoirlcy^

(now

at all events I
it

=Ery^rr HdH-cUUl must be your companion).

Hit. 20

wn 35raT

Eem.
3.

Pronouns,

seems,

may

be put indiscriminately before or

behind their noun-predicate: snrars^iT or

^

Hn*h

Attributes are put before their nouns.

But when

§

16-17.

11

doing, duty of a so called

predicative attribute,
for
inst.

they generally follow.
sftejstrJTPrr

Comp.

the proverb ^TRqiTrrr

amiTf

(fortune

which has arrived spontaneously, grows
(or pro.
;

a curse,

when

neglected).

Rem. Not
translating
this

seldom they are separated from the noun
to.

noun) they belong

Dae. 141 qn

i

fa

a iHma PTOTT Mf^rU*:
:

when ^
f§r-

sentence

one

should render <wrm by the adverb

basely or in a base manner,

iio

Pane. 73 pnr ^t^srsTfir mi\H\
of

^H-d^uTluMJ note the disjunction
4.
5.

§^5rs: and ^^r-

The vocative generally heads the sentence. The prepositions are commonly preceded by their cases.
In sentences linked to the preceding by means of
or particles, these words are put
,

6.

relatives
enclitical

first;

when

they are affixed to the first word of the clause

they introduce.
17.
ned!

As

it
«

has been stated above (15), this traditional oris

der of words
fluences
fer

liable

to

be modified by various inInstead of the subject, the

of the

power to cause the speaker to preis

an other arrangement.

word on which stress In this way the verb
adverb
(especially

laid

will

head the sentence.
are

or an oblique noun-case or an
of

when

time)

,

not seldom
(of

put
the

because of emphasis. kind there exist many, indeed), Dag. 132
first,
^cr 5F?T.

Hit. 97 sRfermfrr sr^sr:

aqi<J
:

l

-Ei*jj

an*HiH

fc^chU
Hit.

ch(4J-Mlri4yfri^l41«HlM_ (then I said

let this

mise-

rable elephant be gone, bring an other, a

number

1

of the elephants);"
Fsrar

110

qiT sf^TTfR' rrra^5i<??ich<UH
-

gjreajTjJ ibid

53

^° r
jt^ft
STrTT:

rraT

^

^^ictj

Pane. 39 jj^r

q^ET ^
still

ihtttft: fSiOrrp^

(meet with her

to-day). Absolute locatives and the

like are also placed at the begin-

ning.

Bhojap.

8

iftir

mm\:

cfiWl^yf ^5ff:, Hitop.
iTOT (TT ftrlf

L31

cjstnrr

STEJfJTOOT

q^Hfwrr;

,

Pane. 54 nsf

HoRT^W

cfrr^TT

mfo-

Likewise in

connecting sentences

it is

necessary

to

,

12

§

17—18.

commence a new sentence or a new clause at the word which relates to somebody or something mentioned in
the foregoing.
tence.
HfdoHrlfff

Hence demonstratives often head the sen*(wfy feOandju
STiTTiTT
I

Pane. 37 =g#r

iswr
FTfT:

i

fbt

iif|o)idch:

Wlframay be
=5

T^fTT fa'rWMI

ST

=T

*Wjfeii,itolRliH.

Bern. In general, the manner in which sentences are linked
together
of some influence on the arrangement of words.
ttsTT
,

So the type, represented by Hit. 110

MdlPm^Hlga
occurs
,

rrerfijTPT -

nQa
Uift,

:

i

5TTt[

FIFT

[instead of rtitii^]
f. i.

"often

especially in
i

polished style.

Cp.

Dae. 139 ^=s(.
'

..

.fm -dUMiJviuim

wmw ST

Harsha 11

*JrtWl*^ollHJrt'

5TOTW.

On

the

other hand similar reasons
its
,

may

expel the

verb from
other word

place at the rear , substituting for it

some

required there by
is

economy
fit

of style

,

because

the end of a sentence
to the
F5ff&
:T

also

to give

word

placed
is

there.

Katn. Ill

^

(in

you there

nothing
£tjW[m H
l

we may

not look for), Dae. 97
thrill HIM*H

^

some emphasis
feiRn frnmh

^sTli^rtchlR

Hrtxitlly

^a

i

^mHI

you do not
will

restore to the citizens

what you have

? ^^^ (^
them, you
,

stolen of

know by experience

the succession of the eighteen tortures
;

and

at last the
it

mouth of death)
jrtnjT-

Kam.

I

,

p.

292

Trsroltr T37

^Jlfc snnsr

^TTfiTvyQ'ii'H^oiH^fH

There
18. F^'

is

much freedom, where
shown
in the chapter,

to put ihe negations,

as will be

which treats of them.

Sanskrit poets, especially in the
refined kinds , display a
still

more

artificial

and

greater variety in arrang-

ing the parts of the
it

sentence.

We may

account for

partly

by the exigencies of
it is

versification,

but for a

good deal

the

effect of their aspiring after

an

ele-

gant and exquisite diction.
traditional order of words

Yet
is

,

as deviation

from the
itself,

not striven at for

the idiom of the poets

is

rather characterized by the

§

18-19.

13

richness

and

size of

compounds, by the elegancy of words
,

and the melodiousness of sounds
perfection of style
,

by the

elevation and

than by an

artificially

disturbed ar-

rangement of words. Such entangled and intricate structure, as for example characterizes Latin poetry,
is

an

exception in Sanskrit

J

).

There

it is chiefly

displayed in

the extraordinary great liberty in placing relatives, interrogatives

and negations.
,

Rem.

Rhythmical wants and euphony , of course may

also exer-

cise a greater or smaller influence

on the order of words. Espe4,4,2

cially in the old dialect.

Here are some 'instances. Ch. Up.

sr^f t^-h

I

(instead of srf

^rJT^r),
,

Ait. Br. 1,30,9 HVJi&uufjf T^ibid. 2,37,4
is

^I^Ph

(instead of ° =tot q^Ml^jTujO
disposition

mm ^tm

ssizi mrfft.

The rhythmical
baton,
so

of the words

here prevailing on the

regular arrangement required by logic, compare the figur hyper-

much, employed
is

in

Greek

and Latin.

An

other

mark
by
5TT

of antiquity

separating prepositions from their verbs , chiefly
sq- srr a<4/-i

particles

put between them, as Ait. Br. 2, 31, 6

HTT^JfT^

SECTION
RECTION1S.

II.

SYNTAX IS CONVENIENTIAE AND SYNTAXIS

Chapt.
19.

I.

Concord.
here to be spoken of, one

A

twofold agreement may

is

1) Kathas. 30,53

give an instance of poetical arrangement.

In prose the words ch-c%lrchl<TWHiffy^ would not have been separated.

14
existing between idea

§

19—20.
(I),

and word
is

the other between
(II).

words standing in the same sentence
Real
I.

As a

rule,

there

agreement between the real

gramgender

and the grammatical gender and number.

As

to the

numter-

number, an exception is to be stated for the collective nouns and some pluralia tantum as ^yj: (water), tmrrr: and
,

srasr:

(life)

,

snarf:

(the
?rtsrr:

rainy

season),

in

the elder language also

a^or:

(collar-bone),

(neck)..i)

Barely the gender

disa"vessel;

grees,
fit

as

the neuter fq=r »friend," words as htsFT,
f. i.

m%

person,"
to

Mhbh.
)

1,61,3
(n.)

man

hear
2

snn
and

crr=r

^

i

|d*rel^ (you are the proper

|htT
is

gcjTTT

(£)

"deity," etc;

^r^T:

masc. plur. »wife"

an instance of disagreement in both gender

and number

).

The diminutives generally
3

retain the gender of their

primitives ): tprcfi m- as jd but qf^FJT f- as q=jt. Rem. Of the collectives some are not always used
f.

so; jpr

ex.

may
jpt:

as

well

denote
in

a single individual as

a collection of

individuals.

Accordingly,

the
4

latter

case

it

may be

said as

well
le

(sing.) as -^u; (plur.).
les

)

Similarly

^rtei:

or ^skt: »people,

monde,

gens"

q^rr

or

g^rr;

"offspring; subjects."
Pin
1.2.5S.

20.
Singularis

In a general proposition a whole class of individuals

may
1)

be optionally denoted by the singular or by the
Panini seems to have,
derived

generalis.

Still

known

it

but as a plural for in teaching
,

taddhitas

from

it,

he says

iHol l«rt [not vftylUI:]

-SUT =g 4,3,57.

Compare the
vices
,

similar development of Latin cervix out of the pi. tant. cer-

see Quintilian VIII, 3,35.

2)

5?^

is

used as a singular in the Dharmasutra of Apastamba (see I,
1, 17; 5,
in ij

32, 6; 3) (a
»

H,

10; 11

,

12; 22, 7, etc.).

Words

small dagger

— flfyujl
RTT:

have, however, sometimes diminutives in t. So srert

Amar.

k.),

whereas si^

(n.)

more especially

sword."
4)

So Nala 6,11

<fyiMi:

^

rrferfir:

^T_, but in the subsequent cloka

we read

^

UrpT

I

(

I

dM

f^TTTT-

rTrT:

WT inmui

^hutI)

I

§

20—23.
sjT^Ttrr:

15
qw: or sjt^tctt: -Hrr. he is a brahman]

plural of the common noun. (the brahman [that is, any brahman
ought
ns?f

as far as

to

be honored). Cp.

f.

inst.

Bhoj. 13
efiq:

m^

(aeiomchgi ^frT-

FTrgrantoT f&TTrWcFiQFrHrrfOT^ar

[a
,

kapalika speaks] »men,

bitten

by a serpent
illness."

,
'

or poisoned ,

or sick

we

release immediately

from
Plural

Rem,
-

Proper names occasionally are employed in the plural
one's family or descendants.

p el

.

number, -when signifying
j'dUHM'dil

names

62

— 70

5R&

(I

will

celebrate

the family of Raghu),

— Pan 2,4,

Ragh.

1,9

gives a

list

of those, that admit of such a plural.
is

21.
U

The plural of abstract nouns
krit

employed in Sans-

of abatract

nouns.

more largely than with us, at least sometimes in phrages somewhat strange to our feeling. Kamand. 1,62 r o o
'

filer

R^jyj ^^rfffRTrrw y
prince,

i

f^ ui

:

i

wrt

sbifSicii

^r^r:
,

efrlsrsj

=w.-|sr:

»if a

who keeps VI

his senses

under control

follows the path

of polity, his fortune (fortunce) blazes upward, and his glory (laudes)

reaches heaven," Qak.
less

^ m M QdtH
tossing
5

Pd)

TgmfS^

^cT ^TT: "sleepfro

he passes his nights,
ibid.

himself to

and

upon

his

couch,"

YII

fjPft tr^^rpwJraT^wrf^r

nominum

similitudines.

Of
i^rcr

the kind are am r y Mhbh. 1, 123, 77 (= HUcPTlwr) R. 3 4 9 and the like.
,

sin times of distress,"

,

22.
U

The plural
try

of a people's

name

is

commonly used
dwell.
is

to

v
^si.'

^f

1

denote the region, where that people
,

The counalso
,

name.

ts

inhabited by the nation called
;

3T#P

named
______
*TrrUT!>

5F§V>

in the
,

same way

it is

spoken of WlaRnT!

^nFftfTT!

foT^TT*' etc., if the

country of Pancala, Mat-

sya, Kosala, Vidarbha is meant. Compare Latin Voted, Chatti, Germ. Polen, Hessen, Sachsen, Engl. Sweden Parisii
,

and sim.

23.
piurajestati-

The pluralis majestaticus is often used in addressing p erS0I]S or speaking of them in a reverential ^mariner.
This applies to
designated
with.
all

words and epithets, such venerable men are
f$fq~3nfiT:

cns

'

Cak. II the king asks the messenger

16
JrfijfT:

§ 23—25.
(are
tells
ir?f

you sent by

my

revered mother?). R.

1,

68 king Ja-

naka

Dacaratha the great exploit done by his sublime son

Rama

*w

wn

{istFoiwiP«<^*<*t3:
child,

i

(your illustrious

my

king, has

y^auii^ ^idf^rsfai ria- <t=Hk: won my daughter, as he
of speaking of »the

was come here by chance, a companion of Vicvamitra).

Rem. Note
feet

the

much employed metaphor
is

of

"
or

instead of the revered master himself.
title

In that case
° itrt:

the

name

commonly compounded with

note

the plural J- as Hitop. 96
»

— insults

^r z&smt

•s^rcp^r xi^fij i>dqi<iMfyfi(M(ri

Your Majesty."
it is

24.
or

Similarly

a token of great respect,

if

one

is

addressed
addresses

by the plural of the personal pronoun,
of jspr or the polite UcTR.

hbrt: instead

Dae. 69 a
l

^^

girl thus

a holy

man wtoFJW
tells

q-

^mr

eft

31^ Q^ ^fd

(Reve-

rend, she, your servant,

you of wrong done by me), Qkk.

V

the ascetic

Qngarava

Majesty has heard

— ),

says to king Dushyanta joh vrafe (Your

Pane. 71 [Damanaka to the lion] |or H^t-

25.
3ro*I=

The plural
use of,

of the first person is allowed to be

"^ have
Or
33T-

when meaning a
to use nos

singular or a dual.
,

made Here we

1 *?- 1 .
*^jO J.

not a majestic plural
,

but almost the same liberty

as in Latin

= ego.

Thus 5RT*T may have the

purport of 5T^[ and sgTQTFT, and ^FT!
r

may be = <=h()lH
Mudr. I Canakya
,

or ^vop.

Instances are very

common.
ift

thus addresses his pupil cir* ^rTtrrRwhT ^oiwiHt^tifri

Pane. 41 a
Mtf
i

monk

asks for hospitality with these words
'

srtr

fc

i

wfa-

«HHHotiPHch
1)

qrepr:

i

q-

5fJTO=r

?m
it,

sn^ffa;.

8

)

Similarly Pane.

58 the

Panini doea not mention this idiom; did
also
is

Fatanjali
vartt. 2)

silent

about

it not exist in his time? but the Kacika-comm. contains the

(on P. 1,2,59) zprf^ JT^riiefnsn'T; The given instance does not agree with the statement of some grammarian quoted by Pat. 1, 230 WTT ST^ a*MiJ <dQlU MUim qzftrfr ^T. Pat.
I

I

himself allows the plural of the
per

first

person even then, unless the pro-

name

or the yuoapralyaya be added, thus sg^r

jcl^:

,

not

oRT.

)

,

§
plural
is

26—27.
f§j cpq-; HiiirH

17
(what shall

used instead of the dual,
I] ?)

we do
P&n i, 4 >^ s 1'

no w [you and

26.
Dual

In

all periods of

the language the dual
duality
is

is

the proper
be tho-

and

sole

number by which

to be expressed.
not impro-

If the voluminous

mass of Sanskrit

literature will once
,

roughly examined with respect
bable
there
will

to syntactic facts

it

is

be put forward sundry instances of duality explural

pressed by

the

number.

But the number of such excep1).

tions cannot be but exceedingly small.
lects

For, though the vulgar dia-

and the pali have
observes
of
its

lost the

dual, polished Sanskrit always
in

strictly

employment and does
is

no way

offer

that

confusion

dual and plural, which

so obvious in Attic

Greek

and already in the dialect of Homer.

27.
nadMkara "
nya.

II.

Concord in case, number, gender and
is

person
with
all

in

Sanskrit the same, as in
, 7

all

languages

inflections

that

is

to say ^

,

it

does exist between
in

such words, as, while standing
,

the same sen-

tence

are to point at the same thing. For this reason
its

the predicate does agree with person
,

subject in case and
,

the attribute with the noun

case and

if possible

it

qualifies

,

in

also in

number and gender,
this
all
is

and so
general
1

on.

It
2

would be superfluous to exemplify
)

rule,

which, moreover,
,

common
,

to

have noticed three instances all of them in poetry and partly to be interpreted so as to confirm the general rule. Of them one R. 2 22 23 Wftsft JOT^T fchlW-dPi": contains a plural which may be accounted for as denoting either the various kinds of sludium
I
fit

methinks
,

,

,

,

and

ira

(cp.

Manu 7,45—48)

or as pointing at the diversity in time,
,

space and persons of the manifold instances of holiness lost so the comm. Kathas. 107,51 s=JJyydW( IUIIHL.the majestic plural srScTcR ajRisl^rdldh

seems to have been employed.

'cMlRr'^l
liast's

- Strange is this passage: Mhbh. 1,24,6 ^ptJrf-fePT, there being no room for the scho^T^Ppanrft
i(
I

interpretation

f^rtlW qfrfsl(|reH

-On^lRrti^tri STjot^PJ;

2)

Grammatical concord bears with vernacular grammarians the well2

,

18

§ 27.
It

languages

will

suffice to notice

some more or

less

remarkable features:
1).

Pronouns follow the general rules of agreement. Thus
Sanskrit to say

it is

H

ST^FT-

,

as it

is

Latin to say
de vraag

haec est quaestio, whereas Teutonic dialects always put

the pronoun in the neuter sing. Dutch dat
Grerm. das
velihood)
,

is

ist die

Frage.

Pane.
\

63

qq mumNti^
is

(so is

my

li-

ibid.
,

II , 201

g^fr

x\^\

f^ ipa: (that

the most
:

im-

portant counsel)
Hci(% r 41Uol
l

Cak. VII

f%s*rf>T

er% ^<r<g|R

qPjtiWii

HirrsFrrmiT-

;

I

m I'HL
the

0^

° ffi cers

are successful in weighty affairs, im-

pute

it

to

virtue

the execution).

of their masters,

who honour them with
,

Yet there may occur instances
this rulei.)

where

it

would

be not possible to observe
2)

Occasionally the verb will agree with the noun,

predicate when standing near the subject. Pane. 263 *$ m%
M. 9, 294
n^ictii^rw:
skt HdjrltT) ^rtt: OTT^f
^

instead of agreeing with

i

snm
'

fa

^r

for 5rrfw [not

jott:],

irij^-edd (these [foresaid] seven ele,

ments are named together the seven-membered kingdom)
fatT^T Iter yiid^l

ibid. 2,81

tainr sr^rofr

gsra^— ana

tne three-

membered

s&vitrl should

be considered as the mouth of brahma).

chosen

name

of saman&dhikaranya

,

that

is

»the relation existing between
fcftychJUl)
is

samanadhikaranas or

words

,

whose substrate

the

same

fcRR)".
1)

See

for

inst.

Ch. Up.
sr 3TrJTT

*rf% UdHchFTr.

Here

6,16,2 ^Ir^Piri* WI mmi 5T is rendered by Prof. Max Mfiller
»The change
,

wmi frecsit is

the
is

Self,"

in

a note he

subjoins:

of gender in sa for tad

idiomatic.

One could not say

in Sanskrit tad

atma
I
,

it is

the Self, but sa

dtmd." (Pref. to the Sacr. Books of the Bast
less, in the

p.
,

XXXVI). Neverthe-

words immediately following ri-HMfo
rfrj^is

that very idiom seems

to

be neglected, for the neuter

the predicate of the masc. pair.

Here the neuter has been preferred, because of tad and tvam there is not affirmed a full identity, as it is done with respect to sa and atma, but it is only said, tvam is a phenomenal manifestation of tad: »tad (sc. atma) is also in you."

, ,

§ 27—28.

19

3) Sometimes, in cases of discordance between the grammatical and the real gender or number of a noun
its

predicate or attribute

will
2,

agree with the latter

(constructio ad synesin)E.
^fiTT:

52, 42 „rt

HsTT:
,

(thinking of thee

Pm^-h

:

-

R^u

the subjects do not take food); here
,

to

crjrT:

though grammatically a fem.

is

added a participle in the

mascul.

Note in the example quoted

the distance by which the
it

attribute is separated from the noun,

qualifies.

same predicate belongs to more subjects 28. or the same attribute refers to more nouns at
If the

the same time, the idiom
that of other languages.
Either the

of Sanskrit

is

almost like

common

predicate (attribute) agrees with

but one and must be supplied mentally with the others
as Prabodh. Ill gTcmrt' v$xh T^ft^jT
cp.

the schol. p. 57 ed. Calc.

(Kantimati and this kingdom and

from

this

moment).
the

my own

life

are at your

mercy

This
b.)

practically

has

the same

effect as

applying

Eem. on

of the other alternative, recorded on

page 20.
or it

has a grammatical expression adequate to

its

character of being

common
case:

to

more substantives at the
course the dual

same time. In that
a.)

the

number
two
1

required

is of

when
Rem.

relating to

individuals, otherwise the plural. -pft
jt*t.

^^im^
on
b.).

q^ijif

i

;

^rrr

^ mwrra sr

3%tt:-

Cp. the

b.)

as to

the gender there must

be distinguished

between persons and things.
of the
,

When
i

relating to persons

same sex the common predicate or attribute is of the same gender fim mm =z srraft mnT *sm ^ \ aft- When
:

applying to persons of different sex

,

it is

always put in

20
the

§

28-31.
zjaft-

masculine: fimmrng
,

But when belonging
,

to inanimate things or things and persons mixed, it is neuter. Kam. 1 54 ipraT s^tiwn *tpt nffmi^r rrfhrarr; M. 4 39
Bern.
it is

If neuter words are

mixed with words of other gender,
predicate or attribute in the neuter

2

\g'

allowed to put their

common
(the

of the singular.

Mrcch.
5Tf#r

V g-dQchoH^

^giJ ^HiifeM^'
l

rfmsr

bird,

*mt wmxi rT£: wpa ri<r)<M whose wings are clipped,
i

the leafless tree, the desiccated pool, the toothless snake are equal
in the eyes of
c.)

men,

so the moneyless man).

as to the person.

In the case of difference, the
352, cp. 240, n° 26,
=s(

first

person outweighs the second and third, and the
(see Pat. I,
p.

second precedes the third
Ka/t.

3,1,4). Patanjali gives these examples
et

^

^d^-am

^^
et

:

'

"C

29.
is

The type Tiberius
also

Oaius Gracchi, linguae Latina
:

Graeca

Sanskrit. Ch. Up. 5, 3, 2 gql^oim-Hfl fciHdlUim

ar-

30-

Occasionally

words

connected by
sand."

»with"

are
rf

construed as
iifTtoirfJ

if

they were
rnnvfl-

copulated by
i

E,

2,34,20

sfTfHjrt

prjortwift

tm^-

ifWr smr

h<f{:

TO5RR

proves that
^f-

^5nm-j^ Here the plural m)hhi smfT has the same effect on the
£37FT:

construction as ^fTT

PREDICATE AND ATTRIBUTE.

31.
is

The same

distinction between

predicate and attribute')

chiefly

a

logical

one.

Formally both follow the
it is

rules

of syntax,

and
it

but by the context,

partly also

by the place

occupies in the sentence,

1)

term
called

The term ^attribute" in this book vi<,-eshana of Hindu grammarians.
»

is

virtually

the same as the

It

includes therefore

the

so

apposition

,"

for I
is

found no reason
often

why I

should

r'etain

the need-

less distinction,

which

made between

attribute and apposition.

§

31—32.

21

we can
father
is

learn

how

to understand a given samanadhi-

karana, whether c|^! NrTT
old," etc
their
I

=

»the old father" or

=

„the

As to
classes
,

meaning, then, we may distinguish
,

five

the simple attribute

^"U"!

I^TrTT

=

„the old

father,"

II

the so-called predicative-attribute, as MrlT

ST^: (= ^^', ^T*T) »the father, when old," III the nounpredicate
of

the sentence , as

^'^^ FTrTT

= „the
for

father

is

old,"

IV the noun, wanted by the verb

making up RrTT ^Iv
(you

together the

predicate of the sentence, as
father grows old), fcTFT^
,

WFZfl

(the

think the

father old)

V

such a noun

^ ^"OH
,

as though for-

mally agreeing with the subject or some other substantive
,

really serves to determine the verb, as Dae. 141
sTIrFfTsT:

TOTfa
11

Rem
made

^TW

erf^TfJi:

,

see

above,

page
II is

Of them the formal agreement of
fully

class I

and

32.
° ° ^"
et

IV.
is

— The noun wanted for completing the predicate
many idioms
, ,

clear in 27.

As

to class III see 5.

used in
a.)

the most important of which are:
,

£{*£"
a.)

it is

a nominative

when accompanying
, ,

verbs of

a

being, seeming

becoming ^growing
,

remaining such passives
Hitop.
foPT-

naf^e.

as to be called, held for
Qak. I 92
ttit

considered, appointed, made, sim.
(this

msr [5»<jiE

:

m^r.

deer has become distant)
,

,

crf%tn-:

W&m

snrg: (the birds grew angry)

Pane. 51 ftraar

sudden ?); Priy. ch^lfe&FT. HsTTFT: (why you have swooned so at a look so glad?) Pane. 56 gp. 14 chwirt ff g Tsr iyrgro (why do you
TT?TT

tiWJUl sr.
is

ffT:

(the

king was reduced
,

to

the

possession
(i*

of the

nothing but
wife that

his" fortress)

Pane. Ill, 152

rrf^xift

n^pJTT

is

called one's ."home").

,

22
t>)

§ 32.

an

instru-

b.) it is

an instrumental,

if

wanted by a verb

of being
.

mental,

becoming, seeming etc.

when impersonal passive In this case

both subject and noun-predicate are put in the instrua^ ^rui*Jl-lRri»lR; Dacak. 18 mental. Mudr. I rrcrr ^ m^M-T vftorT sImAh Jdch^^Hd^UMlQ (the baby was strong enough to endure

=

all

this

toil).

This
'Dacak.

idiom

is,

of course,
^
I

obligatory with the krtya's of

ij.

164

na^JUbH r

stg^m 21

nfdHot^

(the

prince deserves to

be your

attendant),

Pane.

ot ^

«|s<IH*4Ui il^lMUl

maw
of

(and his strength
c ) an ftCCUSft"

may be
calling

adequate to his voice).

c.)

an

accusative,

when

qualifying
,

the

object
,

*i™.

the verbs
for
ing
,

of

and naming

of esteeming

holding
,

considering, knowing as, of making, appointing

electcall

and
,

the
Nala 3
,

like.

teacher)
^ilficrJl

22

^

M. 2, 140 nursrra w^tM
qi f%fg

(him they
,

a

(know me being Nala)
^T ^A MxtlH
i

Mudr. Ill
a

MMfd^^iri^lJoiMylH
Pat. I,
p.

(Canakya has made king a gudra, the
332 hu^qH
Jrtft
I

son

of Mura),

(he boils rice
FPTT j^T.

to

jelly),

Pane. 3 {MH«imiW

^TJWR^raprrf^snfsT

Concurrent

diom

NB. It is superfluous to give some more instances of that well-known type, but it must be observed, that
Sanskrit has also other concurrent idioms
fers.
,

it

often pre-

Note

in the first place, the nominative

with ilrl,

2

ly

the instrumental of abstract nouns.

Both are equihold

valent to the nomin. or accus. of the completing predicate.

Instead of sTT^THf

>|oFT HHNMl[H
said

(1

you
or

for a

brahman),

it is also

Sli^lU

ilrl

H° T

sii^IUIpM

^m

;

the same of course applies to the
R. 3
, ,
,

passive construction.
^fens^i
term).
-m -rl I roi — I

9 11 sr <uj<*i ^frr tetctft hRkh^cim (you have set out for the forest, called Dandaka), Kag. on P. 1, 1,1

tavhr^ (vrddhi

is

established [here] a grammatical

A

more

detailed account of those idioms will be

given in the course of this book.

§

33—35.

23

33;
voice
atten-

In the archaic dialect

we

frequently meet with two nominatives
, '

Middle construed with
to

some verbs

in the middle voice
')

viz.

such as signify J °
sftif rprjff

call one's self, to consider one's self.

Egv. 10, 85, 3

7

two no minati-

^RoM-i
say

(he

thinks

himself having drunk soma), Ch. Up.
|

5,3,4
did you did not

f^ftuy)

SB^m

Wt <Uj Pl

=T

fd-U rch^ STf
l

you had been instructed?

^gfwf sf^H (why how could anybody, who

know

these things, claim himself instructed?), Tbr. 2, 3, 8, 2 et

s^rrrerET R4rl=lW«UH (he , after having created the asuras considered

himself as

if

he were a

father).

2

)

Similarly

it is

said in litur-

gical style ftj w; with

nom.

»to

assume the shape of

", Ait.

Br.

6, 35, 4

=^tcT:

sifiTt

?pT

apcTT (having assumed a white horse's shape),
3

Tbr.

1,1,3,3 =sn^ i*r mt-sfXRem, In classic Sanskrit
call

)

this

idiom seems to have antiquated.
is

»To
typo

,

to

consider one's self"

expressed by means of the
srarHn-

reflexive pronoun, as
srssrt

a

i

cm-l'

rp%

i

jj

i

hh*

Instead of the old
as Pane.

^tf

cFroiT

we meet with such compounds

326

34.

In the case of a substantive being the attribute or
predicate of an other substantive, disagreement of gen-

der
fS l

or
I

number

or of both

is

possible.

R. 2, 115, 15 vqrr:

iH

^rofT

wra

m<i.<=h

(Bh. put on his head the pledge,

[namely]

the slippers).

1)

This nominative has

its

counterpart in Greek and in modern lan,

So says an illustrious German poet (Fej,ix Dahn Skaldenkunst p. 79) »weise wahnt' ich mich, und ach! ein Thor ein pflichtvergessner Knabe erwies ich mich." 2) In a few passages of the upanishads and epic poetry we meet with such
guages.
,

expressions a

qf?T3H ^-iWI-r. 'holding one's self a learned
,

man

," for ex.

Mhbh. 13 22
,

13.

They are hardly

to be accepted as

compounds ,.like

crfaT-

riHrii

,

qm'inwj and the like (P. 3, 2, 83).
amount of examples
in 7
,

3) See the

Weber,

Ind. Stud. XIII, 111.
,

— Ait.
srr

Br. 5

,

2

we have a

confusion of the two constructions

the ace. of the

pronoun a irH

h^ being

used together with the nom. of the noun

^^j

,

21

§

35—36.
to denote case-relations.

Chapter
35.

II.

How

The manifold relations between nouns and verbs or nouns and nouns are signified by cases, by the periphrase of cases, by compounding. As to the proportional frequency of the said modes of expression
nude cases are more freely employed in poetry than in
prose, oftener in the earlier periods of Sanskrit than in

the latter; whereas periphrastic expression strives at ex-

tending by the time, the implements of circumlocution
increasing in

number and

variety, the nearer

we

ap-

proach to our
case-relations

own

times.

But the faculty

of signifying

by confining the correlating nouns into

the somewhat rudimentary shape of compounds has not

been overturned nor diminished by time.
trary, whether

On the

con-

we

look at their frequency or at their

manifoldness or at their expansibility, the old dialect
is

by

far surpassed

by the alexandrinian period of Sanskrit
and abundance
is

literature.

36.

The same

richness

generally displayed

in the several constructions,

taken separately.

Two

or

more conceptions
possible in

of the

same

case-relation being equally

thought, they mostly are also available in
is

speech

;

there

perhaps no language , where one

may be

less limited in this respect.

Thus we meet side by

side with

a partitive genitive, a partitive ablative, a partitive locative. Causality

may

be denoted by means of the instru-

mental as well as by the ablative or by various periphrase
as «£rll:,

to

may

=hl^U|JT, ^ilJt!TTrT etc. The person spoken be put in the accusative or dative or expressed
CTTrT
,

by means of

J7

:

<

^T- The

verbs of giving are

§

36—37.

25

not only construed with the dative of the person be-

stowed

upon, but

also
is

with genitive or locative. The
interchangeable with
etc.)

dative of the purpose

many

a

periphrase (5TSPT,

many implements for periphrase, either prepositions, partly ancient and common
so on.

And

HMrH

and with

infinitives.

Add

to this the

to the Indo-european mother-tongue, partly in

new-formed
FFTfcFJ

Sanskrit, or nouncases and verbal forms that have

almost the force of prepositions, as
etc.

Ff^WH"

when

=

„to," ^JrT „on account of," ^"sTPTpIT or ^^FJT

=
in

„ without,"

^TNIUI
is

„by means of ', sim. Moreover,

most

cases one

free to

compound the substantive
say sjll^rl^rl
,

with those words, for
of

ex. to

i'

instead

sftfarlW %rft:

(for

the sake of life)
etc.

^INIUlTqf^
Finally
it

=

^I^IUItMiql^
has even the
tion
,

(over

a stone),

must

be kept in mind that in a large amount of cases one
choice of
it

o r letting

either expressing the case-relabe implied by a compound made up
,

of the

two correlating substantives ^><Mlt1«^
(a

= Q^TT
(the
(slain

TH^!

lion

among men)
,

,

{TsTT^
!

:

king's attendant)

*l

l^^ri

= ^T^TT

= ^TfT! J^p
<^r{<

by

a serpent), sim.
37.

In consequence, the three
set

up,

general classes, we have

cases, periphrase,

compounds
logical clearness'

do but

re-

present one and
in

the same

category

and are

practice

coordinate.

For

sake however,

as they cannot be dealt with promiscuously, they re-

quire

to

be

treated successively.

Accordingly chaptt.

"

26
Ill

§

37—38.
,

—VII

will

contain the syntax of the cases

ehapt.

VIII the periphrastic expression of case-relations; in
chapt.
also

IX the

different kinds of

compounds
,

— including

dvandva and karmadharaya

longing to other categories

though logically begone through.

will be

General scheme of the
38.
Scheme
of the

cases.
sc.

^

The
is

nominative
see

or first

case (^Mll

T3PT-

ffix',)

expressive of the sentence's subject and predi1

cate,

and

5.

Moreover the nominative
itself,

is

em-

ployed to denote the noun taken by

apart from

the sentence, as will be shown hereafter.

The person addressed
1
)

is

put in the vocative.
and even two

').

Though the vernacular grammarians have a proper term

cative

amantrita P. 2 3 48
,
,

for the vo-

for the vocative of the sing,
ibid. 49) it is

(the voc. Bing. especially

is

named sambuddhi,

however not

considered

a

distinct

eighth

case, but an appendix to the nominative.

PaniNi, after having stated (2,3, 46) Hlfayf5*l<&Ri#<4f^imcW~WM JTOTT
i-

the first case serves only to signify the gender and

number

of the thing
:

designated by the word's rude form or prdtipadika", thus proceeds

gsiHnT
it

^

(47)^n 'S'SijP'lrW (^8), that
,

the

name

of amantrita."

is

»it serves also to address,

then

bears

By the way
first

I

P.'s rule

on the proper sphere of the
wneasure"

remark, that in translating case I have dissented from the
,

traditional interpretation.

According to the commentaries i|f7i|im means
such words as &\H\
denotes the
,

»size"

or


is

<p| I

il

,

STTG3FT are

given for

examples

and

y-d-i

»the grammatical number" so as to
case

make the

whole
See
f.

signify:

»the

first

mere gender, the mere size (or Kacika on our sutra. That interpretation cannot be right. In the first place, in the Paninean terminology, it must be observed, prathama does not mean the word put in the nominative case, but
tipadika, the
,

mere meaning of the prdweight) the mere number.

ex. the

only the
accus.
,

suffix

of

that

case,

just

as

dvitiya

names the

suffix

of the

trtiya

that of the instrumental and so on.

Now

,

to say in ear-

prathama has the duty of denoting three things apart from the purport of the pratipadika, viz. linga or gender, parimana or measure
nest, the

and vacana or number
of the nominative

is

unacceptable and almost ridiculous for the
,

suffix

cannot give us certain knowledge but as to two of

,

§ 38.

27

Of the

six

others

the

general

purport

')

may

be

sketched thus:
1.

The accusative or second case
a.)

(flirn^T)

dec.)

notes

the whither,

b.)

the object of transitives,
,

an extension
2.

in time or space

d.) it is

used adverbially.
(FTrffaT

The instrumental or third case

them, nl. gender and number; the size or measure of the thing denoted by the pratipadika is made as little known by declension, as its color or its age. Moreover gender and number are grammatical conceptions

measure

,

size

,

weight geometrical ones.

It is

time to discharge PaniNi
,

of the absurdity imputed to

him by

his interpreters

here as plain and judicious as that great grammarian

and to show he is is wont to be.

The commentators were misled by
here
the
it

b|-eM
,

,

pressing »the grammatical number", as

indeed,

must be the bhdva
named,
,

of sp? in its

which they did accept as exit very often does. Vet original meaning the naming or

being

cp.

P.

1,4,89 a \£ifu f<>Jol-=M (=dn, when naming a

boundary)
geration)
is
,

2
,

,

1
,

,

33 ohrt^RlchltiloMH

(=

with krtyas
itis

,

when denoting
,

exag-

5 3 23 ychi^d-cM

SJT3T, etc.

Therefore

not 5PER

which here
for this

carrying the meaning of grammatical number,
as well be

but

qrfprrtjr;

employed in the narrower sense of » size; periphery, " as in the larger of »any measure whatever," and accordingly itis aiso occasionally a synonym of w<° ii\ (cp. P. 5 2 41 and the passages adduced

word may

,

,

,

in

the

Petrop.
is

Diet.

IV, p. 540).

For these reasons the sutra, which

occupies us,

to be analysed in this or
sr

way

JJTfHTf^ciTPTOr

JT

f5i^-n(^^iui

(— rr fg^-Wl
1)

fSl^-oMH

,

for

snmT and

sra^T are both expressive of

the grammatical number) rrcftopcRFTRT U^WIprovinces.

PaniNi has short and well-chosen terms to point out their different The category of the accusative he names karma, that of the
» instrument,"
,

instrumental kartr sagent" and karana

that of the dative

sampraddna
rana.

,

that of the ablative apddana

that of the locative adhika-

The duties of the genitive have not found an adequate expression. With respect to the nominative it must be observed, that Panini's

definition (see the preceding note) does ascribe a larger sphere of employment to that case than we do in styling it the case of » the subject and predicate.'' In this the Indian grammarian is right. Nouns quoted or proffered outside the context of sentences are always put in the nominative.

28

§ 38.

may
what,
this

be called the with-c&se
how.

,

for it signifies wit A what

,

by
of

According to the various

applications

fundamental notion, there may be set up divers kinds of instrumental. So we have an instrumental of

accompaniment
the
3.

the so-called sociative
of time

one of the

instrument, one of the agent, of the way, the means,

manner

,

the quality

,

,

of value,

and so

on.

The dative or fourth (^rpT) points out the direction of a movement. Mostly it is employed in a metaphorical sense. For the rest, its employment admits
of a division into

two kinds:

a.)

the so-called

dative of interest, b.) the dative of the purpose.

L
there

The ablative or fifth (miRl) denotes whence
is

a starting, withdrawal, separation, distance,
it

consequence and the like,
categories of thought.
5.

being applied to various

The genitive or sixth (TOT) upon the whole
be described as the case, which
signifies cohesion.

may

It chiefly

serves to express relations existing
')

between

substantives

and according to the

logical varieties of

these relations
sive genitive,
etc.

we may

distinguish between the posses-

the partitive,

the subjective, the objective
is
,

Besides, the sixth case
(as those of likeness

wanted with some adSanskrit

jectives

knowing and the contrary)

and some verbs
also

(as

those of remembering).

has three more kinds of genitive, each of them
1.

displaying a particular character, nl.

the genitive of
it

1

)

In this book the term substantive has not the limited acceptation
,

has

with the etymologist and the lexicographer but includes any noun that syntactically has the

worth of a substantive, as

w$, when

=

»

truth."

,

§

38—39.

29

the time, after which, 2 the absolute genitive, 3. the genitive, which is concurrent with the dative of interest.
6.

The locative
and therefore
is

or
it

seventh
generally

(FTfT'ft)
is

signifies

the

where

to be rendered

by

such prepositions as in, at, to, on.

As

its

employ-

ment

not restricted to real space but of course also extends to other spheres of thought, there are various
,

classes

of locatives

,

for ex.

those of time

,

of circum,

stance

,

of motive (the so-called FTnfTflTT^U)

the absois

lute locative.

On

the other hand the locative
,

not
,

li-

mited to the spot
it also signifies

where something

is

or happens

but

the aim reached.

Rem.
if

1.

All

nouns are declinable and put in the said cases,
affixes,

wanted.

This applies also to such conventional terms and signs

as the

grammatical roots,
2.

anubandhas, pratipadikas
the

,

etc.

Rem.

Indeclinable are l l y
of the are

adverbs,

2ty

some nominal
infinitives

derivations

verb

,

namely the gerunds and the
declension
is

Why
their

they

devoid

of

quite plain; for they do

duty of noun-cases and generally their etymology does agree with

employment.

Chapt.
39.
a e „o'.
tins

III.

Accusative.
is

I.

The accusative expresses whither something
i

the

moving. Pane. teH ^ crfwr: (he set out for his home) Nala 1, 22 they went to the country of Vidarbha) M. fof5>rfHililVl(! T (then ^
,

,

.

whi-

2, 114

fgrerr

5lTjpn

Hcm^ (Knowledge came

to the

Brahman and
is

said

),

In the instances adduced the

movement
is

real.

But

in a metaphorical sense the accusative
E. 2
,

likewise

available.

82 , 9 jrmq- jwht

(tw,

Dae. 40

dfa^m I^ott^

(by this solicitude I grew sad).

This

obvious construction

is

not the only one.

30

§
striven at
is

39—41.
also be

The aim

may

put in the dative (79),

the aim reached

mostly denoted by the locative (134).
>

Moreover various periphrase

by means of
etc.

STTcT

,

%)I«V|-

^FT, FRTT^PT, AFftpT,
idioms, see chapt. VIII.
40.

^K$$

are

concurrent
of the

From

this

ace

of

the

aim the

aqc.

ob-

ject is not sharply to be severed.

On the boundary are
you
,

standing such turns as

3T

'MMIrl (he bends to

rests

on you),

T^rf
(he

<A<A*iir\

(he attains

knowledge), STFFT-

PT^cTrT
Verbs

moves towards the
,

village).
leading
,

Betn.

Verbs of bringing

carrying
,

,

conveying

may be
P.
1, 4,

wg

brimand
the
like.

cons t;rue d with two accusatives
j e ct

one of the aim and one of the ob-

pwrai

=roin

51);

rri^
^
Fori"

cmsrf?r
»

eibIh at (see Siddh.

Kaum. on

Dag. 83
Qak.

^Rnf rollrtjtHHM
trf^isf

G e * me conduct you
(having

to your
to

lover),

V ma^^i

fa^T

dhmissed Qak.

the

home

of her husband).

41.
ortiie

When
t ne

construed with a passive verb, the accus. of

^

ai

m

sometimes remains accusative

,

as in Latin

and

Greek, sometimes
e

£t

Sanskrit to say
Kathas. 25, 210

W
it
ibid.

turns nominative.

W*Tt

7T*T?t,
bil^
i
i l

srcrfFf

rFrTarr jfi'

U

l

*?)

inn (now I want
,sen

W

So

it is

good

^Ftf
(the

JMaW
to

go
will

to the city of Benares), Pat. I,

464

uih gt

meaning
102
zrr^t

be understood),
IFfTHT:
')•

cp.

44 chqiH.-c^H

Twm,

ibid.

warn

1)

Vernacular grammar makes no distinction at
I

object.

Yet

all between aim and Both kinds of accusative share the common appellation karma. greatly doubt, whether the ace. of the aim may turn nomin. when
all

attending on the passive of

verbs of moving.
for JIT-

I, for

my

part,

am not

aware
(43)

of instances of

any of them, but
left

The

transitive

compounds

of

course

are

aside, likewise such verbs, as the vaidik jnjH*

when=»to

be asked for

".

,

;;

,

§

41—42.
is

31
,

Eem. The

ace. of the
It
,

aim

not changed into the genitive
Stttt

when

attending a noun.
horse to Srughna)

is

said

sssrer

5rf^(the transporter of a

with the ace. of the aim and the gen. of the

object. Op. Pat. I, p. 336.

42.
the obJec
'

II.

The

ace. of the object.

Upon

the whole

,

the

same category of verbs are
elsewhere.

transitive in Sanskrit as are

Yet

,

some

cases

of discrepancy

and some

idiomatic turns proper to Sanskrit are to be noticed:
1.

Verbs of speaking

son addressed,

whose English
sionally

may admit of the accus. of the percp. 46; 2. Many a Sanskrit intransitive equivalent is likewise intr., may occaaccus.;

admit of an object put in the
differ.
tr.
,

then

the translation will generally
1. 2.
3.

Of

the kind are:
for;

jlf^fn intr. to

weep,
laugh

to to

weep

^h[h
-i^fa
ijJ|-c)Ih

»
»

to

» »

laugh at

to rejoice, to

to rejoice at;
to pity;

4.

» » »

be sorry,

»
» » »

5- spsfe
6.

to rain to fight,
to think,

to rain

upon

awlH

to fight;
to think of; to reflect;
j*ir,

7. 8.

Rj-rm fW»

Verbs

of rambling, erring, like
to
,

txz are trans,

when

=
to

»to

walk over,
is

go through", note

also

such turns as qrnrt
the

(he

a hunting)

2hf ^-fir (he lives

by begging).
list

— 9 H^teh^tri
ace.

yTorfS'
,

=T*rf?t

and
give.

its

compounds, may be
is

construed with

of

him

whom

respect

shown.

A
to

complete

of such verbs

is difficult

to

Most of them are
1.

be known by the dictionary. So
or locat. or crf^;

Ecm.
qir

As

a rule, the said accusatives are not obligatory.

the verbs

of speaking are

admit also of a
construed
or

dat.

and

SHIFT

oftener
SjgTjrr

with
STf

dat.

or gen.;
as

it

is

said as

well gwrf^
on.
2.

yam

I

fer^
( tfl i s

etc.)

jrwrffT

sggqj

and so

Eem.
and the
see
f.

Note

also the turn u<\-M\ tfsrfn

fa^ 8 to

mJ

share)

trans, construction of

qyjR

or ij^mifd sJTm>T^

(^^4)^ etc.),

inst.

Kumaras.

1, 25; 3, 63;

Eagh.

3, 22; 4, 11.

.

32
Rem.
3.

§ '42—44.
frarfH (to

play)

with

the ace.

of the

wager

is

an P -2J

idiom of the brahmana.

43.
versb,
beco-

Intransitive verbs

may become
pass. x

transitive,
1

when being

compounded with some
(he goes after the cow) v °
'

preposition

ming
transi-

,

*M»S

~v _

J||^ •iJlvMr|. This
-

r

);

TTFT^JT^TFT

O

when compounded.

chiefly

applies

to

verbs,

5|7f 3q" ^TTrT, but also to others
transgress);
pity);

f

compounded with

*|'|rl

^W
(to

O

Examples: yftohWid
46; ^HchujfH
(to

nfii<m

mzrwj vSrfmfff,
partake
;

cp. P. 1, 4,

(to

snwsrffT (to
(to

of-,

to
(to
jj
l

enjoy);

.aq a ioiiH

live by-),
5TT-

iHomfd

dwell near-)
rest

crffriTTfTT

appear
(to

to-)

;

aoM^fd and

^Mid'

(to

on

,

to grasp),

bRlid

inhabit),

j^wR

(to

neglect), qpu^T^fd (to go to meet) etc.

Rem. This
ace. attending 2,

influence

of the preposition

is

even seen in the
fl^ioirT
,

on some compound adjectives, as
R- 2, 50,
1 ^fterPT^Per:)-

"S^Fet

(Nala

27

rinurfHliWcjr-i:,

44.
natefac-

Instances
dUHolNHj R. 2
night),
ibid.

of

the
37

so-called

etymological
Dag. 133
(v. a.

or cocrrazf

™ sa

gnate accusative
,

are not wanting

qw-

-

54

,

sfifaT: ^rft

^ d^fd*^

we have
102
,

passed the

58, 21

ejtiiWJIU

^f=f

^^3
,

iffiTg

(behave yourself pro1
,

perly with respect to your mothers)
srarar d^loil-li:
is

^rasmj;

Mhbh,
of
I

3

iJhsT:

3vOT:

An example
'

its

passive construction

this

:

R.
1.

2, 58,

20 gpr^ H^H d.S <5 Prided
of these

^

^sfaH
touch upon
° =gq-.

Rem.
is

Some
of the

etymological

accusatives

the sphere

adverb and the gerund in

Sometimes

it

rather difficult in

what category
rr

to class them.

Of the kind

are

Oh. Up.

3, 15,

2

q^rftt ftf^fft,

Mhbh.

1,

154, 30

quim^l -

^OT(he killed [him] as one kills a beast), P. 3, 4, 43 itOTdTT^ a^fWj sim. Rem. 2. The krts in ° t^ are only available when etymol. accus. p The Kagika gives these examples Qu. git BRTfpTSFmSf: Answ.^oTT cfrrf}-:

T=FmsriTj

so

cfrf

JTfwT#tmn:

etc.

45.

Some

verbs admit of a double construction, which
r

l)Pat.I,p. 107

*)chMthl

3Srft

|-

tflMMi H

;

^chMch

l

H5r£rT.

§
?
4ith

45-46.

33

is

adoustruc-

the counterP art of tlie well-known Latin idiom mihi donat munere me donat. Compare for inst.

i&HsT.

— Mhbh. (ed. Calc.

=

mums
fswir-

3,

17242)

Yajii. 2,

114 [fan]

^gT

fgrTF5!T& cTT

STWTTFT

(a father

(Dharma bestows riches on both
good and wicked).

may
as

either bequeath his sons

he likes best , or he should
lot

bestow the best

upon the

t%T.

-

eldest).

R. (Gorr.)
'

5,

11, 11 yjfsr.

M- 8

j

270 ^Fiirrfftf^jrmTCT

ottstt

trimiPriMpH (they utter out be.

ST^um

f%^

(a

not-dvija,
dvija

guiling talk).
5fTT. ~~
ss

— gWt^tifrl

when hurting a
(he robs the

with

*^

moused

harsh words).
riujlfi

ney).

^1

'

1

ffi

Both
Bern.
tion,

constructions

are

side

by

side in this
qti<jyi<i,4ri

-m (he robs the owner).. mantra of
FTCFoTTyr^yift.

Paraskara
but

(G-rhy. 2, 2, 7)
qsr
it it

q^ig-y^qRcUM:
not
the
this

The verb
in
fact

seems to offer some irregularity of construcis

verb, which

is

dealt with in a

strange way, but
ceals
fice,"
its

is

common
One
is

translation of it,

which con»to sacri» worship-

proper meaning.
its

wont

to translate it

but

real purport

must have been some of
or the like.

ping, honouring,
is

feeding"

Accordingly the offering
fed

put in

the

instrumental,

the

divinity

or

worshipped in
l

the

accusative.
iu/Mta-i.

d&litOa

One needs The
real

must say ^ fa fir ^piMd
equivalent
is

*-!^

robs

fcovt;

of

our

»sacrificing"
is

is

^

=

iietv,

here the divinity

a dative, and the object
is

either
of-

the

fire

or

wheresoever the offering
therefore

poured into, or the

fering

itself;

^g^r

ijfn
is

sis{)ftj

or

§^wr
1

^rfr

<&s|<|(m-

Moreover the etymol. accus.
rj^ as

of course also available as well with
jrff

with

j;;

it

may be

said

tidm^ , atTi^

sj^)fa.

But the
2, 3, 3

instrum.
(see Pat.

of the offering

with

^

is

vaidik according to P.

on that sutra, I,

p. 444).

Now, some verbs have the faculty 46. Double objects at the same time. object.
It is said as well
cF>*rr oris?

of admitting

two

(he tells a story) as

Fori

ori% (he speaks
strfff

to you)

;

as well snj j^jh (he vanquishes the

enemy) as ^rsf
3

(he

34

§

46-47.
fspsriFTsnfirT (he

conquers a kingdom); as well
t

teaches his pupil) as

wiHUl RH
l

(he teaches the law).
l.

By combining
jmt attend
a.)
,

both constructions

we

obtain

<%m

crfs?

Farr;

2.

srg

stzttft; 3. fsnssr

wn^u
ZTR,

i

fcf.

This

double object may
^", 5f^[, %||t^
,

verbs of speaas

king, as
yifciuiri

etc.,

asking

T^T ^>

4-e^iri

and
,

sim.,
b.) (to

teaching,

especially
,

*M
,

^llltd and

3jyT'|C|t||r(

some
,

others

especially

sHTfrT (to win)
4ne).

,

^tf^r

mt/%)

^TH*TfrT

(to

punish

to

See P. 1,4,51 with the commentaries.
-s^rfTrnft srrk sanst^TJ

Examples: speaking: Nala 1,20 rmt
rRT,

E.
5, 3,

2, 52,

31
iTT

srrfrrir
^ idd-feTi

^f| ^fra^rw;

^T
Ch.

asking,
fellow

begging:
of a

Up.

5

rem
five

muHUhitW

(that

rajanya
1,

asked
31
st

me
ar

questions), M. 8, 87 Mlt^l er^gjr tSsTPT, Kathas.
(he
(

mmi\-4r\

requested a boon of me), Mhbh.

1,

56, 24

Horn?

jm

nra

=T

Fat

id-duPlm^
'will

(I

do not beg gold of you,
27 ^itrer
that, which

my

king, nor silver, nor cows);

teaching E. 2, 39,

srsrir-

eM^iaT a<Hm

i

me

to do)

;

— f%
1,

firi
:

TPT^ (I

do
5

all

Mhbh.

3, 59,

Pmm^EwHd

5^: Kumar.

2

imat^T ^Mlfi TfmslhST

tsiraT

jm ^T5T ^tr, —

Mylady

enjoins

J^ff^Ti^

(they mil-

ked from the earth resplendent gems and herbs of great medicinal power);

^u ju

:

M.

9,

234 H ^M^a
i

5TT3^ (he

should punish

them with a

fine of

a thousand pa n a).
to

Eem. Indian grammar adds
literature
jtst^

them some others
(to

,

instances of

which construed with a double object are scarcely met with in
,

if
,

at

all.

Of the kind are f%
,

gather)

,

pr

(to check),
i

(to
i

rob)
Pa
,

rp^ (to churn)
i

thus exemplified

d-d+Jd fa-Tl fr! thcHlPl

hHc^u Yet 47.
is

asw srtrf T^RRr m«ji(h etc. '). with none of the said verbs the double accusative

of necessity.

Other constructions are quite as usual,

sometimes even preferable, especially in simple prose.
1)

Here also vernacular grammarians put the two
as irt,

accus.,

depending

on such verbs,

5T^, see

40

R.

.

§

47-49.

35

The verbs
person

of asking

are often construed with the ablat. or genit.

of the person
_|_ loo.
,

addressed.

Those of teaching admit of
p.

aec. of the

of the thing taught (Priy.

11 iTVHrtioi

rSltdf3rict||)

4ll(5.uifd,

M (£ui'R

and other verbs of enjoining are con_|_

N R^
I

strued

with ace.

of the

enjoinment

dat.

(or its substitutes) of

the person.
of the

Those of speaking are often construed with the dative
or

person addressed,

the

genitive,

or
,

gf^.

NB. Some verbs
known)
48.
,

as 3FfaMpi (to tell)
(to

c^fFr

(to

make

3Tll<^llrl

enjoin) never

comply with the

double object.
In the passive construction the person asked, addressed,
for,

defeated

etc.

turns nominative,
accusative.

the

thing

asked
it

spoken
tjCT:

etc.

remains
-jarr

Therefore, though

may
TO:
£PTO^

be said separately
<T5Tr;
,

sn:

as well as ss^spj, <TVf

oN

i

-d

's

as
i

well as
cpRT

when combined, we
Examples
:

get the type

grimtWrh^cW

d-aww
I
,

Pane. 29 nrfqnr

mn nsr^
:

^srTOn-mq--

(v. a.

have asked
siium
fit
CT

Kathas. 27

142
foe,

my master to ^JUw f^ f^r

grant you his protection),
tiiRid
2,

Qiva for a
sfTsft

to
;

fight with);

— E.
;

(Bana has

prayed

97, 15

n^irr

(imi*^;

^rrfro

oTet:

^

f|

n ftvj
i

Dae. 80 j^t
ft

Q hjuhhI

(flJWH^ifu
fine

5^tt-

M.

8,

36 a-^H
,

oi^^Ufcd

taild-dttmimw*^ (but

when
of one

bearing

false

witness

he must be punished with a

eighth of his goods).

This passive construction

is

often avoided

')

by emetc -

ploying one of the concurrent idioms, taught in 47.
Therefore smfat
fsrt
srf?r

or

ftj-^jt,

ndiwWdri

:

<rs:

or

rSTPRcffTgnrr,

49.

"

Accusative with causative verbs.
With some
,

— If the primitive

the whole

verbs it is, if at all, but rarely met with. Upon the the construction with a double object appears to be the remwhich has almost passed away to be sucnant of an old vegetation may see the same process ceeded by new stalks and young stems.
1)
,

We

Greek and the teutonic languages. In double object loses territory time going. the idiom of the
at

work

in

Latin.

all of

them

36
Doutie
object

§ 49.
intransitive

be an

verb,

its

causative

is

construed with

with

the accusative of
"^cf^fT:

its (the primitive's) subject.

Prim.

ttt-t JjIrT

Cans.

HS\$n\ \<^\ri Himufa. The same apthen

plies to verbs of going ;

we

will

have occasionally

two

accusatives, one of the

aim and the other, pointI

ing out the primitive's subject. Prim. !^g(^t1

^TElFTdiver- p -M>

£T^ il-^JH Caus. {IsTT^Q^TT (||&iH(j?l

^MUM.
is is

But
sity

if

the

primitive be a transitive, there

of idiom.

Often the primitive's subject
in

in the

same

manner put

the

accusative, when con-

strued with the causative, but often also in the in-

strumental. In
two
accusatives,
(the best of ascetics

the former case
as

we have

of course

KatMs.

9,

10 JF=ppr

made

the queen eat a consecrated porridge),

^ ^wf imm-^Ew?w
Mhbh.
is
2, 1,

wherewith
[chRdrchN

cp. this instance of the instrumental:
rsraT (I shall

7

rr

'i i

-gj

i

fli

Qh

not be able to get anything done by yon).

The
one
is

difference of

both constructions
,

determined by

the diverse nature of the notions

carried
to

by them.
something,

If
it

wants
his

to

say he causes me

do

by

impulse
,

I

act, there is

room

for the type

RT

r^rarchUMIM but if it be meant he gets something done by me, I am only the agent or instrument through which he
acts,

the instrumental
:

is

on

its

place T37l^lr^l|Mlr1 1MI.
I, p.

Examples
ti^sit

a.)

of two accusatives ; Mudr.
Jt^»rh

43

=af?t

ch^lfeN-Tji i'-

afHshi-HMiP'Jaj]UiHfeprT u(i(utd
still

(do

not

the vices of
,

Candrag.
ftrffl-

remind the people of the former kings ?)
l

Dag. 144
to

<TOTT

<iffo

dl

itt

mfHwm^HI*^ (my parents allowed me
1,

wed

that girl),

Mhbh.

75,

28
i

sr

^ til^MH^nmH^
'

(he

made the holy
ordered her to

men pay

taxes), R. 2, 55, 17
2,

embark), ibid,

94, 2

^ ^mufqnitH

\mxi[nm

[

i)Wi*i<Ati (he
i

faiichd.Uc'auJH

*rnifiT,

Da?. 215

, ,

§
tTTOT

49—50.
gyrrcnrfTT

37
*f%f^rf^,
and
as
to

qt fcloihW

So always
is

for this verb
its

at
(to

the

same time formally
it

a causative

meaning

belongs to the category, mentioned in 40. b.) of the instrumental of the primitive's subject: Dag. 170 ^T fTCO" mytfeiorar^ ^TfTT y4l4.Hliji ^mrj (she obtained an order of the king who was unaware [of what had happened before] to put
.

teach)

to death this honest

man) Mudr.
;

I, p.

37

^r mch^ &T £hprf3rSTT
i

(after
srnr-

having got written the
q^sR<T

letter

by Qakatadasa)

;

Pane. 51

jmnr

teii^Hia«n(the cartwright let him bring home by
6,

friends),

Ku-

maras.
to

52

^ ^p^nrraTqw SjSFrW (he [Himavan]
is

suffered his zenana

be entered by them, that
8,

»he opened his zenana to them"),
the

M.

371

frt

SotPt:

^yi^ldl
').

(her

king should order

to

be

devoured by dogs)

50

-

In the passive construction these two types are likewise
possible:
1.

the primitive's

subject
,

turns nominative, the
as Mudr. V, p. 172 qflq
iliJHi

primitive's object remains accusative
sraTW^Tir **4 l

m

,

the

^rmpiT qf^ji fqHoi

i

^

,

form of which would be chim 5WT2. the primitive's subject is instrumental
active

but

the primitive' s
1

object

turns

nominative

,

as

Mudr.

I, p.

22

1)

tives.

Panini gives a different rule about the construction of the causaIn his sutra 1,4,52 he teaches that the primitive's subject is the
of the causatives of a.) all intransitives
,

karma
c.)

b.)

the verbs of going (moving)
e.)

those of perceiving and knowing (srfs), d.) those of feeding,
voice,

those

of' uttering
chliilftH

and the following rule declares » optionally also with and ^| J it Id [and their compounds, see Pat. I, p. 109, 1. 10].
1 '

With the
the

other

causatives

,

therefore

,

the

primitive's

subject

is

not

considered an object (karma), accordingly not put in the accus., but in

compared with 2 3 18. which do not take account of the internal difference existing by necessity between the two conceptions but simply set up some outer marks, I have substituted the description expounded in the context. Mr. Anandobam Bobooah has preceded me in this way. Moreover I have tested Panini's rule in numerous instances, but found it deficient now and then even when paying due respect to the modifications made in it by the different varttikas on our sutras (1, 4, 52 sq.), whereas the same enquiry confirmed the exactness of the rule as it has been laid down in the context.
instrumental,

according

to

P. 1, 4, 55

,

,

Now,

to these rules of

Panini,

,

38
fsrach^m

§
^)^m-4
MaHtfoi

50—52.
HcJrlyoi^:

yi(Hri«HM*Jl
i

active

fawcR^nit

[raA anm')

ridMMftoH

M

(K.

has killed the unhappy Parv. by means

of a vishakanyd).

The

latter

type appears to be rare
is

the former

is

the general one and

applied even in
in

such cases

,

as

would not admit of two accusatives
1.

the active form.
Examples of type
qaor ^fw?T:
,

Mudr. VII,
,

p.
i

222 m^^HHtHHteTi

H ehq^ta
(he

Kull. on M. 8
to

287

ma
I

natTl

naiH' FPrefr 5Tq4W:

must be caused

pay

as

much
I

as has been expended), Dag. 164
.sf^T

^m

artaSTO^r

^j

MMid^H f^eh^^n
Hitop. 96

Qh

(Kocadasa made
sHtr]
>et

me

enjoy
:

a bath, food

etc.),

hhw
I,

[sc.

nmfn: innw *if|H

(then he [the hare]
stration),

commanded the
1

chief elephant to

make

his pro.

R.

2, 62,

j^n (wimi
2.

srrioTH: T^isr

mmq^
in his

Example
M -^QrioU
l

of type
a.

Malav.

p.

15 aqidiKWoi irraayn) mrr <jm^T
it

:

(v.

His Majesty, indeed, has

own power

to

make me
51«
(to

release Madhavasena).

When
tell)

having got a more or
their construction.

less figurative sense, the causatives

may change

So with

^faQ

(to

show) and
is

^

i

d^frt

the person
as

who

is

caused to see and to hear

sometimes

put in the ace.

attending on a causative, but

it is

more com-

mon

to

use the gen. or dat., because they in fact range with the
telling.

verbs of showing and

So d^lr

i

and

its

compounds are
something
is

never construed with the ace. of the person to

whom

made known.

52.
°

The accusative of the object

is

not restricted to the
active verbal forms,

a f t ;"e finite verbs, but affects also
pen'a'

some

which are grammatically classed among the nouns. In the
first

011 on nouns

ng

place all participles

,

gerunds and infinitives with ac-

tive signification

must have their object put in the accusa-

1) Apart from the two examples adduced in the context I do not remember having met with any. In both of them the object and the

agent are persons.

§ 52.
tive.

39
of

Hitherto there

is

no difference between the syntax

Sanskrit and of
also

its sister-languages. But the accusative is wanted with some classes of verbal nouns, commonly not reckoned among the participles etc., nl.
'

)

p. z, s,

a.)

with those in

3

,

made

69

sq.

of desiderative verbs; this

class of adjectives has indeed
ticiples,
c )

almost the nature of parof kindred signification,
the worth of a partic. of the
2 )
,

b.)

with some in
=hcR
,

T^
in

with those in
d.)

when having
° ^r

future,

with

some krts M.

e.)

with the krto in

° f|,

when

barytona.
:

Examples

a.)

1

,

8 f^nsrforforyT:
1
,

Osrr:

(wishing to create the
fSpfk: -tfuu\ -

manifold creatures), Mhbh.
pgrejrrj

167

,

48

^Jlf^l &mn
Kag. on P. 2
see 53.
,

b.)

Dag. 25 ^rt ^imjuiifrmqiHfiiUM^tjJ as I could not bear
;

the harshness of their words)
bjsifd


)

c.)
e.)

3

,

70 ^r£ cMJch)

(he goes to
1.

make

a mat)

3

;

Eem.
met with
Uorf^r

Those in

3^

are also mentioned by Panini as agreeing

with ace, but

this construction

has antiquated. Instances of
,
l

it

are

in the archaic dialect. Taitt. S. 6
^sr
ars;,

v

Ch.

Up.

5,2,2

sFraprt

1,6,6 chmch U^ felJl ^ smt wain (surely, he
53-^

obtains a dress).

Eem.
As
far
-

2.

Note

also the ace. with the adj.
this

(worth, deserving).

as

I know,

idiom

is

restricted to the epics.
is

Mhbh.

1,

63, 4

Wren^T

rtsmr FTTOT (this king

by

his

penance worth of

1)
p.

See

Siecke,

de genetivi

in lingua

sanscrita imprimis vedica usu,

17 sqq.
2) Especially, if a

debt be the object, P. 2,3,70. KS19. SM 5TzFt Examples in literature are scarce. Whitney (Grammar § 271 c.) quotes Mhbh. 3,73,25 Hd-rW(iT6ll<*: but the example is doubtful, for the whole
3)
1

sentence runs thus

:

flillHl

sfw HolTwRolld*:
of the

>

where

it is also

possible

to accept the ace. as the

aim
1

verb

sgTTTrl:.

R.

3,10,15

RiJjSPTRT,

;rgffi>[u,4ihU

Utlol

l

R

l

f iT:

7?TTOrof would afford an instance of Tgg>
if it

con-

strued with the accusative,
is

were not probably a bad reading;

Ttrlctt^rdHL.

to be

changed in

jm

-l%dM;

,

40
Indra's rank), R.
1
,

§ 52—54.
53, 12
').

^

nflrtimMgTti* qrtHchim H^ (she is
i

not worth

being given up by me)

Eem.

3.

In the ancient dialect of the vaidik mantras

many more
6, 23,

kinds of verbal nouns
srfSor?r qfq-; ^rrt
1

may

agree with ace. So for
1
,

inst.

Rgv.

4

^J^im :.

Mhbh.

113, 21

we have even an
1,

ace. de-

pending on a nomen actionis QiTitim T^T (by his desire to conquer
the earth) imjifHJrtiHruJ
I

rjj

likewise ibid.

167, 3

^j-ftn

ufHRlchl&u
earlier

(by his wish to retaliate Drona).

53.

The
as it is

ace.

with the barytona in

jt

though not rare in the
life

period, seems to protract but an artificial

in classic Sanskrit,

met with only
2
).

in refined style
it is

and even there side by side

with the genitive

Dag. 199

said of a

good king, that he

was

sfaioifarii

sryuLwidfuHi

ssraTPTSTBrfiirTT

spy^jnnorfnfTT sept (ho(a king,

nouring the wise,

making

his attendants

mighty, raising his kinsmen
etsTT:

lowering his foes); comp.

who
plied

rules his subjects).

Pane. Ill, 71 himI^HHI

On

the other hand, the examples given

by Kac. on

P.

3, 2, 135 prove that at the time, they were apthe construction with the ace. was obvious and nai

at first,

tural. So ^ujiIh t^: mifaWH nsrPrT crajjfcl^ (the Qravishthayanas have the custom to shave the hair of the young-married woman.)

Cp. Apast.

1, 3, 15.

54.
space
time,

m.
note a

The accusative of space or time serves to decontinuity
is

*" 2,

of

either;

it

expresses

therefore
is

what space
1)

occupied or during what time the action

In the classical language
(let

g^
sit

complies with genitive.
,

So Priyad.

39 iqQuirolliiWyitcWUJ Likewise 4M^.
2)

her

down

she

is

worth half of

my

seat).

Panrai explicitly states (P. 3,2, 134
restricted to the denoting of lasting

sq.),

that the barytona in

° f|

and inherent qualities. But he nowhere affirms that the oxytona are not to be employed in that sense. Indeed, a genitive with nouns in ° FT, even when expressing lasting quaare
lities,
is

very

common

in

classic

Sanskrit.

In the same passage Dae.
,

199, the example in the context has been borrowed from

we read q fl fdrl

I

qcrfaraTOnH, aQ d
\iiikii'

w:
list

uIh*hi ioWMwImmiy^i^. •

• •

*^huiui

nwrr ^iHoi-

Comp. the

of epithets in Kad. I, p. 2 girff *4^|iyi|Fmi4^etc.

,

§

54-55.
ace. spatii

41

going on.

Compare the Greek, German etc.
Examples:
a.)

and

temporis in Latin

space
1,

R.

2, 91,

29 s^cT f|

*m agfa:
i

m-NdWfemV

s^qiT_

(for

the

soil

became

flat

over an extent of five yojana's in

every direction), Mhbh.
(he
seized

153,

40

f^r

FT-

. .

him and dragged him along over a space
the dimensions of a thing

=*m f

riw ^wi^'uilg)
of eight

bow-lengths).

Rem. "When naming
6.)

,

one does not

use this accus., but avails one's self of bahuvrihi-compounds.

time

Pane. 165 ^m o Ph
I |

fj^TTf^ rot^Wrrafa^ (for so

many

days

it

was yours), Dag. 96 h^t: wait a moment).

HHi-gildi ehi^irchM*i.(g en

^e

s i rs )

please,

Rem.
which. R.

1.

Now

and then the
jnqsr ^Tf¥'
:

ace. of time denotes the time at

2, 69, 1

fr |?tt:

uQvmPh st
sft

ftt

^fta.

i

n^rHifij

rft

Jlf* ?aqt %€t

-syj-iftiy

,

Dag. 153

•sfg

Iht;:

f^^jcT
lon^a
yrtiyisiH;

S5TJt|;

m=nrVsM

i

*i^f3roTl-ri|g:

rrragircr
1,

Cp.

Ait. Br. 1, 22,

12; Mhbh.

63,

40;

ibid. 1, 121,

34; Apast.

1, 5, 12.

Rem.
ting

2.

Sometimes
to

znstrT

is

put behind the ace,
i

when deno-

the
(I

time,

during which.

Hitop. p. 51 rrar q HMcft moi<jjfiqjH

asffam

am bound
3.

perform during a month a vow for Durga).
of time remains unchanged in the passive;

Rem.
see
if it

The

ace.

Dag. 96

quoted
object.

above.

But occasionally

were the

R. 2, 88, 2

(=
55.
Adver-

here the noble hero has passed the night on the naked earth)
')•

^

ftst

h$

\

w
it
,

is

dealt with, as
siBrf)-

^^

j^ft

instead of vj&ff srfim^

IV.

As

a rule,

the accusative neuter of any
_^

MaiacousatiTe
-

adjective noun

rrfref may do duty for an adverb,5TTsl
,

JTS^TfT (he goes swiftly)

*J

^

HTTrT (he speaks gently)

Comp. such Latin expressions as Caes. B. G-. 5 39 4 aegre is dies and the interesting discussion on the matter Pat. I, p. 445 sq. From Patanjali's words it is sufficiently plain that to say STTWT TTO':
1)
,

,

,

sustentatur,

,

I

SiajH

sage

3?tw: is as go° d as «I«IH' qTCPTj SISJH 4hliUM. From another pasof the same book (l,p. 338, vartt. 9) it results, that some made

the kalakarma-verbs range with the akarmaka or intransitives.

42

§ (he

55—58.
secretly),

^ fa^lrl ^
—-

amuses himself

tf'sl'cMM
v -*

^TF^TTrT
The

(he entertains respectfully).
(name)
is

ace. of the subst. trij
it

used as a particle

= unamely,"
1
,

sometimes also

answers to Greek ovofua »of name." Nala

1

56.

a
tions,

great

number

of prepositions and the like agree
,

also with the accusative
r&T^FT is

see chapter IS.

Of the interjec-

often attended by accusative.

Chapter IV.
5 7its

Instrumental.

The
or

third

case has been styled

instrumental
Yet

after

most usual employment of expressing the instrument

means or agent
is

[P. 2, 3, 18 cp. l, 4, 42].

its start-

ing-point

rather

the

conception of accompaniment,

and
fixes,

it

is

for this reason
]

of sociative.

)

some claim for it the name Nor can there be any doubt, the sufcase
is

by which the third

made,

viz.

bhi

and a,

convey the meaning of accompaniment, simultaneousness and nearness

58.
mental,
1

I.

Sociative.

The instrumental
,

is

the equivalent
this

of our with
third Case
is

= together with
-

accompanied by. In

Tocia tive
-

USed £ L PanC I ' 305

iiHx^-:

i

trmrzi

to:

efazr; TOftfiT: (deer

WF
I

manner the

:

^jdslEW

JTT5P5I iftfiilffrj--

seek after the comradeship with

deer, so kine with kine and horse with horse, the fool with the
fool
a .)witii
prepositionB.

and the wise with the

wise).
'

TJpon the whole however, the instrumental,
sociative,
is

when

accompanied by some word expressive of

1) ThiB tenet has been laid

down by
,

B.

Delbbuck

in his

pathmaking

treatise Ablativ, Localis, Instrumenlalis

1867.

§58.
the notion of being together
f-

43
viz.

the adverbs

FT^

^FPT, FTFJT,
prepositions,

til=ti*i

which

may

then be considered
such participles as
like,

as

^FT! STTtPTT

FP<j>; 2°

frf^rT,
tllrlMI

Wffi,

^m,
is

^rf^FT and the
tl Irl

as

JJF\'

fn^rT! or compounded

iFTT^rT'.

Or the notion
,

of the sociative

expressed by a

compound

the for-

mer

part of which

is

(or

*T^° ) as

(FT

Hfftrp. Occais

sionally the gerund 5TT3J*T (having taken)

also used

in the

meaning

of with.
e tc are likewise

The prepositional adverbs H«c
to

added

the instrumental for the sake of denoting relations
different parties as
to

between
with
,

converse with, to meddle
,

to light

with

Examples:
1.

a.)

^

,

to

contend with
expressive

sim.

etc.

of concomitancy. Mrceh.

(are
rTTWTf

Carudatta and Vasantasena
od-d'^rMiyUUrfi-HTt

X, p.372 %fq f&UH gT^rr: oiM- ri UHdi still alive?), Mhbh. 1, 113, 20 ^t
I

^

p'rl^raiT:

EpCTT ITOTT

cpt

eiTOH sa^sr n^H ufajdi:, Kathas. 4, 136
of mutual relations.
5Tf
fief
i

^

^

^T^^i) Pane.

127

ri-Mi ipjfira sngnT-

2.

Pane. 78

rT:

JH^itrilO

=7

ch(l(n; ibid.

257

3R^T
snr

STf

:

(v. a.

how

are you his friend?), ibid. 281 fag-nT a friend)
,

Rfaffcmorlm

(disagreement with
e fou g nt witt
I

Kathas. 47

,

88

?r

c&

nim)> Pane. V, 66 ^TrrsR^fiT^IfBT^V *& S^L ^ =T iF5f hIh^ ^Jmh &T; Note the phrase fr g^ S^IFW ^ffgHeJ cdj; (Pane. 137, 13; 178, 1) and the type, represented Pane. 43 ;rf
l

^

i

i

tflUlifr

^ ifc^MHH
fetter).

'

sr^T (after having fastened her

to

the pile with

a strong
b.)

>FT%r

and the
Sita

like:

Kathas. 13, 110 ^nji;
to his

UFJraftrFT:

q^rrclor

rnrV

jrirr

(he fled from this spot

home with
m=rT

his attendance),
^fnfT:

E.

2,52,91

prays

q^jsr q^HiijiTErT

^

[that is:

»»</*

his brother

and me] ^fHat ^TomTTBrfaw-

U
Bern.

§ 58—60.

An

elegant paraphrase of the s ociative

is

occasionally "ft^fcr
I, p.

used as the latter part of a bahuvrihi. So in the verse quoted Fat.

426 afafediJ^UHM

l

t

M UJdM^
l

» alone

but for his good sword, he
l

went

after the

Pandava," Dag. 159
(you stand aside as
i
i

^ch
if

^

H dMr*K!6d

rsr qf^oii -

fcHlfiiHkniH'js'fri

longing for some you love,
w° Ti[i,rT
l

alone with your lute), Pane. 159

sich^Ul

m

.

59.
i)without
8iti<m&

Yet the
the old

sole instrumental will

not rarely

suffice.

In

vedic
,

dialect,

the brahman as included,

it is

very

common

denoting as well concomitancy as

mutu-

ality of relations.

But

in classic Sanskrit it

is

restricted

to the language of poetry and poetical prose and to

some

typical expressions. Examples a.) from the archaic
:

dialect.

Rgv.

1,1,5

^aft

g-srftr-

jTJTUr^

(may the god come with the gods),

aw

rT

w&;

ibid. 8,

Ait. Br. 1, 6, 3

s^jh HrWT

miw

85, 7 ^frferStj
(he enjoys food

with his family), Ch. Up. 5, 10, 9
6.)

amf^

1

:

(conversing with them).
2, 27,

from

classic poetry, etc.: 1,
(I

concomitancy R.

15 srr^

roTCT

JiPwmifi eftt
JElHT
Mlrj<ri<*><?t.

shall

go

to

the forest with thee), ibid. 2, 68, 2

it^ttV orerfff JfBTT

SEgpr

;

2.

mutuality of rela.

tions

Dag. 175 rim fa

zjsrsnn

4,w<3r\i srspsr (he took a great aversUfei bhi
l

sion to his
this
i

young

wife), ibid. 91 rWT

nuisUfeWch^oi*^
:

(

with

courtesan I
:

made a
^rnf:

bargain),

E. 3,

18, 19 *i\iri \S mUmsI
at all

m|7^ m

eh^^i-4

^T

(Laxmana, one should make no joke

with cruel and vile people), Pane. V, 62

^

HlPw^kirMferh (a wise
is

man
UI^U ll

does not keep counsel with women). It

often said fsrKwiH

without g^,
1.

etc.

Rem.

Note the turn, instances of which are afforded by
p.

Mudr. Ill,
nothing but

116

inrr

teidloi-w ^uioi
i

wiRirft

(I

have

left
i

them
^r

life)

and Prabodh. V,
he

p.

103

aRm^Jn

^ p^uioi

ulamfd
q^nr

(in short
2.
i

will part with his body).

Rem.
60.

Note chgS^
u if thgt^
:

(quarrel) with the sole instrum. Pane.

V, 74

Htjchl^

(the cooks' quarrel with the ram).

Compound nouns
FT or

or verbs

,

whose former part

is FT,

FRc

,

2'y

many words

expressive of the notions of

§
uniting, combining
,

60—61.

45

mingling are often construed with the

sole instrumental, even in prose.

This construction
derivates.
g- etc.

is

the regular one with
Examples:
a.)

*TsT

and

its

compounds, commencing by
srw

Dae. 79 =g-^iro
i

wifii
to

Hitop. p. 16

not in this world a

man

(there is H *;rfi< ^oi more happy, than he, who has a friend
l l

f^m H gUMMrT
vs.

^

1

converse with), Qak. IV,
,

12 =g?R

tfeHoidi

'

-1

dmfcw

(a jas-

mine

b.)

clinging to a mango-tree). Mrcch. I , p. 34 jyj ttSr ^nTSfrTother verbs of uniting, mingling, combining. M. 1, 26

S^pffsTOwrrr: g^iWTf^fn:

PITT;

,

Pane. 274 i^sft

fold

l

rtJ

l

fqf§TrT:

(mixed

with his kinsmen), Qak. I,

vs.

30 srra

=T

W^mfd q^rfu:
alqum
times
alg/uare.

(she does

not join her voice to mine).

Eem.

1.

Jl^fa

'

is

often

= Lat.
f.i.

afficere
(it

SoMhbh.
bestow
i

I (Paushyap.)

ftnsn^FiSFr

Jlstfiri*

:wsr

was not

his intention to

harass his pupils), op. E. 2, 75, 57.

Many

something upon somebody",
(I will

Pane. 3

bestow a hundred of grants upon you).
2.

^ rm

it is

=

»to

mitrHairH

JldOm

Pj

Eem.
ace.

P. 2, 3, 22 mentions the verb ^rr,
,

complying with
or

or instrum.

but instances of that idiom seem to be wanting
gives
is

in

literature;
it is

Patanjali

the

example

fqrTT

but

not plain what

here the meaning of

g^rr-

— A- similar
^-,
is

fg=iT MstUhIH

)

instrum. depending on a

compound verb, commencing by

taught by Pan. 1, 3, 55 and his commentators, see Pat. I,

p, 284.

According to them

it is

said 5T3TT

^wgpT

i

^eiwt HM^-e^H "he makes

presents to a servant-maid , to a female of low-caste , etc." the instr.

gj
°[

#

being used only in the case of

illicit

intercourse.

instram.
ti

The instrumental attends on the
likeness,

adjectives of equality " * "
,

p. 2,
'

3,

f;
of

identity

and the

like, as

W\ FFTH, H^T,
is

72.

adjj.

nr^M.

Here however the genitive
,

a concurrent

,

construction
ftftj:

just as in Latin. stt:

It is said

promiscuously

ty ,

etc.

or jtj^t

tp

1

;

Examples: E. 2, 118, 35
Ercrfa;

sor^rn SPT;

(equal to Indra), Hit. I, 22
-efc[ j^R^rt OTT5f =T iTrTt ^T

i=PTPTT:

(like beasts), Hit. p.

118

uf&.

46
tarfff-,

§
Malav.

61— 62.
(he
l

I, p. 21-^ar tj if crrjTsraTftr ctwui

is

not even equal to the
(he has

dust of

my

feet); Pat. I, p.

their equal).

327 %• groj

)

ridi^ HorirT

become

If »to

compare with"

is

to be expressed
ex.,

by some

metaphor, the instrumental will often be of use, so for
is

when

it

denoted by the image of putting on a balance, cp. Eumaras.

5, 34.

.

Compare
:

also

such expressions as Dag. 130

gT-s

^Mpra'

g rife7chch4 (and I having the same business mine here).
of a genitive:

as these friends of

Mhbh.

1

,

139

,

R.

2, 23,

3 swt

th-d^i

ftp

mm

16 a^ror i&rt
STssr

^rferr

^rrfer

chfei^H&

spst

([his] face

shone like

p

the face of an angry lion).

02
instru-

mental with
of separation.

As the instrumental is the exponent of the notion of accompaniment and simultaneousness so it is also avai,

lable with words expressive of the very contrary,
separation
r~~

namely
is

and

<pT?TT

?Trcn

___
PlMI

disjunction.
7TWi'>
,

In the same

way

as it
is

said

>

„with you," one

allowed
you."
')

to

say pTtTT Tf^rT:

el?TT $A'lrh>

„ without

The proper is however
mental
is

case for expressing separation, the ablative
also available. In some phrases the instrumore frequently employed, in other again

the ablative. The instrum. prevails with
of the

T^pT
also
r

and most

compounds

,

beginning with T^°

,

with ^l^rl

and «M^T, but the ablative with such as
Examples: Pane. 84
qlTTnT'feui!):

T^', 2T3T.
life),

(he was not deprived of

1)

Delbr.

1.1.

p. 71

»Der
,

begriff trennung ist

zwar logisch der gegen,

von zuaammensein, liegt ihm aber desshalb psychologisch sehr nahe." Or to speak more exactly it is not the conception of separation that instrumental but the notion of mutuis expressed or signified by the ality underlying both union and separation, finds in it its adequate exsatz
, ,

pression.

We

spoken of in 59, b
strued

have here therefore the same kind of instrum., which is 2. Accordingly words of separation may also be conetc.

with
to

^r

Pane.

!\7

rpTFTOT ST^ (dUllD Mfd&dfd-

Compare

English

part with.

^

§
Dae. 172 hn^ fl Ui *H U
their husks,
yirl l^oti
I

62—63.

47
grains of rice of
15,

^

zrgrgremT (she peeled the
I

so

[cleverly]

as to

keep them entire), Kathas.
grief caused

82
his
(let

^Tjft {ot|; f&r^oJraTJT^ (R- forbore the
2, 96,

by

separation from Sita), R.

27 cfrgwr
i)

jt^ftt

Rf^ft trffjjsmt

the earth be freed from a great stain),

Rem. The
»

adjectives jf^ft, ^fcr,

fd<i~i

,

fm^> sim. often are

=

without."
II.

63.
mentTi,

By

extending the notions of concomitancy
,

,

ac-

companiment
to
all
i

simultaneousness from space and time
logical categories,


case.

sorts

of

how
used,

arge a sphere of

we may understand employment the third case occuGenerally spoken
,

pies in Sanskrit syntax.

it is

always

wanted to express the circumstances, instruments means ways properties accompanying the action and qualifying it. In other terms the instruit is
,

when

,

,

,

mental has the duty of
or state, expressed

telling the

how of the action
it

by the verb or verbal noun,

de-

pends on.

For
it
is

clearness'

sake the most striking types of this

instrumental will be severally enumerated:
expressive of the
(kartr).

V* and

2'y

instrument
for

(karana) and the

agent
wanted
(it

These two kinds of instrumental are

practically the

most important,
(he

they are the most
cuts with
t$x\

for. Examples of the former

jt^-dt qfrtIh (he

a knife), qTHjt
is

n^H

goes on

foot);

of the latter

dcchd^

done by me) (57).

1)

the
r

M. 2,79 affords an instance of instruin. and abl. depending On same verb, The latter half-cloka runs thus ircrTlUMH) 4iyi-r4Mdl-\

fdPolM-ttjff (after

a month he

is

a released even from a great sin likewise as a

snake from

its skin).

Here the

abl. ctto':

and the and

instr. fsraT are coordinate.

Compare the

like coincidence of abl.

instr. causae.

48

§

63—64.

Thirdly, the instrum. denotes accompanying circumstances

and
aJiitH

qualities

,

like Latin abl.
S

modi and

qualitatis. M.

i,

3

mffym
toil

etiJFd

HM-dd^

(he must

make money, but without
^isiW*'-

giving

to

his body), Pane. 129

^iHchmfao^H ft^chl

^h

(Ping, exercised his royalty with
it

Dam.

as his minister).

Fourthly,

declares the test,

to measure by; vmm-

rdimfa (you will
Fifthly,
is
is

know

it

by

its

fruit).

it

expresses the price or value, something
,

rated at , bought
book sold
,

sold , hired for , the thing ,
,

some other
fSrarfcreniT:

taken for in exchange sim. Pane 158
:

yqchuirH

m^cfr

(a

for a

hundred rupees).

Sixthly

it

denotes the

way by which one
,

goes

;

Qak.

HI
a

jjrnrr

si

low Indian MrH(fa( nHT (the tender

girl

has passed

little

before along this

row of young

trees).

Seventhly, the instrumental denotes the cause, motive*

or reason

,

by which something
(prosperous

is

done or happens to be
by
by

;

y^T
(v.

^SRfT:

by

wealth), f^rar HOT (fame

learning),

H^NUMHU ^
a.

(that person has

arrived

my

order), srterr

5PPT

a present).

64.

It should be

kept in mind, however, that these and
are but

sJum. similar distinctions

made

for argument's sake

reHo an<* ^° n0* answer to sharply separated real divisions. Properly speaking there is but one instrumental in all of

^

,

with,

them
is

,

just as in English

it is

the same word with, which

used in phrases as distant from one another as
,

/ go
he
is

with you

I cut

with a knife

,

he with his black hat

,

content with

me.

For

this reason

on the one hand noof divisions

thing impedes increasing the
subdivisions

number

and

according to

the manifold logical variety

of

its

employment, but on the other hand no system
it,

of division will exhaust

and more than once we

,

§

64—66.

49

may

be at a

loss

under which head to enregister a given

instrumental.

Eem. The
ceptions

being implied of so various logical confor expression as small, as

by an implement
is,

a case-ending
explicit

has by the time become inconvenient.
signifying

Instead of the simple instrumental, therefore, a more

mode

of expression

,

more

precisely

which kind of logical relation
is

is

meant

in every instance

often

words as
Its

W, ^HT,
of,
is

made use

namely the periphrase by .such

SPl^T,

TO^, ^T^etc.
fea,

relative frequency

one of the most striking
Sanskrit.

tures of

modern

,

compared to ancient

65.
Fuller account °
i,

Some

fuller

account on the different kinds of instrumental will

be S 1Y6n n0W 1.

them.

instrument or karana.
i


,

srs
I

ch

w

Examples: Pat. I, p. 119 wraidH ^«v*i-ivi. r r
'

i

mi, srr

(a piece

of

wood

tied with a rope or with iron)

,

Mrcch.
Pane.

(p.

54)

g^f

g dlj jiUl
i

ifrl^iHH

(cover
1,

him with

this cloth),

148
(he

^r

arsR f^rsmn? rTUtirft,

Mhbh.

144, 18 crraT^ron'g^T
ibid.
1,

hi<hh

started on

a chariot, drawn by asses),
I

120, 19 ;j%^t
iTFToTPT

<cd^I)m|frt

SoTTWJIUrWMI JfTN^

jjsh

3

OT^;

RrjiyiiM

OT^SR^

(by sacrifices he propitiates the gods, by study and penance

the
rites

munis, by [procreating]
Persons,

sons

and [performing] the funeral

the fathers, by [practising] mildness he propitiates men).

when being instruments,
a.

are likewise put in the third

case; consequently the Sanskrit instrumental of a person answers as

well to Lat. per as to Lat.

(SiQhm

= Lat.

Prabodh. VI,

p.

132

ifjrr

^

qfimn^T

compertum

est

66.
a.)

2.

agent or kartr.
,

a

me per

speculatorem.

In

this

meaning the instrumental attends
,

on passive verbs
,

to

denote the subject of the action

as has
i

been pointed out
qTUT

6 —&)

on verbal nouns

,

as Malav.

I,

p.

28 [HfdTdmm

P -jJM
l

(forbearing the blame

of others), for q^rrr

f^RTO

=

qftiT oRfrf f^tETT-

In the latter case the so-called subjective genitive

,

50
is

§
,

66—67.
which
its
is

a concurrent construction

even generally preferred unless
cp. 114.

ambiguity would result from
Agent
krtya.

employment,

Bern. Likewise both instrumental and
denote the agent with a krtya.
if

genitive are available
is

to^.Z,

As a rule the instrumental
if

required

the

verbal
of

sense prevail, but the genitive,

the krtya have

the

value

a noun adjective or substantive. Examples: instr.
^ai -Hi
l

Pane. 167 i^idW
II
fifirr?

M^HoM*^ (I

am

obliged to emigrate), Malat.

wn

ST53T (what can I help here?),

Vikram. I jjclfgiW f^&rrat t^tott.

QdoJ
tion);
tfl^r:

JTsrft:

(v. a.

the audience are requested to listen with atteninarr
i

— gen.
i

Pane. I, 450 qwnnf yfuiHi

st-

M qaT lOT lHWHHl^i
,

chcHR^

:

(the learned are

an object of dislike

to the ignorant

the wealthy to the poor , the virtuous to the wicked
to

and honest women
srcf

such as are of a loose conduct),

ibid. p.
,

268

iiiuii:

qmdl

-si

Ui|rj||7mi ofMIT:

(we

,

domestic animals
g-,
3;:

are a prey or ^, they
aTsy^TPTPTj

for wild beasts).

Hence, when compounded with

are construed with gen., Pane. 176 ^sht [^f^^iiui

wpt

Mrcch. IV

(p.
,

144) rrqW m^:
attribute
i*
,

dwn
abl-

^mx
1
).

67.
litveT"

3.

quality

circumstance
* ne

=r

(*ftdm<4rW

nmnw,
'
'

When

denoting a qua-

'^y or tribute
the restrictions
Sanskrit. So
it

"
to

=

qualitatis of Latin

grammar, but

as
is

its

employment in Latin do not exist in
l

said (Kacika) irfq Hdl*»i Ui;rHl ^HMrf

you seen a
ft

^^ (have
jfr

disciple with a pitcher?), ibid,

on P.

2, 3,

37

sTetPt:

i|^;

so Hitop. 125

srW:

telyq&RH

(a treasury

with

little

expen.

ses)

comm.

ssRrqHjifar fdiiMur fjrtjrr;

E-

3, 7,

3

taiirtrgTT:

ct.M-1^ (a

forest with manifold trees).

Examples of
Lat.
abl.

its

attending a verb.

Then
47

it
g-

has the nature of
ft

modi or circumstantiae. E.
sr^f iTlrTT

2, 64,

f^SEPT 1PTIT

ssr-

JWWJI^irdtPT, Pane. 161

dN^I^HIil-^iri (a bridegroom
ibid.

approaches with a great noise of music),

28 twj

k\dh\i

\

nroTr

yim^cM

n-JduwHO^^uiRjtiiR^ch^iHijyiim ^n^rr ^r: [sc. F5pn] (go to him and while living brotherly with him on the same spot,

1) Pan.'s sutra is

ir^UrM

-uVUl

[sc.

f|fft5rr]

,

which is expounded by K&9,

=
It

SrJfUtTOT ^ratfT »to

name

the laxana or mark, which makes

known someetc."

body or something as possessing such quality, property, nature
includes therefore the notions quality, attribute, circumstance.

§

67—70.
ibid.

51
162

spend the time with eating, drinking, walking together),

5^T

dlrlfotllrlch^m

^ft

srgr (while discoursing thus , the night passed

away).

E em.
Pane. 56

1.
ft

Note gjTH with instrum.
i

»to
.

behave in such a manner,"

ira%HrfH^qTrr

ddmu uM")^

Eem.
verbs and

2.

Such instrumental have often the character of adconsidered so (77).
"sfjqrrT,

may be

compounds
V,
p.

in ^gtir an d

when

Among
»as,

others

we mention
of."

by the way

Mrcch.

187 thHtft spr

icrfft dcH-s!,MUl JTTFliT

(methinks, the firmament dis-

solves and falls

down

as rain).

Eem.

3.

In some turns the instrumental of circumstance

may show
2, 37,

something of the fundamental character of the sociative. So E.
18 cfrwita'
the
(I

H^ tH 5R
i

ii-c^tjd

crtst (with L. as your companion go to

forest,

my

son), ibid. 2,

30, 27

^

should forsake even heaven,

my

queen,

^

rTBT

p&T

teli

l

HUjfa ffcra

if its

attainment would
i;

be joint with grief of you). Similarly Pane. 309 fiM^txtwioli
riMrt3ctifqil<?wVi<* fHyd^«riH-4dcjimi
Hf^4=Hcdiuiy
JHHiiiidi: (the

sw-

fisher-

men

arrived

with a great number of fishes they had killed
,

and bore on their head). Here we are
dary of the sociative and the
instr.

indeed

,

on the very bounequivalents

of quality.
its

68.

This instrumental

is

by

far

not so frequent as

in Latin and Greek, the attributes or

accompanying circumstances

generally finding their adequate expression in the bahuvrihi-com-

pound

,

see chapt. X.

Qualities and dispositions of temper and
,

mind
,

are also signified

by compounds

beginning with the particle g°

as

^rfnsrr, Stsr^TRJT, cp.

184,

E.; occasionally

by periphrase, as Kam.

3, 3

MMfcoM

1 .

chfrumi <mrr £frTOgTn^ (with the utmost

compassion he must

succour the distressed).

69.
4
'

4. test

or criterion.

— Examples: Eagh. 15, 77
i

EPTOoT

?TT

(her
i

chastity

a.-diTl'JH grsfft m ^cH was inferred from her pure body), E. 3,
i

12,

23

aViifu iaiix^ Ef

£wpt Hmd

l

ft^

(by

the

dignity

of his

person I conceive him a vessel of penance
Lat.

and

self-control).

Cp.

magnos homines virtute metimur.
price

70.
5Price
-

5-

or

value.

Examples
>

:

Pane. 318

rTrfts?nfiT!

jfnanft JP

ritfr*f^f¥^3srT:

**»• on

p

-

2 > 3 > 18

^^

cWrTT

JTT

,

52

§

70-72.
ch^lPi,
it

Pane. 3 qrf foWiQshzf HiiMHUlriHiR' chljihri 5njf (I choose exile , were

R.

2,

34, 40

^g^h^uwEr gsr-

at the price of all

my
is

wishes).

Likewise the instrum.

is

used to denote that, which

given in

exchange

for

something: Pane.

152 JT^Trj chRj^ftiH^f^rliRd^r^

(who takes [from mo] peeled sesam in exchange for unpeeled?)

Rem.

1.

The

last

but one example admits however also of an other

interpretation, as

ggeRW:

m ay

signify

»

above

all

my

wishes." There

are a good deal of instances proving, that Sanskrit had, especially
in

the ancient dialect, an instrum. of the thing surpassed of the
as

same power
this

the

so

called

ablativus comparationis.

More on
either P-!> 4
i

subject see 107.
2.

Rem.
q 17 shirt
:

The verb qfjwt

(to

hire)

may be
right.

construed
sih
1

.

with the instrum. or with the dative of the wages;

^

or ^ nid

Both conceptions are logically

71.

6.

way, by which.
direction

Pane. -212 chrWH qirnn

iiiilK l:

*(<*il:

(in

Y

ajr

'

what
in

the

crows

have

disappeared?).

By

a

common-

which.

place metaphor

jttttoT) <TOT

sim. are also used to signify the manner,
I,

which one
7.
i

acts.

Pane.

414 i^rfyTT

72.
'
t au "
;

-

cause, motive, reason.
fTOT

gj|g(^§? q*rr ^T ETTf^T ST. Examples: Dag. 198 gfj-^f^ spim": P

a

2 3,
'

sauty
(instru-

gyT *j Up.

^

4, 10,

feKPT (some boy, vexed by hunger and thirst), Oh. -» 3 g- ^ a tH s^fgirj 5TT (from sorrow he was not able to
<t
I

[

I

sTeaM- eat),
sae.)

Qak.

IV nj Qfacfrrt
is

I

Hj

^UUH?JT

*TT

FT

STffrq

rm: (even

when

injured by your husband you should not oppose

him from wrath).

Causality
the latter
is

also

expressed by the ablative, and in some cases

to

be employed exclusively. But commonly both con-

structions are promiscuous and occasionally found together in the

same sentence. Pane. IV, 34
JT5TT:

jt^ ^ fM f%t%^t
:

Jjarr

PrtRsiHi'

i

sripr

aTOTT finfr
,

^

f3 *fl >i rt

(nothing
,

is

ambrosia and poison
lives
gffiui

at the

same time woman alone excepted

by whose union one
Kathas. 29, 25

and the separation of
JTETOTT!
illness).

whom
's

causes death),

?pT

(lilri

:

(i*

from joy she has no appetite, not from

Rem. The
tal
is

ablative

is

forbidden and accordingly the instrumen- P.
the
2'y

2, 8,

of necessity;

^

l ly

cause
if it

or

motive be at the same

time

the

agent,

see

102,

be an abstract noun of the

,

§

72—73.
')

53
It

feminine gender, expressing a quality.
or
srterforjfi;

may

thus be said

srfifrjr

(released

by heroism), but only

fftjrr

ggtiQH

:

(he fled

from
instr.

fear).

Hence

often the abl. of a masc. and neuter and the
together, as E. 2,
70,

of the

feminine range
i

25

sriToT

^rar

f3iT f%^TT

MM^di

II, p. 31 srpyf:

mj rorprr =srrfa jh^tt wjmtRi ^r ^sftptj or Prabodh. waft wn srroirpH <gg: %crfrf *MQu*uifeiyci-,iH;ddiii
i

^r ^r ^ma-Urufildl-uffi

(as

you were a boy forsooth I have seen you
, , ,

at the

end of the Dvapara-age
old

now by
not

length of time and by

my

being vexed by
scientific

age I

did

recognise

you exactly). In
like, abla-

and philosophical works, commentaries and the
with instrumental in
° rrar

tives in ° F5nrr alternate

in order to de-

note the cause or the moving principle.

73.
iwpar-

Next to the instrumental
what
side,

of causality

comes that which
,

menu- signifies by

Like the Latin

abl. partis it

comcomused

moniy depends on adjectives , but
plement of the whole predicate.

may

also be the

It is especially

to point out the points of comparison with verbs or nouns

which denote superiority or
ference. Examples: E.
1,

inferiority, likeness or dif(disfigured), Ch. Up. 2, 11,2

1,

55 frnn

foigirT:

H^i^m
-suBirT

trsrfworifT

t^t^Mt,
in

Dag. 77 *ortimu: w%£t 5repT Rifduy")

(he

was rich
5TOT

various kinds of knowledge and in good
fsfcir-

qualities,

but not very bulky in earthly goods), Pane. 274
(Sq
i

^JTrTTwrt sffifnr

mi^

chimin

stt

ffcr.

(am I

inferior to

both of them either in valour or in outer appearance or in study
or
in

cleverness?), Dag. 177

^t?f^t

f&tfiFT ^lsll-ri^-^ldH

^

SoTOpf-

1) P. 2, 3,

25 perhaps admits of two interpretations. The words fsnTTTT TIUT
signify
is

-sf^PTFT
this

may
all,

»

optional,

when

expressing

a

quality, provided

quality
at

not

denote
endings.
ablative

as

no feminine" or » optional, motive be] a feminine." Moreover the term stri may well all feniinines, as only such, as have special feminine
if [the

when

expressing a quality;

At

all

events,
special

in practice,

when

signifying causality, the
is

with

the

femin.

ending

° OT:

always avoided.

;

54
i

§
srrTff

73-74.
all his

HriVa

(he

is

surpassing

citizens

by

his birth, his

wealth and his being the king's confident) , Qak.
m<.M<jTiq|ytfr

V JtH^dld

f% tryf

^\um qfejriH *j^ (the tree does tolerate the ardent glow of the sun on its summit to assuage by its shade the heat
wrffT
qf^rTTOT
l

of those
A\iHl[

who come may also be

to it for shelter).

In the

last

example, the

instr.

accepted as the instrument.

In practice, indeed,

the different

shades of the how-case do not show themselves so

sharply, as they are exhibited by the standard-types, cp. 64.

Bern.

1.

Concurrent idioms denoting the side by which, are
if it

the ablative and the locative, especially the points of comparison.
side.
abl.

be wanted to express

It is

even allowed to use them side by

So R.
(TrasrT
(gfr

1,

17,

13 two instrumentals are used together with an
1,
i

trwr diJi^^-aU fr), Mhbh.
trarT

16, 9

they range with a

locative

[Smhi

an

*a"u=iify^T sr^r
is

HsreTT eptot ^ter)-

Eem.
one eye)
fdriafrl
,

2.

The instrumental

of necessity,
suffers,

when naming
l

the p

*•

part of the body,

by which one
cFifirr:
,

as
2,

a^U
any

l

giror;
jt

(blind of«y
a^; tujtj

mfijMi

Tlt^T wx\- Ch. Up,

19, 2

^3

(he
3.

who knows

so, is not crippled in

limb).
is

Eem.

With comparatives and

the like the instrumental

equivalent to the Latin ablativus mensurae.
fca ii JI yif: (by

Dag. 73 cMiaH Jch
l

i

m

-

how much

is

duty superior to interest and pleasure ?),
p. 7)

Utp.
l

on

Varah.
l

Brhats (translation of Kern

aW

l

z^

C7TT-

af^f dH Uin^

iiMfT

JwfH (such a planet moves so

many

yojanas

74. above the
a con8

terrestrial globe).

tion!

The instrumental is used in many idiomatic turns, most of which belong to the general heads described
in the preceding paragraphs.

Of

them the most imporQ&k. I
grf^r-

tant are:
1.

to honour-,

to favour-,

to

attend on with.

^l^jfarfol^l
with a

^T ^itArfliwilrlotwwifiT:
etc.),
,

(we want to wait upon you
:

new drama

Pane. Ill, 139 ^i hT^ PT'M Pj) H
48,

[sc.

chMlrH

5t?:].

2. to swear-, to conjure by. R. 2

23

q^[g am H< (we swear
i

even by our children); Mrcch. Ill

(p.

126) ii^T^fli wfi&ohm H lf^dl si%;
l

§ 74

55

Mhbh.
phrase
truth),

= znn
cp.

1,

131, 46

g^R rT 5PT- — Likewise ^T ?RRj an elliptical mJW W3 rR STRR (as I have said the truth by that
,

Ch, Up. 3, 11, 2; Nala

5,

17—20.

3.

to boast on. to live by.

Mhbh.
3,

2,

64,

1

q^crwor
(

mjm ^my
-

fbpt;

4.

M.

162 rralrsr d lbi fn

v a an astrologer), Cak.

5.
sfft

to rejoice, to

laugh, to wonder

etc. at.

Mhbh.

1,

138, 71
|

srar
sr

roidl^ (you make me glad), Mudr. VII p. 221 nrrPT (with whose virtues I am not content), Kathas. 20, 43
(the

t| f

H i«iml

a^rsr

PR

^g;

king laughed at
(p. 8)

instr.

Malat. I

Bern. In the case of
be made use
itives
,

m 5W
4.
;

it).

Op.

my

(bravo, well done) with
i

sma^Fr *rfcm fazftrR. and 5. the ablative may occasionally
ftf, ?RC, ST3
(vjl-dfd ) is

of.

That mftH, tjqflH,
the last

has been stated 42, 4

may be transcommonly construed
may
be either

so

,

and does but rarely comply with the

instr.

Rem.
the

2.

With
8,

ttj

,

sirte

and the

like the instrum.
etc.

sociative

proper

(then

^-, gxpr
a fair

may be
of

added) or the
standing on

karana.

Ch. Up.

12,3

gives

instance

its
'.

the bordering line of both acceptations slTrt-^hii-i^MlHl drtferf tTRsrf
Tl
l

'lHp terf

(laughing [or eating], playing and rejoicing with women,

carriages or relatives).
6.
^ifTrT'.

to fill

with.
left

Pane. 317
of his

n^

f frguTs^

;

e^ftiprara-:

EjPSTsr:

(what was

store of barley, he had earned by

begging, therewith he
rfTPT-

filled his

bowl), Mudr.
filling is

V p.
also

184 ^

ctrtRt: <nf-

The

genitive with

words of

met with, yet

the general use prefers the instrumental, at least with "TprfH7.

to

8.
Ill,

vanquish in (a battle, etc.). Pane. 291 Frf^gsRTf^ra'to carry -, to keep -, to bear on {in, with.) Pane.

202

^ch

l

i

^

ssrart UTJfr STsTT^t

fS

l

^ld^

(

the cartwright carried

his wife with her

paramour on

his head), Dag. 140 rriBCTTrfRT^in^pr

E e m.
idiom.

In the cases of 7 and 8 the locative
promiscuously hj^ and
zrs^r f^rPT
,

is

the concurrent
or ^FtR- arPTp.

It is said

Cp. Kumaras. 3,22
RjrrRr chi-di^m
»to
-

ir?fp?rRT5T?T iryT q^Ri

mm

^£f

with Kad. I ,

29

But always awrr v
compare."

»to hold

on the balance",

v. a.

weigh,

to

56
9. It is said
3, 30,
qzr:,

§

74-77.

a^^Tbufd an<* fl-dH ( ne P^ys at dice). Cp. also E. (Gorr.)

4 3f&pii iiEia5.Ht tot: with Mhbh. 13, 148, 2

Lat. 2>£m# lapides or lapidibus.

qsrcjr

aaw

f^rsr

Similarly

sjqjr

amid and mqi?H

(to

swear an oath).

Bern. In the old dialect of the Yedic mantras the instrum. attends
on qrOH and
tfsr

just as the abl.
Instr. p. 65.
1,

on Latin potiri and fungi, see
instances adduced there I add
I

Delbr. Abl. Loc.

To the

the mantra in Acv. Grhy.

23, 19 H-H

dH

d^lltdUH

^T nf%mk-

75.

10.)

the set phrases TTi

U'ilsWH (or^FT) ,^ft^T:

sim.,

or in a negative form ^T SnitsFT^T etc. are con-

strued with the instr. of that, which „does not matter."

Or even He,
Examples
:

it is it

said simply

I

^tt

FFT (what matters
is
l

this?).

whom

does not matter,
fej;

put into the genitive.

Pane. 285
?),

h^ih

JuichUreH nJ)d(p.

I being cartwright

^ (what profit have
:

Malav. Ill

81)

tt

have nothing
(what matters

J

o

meddle with

M.), R. 2, 73, 2

me

the kingdom?), Dag. 140
=g

k HMik*u\ shfcl<J (I f% tt srw iTT istH ? Mm Rh fa^Hm tncfnT,
i

fr-

Mudr.

I

(p.

21)

wra^T

*ih(UI

^

mrr: mirtHi-^ Tim
i

3r:

(what profit

may be

derived from an unwise and coward
Pat.
I, p. 7
fgr
rr

[officer],

though he be*

faithful?),

ra^T (what matters us this?), Qak.

Y

fgr fqjTOJtfraT FcraT.

In the same

way
*tot

it

is

said fg; ch^ffi

ir^T

2 M *^ faciam eo ? Pane.

276 f^r anfyjjtrH

*f|mfy.
its

Rem.
when

1.

Like

gsj-,

=

derivative ?rp^T complies with instrum.,
-,

» wanting-,

being eager for

coveting." R.
(p.

3, 18,

4

mjjti l:

qf (he wants to be married), Mudr.

V

166)

^jf q^ar Afa^
his domains).

gfrsr-

iprimmP^-i: *fy(i,6ium
sures

(some

of

them long

after the foe's trea-

and elephants, some others are coveting
2.

Rem.
of,"

Note TTcFrT with instrum.
9

»

dependent on, in the power
97)

R.

3, 18,

g^

l

^MHl

,

Malat.

VI

(p.

q^Hfo-j *mra=r. Yet

gen. and loc. are also available, cp. tim-a

124-

76.

II.)

with ^TFFT, *ltr[, ^TrFF the instrum. expresses
or to stop.

a prohibition or an invitation to cease

§
Vikram. I
(well,

77-78.
your
cries),
(p.

57
Qak. I ^oTT =pr

wnrrarf^r

(stop
,

H^r
(cease
.

no hesitation more) Mahav. II

25)

mn zjtix& rPTOT
less

your unparalleled penance).

77.

Many
and
etc.

instrumentals have more or

the character

of adverbs, as STFTTJT (mostly),

H^T

(easily),

J:^T
heart),
204

fi^HT
So E.

(hardly),

^TrSRT
=t

(with all

my
,

1, 13, 34'

not bestow a gift in
pHlfui *(Vu=)
verse
=T

greuFdcH)yidi(g a disdainful manner nor in jest)
^insii

narmx

srr

(one should
,

Pane. II

*if£<rtM EirTH (he
falsely),

makes

friends

and does not con-

with them

Mrcch. VII
to

(p.

237)

^trr

air
(p.

srnsisrw 165)
cjfFT-~

(auspicious be your
^.cWltti
^TTrT:

way

your kinsmen), Malat.

X

Qf

oiryt(5*flJM

sft&rTSW (nor can K. live longer either

without her daughter).

78.
strum. oftime.

III.

The instrumental of time
is

serves

to denote in

^ \'

W ^iat
thing
(after)

time something

accomplished.

Not rarely this

con-

ce p^j on coincides with that of the time, after which someis

happening.

;Tr

CHMcilch) .siffa; (the chapter was learned in

a month).
applies to space. efTtipTFrawtesJiTT:
:

The same
Examples
(in

').

Pane. 2 ai^u ffiJtMfchi
i

tfr ^j-jr^

(v. a;
l

grammar

requires

twelve years to be mastered),
oII^oItI:

ibid.

237 chfdqtUoi ^lfa trgT

^sr

H

5fsT-

a few days he [the crow]
cft^r-

grew strong
E.

like a peacock),

Da§.

159

HrTf-scrifliuHl

jm- faa^&Uch

q NHMK (after
,

some time

the king's chief queen was delivered of a son)

1,

13, 35rrfr; j,fej^-

^M^UIrtl:

TfrftfiT:,

Pane.

yuqR^HI (as they went on, couple came in sight of some
cess of time."

282 riJ^WiTuiiWAiWMUiUJri: chlRMHcO after no more than two yojanas the
river).

So

-fjr-jq-:

,

Q^m

:

etc.

— »in pro-

1) ace.

The

difference

between

this instrum.

of time and the above mentioned
of the Kaifika:
:r

of time (54)

is

illustrated
,

by these examples

It is
JTfftr:,

said

^lyHKsR^nrrtgorrart'SsJfrT:

but ijuH^tnrtl-s^ai*!

^t5r
its
,

for »if the subject ceases the action before

having reached

aim the

in-

strumental

may

not be employed."

58
Bern.
1.

§

78—79.
to

The fundamental conception seems here
it

be that of

concomitancy. Hence
onally

may be

explained

,

how
1,

the third case occasi-

denotes

even at what time, as R.
^ratr=rftnt -eirHHUli

72, 12 frchl^r (at one
-droll
("i

and the same day)

muTU^ri
,

^isW=ir.,

and

such standing phrases as

^t chM-

l

cFT

W<H
, '

,

which are especially
3 > 45 > cp.4, 2,4.
-

frequent in Buddhistic and Jain books.
Bern.
occurs,
qTsznir

2.

The naxatra

or constellation

under which something p 2
Acv. Grrhy.
sit,

may be

put indifferently in the third or the seventh case:
-

or cnsr tlMMMiHimH

Examples of the instrum.

3, 5, 1
I,

iHMidl •sfatii*?l<ji*(mM)yytqt qT^rfir JtioiiTw-

— ^R

Pa*-

231 *h^ui

fmrm

nrT:

Chapter V. Dative.
79.
empkiyD
the datlve-

*)

The dative or fourth case serves to point out the destination and therefore it generally does answer to En,

glish to

and for

,

Latin ad or

in

with

ace.

Yet

,

if it

be

wanted to express the destination of a real going or moving, the accusative (39) or locative (134) are commonlypreferred, although the dative

may

be used even then,

SIFTFT JT^frT being as correct as
with

m^t

TT^frT- So Bagh.

p. 2, 3,] 2.

w° r
f

12, 7 opttct irEf , Dae. 76 Hii|ia\-d<yi4^ Mudr. II
(I

;M)M^m
92

grprer umaifa
t

s

will send

Karabhaka

to Pataliputra), Kathas. 47,

j rifa' ?rg- jjhjh:

moving.

jgr pdUllJl ir

ST^r

encampments).
bringing ,
25, 27
(p-

(after ceasing the battle

both armies retired to their

With
,

causative verbs of
,

moving;
is

as

those

of
3,

throwing

casting
i

this

kind of dative

frequent. B.

yiMk^MiJ4|yoitrnr
(T5;

f%f%j: <4|Msh^l (W\U |sPT^T:, Malav.

in

76) tmflchm
1,

nf^uflfrl (she lifts
Iter

up her foot

to the acoka-tree),

uuuwiy iTS^TRem. The aim, reached, attained is never put in the dative (39) 2 ).
114, 2

Mhbh.

(d^iu

<mr?:

1)

Compare Delbeuck's monography on the employment of the dative

in

the Rgvedasanhita in Kuhn'a Zeitschr. XVIII, p. 81— 106. Monographies on the syntax of the dative in classic Sanskrit are not known to me,
2) Cp. Pat. I, 448, vartt. 4

on P. 2, 3,12.

,

§

80—81.

59

80.
thfdestion,

In the great majority of cases the destination purported

by the dative
tive.

,

has an acceptation more or

less figura-

The

different kinds of datives,

which display this
#

character,
I
,

may

be arranged in two distinct groups, viz
interest
,

the so-called dative of concern or

II

,

the

dative of the purpose.

functions as

The former has almost the same the dative of modern european languages
is

the sphere of the latter
in Latin. Both are but
plain

that of the dativus finalis
as will be

varieties of the fundamental notion

,

made

by

these examples, which contain

some datives of the kind
I,

I and II,

construed with the
srarwrr
=r

verb

^

farmtr

=T

-diriH

i

*MUI«4

m

to go,
ETTfn

Hitop. p. 42
,

q 'Z^m

5r^ri^h{Mir5a

i

(the riches

of the

miser go neither to a god nor to a brahman, nor to his
fire,

family nor to himself, because of
1

thieves,

the king). II. E.

46, 7

TfjiaiT

rTC^r

Jnrr

(after

these words he set out to penance,
(p.

viz.

m

order to do penance), Ven. II

39) jixf roWlrMcdim^w (go to

your business).

81. D** cf
n_
cern
-

The dative of concern denotes the person or thing concerned by the action in whose behalf or against whom it is done or who is anyhow interested by it J ). It is put 1.) to transitive verbs, as a.) those of giving and
I.
,
,

offering,

b.)

of showing

,

c.)

of telling

,

speaking,

announcevil,

ing, promising, etc., d.) of doing or wishing

good or

and the

object.

like

,

for expressing the so-called
R.
2,

„remote object."
^r gfara' Sorer^t zij;

Examples:

a.)

40, 14

snyiuiw^miR

Pane. 173 jTsWftVt f§rag<W3*RW SPWrnrmr (the king's officer gave the money to Upabhuktadhana), Qak. Ill ^rfrffsrmr 3*T^;rfa, Mrcch.
I
(p.

21)

<£rfr

mj

JTi^srfrmrt sif^n;

&) KatMs. 29, 32 ^uuifcbi

^it

(she ' presented her friend to her father);

c.)

Ch. Up. 3,

1)

Cp.

P.

1,

4,

32 ctTntnT

q-JTfiwfFT

H WRTTO

and Patanjali on that

sutra I, 330.

;

60

§

81—83.
UsimldHHd
qjr: nuTHT;;

11, 4 rT5rr<![5r^rT UdlMHil 3STT^
STTSTTii.
• • •

Kathas. 53, 139
C, ak.

rTgai (the
tells

matter was told to the boy) ,
so)
;

VII ftsw
d^Jlri (he
;

chf-Ulfa

(he

her

lev. Grhy.

1,

22, 10

H^MiJ

i

ti

should deliver to his teacher [the alms he has received])
iron
nfri-a ia'
Rc?t:

Nala

3, 1

chfTm
(p.

sffi'

(he promised them, he
rrejfrTWT:

would do
^Tsn^r:;

so);

_

d.)

Mudr. I

44)

rrrmwr:

EiaPb5?Ert

Mhbh.

1, 3,

178 ?{&

nfHchfrti

(requite

him

this).
,

2.)

to intransitives
,

as those of pleasing

bowing and

submitting
me),
25, 4

Qak.
gig-:

V

appearing etc. So Pane. 282 A-^h jr^pr^it pleases jtstt ij^vEft- ffarr; Nala 5, 16 %aw. mafe4oi i; R. 2,
g-

mjwy tp h

roiwR^-ri (and may those

,

to

whom

you bow,
(a deity

my

son, preserve you); Nir. 2, 8

aw

SofrTT.---

m^ysr

appeared to him).
it is

82.
cur^

In these and similar instances
dative
,

not the use of the
some other

which should be noticed

,

but the faculty of emit

idioms.

ploying in a large amount of cases instead of
case , mostly a genitive or a locative (cp.

129 and 145). Some
of concern

words even seem wholly to avoid the dative
so|c(9hi
(to sell)
is

generally construed with the loca-

tive of the purchaser,

^FT

(to

pardon) with
,

a geniare
as

tive, adjectives as TCTCT,

*M3L4

iNFT,
etc.

^Trfi

a rule construed with a genitive,
83.
caTes of

In some special cases the use of the dative
D y vernacular

is

enjoined

grammarians;

of

the kind are:
450; Pan.
f.

the Jat. of concern.

l.Thedat,withf^rT (good for). Cp. Pat. I, FTC$ %TJT. Even here the gen. may be used see
,

5, 1,

5

i.

R.

3, 36, 24.

2. 3.

The dative of the

creditor with
,

3J(Mfrl

(to owe). **;*•

Some
ssrr^r,

utterances of ritual
isrvT,

almost

=

„hail" to

as

to,

sra^— likewise most phrases of blessing

and salutation. They are construed with a dative, but

§ 83.

61

some

of

•^
<T=T

them
STTIT
cfisr^r

1

)

either
,

Wjth dat. or
ftm?T:
,

with genitive,
,

p- 2

'^
'

$3T*T>
JJOTJT^,

JcaTHT:

5F5TVT

SoTfer

CTjTTWT:

«i^q"

or g -^
1

Ti.

5oT5j3W and ^oi^-Hiy.

Vikram.

p.

62 i^rmH 5^-

In

the ninth act of the Mrcch. Carudatta
5&firei^J':

greets the judges with an
l

^oiRr

1

l

,

wherea- the chief judge answers him teiMHM
ssrfer is

&a

^

But R.
i.

3,

24, 21

construed with a gen.

jsrfer iflsTT^nrrrat

Verbs of anger
186 -^nWhHch lEr
17,

,

jealousy,

injuring,

discontent

agree

'37.'

with the dative of the object of the animosity. Mhbh.
1, 3,

^ch")g

^

(the king felt
1, 1,

angry towards Taxaka),
=T

Kathas.

44

rrrer

^siW, Apast.
A.it.

14 jh?T

ffiJrch tfj-eH

(him

he should never offend),
=T?T%ft 5^?T,
•J

Br. 8, 23, 11 f^rn^a- fazh ^T^rnrroatiMulvri

*rm
with

KM.

I,

217

^faalq^aua (they find
(p.

fault

the advice of their ministers), Mahav. 1
(I

18) ^q^zrrfa TtrT S^nrrra'

am jealous Rem. Yet

of king Dagaratha).

with strain

(to

find fault with)

and

3"^rfn (to hurt)

the ace, with those of anger and jealousy the

gen.

and

loc.

or
'

gin are also available. "When

compounded,

jrg-

and gpj must agree

3g

with ace. ^oi^ \u ^Hrf?r but
5.

^d^qf^ariH.
viz. g^rra (to praise), P.
1, 4,

Some
is

other verbs , enumerated by Panini ,
grq-

f

(to

conceal),

(to

swear, to conjure) and &n- Here the da-

tive

required
f.

of him,
S^rracT

whom
Ill,

it

is

wanted

to

inform of someis

thing,

i.

^oi^-ai'J

»he praises, to N.N." [here N.N.
p.

the

person

addressed],

Prabodh.

66

stst-ht.

siftst.

ST<T

(I

swear

a hundred times to the Buddhas), Naish.
frreiTbri
i

1,

49 grorscTRW sPTRT f%-

^
is

(concealing from the people

his unsteadiness).
it


2

As

to

Sqr,

it

not plain, what meaning

has here.

By comparing
),"

P.

1, 3,

23 with the examples adduced there by Kacika, fosrt with

a dat.

may be

= she presents

or he discovers himself to

but

1)

Viz.

mjrar, q<£, H<£, ^SRiT,
2, 3, 73).

mt,
23 are

W, %r
[rt'Xd
,

and their

synonyms
(HBrf ^ETctTt

(vartt. 2)

on P.

The examples

of Kac. on
is

1, 3,

3v3rr

jntj^HT:; here frpyrf

said to be

=

^TsW:

i

M<*IUWriJlrH M4;

,

62
??rr

§
with a dat.

83—85.
Ao have
l

may

also

have had the meaning

faith in


[a

affection to," Qvetacv. Up. 3, 2
6.

P.

1, 4,
I

41 enjoins

^ft ff ft^T ? f% Rri a m frer:, Naish.7, 57a dat. with the compound verbs a-nmiifd
of the
ritual
').

and nfHUU
7.

.lir) ;

being technical terms

»to utter

certain formula] after

,

in reply to another."

P.

1, 4,

33

mentions

a

dat.

with verbs of casting one's na

tivity

etc.,

like xry,

Tff, to denote

him, on whose behalf
profit
,

this

is

done.

"We have here an instance of the dative of

treated

in the following paragraph.

84.
comma-

Sometimes the dative involves the notion of some
profit or

damage caused by the
Ch. Up.
6,

action (dativus commodi
i

inam- e ^ incommodi).
nod*-

16,

1

^m^ro WH^ch

tjfc<j ^

wj<^ ftot (he
ff ^rm

has taken something, he has committed a theft, heat the hatchet
for him),

Kam.

3,

9 aifaoUlfuMflHiii
(for

^r

saY

5TT

(3-iifiiM

i

3?)

mfh
sake

\a

yirfTjH

of his

who, indeed, would do wrong for the body, a thing beset by sorrow and disease and de<HMM|d^

stined to die

some day or other?), Dag. Uttar. page 19 of the
this
l

ed. of

Damaruvallabhacarman ^ht jTWTCIWiWTOT TOT (from have come in bondage of her), Cak. Ill aa^iq rl dld
l

day I str ,'r-

Plch

3iJm JTTFWt^"

Outfit} WJTR.

Here
tive
this

,

as in

82

,

it is

not the dative

,

that
it

is

remar-

kable, but the faculty of substituting for
,

the geni^\u£ (whom

as Qak. Ill

ch^^^iM ^UiMdPd

=er

^rfirPTterrfirr

ointment
is

and these lotus-leaves

are

sent

for?).

The

dat.

commodi

often periphrased

by ^T^FT
,

,

M yA

,

^JrT sim.

Verbs and nouns of befitting 85. Dat. construed with the dative. So

suiting

,

counterpoising are

the verbs ch^ri ,

rd9 of

2 on P.

2, 3,

13], ^TurfrT, HUsrlrf, the nouns jpj,

^^^and

mw

[vartt.

the' like

counterpens-

^

ipjjg

j,j

language seems to have allowed more of such datives with
so as to be the counterpart of

compound verbs,

Latin

instat hosti

,

occurril

mihi and the like.

So Apast. I, 14, 15 foUWllHIUIll^ol WlPJdKJWUibid.
].

II, 11, 3 TTsTT ZTX3VI wlfiM^rl [instead of STfTff

A

curious dative of the

same kind,

it

seems

,

is

Dae. 149(U|ol<l^=(rUlil <olril3 ErfmrfilOTTfo

,.

§85—86.
[P. 2, 3, 16
s-l<yHIU

63
So Dag. 73

and Pat. on
(he
is
fit

this sutra I, p. 450, vartt. 2].

^q^
7

ch<y<4H

for a

considerable share of heavenly bless-

ing); Qak.
rTCT

VI

grf^q-sijinTiTT

it^h qr^TW

a^qr;
;

R-

(Giorr.)

5, 25,

*r=Kd|Myj irraf^

f%
;

=r

chgMH (why should you not suit to be the
?)

wife of the king of the infernal regions
(he becomes
^rrjrfr
fit
»T

Apast.

1, 12,

13 rrraTO TTwrfK

for hell)

Kumaras.
is

6,

59

irar^rinoRtrSTra'

qlTdlMm

- • •

Wd Prf

(my body
5Tra^(if ne

not strong enough to bear

the joy,

you have caused me by your homage); Vas. Dh. adhy.
WTOT
-ii-nf^Hltii
:

8 wiTrran'-

na ^ e the wealth
fires);

to

perform the agnyd=g^ff

dheya

sacrifice,
is

he must keep the

Pat.

or

qijifcTr Hrf

\

i\

(one athlete

a match for another).
of competency the genitive
as Yar.

E em. With some adjectives
used, especially with
qtrfq-

may

also

be

and s^-,
5Tc?T
tfTtsR

Brh. 32, 4 STan^ qror

^5^T, R-

3,

38, 9

•^mTTRT^
,

qnfcf iTCT

86
tives*

J^\

It

is

likely

that

the genitive had not encroached
.

so

much on

the dative's sphere of employment in the

dialect of the

brahmanas and of ancient

epic poetry,
is

as afterwards. In

some instances the dative

no more

used in the classical language, after having been employed so in the archaic dialect. Of the kind are a.) the dative of the agent
to be restricted to the oldest dialect, that of

of krtyas.

It

seems

the

vedic mantras.

Bgv.L
b.)

31,

5 i^H^l %

HorfiFT

J

Moi T &i;

(you are worshipful to him
p.

who

holds the spoon uplifted). Cp.

Delbr.'s monography,

90.

the dative with the adjectives of friendship and the contrary.
7, 36,

Bgv.

5 t^t qjjf

-x

AVi stst1.1.

The

classic construction is

here gen.

or locative.
c.)

See Delbr.

p. 90.
,

the dative with <&gx (to have faith
1. 1.

to trust)

,

ssf

(to listen)

see Delbr.

p.

84.
is

In classic Sanskrit the person trusted
the thing
believed in the ace, and
is

put in the gen. or loc,

when

=
O
,

»to approve"
5,

or »to

welcome," sngr

of course a transitive, as

KatMs.

114; 46, 136.
Its

On

the classic construction of 3j see 95, 4

126 b).

deside-

rative

aWM?V o c-

(to

listen)

is

construed with a dat. in the Chando-

64
gya Upanishad
(7, 5, 2)

§
fr^

86—87.
a
i

^N^H

',

but in classic Sanskrit
to

it is

mostly a transitive, even when meaning

obey,

Qak.

IV

tumtivdl

d.)

a dative -with substantives
to

,

to denote the possessor, cp.
fcftrroifoi^

En-

glish »a son

me." Egv.

1,

31, 2

Hsptrt (ruler of the
frcqT Tjjtt

whole universe); Ch. Up.

4, 3,

6 g^r
,

oTT

l^\^A
it

have not given the food
personal pronoun,

to

him

to

whom

belongs).

7^0^ (you
This con-

struction has long subsisted
especially
5TciT

in the
in

case of the possessor being a
poetry.

epic

Mhbh.
1,

1,

51, 5

ftjrTT

H^jH
JT

,

R.

1,

54, 11
Utl-c^fn

T^J^

instead of rpj;

Mhbh.

151, 39 iTPTsrf

gfvf^T:

civ
1,

fiWT (Yudh. refuses
111, 14 ^gfa rppT,
it

me

the permission of
4;
2, 32, 8, etc.

killing you), ibid.

R.

1, 13,

NB. In
cases
"§,

the brahmana-works

is

sometimes impossible to dehas been employed.

cide whether

a

dative

or

a

genitive

Both
abl.

may

formally coincide in the singular of the feminines in ° ^j,
° s).

° 3J (° t,

In the dialect of these books the gen. and
in ° n, just as
ferq-

of

the singular

may end
Auprecht

the dative does;

brahmana-works
p.

= classic
p.

-f^g-

in the

or

fem i;. See Kuhn, Zeitschr. XV,

420

Eqq.,

428 of his edition of the Aitareyabrah-

mana.

87.
Dat
of the
pore,

II.

The dative of the purpose or aim
It

is

of very fre,

quent occurrence.
action intended.

may
either

be made use of always

if

one wants to denote

the thing wished for or the

Of the former kind are such datives as
(he goes

<fi^ft
(wood

^TH

out for

fruits)

,

"^TPT

^7

for a sacrificial stake),

^TUFTT'^" I^^UM^T (gold
put in
Qak.
I

for a ring), Hitop.

95

3^pft sfloMIM.
itself is

In the latter case the nomen actionis

the dative and has the power of an infinitive.

SflrMIUIIU

op

W%

*T

M^rJHHIilRf (your weapon
aimed at one
,

serves to protect the afflicted, not to hurt the innocent).

Here

of

two

actions equally

is

expressed

§

87-88.
actionis
,

65
the other by an
is
,

by the dative
infinitive.

of

a

nomen

The

third concurrent

idiom

using peri-

phrase by means of such words as
„for the sake
.tjTzf =g-

of."

^Fl MFTtT1? = Prabodh. V,p. lOO g^^ img RrichqTdMfH^
.-i
l

-

^iihium <Hi^rWRd

(the systems [of philosophy]

keep together

for

the

sake

of

guarding the Veda and combating the party of

the atheists).

Other examples of the injinitive-like dative.
Prabodh. V,p. 113 ^rff
Hitop. 7
xi
i

dlH ^chfchm'tl
l

— Pane. 58 ti&w m^^pH^N (now, let us
:

gferrT;,

plunge into the Ganges for the bathing-ceremony for our kinsmen),

^nwiPprraTf HlRmiMlq^smr

itsrt:

otttitj^

(you have

full

power

to instruct these

my

sons in the doctrine of politics
i

so as

you
that

like best),

Ven.

I, p.

24 TSjrt

f^OTT Ml^tld
is

^Itfl' rTftTTCT

n T^Ti ^TOTsr &
Malat. VI,

Mi imdril^U iTCr, Kathas. 26, 33

i&^jfr oIlt^DchrH
I

:

(thank God,

the

town,

for

attaining

which
p.

have placed myself on
sTrnfrr
(p.

the

back of
I,

this bird),

87

£smr

^TrT^,

Kam.
(

66 jt^jt (Swifyiwiu %5JrT, Mrcch. VII

238) ^sr ih^hmiu

till

.we meet again).
,

88.

Some idioms though
tion
,

implied by the general descrip,

given in the preceding paragraph are worth special

notice.
1.

The

datives of abstract nouns

,

serve to, to conduce to."
predicate..

They

often

when expressing „to make up the whole
HorfK ifTWlji \u
qi")qch
i

Examples: Pat. I, 11 ^sr
evil),

^ ^mm
Ill
,

"(v. a.

it

is

neither good nor
ibid, p,

Pane.

103

i

i

uiiiiiu

PTTHI

M(qiiH^

192 tfa^wfij smnt ^%rJT
it

Hcrifr

(even

if

weak

people keep together,

may

afford protection).

Op. the marriage-

mantra in Agv. Grhy.

1, 7,
.

3 ip-cmf^

hand

for happiness'sake).


dat.

&

grr

m

i

reim

^WT^I

take your

Compare Latin haec

res tibi est laudi.
into", chgMd

Similarly hm-hh
(to
suit)

with

»to turn, to

change

see 85*
1.

Eem.

A

vartt.

on Pan.

2, 3,

13 gives a special rule on the
B

,

66
dative
,

§

88—90.
*fij<yil fa^r-

when
2.

serving to explain a prognostic as oiiHW
i

swrrcrriniSTlftTTt

"5trTT

opsrfer

ferar

d/V-niiti

fwrr

noTTr-

Bern.

The person,

to

whom

something will conduce
I

to

good,

be to 7 0VLT evil etc., is put in the genitive: ddrW M (t^ 8 w glory), cp. 130. — In the archaic dialect, however, we have

^

two datives,
"Latin.

one of the concern and one of the aim, just as
1,

in**

A. V.
the

29, 4 jvgju
for
;

ij^r

sramt sm?^ur:

T^Tirar

G et

I P ut

on

[viz.

mani],
rivals)

acquiring
2, 5, 1
;

my
Ait.

kingdom
Br.
2, 3,

for

myself and
sr qgtoft
still

defeat for

my

Egv.
(the

3 ^gvHrf

s ~U'i|i<LiMurro'

>4i[ri«T<

sacrificial

victims did

not stand

to

the gods for the sake of being used as

food and immolated).
dative

Eem.

3.

With

iRjir

(to

hold
(32,

for)
c), if

the predicative

may

be used instead of the

ace.

contempt

is

to

be expressed;

names of animated beings are excepted and should therefore be
put exclusively in the ace.
or
fcTT

So Panini
yet
of"
it

(2, 3, 17).

Kag.
dat.

^
of

fETT

FJtrr

Hmm
M6 II H*

rRTi° sra^ or sima;
or
sfqip-q-.

allows

the

sept;. =T

Instances
,

this

dative
s.

in

literature

I

have but found

for

Hmm

see Petr. Diet.

v.

and Dag. 88 g^,

89.

KTHHmm ^foii^gfri^ »Kub. does not care a straw for Arth." 2'y. The dative of the aim aspired after with verbs PL*.
36.

of wishing striving endeavouring Examples: R. 2, 95, 17 ^iJ muj q, ,
i

,

sim.

ttww

ST^jt (I
i

do not long
JJITRT

for

Ay. nor

for

the

kingdom),
after

Spr.

128 h^

R

TTTt spfiT

(nevertheless E.
(I

aspired

the

deer),

Qak.

V n-mm
1,

er

-uaivl

do not hope for [the
fas^f
Mf(o[-Ati
I, p.

fulfilling of]
(it

my

wish), E.

18, 57

s^T-

Rfgijffcft-sf

is

in

your behalf I wish to grow
^ fd^a (I will try to find

mighty), Malav.

15

ri^nmm
,

her out).

Rem.
sative
,

All these, verbs of course admit also of accuif

some thing

and of

infinitive

it

some action be
rT
#

aimed
90.
3!y.

at;

^j?T
being able

fejSR I^IrT
(f. i.

H%

The

infinitive-like dative

with verbs of beginning

resolving,
to

5T37)

and with those of ordering
faA^ui
JliKftfa^*?!

and

appointing

to.
i

Examples: Dag. 157 nd^P^ii

]

RH

l

l

(you shall

,

§
begin to ascend the funeral
ibid.
p.
SIT

90-

93.

67

pile at the gate of the king's palace),

126 yicWH uiuqm (he commenced to take an oath), Prab.

102

^

^

V

^atemfe stori^r^

(he

has

resolved to die), Dag. 192
fit

ER?rr

g Q^Ul
'

I

c^NU

I I

tl

IUI<*<rl

(and this tale was
i

to

win the

warrior),

Kumar.
life)
;

give up
his


:

4, 39 ^Rffitit iwrr ^f?T: (Rati, being ready to Qak. I ^h^[hR<H r*l(m R.W (having charged
i

daughter with the reception of guests), Kathas,
$oi

15,

82

i

l

oiuh -

P^-Hti

P4a) IdH

(he

was appointed by the gods

to destroy

Ra-

vana).

Even with verbs
(Sld^iH Ejsfhra^tSTTra'

of promising. Prabodh. II, p, 24 »[h^ h M M ttM
i i i

(Viveka and his minister have engaged them-

selves to rouse the

moon

of enlightening).

91.

In

short,

in

Sanskrit

datives

of noriiina
infinitives.

actionis

{bhdvavacandni)

do often duty of
felt as

As they

however, are always

noun-cases , they agree with

the genitive of their object.

But

in the ancient dialect

many

them had verbal construction. More ample information about them will be given in the chapter
of

on the
92.

infinitive.

Time-denoting 'datives
to come,
p.

may

serve for

expressing

a

^"^ time
A

^s

when a
.

limit of something to be done.
l
l

Malav. V,
(I

139

jtot....

.

si^qvx PtoH-T J

fi^W^-41
it

have

set at entire liberty the horse, that

f&^f&r: might be brought

back

after a year).

Of a

similar

nature

is'

this

dative

in R. 2, 62, 17 (KausalyS,
n:
nilch^ri^&ifiU!

speaks) oMoiwiu
j>

(wui n^iyl

ssr

nwm

qwiomT'Tt
to

we count now on qiT me as many years."

R.'s exile but

five

nights,

which seem

Chapter VI.
93.

Ablative

*).

The
1)

fifth case

or ablative serves to denote the whence ,
Ablativ, Localis, Inslrumentalis , p. 1

Comp. Dblbkuck

— 27.

.

68
Gene-

§ 93—94.
is

an(j

therefore

the
cases
7

very opposite of the
are

dative,

view of
the
atiative,

Nevertheless both

formally identical in the J
of the
genitive.

dual and the plural.
ablative
It is

)

In the singular the form of the

often

coincides

with that
"^TTrT,

but the ablatives in
of

that

are

exclusively

expressive

the

fifth

case.

Moreover those made by
are not seldom preferred

mean's of the adverbial suffix

° r\>

to the regular ablatives of the singular, ambiguousness

being wholly excluded from them.

For
stance

easiness'

sake we will treat of this case under
!

four general heads, I abl. of separation, II abl. of di,

III abl. of origin

and cause
of
is

,

IV

abl. expressing

„on what side."
of the

In

all

them, however, the unity
evident, and some-

fundamental conception

times one
94.
A Kl a

may

account for the same ablative in more

than one way.
I.

tive ei-

oui

The ablative then ° f what place there
,

,

is is

wanted to express from or P -J. 4 *A.
,

>

a starting and moving
Kadamb.
.

2
;:

siTOot the whenoe,
'
'

a -) in
wish
to

its

P roper sense, as Pane. 21
out
(the

t^wii^i^fa^ifi
I,

(I

get

of

this

forest),

21

Ritngfrijl^l '

from, "WU-iMkrlJ^Ji
p.

king got up from his
(

'hall

of audience), Pane.

42

^sptraT

J-lN

l

t^JMHH

returning from the village), Kathas.

29,

179 or^prhr: M^IIIHI, Qak. I

^

i

-Htt^eM-^ (without moving from

1) In
abl.,

the dual the same form discharges even the functions of three:

instr.

and

dative.

contain the same element
it is

As we cannot doubt, that - bhyam and - bhyas - bhi, which is in the suffix - bhis and Greek -<J»,

upon the neuter

territory of the instrumental, that the

trarious conceptions of abl.
2) Panini, in his lively

two conand dat. must have met together. way, gives this definition of the -sphere of the
»if there

ablative: IjoWHU)

WRJ^PT

be a withdrawal, that which stays

is

apadana"

§
the place), ibid. Ill

94—95.

69

heart does not
'

q ^ ftrrrf^af q#rer fqst^H q- FTrft'fS7P^(and my Come back from thence as little as water from
fi^i ~uiqf;,
i

below),

Kathas. 72, 175

Dae. 29

a ^RlchHH
i'

g5TcTl£

(descending from the swing).

95.

b.)

in its manifold applications to kindred conceptions..

Of the kind are:
1.

to see
l

,

hear, speak etc.
l

from a spot. R.
let

2, 7,

2 snrterr

ipeqT rlw' cHlH
the platform)
2.

i^dd-dH (Manthara

go her looks over Ay. from

').

to

zmrsyrg:

»a

fall from , to waver from beast that has swerved from
(no water falls
4, 4,

,

to

swerve

from

etc.
9,

its flock".

Var. Brh.

44

crfffH =T srf?T5f 'pfTFT

down from
^raRfT

heaven).

So often with

metaphor.

Ch. Up.

5

q

MrtJl^i ii:
i

(7 0u have not swerved from
sr:

the truth), Kathas. 25, 179

faw ^

(j- »•

he did not give

up

his purpose), Mudr. Ill, p. 126
(I

^srrtrrsRfiT:

H° lRirini^4 spFT tf&UlR
cadere.
srt,

jfraTT

will

easily

vanquish the Maurya, for he has withdrawn

his affection
3.

from C).

Compare the Latin causa
4,

to take, to receive from. M.

252

jjijftawryrT:

(he

never must accept but from an honest man), Pane. 48 'grprrcm'rrfi^ch
* lfich
i

gifTcFTKr

(he took

a

razor from his box), ibid. 286

cfirfrsfq'

fchfe % $oUHi<{j*i

(—

raised
i i

some money from a money-lender),
rTTrffiT;

Kathas. 29, 47

rm
q-

Kathas. 24, 152
4.
to

get

information
5r did-m'
i

^

^rTrera q fi

Likewise

to

marry from:
learn

qf^nrorrfit

*^i'Ji^UH.l^uiirr.

-,

to

hear

-,

to

from.
1, 8,

v. 1,4,

Pane. 216
q^r«T
I

ssrafrj-iT:

5rf5iT!

Dag. 68

chrif^irycrHJdl

jR^mrrr7

^ ^WuoH
rend)
5.
2
).

(—

learnt from a group of conversing people), Ch. Up.
ft

^rfc

(well,

let

me know

this

from

the

Reve-

to

ask, to wish from. Kathas.
for
its

25, 137

EfRrnrT uifen
1
,

wt^

(who has asked the king
sftifcr

some water ?), Kam.
eagerness
for

41

efisychl^lrf-

titT

tjnqn

avr

(by

music the deer seeks

1) See vartt. 1 2)

and 2 on P.

2, 3,

28 in Pat.

I, p. 455.
1, 4,

The commentaries
distinction

explain the rule of Pan.

29, so as to

make

an

artificial

between the constructions with gen. and with

abl.,

not thought of by Panini himself.

,

70

§

95—96.
1,

death from the hunter), Mhbh.

159, 17

m-cHHi

;

<jy

i

^A

TfryTazrf^

6.

the so called partitive ablative, see 116 E.
cases 3

1.

NB. In the
96-

—6

the genitive

is

the concurrent

idiom, with those of asking also the accus. (46).

The ablative
ing

also attends

words

of separation
is

and disjoin-

ts of
S

to

.

denote

from

whence there

a withdrawal

tio™"

as Kathas. 72, 13

H^T^rf [omifslrl! (separated from you).
(62), the instrumental is here

As we have shown above
the concurrent idiom.

The following examples may
applications of this employment.
a.)

illustrate

the various

to

draw of,

to sever
p.

;

to disagree with. Pane. 50

n'djoieh

swlfaa^uiilfa,
to C.)
k\tm>A

Mudr. IV

136

^Wj ^diU
l

S^T: (being disinclined
'

b.) to release of. Pane. 45 m. si-^Hlli. H-'fl )
Pitj-rijH (she

Mahav.

I, p.

HWl^yl

has

now been

released from that sin),

9

c.)
^
I

to deprive of. E.
(he will

slamic

2, 8, 25 «aidrti~dCwi*Hd g=ft nfcmld snawrsr be wholly spoliated [lit. disinherited], your son,

of enjoyments, yea, of all connection with" the royal family), M.
5,

161 ^t.... g[rigTlchl^
2->

heaven), cp. 95,
sing.

—- d.) those of desisting from
i

fhm, Pane.
IM

II, 117 teiilfc^H
,

16

forfeits

stopping, cea-

Kumar.

3,

58 tftiu^iu

(he desisted from his exertions),
l

Dag. 132 fir^r chHui) -syj Wc-Tlny IK,' Kumar. 5, 73 (HdHai^ <M<Ofi*lHI~h-i (turn away your mind from this bad design).
:

Eem,

1.

Note

ai-antd

(to

cheat of)

')

with

abl.

KatMs.

42, 75

9^

grTOTO MMr-^l afiiHHUi (she,

my

fellow-consort, has

by

trickery

taken away

my

ohtaining a son), Pane. Ill ,117 oi^Qrf

a

i

vnH (to cheat a brahman of his he-goat). Eem. 2. With ui-iNfa and the like, the thing
the
JP73;:,

^
is

crr

^m-

neglected
II,

put in
i

ablat.

(vartt.
I,

on P. 1,4,24).

Taitt.
!

Up.

1,.

2 feiM

m^l

Pat.

p.

326 yrrWrrafFT; H H f^ ffi

[h

(he neglects his duty).

1) Literally »to cauBe to

tumble out of,"

for sr^r 3[rr (cp.

5T5JT)

is

akin

to lat. vacillate, germ, wanken, dutch waggelen.

;

§

97—98.

71

97.
v"!L
ping

Likewise the ablative joins verbs or verbal nouns
° f keeping of, and kindred notions.
!•

Of the kind are:
cows from the beans)
,

'

If

those of restraining, preventing, excluding from,
fTT

slb

V

'^

%

'

Wftxft
2.

^T^TfrT

(he keeps the

those

of protecting ,

guarding

securing

from

,

as

p

"

2

g'

4>

^Ijwff ^ftrT
being

(he protects
,

from

thieves); 3.

those of */•*.
,

"/raid

of

^n TTTp^ WltT
•aiwii^ gmFTFrrajj^TfT

being afraid of and suspecting ^-^ -. q, Examples:
oiii^d:,

especially

1. I,

p.

Hi and 3TSsT ^
16,

f. i.

Kam.

15 swt

=^<5TT10STTssra--

MaMv.

10 hihih^h srf^ffenrw:

(as his

mother's father prevented him from taking her
2.

[viz-

Sita]

by
1,

violence).


m

Pane.

298

fspTT

<prt

«£

iqcpn^wk;,
qfkjjdfd
3.
:

Mhbh.

82, 21 ^.wTrgTff

Jls^, Malav. V,

p. 13'5

^rt

(eager for defending her from the wicked [aggressor]).

— Pane.
p.

179
102

crtsygrnr israfsr
ijffcJr

(you are afraid of the huntsman), Mudr. Ill,
| ftttrtdl

^MH^d:

MRi'oirTl

ciwjUI^HTH'
,

([a

king's servant]

must not stand in awe of
of the

his

master only but of the king's minister»
2,

king's favourite and of others), M.
[S Mif^d (a
i

162 <h*iihu

g>

l

l

*gb-mu

Pntinfearl

brahman should always shun marks
1,

of honour,

as if they
^ra^Ti

were poison), Mhbh.
mistrust
are

140, 61

jnnfijFcfwr:

ST^TT 'srf|Hwrar

(he should

those,

who
1, 4,

are worth mistrusting and

those,

who

not

so), -Kac.

on

28

strr

mm

i

^dj^-

(he con.

ceals himself from his teacher).

NB. 'The verbs, mentioned sub
126 c). Kem. Note anudri'
chaic literature. In
(to

3.,

admit also of the genitive, see

shrink from, to shun, to despise) with abl.
1, 4,

according to a vartt. on P.

24. Instances are
it

met with

in the ar-

strued

with accus.
abl.

modern Sanskrit

seems
'

to

be exclusively conis

The verb

PifsKlH

(to

be disgusted with)
ace.

construed wit!

or instr., sometimes even with

and gen.
(termip.

98.

IT.

nus

The point from whence a distance is counted a quo), is expressed by the ablative. Pat. I,

455

72

§ 98.

tfi n^WT Hf+UW
j.

termi mis a

-

c^~

^pTlf7 ?ftsHTf^r (from Gavldhuma ^
.

to

Sankacya four yojanas)

Hence the ablative joins a.) such
the names of the cardinal
c.)
,

prepp. as ^TT, SPTTrT, points and those in

etc., b.)

5RT, as CJ1U

all

words mea-

ning
b.)

far, as

Examples:
Dae.

^" and the like. — of see in chapter
a.)

IX.
tirth),

156

Hli&WH
1.

l

rilhai

frfe (east from the

Pat.

I, P.

2, 3,

p.

475 see Eem.
c.)

on
p.

this

Mrcch. VII,
,

234
1,

1

ii(5^ oHl-awn
i)
\

^ -m^rM^H^M"!
151, 44 qrfFtgjur
shall

paragraph.

29
T'

"

S

^

Mhbh

-

*>

152 >
1,

ibid-

oRT^tft, Apast.

31, 2

i

\

^pih\y\

\

'M^Pi^

aBHI%^ (he

void excrements far from

his house).

Eem-

1.

With derived adverbs
should- be

of the species ^Rhuih :, d-a^H

1
:

)

the 'genitive

employed,

not the ablative [P.
31].

2, 3, 30],

with those in ° nrr the accusative
ex.
I,

[ibid.

Hence
by

it

is

said for

R

3, 4,
apf:

27 fci»im° Hri| teHfrHm (he
l I

$ug

a hole

his side), Pat.
J

p.

475

mJTtloIrl:
is

HIJIl4,Hlfr'JrilctehMctioMid, <iJ-triUM

f^lali-CJ-H

Ul *If~

n^H^m (what

Aryavarta? The country east of Adarga, west of

Kalakavana, south of the Himavat and north of Pariyatra), Cak. I
<fai?H ^-ddlfl^MMN ^5T ?gmerr is also

But the genitive with those
2, 3, 31],

in

allowed [see Kag. on P.

as R. 3, 13, 21 swrrnror

(north of this place).

Rem.

2.

Panini

[2, 3,

34] allows optional construing with abl. or

gen. all words , meaning far
a

and near, tt u m K or
i

jjttot

i

tiPdch

jm

i

H or u

\

mu As
.

far as I

have observed, an ablative with those of

1)

P.

UWtlrWJMrtW'-l-

Kac. gives as instances also CT^fTTfT, 3*rfj,
abl. is available,
is

-infT^IH-

That on the other hand the

even

if

the ad-

verb

itself

have the ending of that case,

exemplified

by

this cloka

quoted by Pat. I, 457.

;

§
nearness

99-100.
jr

73
will

except compounds of

be scarcely met with

in literature.

"•

When denotingtime,the ablative carries the meaning of from,
since, after.

Commonly

positions, as ^T,
iinmH
( aft er

WffT,

are instances enough of the single ablative.
.

^%
h

it is

attended by pre-

SFRTPT,

but there
So ggrrfa,

a

while")

=

jtj^t,

<Clychl5FTTrjj
i^fff

etc.

and

cp.

128-

^tift.

Likewise f%pr,
2, 3,

^tth,
man may
M.
8,

Kag. on P.

54 quotes the verse

rTid-rWM-tO

enjoy happiness); Mhbh.
srer

^

y«ttirlli,fi4.

(even after hundred years a

1,

170, 3
i

rom^H^Mial efe,
(if

108

|wr
Kem.

0y is^jtioi Idiisr yiRhm:
fall
1.
ill

^Tn:

a witness
.

,

who has borne
<

evidence,

after a week).

This use

kind
of a
f.

of
fifth

abl.

is

meant by P.

2, 3, 7,

when he

enjoins

the

or seventh case to denote an interval

of time or space,

ex.

eaten

now and
2.

will

jrq- JJ3TT %m^\ m^ & H>3?T (D. has not eat but after two days), a$i£\ s ^Pi&im
i i

w|

;

Wt$t (or shlsulw)

5W
1,

firarfTT-

Op. 144.
1,

Bern.
ablative

Apast.

9,

6

and

15, 19 are instances of the single
still."

=57-)-

abl.,

when

signifying

100.
tiveof
gin a"d

HI.
there

The
*is

ablative

serves to express from what origin

a rising or issuing.
,

In the

first

place

it

joins

words of being borne
2 1?
it

proceeding etc.
,

mer
state.

denotes the former state or shape
state or shape proceeds or
is

out of which

some other
3'y

produced
is

;

it signifies

the model or pattern
Ch. Up.

,

something

imip
1 4 36; si!

tated, borrowed, measured from.
Examples
:

of

1..

1, 9, 1

gafftir

^

srr

^fc UHMichiuHdoi
1,

MH^^
rtol
l

(a

^
l

these things proceed from ether alone), M.

8 srfftT-

fr^<H^i"d(o
,

WTi

nsTT:

(desiring
i

to

create the manifold beings out
l

of his body)

Kathas. 25, 43 d dl^H ^
it

s^TfcT

^friw^^lHd

;

(big
1,

waves
115, 5
is

rose from the ocean, as
iim£l:

was. swept by the wind); Mhbh.

51TOT y^r^iHI

tpTHWT:

^^Ti'qw

here the

name Pdn^u

74
put
the
tive.

§
in

100—102
five

the

genit.,

for

the

sons

did

belong

to

him, but
the
abla-

deities,

who

had

procreated

them,

are

put in

So often with verbs of being borne the name of the father
put in
rTtrT'.

is

the

abl.,

that of the mother in the locative, E.

2,

107, 2

jpft

^l^lr^A^I^

M

-

10

>

64

^J^ dl^UllssUri:455)

Yet the fatner
i

may

also

be a gen. commodi (132) or an instrumental.
as
:

Note such phrases
(Kathas. 25,
55)

(Pat. I,
l

^ft usrpn
I

MlrlfcHMslIri^

and

ai^m

uif?h<ci <° Jt

Enfr-lH^

ti,^

(I

am

the brah-

man
2.

Qaktideva from the town of Vardhamana).

Mhbh.

I,

(Paushyap.)

g-

H^ld?Hf|^l ^=hcHoiHH
l

l

Dag. 141 ^l^dliM
toy father,
piness, as if he

FTTpn^ yJMHWyi^^fy<um^.fo: (and who had come from such a distress to as great a hap.

^ H^*lRoi

^

|

ii>iA

gHPTOT,

55tff

had risen from
(

hell to heaven),
festival

Batn.

I, p.

16

-jf^r-

a

i

<r*Hoi

i

>djHm[drW

v a
-

-

we have

after festival).
:

So

to

heal or recover of

from

illness:

Pane. V, 91

azfte m-^mri

'feST: (all

three

them were healed from
3.

their infirmity).

Mrcch. IV,

p.

135

m
,

risr

aifl^m
it

nmunRd
,

f^PffT

*m^:
mea-

(this

ornament has been made

as if

were according
fHHoTrT'.

to the

sure

of your body), Malav. IV, p. 91

qfidU

;

(attendance

according to her rank).

Cp. 69.
is

101

In short, the ablative

available in

any case,
or

it is

wanted to express the
So R.
sid#), 2, 26,

side,

something has come from,
categories
not.

whether contained in the foresaid
31 gj]
1,
FoTfT:

MMl-H^rl (she deserves respect from your
ftrjrr:

Mhbh.

145, 9 fn^Tstr

m^F^H^IWl

=T iJEJrT

(Dhr. cannot

bear them having obtained the royalty because of their father),

Pane. 262 ^q- ^t^

i

*«M

TfpToTi

i

H

m^
the

\

u.iuid«r:

(from the side of

my

kinsmen),
Bern.

The
[P.

last

example

is

at

same time an instance of
one
is

the

abl.

which denotes him, by
1, 4,

whom

defeated or over-

thrown

26]

;

cp.

Kathas. 28, 49.
is

102-

Hence, the

cause, reason, motive by which,

likewise

expressed by the ablative namely as far as

it is

con-

§ 102.
tive^f
causa-

75
,

ce^ ve<^

as

^e

origin

or starting-point
1

from whence

some consequence has resulted ). The instrumental as we have seen formerly (72 ), may likewise serve that purpose, and in the case of feminine
,

nouns of quality
ablative

it

is

even obligatory.

For the

rest,

and

in.tr.

of causality are generally inter-

changeable, and not seldom they are used side by

So Kathas. 29,25

^fw
,

H2IHH!
not from

joy she does not eat

illness)

^

side.

fp\?{>, (it is
,

from
44
has

Mrcch.

I, p.

3RTsRSTf?IT
solence).

^f^Fjfsfr ^
if

^JTFT (surely,
else,

it

been done by taking her for somebody But,
or
is

not by in-

the efficient cause be some obligation
to be used

other binding motive by virtue of which some effect

produced, the ablative alone

is

2

).

Nothing
of cause 8 )

impedes concrete nouns to be put in the

all.

1)

How

easily this transition

is

made,

will be plain

by

this example:

Malav. V, p. 140 dftj^f^fn' STS^t 'S^rRJTraTTTfeTfT!- Literally these words

name of mother of a hero" touches you from the "part of but as to their meaning they should' be rather translated thus »now you deserve the name »m. of a h." because of your son.'' In
signify

»the
,"

your son

other terms the abl. of origin
2) Panini's rule
,

is

at the same time an abl. of cause.
,

which^ contains this statement
is

is

too narrowly inter2, 3,

preted by the commentaries.

His words tfcbrldUl q^nTi [Pto

24] are

explained thus: the abl. [alone]

be used,

if
;

the cause be

a debt,

provided

it

be not at the same time the agent
UlrlUol-d: (he is confined for
-

examples

of

which are

adduced as

a debt of 100), whereas oneunust say

WPT

sri^ftT:

» debt. of

But why should we restrict rn,a to its special sense of a money" and not take the more general meaning of » obligation"
If it

and »duty"?

could be proved that jimr implies also the notion of neefficient

cessity, avdyxtt,

the rule would be quite correct, for in the case of direct
cause the ablative alone
is

and unavoidable consequence of an
be used, even of feminine words.
3)

to

concrete nouns

Speaking plain, neither the ablat. of bhavavacanani npr that of is allowed by Panini's rales. The sutras'2, 3, 23 -25 name

76

§ 102—103.

but often they are expressed by periphrase, especially

by means of %rft: (l92).
Examples.

— Kathas. 27, 76

f^oJTT:

w^dgi

a

i

lMMHtiJlPiti (byconse-

quence of a curse
death

celestial beings are

borne among men)-, Pane. 202
is to
l

*R<=Htri: wircrlMirimi^d)c) <Jloi(d^:>

Pane. 49 dftwrarraw: (be

be put

to

for

fear

he spoke

thus),

having insulted a woman), Hit. 96 mjif^i-j ^ (from Ven. II, p. 39 air sftiTt •sfwFjftcHnrT (be is glad
I,

on account' of Abh.'s death), Mrcch.
stand up, on condition
Pl«fyQ,ri:
i

p.

45 ^f^^ijli

wmn:

Q- will

),

Kathas. 30, 112

HH
(as

l

dH
the

zrzj =^rrw!ij ?fT-

*MWiiwl*T ^ff dfwTTOFmn" rW
king
sent

thief

was not

found,
tation

the

forthwith

for

H. on account of the repu.

of his knowledge), Pane. I,
i

180

tj^

i

^iqfd/iudfr)

zrfH:

^T-

mwr

crlMdln f&ri^wj(Wireh<ji
to ruin, a

*rH4IH

(by

bad

counsel" a

prince

comes

holy

man by

wordliness, a son
son),
[liter,

by

spoiling, a

brahman by not-studying, a family by a bad
ofjr

Qak.*I, vs. 22

dTil'dm-MfcW
is

i^-ii

:

(to

seek after the truth

by seeking

"],

it

I

,

who have been annoyed by

the bee).

The examples have

been selected so as to show, that the different shades of the notion of causality
fied

cause, motive, reason

are promiscuously signi-

by the

ablative.

Many
103.

ablatives of causality have

assumed the character

of adverbs, see 104.

IV- Sanskrit, just as Latin
f° r

,

uses the ablative not only
,

tWxF
the
side,

the sake of signifying from what side

but also on
it

vTof w h a t s ide.
on

Here the ending

° r{<

is

employed,

seems,

which,

these

the instrumental as the regular case to denote cause or motive but with exceptions, 1° that if the cause be a quality (mjT) the ablative
,

may be used

too, but for feminines [or rather

ambiguous one
° 5rr],

as the

term
fern,

^=rt is

an

only such as have been

made by the

endings ° f,

2° that the cause being an rna, the abl. must be used, and not the

instrum.

Now

,

these rules do not leave any room for neither bh&vavacanani
, ,

nor concrete nouns

something verj' strange because really both classes of words areput in 'the ablative of cause as often and as well as the gunavacanani. See the examples adduced in the context.

§ 1-03—105.

77

by preference, at and direction. So
the
left),

least in the case of indicating space
it

is

said

^PauM
(at

:

(at

the right),

qiudH

:

(at the
abl.

side),
is

gij-fr:

the back) etc.


15

oiwn

(at

In figu4 mjartonP.
5,

rative

sense
Jlf^;

this

f^Urf-".

JJW:

on account of an re, a yajus, a sama), Apast.
yirt'xf

—^
for

likewise used, as Ch, Up.
STRrT.
(if

4, 17,

[the yajna]

would be vicious
1,
.

1,

q,

f^
p.

fgr_

d-mfr)
unsrift

(v. a.

he
:

is

his

spiritual father),

Malav. I
is

25

mx*m

handed;

be

^T wuitOtld m17-4^<[h you, then, the umpire to judge us with respect to

(Your Reverence

even-

our qualities and our shortcomings).

In

its

metaphorical application this ablativas partis
abl.

not rarely touches upon the

causae, treated in 102.
,

So

f. i.

with the

points of comparison
its

as R. 2, 34, 9

mnMwTits

imq'm

(in

depth like the ocean =r »by

depth" or »as to

depth

1

').

Ablatives of the cause and of the side often have the 104. the characterof ad verbs (77); especially when ending in ° pr;So
?sriTT5rTrT;
:

or ° snT.

0>y' disposition),

^^TOT:

(in

due order), q#f_

gflHH

(i

n inverse
all
;

order),

^Jltl fT:

(through one's

own

exertion),

70m:
out
rule

(with

one's power), srrsjTr^ (out of respect),
2, 3,

mtmm^ (withbeing in-

motive
for

on a sudden), and so on. P.
ablatives

33 gives a special
jJcHJiH

the

*«j|H
instr.

,

SfftcFiTrT,

chiHUUIrl,

terchangeable with the
racter of adverbs, as

ch^W

etc. ;.

both sets have the cha-

aq<H

or 5ET5TPgar:

Rem.
g^ i^ ?
l

Note, jttt^ in

comparisons

=

(he was released easily).

»by

far."

Pane. II, 170

(by far better).

105.
tit!? of

Ablative of comparison.
° f the

The ablative expressive

n otion
i

on what side, with respect to

is

frequently

"risra

applied

n comparisons to signify the thing compared

with,

provided there be superiority or inferiority or
').
st

discrepancy
It joins
1

comparatives; then the
, ,

abl.-

= our „than."

1)

gen.

is

For in the case of identity likeness equivalence the instrum. or required (62) and the dat. also in the case of counterpoise (85).

; ;

» ;

78

§ 105.

Pane. 56 JTTCFERTt EpTfT^fr

FT1% RTTfprrRr (there is no
cp. Lat.

happier
felicior

man in the world than you and I),
of

nemo

te

27
l

positives

any

adjective.

Dae.

141

*NI° lr1

I

qwft^T
3 1? words
,

^rr^^TTTFJTHJT^rtJTtnH
,

(he considered

himself fortunate

even in comparison with Lord Indra)

expressing superiority or inferiority , such as

gT^T

(lit.

„the better thing,"

=

better than),

TOT
r

(exceeding),

^T

(superior), ^TTrfl^^TrT (to excel),
p.

Al^~

*^fclH

(to

be inferior), sim. Mudr. I,

53

tMI^RWft

^T^TT
armies)
4'y

^T^FT
words,

(my mind
meaning
Pane.

is

outweighing hundreds of

all

other or

different,

as %|"-U

^rT^, WTJ^,
^Itrl

ftR

208

^I^UMI^O 4OTTt
,

(there

is

some other contrivance
1.

besides the well-

known

six expedients). Here are some more examples. Of
JTV^pjr

Rgv.

8, 24,

20 bt^

s^HlcHl^lifl

(utterance
3, 14, 3

by voice being sweeter, than ghee and
zj
ti
i

honey)

;

Ch. Up.

^
,

rm-Hg^ itnWl^%rf
(he
is

mKJ mmy
heart,

-<H

f^ tr( s^J
I

I

U P^oTl jtfiyMHTf 5rtefi«r:
I

the Self within

smaller than a corn of rice

smaller than a corn of barley , smaller

than

a mustard seed, smaller

than a canary seed or the kernel
etc.,

of a canary seed.

He

is

the self

greater than the earth , greater

than the sky, greater
Apast.
1,

13, 19

t^

way
of

I

have got more learning; than formerly)."
2.

^

than heaven,
*ftiW

greater than these worlds);
'

wri

^d¥Jlr*M{T#TM ch^d^ 0>y
5

this

Pane. 285

vrrcrf

inj^)chi^[q
else);

a^WT

HorfFT

(.

»•

beloved more than anybody

Hit. 16 arrt -)H*ft<

g

w

one's wife .is

i^ (com-

H

§
pared with him nohody
is

105—106.
here);

79
Utt. II, p. 29

happy

dd < Ei
'

l

cr#|-

of

3.

K. 2, sarga 95*, 53, ym^-^ft ^J^Ttr

$tim

tT (i!l

l

;k^ (to

live, deprived of one

member by your weapon,
tqrf

is

better than death),

Pane. 142
superior
listens

ronft-sfyaF?.

g|H, Mhbh.

1,

89, 2 trar bttot nsrsT: (your

by

age), R. 2, 8, 18- qvUH-ytHrfr
to
=T

-sf^*
to

^

TT
,

5T?TO?r sr|

(he

much

me, and more than
5TH
?T

the Kausalya), Kathas.

53, 10 triidi^H

frmiiH OT fexjllRS^ (indeed

he did not know
2,

how

to give less than a laxa to
gl^rtji rrt

an indigent)
all

,

M.

95 ummirH -

cichWMi
4

id (aim

(giving up

desires exceeds obtaining

them). Compare this instance from the archaic literature: Ait. Br.
7, 17,
rTort

€Httt yirllfa

FoPT^ITtm'

>7rT

(you have chosen three hun-

dred of cows instead of me).
of
4.
is

Rgv.
are

10,
"of

18,

1

tprr] ^frff % o|tiH
1,

l

rj

^

(the other path,
l^ffr

which
s^ET

hot the path
(nor

the gods), Ch. Up.
others

10, 2

[—
l

:j -|- Tjft]

O^^H

there

but these), Pane; II, 12
suiP-)*?! ftMMfi~-l4)feH
,

gi^W
crea-

forTSTJTr =T

m$t, Prabodh.

Ill, p.

61

Hj the

tures so different

among- themselves
»than"

yet not different from God).

106.
.

Observations on the
Rem.
the
exist
1.

abl. of

comparison.
is

Our

with the comparative

to

be rendered
do not
tibi

in Sanskrit

by the

ablative.

Such
of.

restrictions

,

as for instance limit

faculty

of using
It

the
is

abl.

comparison in

Latin,

me

= »he
i

in

Sanskrit.

impossible to say in Latin dat
to

plus

gives

to

you more than
So Malat.

me," but
164 ^ft

it

must be said

plus quam mihi.
jtkt
<ij(ri

In Sanskrit nothing impedes such sentences as

qw

*ify*4^
,

X,

p.

TTrjJrfir

*HNfy*^d-i

d^lT^Hoi iq

(hence

you must bear more
abl.

affection towards

me

,

than

towards your own mother).

Kem.
sim.

2.

Note the
If

with such words as
STTT:

:

double , treble

etc.

_

M. 8, 289
3.

M<y^HrM.eiiiuri
it

(a fin© of five times the value).

Rem.
abl.
it),

is

to

be said no other than, nobody but, any
»but for"
=T
l

phrase with the meaning

may be used
-

instead of the

Pane.
ibid.

^wlr (no other but you will know JgfFift 160 ta&sfrWl HHT +HU)fo k ^ ufamfa — Then, the ablative
176
fsrt

may

also

be used even without %fq, as Kumaras.

6,

44 jrfFFTRT^?;

80
chMmusjTrT
»

§ 106—108.
where there
I
is

found no [other] death but the god with

the flowery arrows [no other

Mara but Mara
abl.
f. i.

= Kama]."
sTzft

In Patanjali

have met with some instances of a rather pleonastic
5g7jra

idiom, the neuter

with

=: sbut for" put before the ablat.,
Pat. 1, 279 qfr
fen^i
it,
;

though the

adj.

-grg-

precedes,

M^lJl
if

ir&rTTlfra^l5TT

iM^Hilfd

(what

else

ought to accompany
447, line 4;
p.

not
6.

this preposition), cp. p. 445, line 2; p.

323, line

This

adverbial
. .
.

use

of -H^Ua
vj)

(cp.

Greek #AA«, and such phrases
its

as oiiSev «AAo.

«AA'

is

the nipatas in the gana

Rem.

4.

Qak. VII

^

confirmed by
if^
t

being named among

(Kag. I,

p.
l

17, line 10).

qsjoiTT:

^dlfdaitJ ^qaqafodlrMH
an instance of
this
abl.

W$m

(I

do not hold myself for deserving the extraordinary honour be-

stowed upon
negative

me by
(not

Indra)
fit);

is

with the

nA<A>\in

the abl. would be impossible here, but

for the negation.

107.
mental"
*s

In the archaic and epic dialect an instrumental of comparison

some ti mes use d instead of the
was
to these
it>.

ablative.

So R.

2,

26, 33"nrnTr:
-sfq-

of«om- fgjjr^t qq- instead of cmTMr:, ibid. 2, 48, 36 gTTftf HUHNfacttl
son.

#.

stJ^rT (h©

women even more
tj fbtjit

than their
i

own

sons),

comm.
TfrHdU

§h:
Genitive of
rison.
*•

i

fTfffcmrf ,

1,

54, 15

oi<rtoM{:

fdfciiPH:
7T*T:
^

Rem. Such
R.
else
1,

passages as R.

6,

24, 28 ttstw sqrRraft °*

compa- JIW ^H-gMU l:

(and in archery L. even exceeds king K.), Pane. 28 [and

47, 22] qrfer y-iiH^i qr, Pane. IV, 7
I)

*iRm$o|IM|| (any woman
been used.

but

show that even a

genitive of comparison has

108.
The
abiati-

In the foregoing the ending FT has been considered
as
if

™sm

it .possessed

the full

worth
full

of the regular case-

endings of the ablative.
tity

Tet a

and complete idenaffixed

between them

may
its

alone be stated for the proto
J'"*'

nouns.

Panini gives some rules about ° FP

nouns, which show that

sphere of employment, though
is

mostly coinciding with that of the ablative,

someti-

mes a

different one. lly With ^fej^ and re

it

is

forbidden to express the swhence"

§

108—109.
gswflUiH
i

81
qjrl
l

by the forms
ffarT, UddrTl
2ty

in

°

m

.

Therefore

dd^

fir,

not

ssrcfat

p

-

5

'

-Sol^fn.
of,

Excelling or being weak in, blaming on account
to
is

wickedP. 5, !, 46; 47.

ness with respect
° rTi,

to

be denoted by the instrumental, or by

not by the ablative proper.
I, p. 2 5^:

For

this reason
crafff)-

,

in the verse

quoted by Pat.

5^!
its

^siTrfY

srr (a

word
oTtrrfT:

,

wrong
are in-

on account of
terchangeable

its

accent or of
S517TJT

sound),

ScTTrT;

and

with

and
4

Likewise, in Oh. Up. v 4,
;rere: nHli
|

17,

— quoted page 77 of this book —
instrum.,

oTOT^T,

not with

SoTTTrT

a nd oHJMH .
=u?jj',i

H

i

are

synonymous with the

and the

abl.

^etm

irwsi ^TPTi

would not be allowed.
It

Eem.

should however be remembered, that this rule does

not apply neither to the points of comparison

f. i.

rrpaI)il r*HUl()qi|
l

:

nor to the ablative of comparison.

$y
case

If the ablative
1

is

to
fT;

recorded sub

express the whence"
is

except in the r

5>

4 4

>

equivalent with

the regular casejrffr.

endings.

The same

applies to the abl., depending on the prepos.

P

5 44.

Eem. Panini does not give any
FT;

rule about using the abl. in

with such adverbs and pronouns as
of

^,

fsFTT,

w®. Now,

abla-

tives

that

kind are certainly not expressing the apdddna, as
cl

they are taught in the third chapter of the 2
the fourth of the
° fT:
f.

adhyaya, not in

1 st .

Accordingly
is

it

would not be allowed using

with them. Yet practice
=ett

not wholly consistent therewith,

i.

rp?HT:

=m
a.)

J-MIH° rf:

4ty

In two cases
abl.

is

interchangeable with a genitive, but not p
the standing on one's side 50IT
,

s 4,
;

with an
ad-lri)
*-*

when expressing
6.)

(or aiPTCr)'SiT5R', *^

°

if

denoting the disease
l

against which

P. 5, 4,

one applies some remedy or cure: qd

f^

l

H

:

[o r ° 3Trar.]

3W

(give

49

something against diarrhoea).

Chapter VII. Genitive.
109.

')

The
I)

fundamental
the
,

notion
,

of

the genitive or sixth
Rglin-

On

genitive

in Sanskrit

especially in the dialect of the

vedamantras

there exists a monography of Dr. Siecke de genitivo in

gua

iSanscritica

imprimis Vedica usu

,

Berlin

,

1869.
6

, ,

82
Geneview
geni-

§
is

109—110.
to,

case

to
is

mark
it

the belonging

partaking of. In Sanso different

skrit , it

employed in so manifold and
very
difficult to
1
).

ways

as

to

make
all

count of
110.
merit

of

them

give a satisfactory ac-

The absolute genitive
on
participles.

will be treated in the chapter
I.

With substantives, the

'pC'lify them, as
»

with
sub-

^GpJ^T:
^

(the self-choice of Dam.),

^ J^p

genitive serves to quaking's man), " f

(the

^MrqH
(the enearrival),

SH^r^FR ^
friend's

te"""

my's strength),

H^HINHH'T
(the drying

(the

WTWi. SffaHFT
(a

up the

ocean),

tiywiq^I

part of the

sacrifice),

M^>t^iq=til^|! (the opportunity
1
st

of fighting).

These examples show

that the genitive,

at least in prose,
it is

commonly
,

precedes the substantive,
,

depending upon
Kac. on P.
1, 1,

2

lv

that

like in Latin
tel^

and Greek
l

1)

49

sr^at

f|;

5RT5TPSrr:-

mmf:

l

^H^H ^4)mH^gjda»
(2, 3, 50)

(

I-

Panini seems to have not sharply defined the genitive's sphere
at least
if

of employment,

we

explain his sutra

q£t SM with

the Kac. as meaning »tn

[namely if none of the other oases, taught 2,3,1—49, be available], one should use the sixth case." But then it is strange, P. has not said inversely sm cpyt (cp. his conall other instances

stant gives

use

1, 4,

7;

1, 4,

108;

2, 2,

23;

3, 3,

151;

7, 2, 90).

Now,

Patanjali
ST5T:

a

somewhat
is

different explication (I, p. 463)

cfiirf^Tnij&BraT

»the sixth case

required,
in

if

the categories object and the rest are not
I

to be distinctly expressed"

but tacitly implied.

am

rather inclined to

suppose
finition

,

that
of

either

framing that sutra Panini had in view his de,

employment of the nominative which immediately prewould be said in opposition to the mfrinii* ...... TjTSf of s. 46 (note on 38) and mean » something else, apart from the gender and number of the conception, signified by the pratipadika", or srsr may mean »accessory'' (see Petr. Diet. s. v. 1, 6); then the sutra enjoins the use of the genitive if the conception signified by the pratipadika is accessory of some other conception. But, which of these acceptations
the
cedes
;

then

jpsf

,

should prove the correct one, the intrusion of the term
ing
sutras
(51
,

snsr

in the follow-

etc),

as

is

done by Kac. and others,

is

to be blamed.

§110—111.

83

the most different logical relations will find their expression

by

it.

When
,

dividing the whole of

its

dominion

by setting up such categories
subjective
,

as the possessive gen., the

objective

partitive

,

that of origin matter, quan,

must not be overlooked, that these divisions have been made for clearness' sake and do not affect
tity etc., it

the unity of the grammatical duty discharged in
cases

all

these

by the

genitive.

For the

rest,
fall

not rarely the orshort of classifying

dinary logical distinctions

may
way

some given
II, p.

genitive,
i

as

in

the case of zrssnErerTsr:, or Utt.
to the
1
.

28

jjinri

i^JMl qarr; (the

hermitage of A.)

etc.

Concurrent constructions are

compounding the gen.

with the

subst., it qualifies

^TsTQ^T:

=

JT$\'

J^T*,

see
,

214

,

2.

using instead of the gen. the derived adjective as

STT^

STFFT

^SRtSFPT
is

or

STWf SFFT etc.

Of these

substitutions the latter

comparatively

rare,

when
is

contrasted with the utmost frequency of the former.

Eem. The

so

called
is

appositional or epexegetic genitive
said

not

used in Sanskrit. It
city of

cpmf

^TTJT, not as in English »the
(

Pushp." E.

2, 115,

15 f^fsr froTT ^^rrcr OTpF?

Lat

-

pignus

soccorum, the pledge [represented by] the slippers).

111.

When

pointing out the genitive as the case to put in

such substantives as are wanted to qualify other substantives,
it
is

by no means
be used

said that

no other con-

same purpose. Verbal nouns often retain the verbal construction. So, if a moving to or from some place is to be expressed nouns must be construed just as verbs; it is said qjTfcraro^T, <£ nn^^ not
struction
for the
,

may

(j™. Cp. Eem. on 41.

84

§

111—113.
as

Thus we meet with instrumentals
ration from

[aJuD

irar<£sb

T

'^e

sepa-

men

as

you are,"
a stake,
1

ch.-ti.u

i

sftcH:

ssorrow on account of

a girl;"
qu\U
5T37

ablatives as qrHl^tH

sfear of falling;"
t^ntj]

datives as

being heir-apparent;" — locatives as Qmw — prepositions as qf world, worldliness
;"

»wood

for

'

JldJ

Mid
55;
»

»the

fit

time for

attachment to the

qirT g?FT:

sanger towards

me,"

rl*a)qf^

WIIiTi

spartiality for his sake," ^q- ^irSrMHI ZfOT »a

contention with a mighty one."

Eem.
(bail)

Pacini has a special rule about the nouns jSoTT G or d), P

3,
.fq

teilR-^ (owner),

vfwfo

(chief),

57^3; (heir),
cp.

^t%

(witness),

qfiri^

and

jj^rT

(born) as agreeing with a locative as well as with

a

gen.

So
6,

nsrf

^sfwf or

iiW;

Kathas. 18, 144
p.

reuw A mr^i
i

with
|

ibid.
j

166 j^T^
(let

fam. So Mrcch. X,

384
all

trfezrr

<Hdid^l^

ch^HM h

d

fsMHW

he be appointed prior of

the monasteries

of the land).

112.
live

The possessive genitive has nothing remarkable. As

gt

m

° ther languages
M.
7,

,

it

may
fTST

be
fiTT^

the predicate of the
(what

mtive.

g en t ence . one's

96
7,

sfj-

ursiuiH

one

conquers,

is

own),

ibid.

91 the vanquished warrior surrenders himself
l

with these words Hd

fcH

(I
is
i

am

yours)

;

Mhbh.

I,

154, 3

swr

fSPT

(»whose are you?" that

»of what family?"); Mudr. Ill, p. 103

WPT
E.

tpMUi
is

^si# <oim^N
his

(duly, forsooth, the Qudra-king Can-

dragupta

=

is

but an instrument in his [C&nakya's] hand),

2, 42, 7

(Dacar. to Kaik.)

£

g-

rei

l

M^d dPH
i

m^ mx * FT JFT
of which one

(and

those,

who
That
is

are your attendance, do
it

not belong to me, nor I to
is

them).

may

also

denote

the party,

an

adherent,

stated above (108, 4).

113.
vwmlteriae
ginis.

^a^
I,

The gen.
°f
112
2
i

of the material, something

is

made

of,

and
Up.

^ ne or

srei

gSTST snTcR SHI (weave a cloth of this thread), Ch.
^)o||-ci
JT

Wn

are

n ° t very frequent.
=T f^lTlcriiHH

Examples: Pat.

®i 1 ^,

^sf

^

^

5T

yi^rWfiJWW
said
to

^TOT

3

^Fn^l^t-S f^Tg"

-t|)Jlfci

RH'<yfH

(he

him:

my

dear,

that

subtile

es-

sence,

which

you do not perceive there, of that
;

subtile essence

this so great

nyagrodha-troe exists)
daughter).

— Mhbh.

1,

100, 47 cTRTT

^ mi-im
i

(a fisherman's

;

§

113—115.
is
is

85
a gen.
of the authority,
o<»tn*j
»

Rem. In
according to

sutra- works

there

also

whom
P.

something
3, 4,
i

stated.

So often

accor-

ding

to

some,"

111 m ch*.mH«Sot »according to Q. alone."

This gen. depends on the word q^ not expressed saccording to the
opinion of."

114.
tweeenitive

The subjective genitive
latter is
its

is

interchangeable with the p

3 3
-

instrumental of the agent (66). According to Panini , the
necessary,
its

if

the verbal noun be attended by
at the
,

subject and

object

same time. In

this

manner two
[not

genitives are avoided as *\c\\

^T^t

7T"N»T

JTTCjW] (the milking of the cows by the cow-herd).
fairly
,

We may
used

extend this observation,
as

it

seems, to
R.

all

such instances
together
|

where the subjective genitive would be
case.
3, 6,

with some other sixth
p.

23

fdHchl(i Ul5h6

1

l-dH^ oMlfrl^ (in order to put and end to the

harm

caused to you by the raxasas), Mai. VIII,

133

^ch

i

fch~Pt sr^ftTTffitffrT:');

Mhbh.

1,

145, 17 zr^r-.-.

bh

'

l&Jm

i

<*i

'

naR^r^d

(if

there will occur
i

something to do by you for us) [not chld^^l A HoMlH
lation of gen.
subj.

an accumu-

and commodi]
sutra of Panini contest the exactsubjective genitive
is

Rem. Some varttikas on this ness of it. With some krts the
obligatory, even
nitive
,

said to be

when being used
[oIMj
i

together with an objective ge(

as

fachhrf
to

Phui

cfiT^T

v

.'s

desire of
is

making a mat).

According

some, the gen. of the agent

nowhere forbidden.

115.
t?^ mnitive.

The

objective

genitive

is

occasionally

interchan-

geable with a locative or with prepp. as HItTj 3TT^", etc.
Sometimes
it

may be used
Mrcch.

in

turns

too

concise to be rendered
frerr:

without periphrase.

I, p.

44 snjpn

(by supposing,

it

was

she).

1)

But Mudr.

I,

p.

49

^

qyiywjfH

^l-dMchoriblM-^liH
,

naTT:, for here

nothing impedes using the genitive of the agent

the other being avoided

by compounding.

,

86 116.
tTvege1V6
'

§ 116.

The

partitive
is

genitive

denotes
of, as

either

the whole,
(half of

a part of which

spoken
(

WI

RTT^FT

the town), uyHl|o|Ma|U:
I, p. 21
it

a part of the

sacrifice),

Kad.

iJ^cMHI *WT
the notion

(the middle of the sky) or

carries

of selecting out of a multitude

as Nir. 1, 12

^UI=h^UII^f^[% „some of—, among the
In the latter case
,

grammarians".

the genitive

is

inter-

changeable with the locative: HH^IIUII (or

*H^T)

Examples
most of

:

of genitive

Ait.

Br.

1, 5,

25 sr?; tolMIM^ (the fore1

his kin), Kathas. 29, 69 vim
,

WdH ^

(the foremost

among

the wealthy), Pane. Ill
of locative Kathas.
24,

222

q-

ragft
crft

-s? <dd&ii :fftHsn^TefrT|rfaH;

47 rgT

aw<H cmRih; M.
it

5,

18 ndiQir

From
Sanskrit,

the examples given
as

will be plain, that in

elsewhere, the partitive cases
all

may

not

only attend substantives, but
pronouns.

kind

of

nouns and

Rem.
rrsnJt:

1.

If there

be meant a „taking out of," the
,

ablative is to
13, 144;
§psnirT

be used

cp.

95
p.

,

2° .

— E.
ssrn:

1, 2,

15

sh
,

i^P^m
cp.
snrt:

!

<*< -

(you have killed one out of the couple of plovers)
24, 176;

Kathas.

Prabodh.

V,

102

ai^mi^
,

5W

=T

(one should not leave a remnant of
2. It is

fire

of a debt
-N

,

of a foe),

i)

Rem.
to

very

common

,

especially in simple prose
or

periphrase the partitive cases by

T^T (= gen. or

loc.)

and
3.

° ^mH
The

(=

abl.).

See 191.
is

Eem.

partitive construction

unfit to

be employed,

if

1)

This

is

the very ablative, enjoined by P.
sutra otherwise;
Patanjali's

2, 3, 42.
(I,

Kac.
p.

is

wrong inis

terpreting

the

view

459)

correct.

:

§
the

116—118.
selected

87
of a
')•

conception

»A11 of them"

=

of
£r

a

117.

Some
noticed
1.

^

part

out

whole be wanting.

both of us" -^ramifr
to

turns,

relating

the partitive construction, are to be

option between two things

is

variously
7,

expressed:

a.)

both are
(liter.
»

put in

the

gen.

M.

53

a*H-na
is

^

ffd^ET

cror

cFTSg^JH
b.)

of both vice and death, vice
abl.

called the worse").
i

both are put in the

Mfcch. I,

p.

18 ajf^i^u mia, rrprf

TT

ri-cid
c.)

T
*m

4jfTyq- (v.

a.

I prefer death to poverty).
5TT

both are nominatives. Mhbh. 1, 161, 6 sr^iBTWTTiTawT
(v.
a.

5raT-

^rrfJTsrvV

I

hold suicide to be preferable to the killing

a brahman).

Note the standing prolixity of such phrases,
2.

Of a
are
t

partitive gen.,

depending on some word not expressed,
Acv. Grhy.
the
4, 4,

there

some
a

instances.

11 aif^pj^

sn
8

dWIH
visible
u loi^m'

ufdam
ever
sUfoii
l

(or

they must enter [the village] while there
little

is still

so

part

of

sun),

Kac,

on P.

2, 1,

H

I

'-I

I

H-^tei (invite of the brahmans according to the number

of vessels).

The
two

partitive gen., that attends verbs (119),

may be
-

explained in this way.
3.

One

,

,

three

times a

day

,

a week

,

etc.

is

expressed p 2
Par. Grhy.

>

S

'

by the
1, 3,

partitive gen., as

M,

3,

281 igxs Q{s*^m
5,

f^EPTFT,

31 tiyc£rydry(yj. Likewise M.

21 ydry^uicM-lRi ^r^rapjfisiYrW:
»

(a pious

twice-born

man

should perform at least one

strong penance"

a year).
4. is

A

partitive gen., depending on the neuter of an adjective,

rare,

even in the

old language.

Ait.

Br.

2, 15,

8

rr^fff
=gj-:,

Ttan:-

In the Rgvedasanhita there are even such gen. as 337

yirU <ij
p. 65.

which remind of Lat. id temporis and the

like;

cp.

Siecke

118. G ni
'
,'r

II.

Several verbs
genitive
is

are

construed

with

a

with

genitive. 1. A possessive
1)

put to some verbs ot

owmng and

Tet Mhbh.

1,

37,8

I

have found gsf

=T:

=

»all

of us," just as in

English.

;

88
ruling
,

§
viz.

118—120.
,

«/j^f iv tiv6c.


1,

tw

,

^st_

[P- 2, 3, 52]
1,

the vedic

jtz.

Comp Greek
m$r (Nfy
tmsrirT
Jj??r.

So Egv.
5,

25, 20

?ar

I5feim nfy^ fSoREi

Qat.

Br.

5,

4

^j:

y^^HI^S-

M.

5,

2

^-

d^U^fd^lM (how is it, that Death has power over such as have mastered the veda and the sciences?), Malat. II, p. 38 jwa^ TOT:
gJTTftalt JTCftHT |sr

^,

cp. ibid.

IV,

p. 70,

1.

2, Malav. V, p. 143.

This construction
to

is

rare in classic Sanskrit;

^

-

with a gen. seems
the
elder

be wholly obsolete.
2.

119.

A

partitive genitive

is

frequently

employed

in

literature, and had not yet entirely disappeared in the days of Panini.

But in

classic

Sanskrit such phrases as

a^Hm

g^rin (he gives of

the ambrosia),

HpWt

rrran (he desires of the butter) are out of use.
it is

In mantra, brahmana and upanishad
giving,
it

often attending verbs of
').

begging, eating
fHJpr

,

drinking and the like
cfPoq-

JRgv. 10, 85, 3

^ffrf

gifrHiU)

nm
ibid.

i

mifi

(of the soma, the brahmans
ffi

know,

nobody
(give

eats),

9, 70,

2

g-

-dmuft

«MdW
Ch. Up.
=r

tji^u i:
1,

(he,

begging

[a share]

of the delightful ambrosia), of these), TBr.
2, 2, 9,
1,

10, 3

^tt *T ?i%
=T

me

3 jot^st

fgsiEd

(they do not

drink of the ocean), Ait. Br.
oRTpFr (of three oblations

22, 6 =nmnt

^

§r

<Qwi RdsWi

SW-

they do not cut
the

off for

the Svishtakrt).

Eem.
at

To

this

belong

rules of P. 2, 3, 61
a.)

and 63, which So

enjoin the genitive of the oblation

in certain formulae, uttered
b.)

the

moment
3, 8, 2,

of offering

it

to

the deity,

Qat. Br.

26 afTHNUm
to
fat

J^Tt
(I

s^Tsri^;

(announce

$uua Agni and Soma

m

orrer [gen.

= smmr:
2
<J
|

with

eht-

f. i.

86 NB.]
ET%
p

[their
3, 53,

shares] of the

epiploon

and the

of the he-goat), Kgv.

i|m

reiT

have worshipped thee [with your share] of soma),
3.

Ait. Br. 2, 9, 5.

120.

The genitive serves
)

to denote the objects of
b.)

verbs: a

FT

(to

remember),
d.)
,

^

some
c.)

M.

(to

have mercy),

?TR3R" (to imitate),
all

some verbs
p. 71
is

of longing for.
is

With

of them Examples:

,

however

the accusative
^t 5gT =7^

also available.
FT

a.)

Mudr. II,

^fH

fraH: TOT37-

rrpr

ah, king Nanda, Raxasa (
See Sieckk p. 33—37.

well aware of your marks of kindness),

I)

§
Dag.
accus.

120-121.
Compare with those

89
genitives these

60

^ire-

PTRTT

^raiTRrr:=jfq-

Malav.

Ill, p. 63
suit?),

Wl^^

frgFTT'T
=T
J

(should she perhaps
sr sfffifrT^fq'
)

remember our
verb
firer
(to
6.)

Qak.

V ^li^fi

fsrt

^ft-

The

forget) is construed with ace.

Dag. 97 im HHrnpTTCToT 3JRTTT (may these dear mercy towards you). It is often construed with ace.
c.)

men show

The person whose deeds
Mrcch. VI,
p.

etc.
ift

are imitated

is

generally put
sn=r ufawjfd,
falls

in the genitive.

222

qm

i

wchl^w
(v. a.

i

ffi

srr^;:

Malav. V,
far

p.

141 ^pr
tree).

cFf^nfcr Hrarq^r^r^irW

the

apple

not

from the

Kem.

1.

Comp. tHoi^d
1, 3,

(to

speak

after),
(

which

is

construed
I,

si-

milarly by Ka§. on P.

49,

and

a^i

ft

(to

take after). Pat.

393

EiHM^J fd (he takes after his Eem. 2. According to P. 2,
(to

father).
3,

53 compared to

6, 1,

139 sm^i^h

take care of)
d.)

may
as

admit of a genitive.
,

Here the

ace. is the regular construction

and the gen. but

scarcely

met with,

M.

2,

162 tn^ttloi -dl*l^oi^HW SToRT (he
it

must always long
3,

for being insulted as if

were ambrosia), Mhbh.
Hsn-JFcFWr rRTrf^T-

12630
(do

^Tut^T:

Md*WMI^,

Malat. V,
?)
;

p.

72
3,

srfa

grnrr:

you long

for Madayantika,

E.

47, 30 gen. with gr

121.

4.

In the archaic

dialect

many more
8

verbs

may be
its

^w
i

.

construed
'
'

with the with
to
a)

gen. of their object.
all

Panini prescribes
);
b)

verbs of remembering
cp.

^-p?

when

=

being used
»to
i

desire,
,

5g

hope,"
,

120,<2;

c)

five

verbs of injuring

viz.

Pitlri^i

5fW)
-

fiw> d)

the verbs of illness

d HUfri

^nt,

fever excepted

~~

as

P 2
5g

3'

J)

i

m

bs\{?\

As he does not add
,

that the gen. with
it

them

is

restricted

to the holy texts
it

it is

likely

,

that

was used so in
p.

his days , but that

has antiquated afterwards.

Siecke

50_52

of his treatise on the

vedic

genitive has given some examples of

its

being used in the
a. v.

1)

Yet Bhatt. 17, 10
a
prakrt

it

complies witha gen., see Petr. Diet.
of

p. 1386.

So

in
\

passage

the Uttararamacaritra p. 19 fcraifr^T a^ST

HH

i

{-bUkti

$*M

TVWKW
Sanskrit
set-

»Rama
I

has made us forget king Dacaratha."
that
is

2)
of."

Panini
In

(2, 3,

52) speaks of

iBTiJhTO',

»all,

which mean

to

think

classic

greatly doubt instances will be found of any

other verb but

90

§ 121

— 122.
wr,
^hIvttt, f%rT,
it

Rigvedasanhita with such verbs as
fsrj-

T^etc. With

(to

know;

to

be aware of, to experience)
2,

often occurs in
;

the brahmana-works. Ait. Br.

39, 11 gruft

3d

l

dd^l

5T

ffdlrlMi a^also
^crgr

As
(to
3,

to

the foresaid
is

verbs of injuring, in the
2, 75,

Ramayana

touch)
66, 6')-

construed with a gen..

31

rrsTr

whih PtI/T) likewise
construed with

Rem. According
the
gen.

to P. 2, 3, 51 the verb

frr frr

is

of the instrument (karana), then
fgrj-.

must not be equi-

valent with
HolHH
.

Kag. gives this example hP<W| aprftr
,

= ^rfwr

^ttttpt
2
).

It is not sufficiently plain

what

is

here the meaning of fu

122.

5.

The wager with verbs
2, 3,
-

of playing or betting, the purchaseselling
is

money with those of buying and
according to P.
or qurir

to

be put in the gen.,
gjoiigi (d

57

— 60,

thus exemplified

by K&g. mntd

or

^c^fd
all,

Instances

of this rule applied in literature if
3

they occur at
the gen.
is

must be scanty.
be optional
f^sr is

told to

)

With

the compounds of

fg-sr

sjiTOT

or 5^7 n^otifn

,

in the

brahmana the simple
P.
2, 3,

construed with the ace. of the wager, see

60 with comm,

1) Cp. the

Greek Tvyx&ve'v,

HryyAveiv
,

and sim. For the
,

rest, objective

genitives with verbs of touching

desiring

remembering are

common

to the

whole Indo-germanic family and the most probable explication, which may be given of them is to consider them as having had at the outset
the
character
as

of partitive

genitives.

Their fate

has been the same in

Sanskrit
latively

in its

sister-tongues.

In the ancient literature they are re-

common; but gradually they
,

and

in extent

decrease by time both in frequency and modern Sanskrit has but retained a few remnants of
It proffers also

that old and once widely-spread idiom.
2) So the Kacika. which ?rr with gen. jali

a different explication, according to

=

*to ween, to fancy," for

iM^UIW^^MMd- Fatanas
it

has not expounded
nothing

the

sutra.

For the rest,
it

runs thus

ffi"
.

•staffer *^ui,

impedes reading
:

rather

#

Q^vjyj

ch^ui

Then
and
3)

it

is

said just the contrary

^TT

when =

farr complies with a gen.
so.

in

fact, in the ancient dialect ?TT

was not rarely construed

A

prakrt passage in Mrcch. II, p. 68
E"3Tf

^m oHlU
i

ll

^ grg a^*^[=
10 suvarnas)

Skr.

<i>llHolUiyj

'Jrl*^

;]

(this

player

is

detained for

may

afford an instance of

it.

,

§

123—124.
repletion, satisfaction, as
,

91

123.

6.

Verbs of fulness,

Q^

MlrT>

rT^T, FJ*T are often construed

with a genitive but more
116, 14 orFfiTTqim'
I,

commonly with the
vini vel vino^).
•s=£niTT*T

instrumental. Cp. Latin vas plenum
1,

Examples of the genii Sucr.
is

(the

face

bathed with
I

tears),

Pane.

148 mfTuximfH

*I«MI =TNHMi q^f&:
NB. But
with fTKrf^,

^T^m: ^a^rTFIW
rivers
,

(Are gets not satiated of

wood, nor the ocean of
HW,

nor death of mortal beings).
,

the gen. of the person
mTie^frl
1,

towards

whom
(

kindness
is

is

shown

an d other similar words
rjrTftsr

of a different

kind (131). Mhbh.

229, 32

tF®

*&'•
'

ne became well-dis-

posed to
you), R.

this
1,
1.

brahman), Pane. 314

fT^ Mdl ^M

(I

am

satisfied

with

33, 13 ftwtct^T -stropg^: 2).

Rem.
verbs

Vedic mantras contain many instances of other similar
jft,

as

j^r, g^r etc1

— being construed
loc.
is

so.

Sieckb,

p.

44

sq.

Rem. 2. With Km Ih the ^orFWTfyaH (he ate it all).
7.

also available.

Dag. 174

gttfq-

With With

several verbs the genitive does the duty of

an

ablative. See 126.

8.

several

verbs the genitive does
,

the

duty

of a dative. See

131

132.
is

124.
®f™'
a^iectives.

m. A genitive with adjectives
used.
it ^ S

frequently

When
(old

attending adjectives akin to transitive verbs
gen., as Kathas. 29, 55 s{^T

an objective

I^HM^I^MHI

^Hl
them
1)

age, which will destroy this beauty).

Among

are to be especially noticed:
Yet
it

Both gen. and instrum. seem to be old idioms.

will

seem

)

that the gen. with words of fulness has got out of use nowadays. E.
^fuqtrf being construed with a gen.
ch rSj-H
l

2, 89,

17

B

I

ltsHH

— ^IjlniwfiTOTrrfeT — the commentary deems necessary to explain the idiom
ohli^irl
it
'-

[so. ^TTof:]
:

^rrftpT'.

<Tnrf

i^iiM^

Cp. the similar process in Latin (Quintil. 9,
;

3, 1).

So Kathas. 27, 206 K^tef^T 5TTT edition is here wrong.
2)

the interpunction

in Brockhaus,

,

92
1.

§ 124.

Those of knowledge,

skill,

experience

and the conto).

trary (as 5rf*T$r, SFrfe", ^rrf^TrT) and 3FTfT {wont
Mudr. I,
p.

34 ?nv SFSTiaiW'.
(not
skilled

<.° m(m sffaiHJor^qTint (bravo

,

my
1,

child
20,

you are well acquainted with the practice of the world), R.
mimiUlHchlfdiij
in
battles);

24
5PT:

R.

2,

51, 3

jfarTl

^IHUI

(people

who

are accustomed to trouble).
p.

Examples with others: Mudr. IV,
tient of the burden),

146 ?rh] *m%\ UT5T (impa-

Kam.
rejoice

3,

22
all

f?ij

IdMdHJ fri^^T esraroTPTRjhe

must speak so

as

to

beings).

NB. With the adjectives of knowledge and
with some others the locative
2.

skill
')

and
P
2 3
n
'

is

also used (142).
^iffi (clinging to).

*HM7l (depending
Hdltlrl
:

on)

and
(give

Pane.

231

?r

MdlchU

:

(that

remedy depends on

you), ibid. 277

JJ^raror

H#r

feiPd^jWlRH HrH+wa

up that, which you have

taken belonging to him), r
3.

^TTJT

(full)

and

its

compounds. See 123.
equality.

4.

Those of
The Kacika
,

likeness

and

See 61.
and and

1)

errs

interpreting

this

sutra so as to take iJlil*
,

*HM

as if they

meant

hit these two words
,

though
»

it is

evident that two
, '

categories of

words are meant by Panini

that of
1,

occupation'

(iJliirb)

that of »skill" (chUMj.

commonly interpreted in too narrow a sense. It does not purport that any word occurring in PaNiui's text, but for a sanfnd, does signify but the word itself, not its synonyms — if this were so we should have to enregister its violation every moment but simply this: with the exception of such
is

The

rule given 1,

68

— SET

^tf 5ISS^rraiS«[WT

,

algebraical signs

,

as sr

comparison,

sim., the

= ^f! J> = U% ET = the suffixes of the grades of sounds and words of which the vyakarana-sutra is
,

,

made up,
to the

are to be understood such as they are uttered.

But

it
,

is

left

common

sense of the reader to infer in each separate case

whether

the

shape or as to

word contained in the grammatical rule is meant as to its outer its meaning, whether it is to denote but one or a whole class of words of the same purport, as «IU* andch^M evidently do here. For the rest, the vernacular grammarians themselves are obliged to
admit of exceptions on their own interpretation of P. the vartt. on that sutra.
1,

1,

68. See but

,;

§

124—126.

93

Kem. Note
this),

fgvjfa
,

with gen., when subst.

»the
is

match,

the
like

counterpart" Pat. 1

445

=ff^T
l

inf^rr^m;

(an other ox

wanted

Kathas. 25, 178

a^oi -unmm
this

f^rftor

jrg^T

rr

(I will

fetch you

myself the match of
5.

foot-ornament).

A

great

number

of adjectives admit of the dative-

like genitive, see 129.

ABLATIVE-LIKE GENITIVE.

125.
tive-"

IV. Sometimes the genitive
as ^°

is

available in such cases

lik
f.

se "

uitive.

Pr0 P erly belong to the category of the ablative, if there be at the same time room for the conception of x
^belonging to" and that of „proceeding from." Of the

kind

we have

already mentioned two instances,
2.

viz.

1.

the genitive of origin (113),
point (98, R.
conP

that of the startingis

1

and

2).

The

latter
is

not limited to the

cases,

mentioned above, but
r--

sometimes used side

with
the
abla-

by

side

with the ablative even with such nouns as
etc.,

3fT^\ ^rTfT!T
ocean).

Vishnup.

2, 3, 1

3=^

srg^ST (north of the

126.
is

On

this account

we may understand how
taking,
receiving etc.,
b)

the genitive

sometimes used instead of the ablative with a) verbs
wishing,

of asking,
learning
a).
,

of hearing

c)

of being afraid of.
is

The

abl.

here the regular idiom; the gen. not frequent,

as Eajat.

1,

131

^^m
duty),
in

5[?r?TV

fems5i|"i5^n% chify^sMT

iTffRJj,

E.

1,

28, 10 cnfN^ *PT (accept of me),
(

M,

4,
is

e^i^oif&T:
gressor
frwrfq'-

87 ^r,

crfrTJT^TfH

^proff-

accepts of a king,

who

avaricious and a transsTTfpnTOr rfUuw-i^17,
is
1

of

his

royal

Pane.
archaic
l

225 a^nni
dialect.
(a

So already

the

Gaut.

y^HM!

teicM% Rdldi H i
E.
6, 31,

sTT^irjft

J^ffa nfHi

^H*
gro

brahman

allowed to

eat and to accept presents from twice-born
6)

men

of good behaviour)

2 -di^m it

pgrrr:

JjTrclT

(M

(Eavana

after

having


94
§

:

126—127.
ibid.
3, 3,
1

heard from his spies the arrival of Rama),
(be

4

femr 'W
86 c),
as

informed from me).

So

sometimes with m^tin

(cp.

R.

2, 100, 7 chRl-c^Wi^ fqg:
c)

R.

2,
jjt

29, 4

ffof

?ra f^ fSrwjfn' (all are afraid of you), Pane.

Ill, 195

R,

3, 46,

29

^
Spreadlng of
its

— 31

MMlfedH Pinm (she,
affords

who has always an

aversion to me).

sm° MMiii; fg-^r:


i

an instance of both constructions together

tot m*rl"

^

Riujyi

*=si^iuii H(i?cHi 5^f

em-

Rem. Compare P fdum (disgusted with) with ^j™™—,. ptfuu ii gu (I am disgusted with the «^ -cp. 97 R.
171
,

a

gen.

Pane.

flesh of mice),

meut

Now

and then
1

this abl.-like genitive
its

seems to have
,

modem been extended
ten.

beyond
).

limits

by abuse

especially of

modern writers

127.

Note the genitive being used in some turns of phrase, which might be put as well in the category of the ablative as in that of the genitive.
1)

But not exclusively. The older

literature does not lack

of instan-

ces, as R. 3, 51,27 STS^fSr
cp. 3, 66, 11.

^nWTTSta

5? ITrt^yj [instead of rRqT^]JTT5?ra';
is

— A very striking example
5T

Bhag. Pur.
-

8, 6,

21 anH)f<j|<H

Hr^Tis

i*adWfd<tfl£sH4JJreT <fhTOI

sRTiymreTt sq ^'

lraffj

here the gen.
Saussttre
,

abusively employed instead of the abl. iiyjirilidlH. M.

De

from

whose valuable treatise de Vemploi du genitif absolu en Sanscrit I borrow example (see his note on p. 10), proves the impossibility of accounting for that gen. in a satisfactory way when starting from the absolute construction. Hereby it is however not said that the presence of the
this
,

participle

trfrr

has not moved the author of the Bhagavata to employ the
I

genitive instead of the ablative. Likewise

scarcely believe

have used a gen. with ?TR^(Rajat.

1,

131, see

126 a),
is

if

Kalhana would the noun were
if it

not attended by a participle. Similarly with

w
,

the gen.

preferred,
,

be

wanted to express the hearing somebody say or utter something as Mhbh. In short, it is likely that the relative frequency 1,141,18 stot olttdl of genitives of participles in Sanskrit style especially if compared to the

^

,

rareness of similar ablatives, has favorized the spreading of the ablativelike genitive.
It

may

also be noticed

,

that in most of such cases pronouns are concerned.

§
1

127—128.
,

95
him about whom
(so

a gen. with verbs of speaking etc. to denote
is

something
of
,

said, as

Pane. 82 ^i^l&i^iujd
guiltless
').

srsIrT

he speaks

me who am however

with ^fa iem Q
p.

and the

like

»to expect of, to suppose of."

Mrcch. IX,
to

297 HJiim

rpffer ^NTTSJFT (that

blockhead

is

capable

everything), Pane. 34

men

I,

^ H lgfrU frNi mw d fcv %ferT mirsfc (of such one must not suppose such conduct). But the locative is here
with 3ir
(to

also available.

forbear of) etc. B.
...

p.

40 OH^chAJMiJyj.

JTOrBTST-

1,

15, 7

g^
,

prer -sH

I

M^

,

Pat.

When

without object, the
1,

gen. with

=^ may
^r

be considered a dative-like one as Mhbh.
-d-rlcil

79, 9

fsrrarerrfwionrerT

smstftt

(a

man who
is

wishes his wellbeing

should not forbear a scholar,

who

does not behave as such).

128.
denot-

The time-denoting genitive ^e ground of the ablative, for
is
,

likewise standing on

it

does always express
It is

™gg e after what time something
restricted to

happening.
as

usually
^5T-

some
,

fixed

terms

T^"^W or T^TFT
etc.

5TST
=5TTcF^T

=
siY

f^TFT
UMJdUl

M^mO" = 5^FTH
eh«jfer*M«l

Qak.

vn

^twt-

lyf£Ml<UI«J

[» after
1,

a while"] sr^T-

\\4\r\X wlritti facrtl

iRJrill

RuMM ( liUfer, Mhbh.
FT

47, 14 cjrfFFraT^T (after

some

days), E. 2, 118, 44 g^tror
1.

cjn^TOT ^TEr5TT-s?f

W3 £g

wnm:
is

Eem.

It

is

very rare, that a not-time- denoting word
,

in this gen., as

Ven. I

p.

14

qrr fsrsft^oT

my

= w f$iw;*Ml<&ll(«T (since
»

put

very infancy).

Eem.
noun
-j-

2.

A time-denoting word
By
is
ssrq-

may be attended by the genitive of a
since" some action
ilirJTCHT

participle.

this is

denoted the time
p.

has come to pass. Mrcch. V,
ETT:

172 fej;

jjsraT

eh f ed )

oiH'dH:TTto V.),

^raiTJr

3TFTCHT

(it

indeed a long time, Maitreya
zyjrfr

is

gone

Mudr. IV,
tenth
oTrJrr:

p.

134

mmri

i

HttPl^rim
I, p.

(it

is to

day

just the
FTSfiT-

month

since father died), Ven.
•• srrarrr

25 %r£

arr

^m

iraT

grow; fem-

*

^rf%FTT (Sir, it is

some time Mylady stays

1)

See

De Saussure

1.1.

p.

54 N.

.

96
here
,

§

128—129.

* but you have not noticed her), Pane. 303 feim-chiykdoisr fer
Utt. IV,
p.

7m,

72; E.

3, 50,

20 ).

DATIVE-LIKE GENITIVE.

129.
Hke'genitive
tivus

V.

The genitive
kind of

serves

also to denote
,

him, who

is

concerned by the action or fact the so-called remote
This
genitive,
I

object.

as it

stands

on the same

ground as the dative,
Partlv J
great
lable,
it

name

dative-like genitive.

dietin-

commodi,

mav J

be substituted to the dative, but in a
Sanskrit,
especially,
if

number

of cases the dative would even be unavai-

at least in classic
is

the

person concerned

to
is

be expressed

in such sentences,

as where the predicate

nominal {substantive or adjective).

In such turns as Kathas. 29, 98
"Jp^JT 3TTrT!

^IH^ ^ HTCjW TTrThusband)
,

(for virtuous

wives the only path to follow
their

here and

hereafter

is

Pane

IT

,

58

*TM
what

41 Ml*

^ ^} fUCroHf^HH
what danger does
use.

(what

is

too heavy for
?

the vigorous ?
is

exist for the audacious

a foreign country for the learned ?
the flatterer?) the genitive
is

who

is

unat-

tainable for

the regular

idiom


(a

,

and the dative out of

not the dative

Likewise the genitive

is

to be employed, with adjec.

tives of friendship

and enmity

fitness

and

unfitness

,

good

and

evil

etc, as Pane. 331 5TFT
is

HtHUf^T

fftf

f^PT
213

fish-dinner

always welcome to him),
does not suit you).

ibid.

•T

Mrh

H<3r1.'

(it

1)
p.

This idiom extends also to adjectives, used as participles.
(it
is

Utt. Ill,

57 3cOT SJ^rer sUTrft ilOU; Mi^olrM^: that the world is destitute of its queen).

now the

twelfth year,

§ 129.

97
-s^T

Examples
to

:

Kumar.

3,

10

$?

jjit

yf^Rt

(who are other archers
Ucrfir

me?),
(the

Mrech. VIII

p.

246
is

j^]

STrg^TOT

wipfe

bit

HcriH

God

of

Love

either mild for an honest
i

man
f^-Ti

or he

does not exist for him), Mhbh. 1, 141, 36 afd^

ril

ulam m't ciUm
i I

(we shall be unknown to the people), Pane. 200
S^gt:
cti)uT)ti
:

q-g

nqo

tFRJT

=t

(one must not take

it

ill

of a messenger, if he speaks
ntrtf mr:

plain),

Qak.

IV

iTFrfsro^rrrfo

^TTOiHqT

TTW

(do not oppose

your husband by anger, even when offended).
With
tives,

Among
?jtjrH

the adjectives

,

which comply with a
and
j^-for,
HrtTtr,

gen., note such as

tM-^y, sPToRsrr
(to

and

qfRoRrr, kto-

asfer verb
eto '

suit)

urn

and even the
1,

and their synonyms. So Nala
104 mTR^; ufH^TcdlPi
is q^Tsrf =T

19

cfjfr-

GTTfJT rloT fsTOTT,

Pane.

Ill,

SUTErff^ (one
self),

should
I, p-

not

do to others, what
i

grievous to one's

Mrcch.

58

aJlmd j -timm rr^
p.

(this

house

is

not

fit

for

a deposit),
I

ibid.
EsT:

X,

355

q-

u^m fisr
is

Uiuwi^rillii:,

Malav. IV,

p.

96

a fid Gnit

^TOJT
15,

CTSPtrTT

(and cold

excellent against this ailment),
to all beings),

Mhbh.
88

1,

4

WJ:
-S

^Tofer gilchUJ (the

same

Malav. IV,

p.

gr ^sf

faroV

'bMlchM
l

(who

is

so

disinclined to mef), ibid. Ill, p, 75 qgftTqrnoirn'
suffices for

ch

PH
l

I

H (so

much

So

^sf and

3t%ft,

when

persons in love).

sbecoming

to

,

suiting." R. 2, 30, 41

I

on

3p^d^ 5fHrM^dUm^roiH|^!JcOM^- As to p. 40 of this book. Note also =^tet,

^ and
^HT

=grr|;

cp.

the foot-note

etc.

with a gen. =r

Dguiltless towards",

as R. 2, 49, 7 gjn^TFT^ra':,

M.

9, 106 frrrTrirTrRtn:

(having paid his debts to the pitaras).

Rem.
is

1.

Panini teaches, that with participles in
,

° fr

the genitive

I

3
.

2,3,

must be used, and not the instrum. of the agent
employed as a present one. Such genitives
kings), jjfn
qf?irT'.

if

the participle qfn (approved

A7

as

-rjfij

by the
limits

(honored by the kings)
1,

fall

within tho

of
,

this
cp.

rule.

See Mhbh.

141, 36

and Qak. IV quoted
(y° ur staying here

above
is

and

Qak. II OQYpI
the
genit.

HoiHmWHdjflHw
see

known
Rem.
P.
2, 3,

to the hermits).
2.

On

with krtyas
is

66

R.

According

to
is

69

the

genitive

forbidden with the krts

&<m
7

,

that

such as g^ir, ^sng^"

(cp. P- 3, 3,

126

sq.).

Kac. gives as examples

98
I&I4*0
gfrft'
lT° nTr

§
ZKZ!

129—131.
is

(the
3, 5,

mat

scarcely to be

made by
;

you),

lewM
In fact

:

HoTHT.

So E.

23 cot ^j^r ^nfer

h^u
,

^tsoIT^T;

>

however,
nitive.

story, STsqrr, stcftit,

Sow

are often construed with the ge97, 7

Dae. 72 fedUnaH 3SFOT3T g<5W, E. 2
24, 65

qir

JT^ SoTOT,

KatMs.

f^ qpr R<doim it SW^ij;

130.
ute
TJhaTe.

When
or

used

with
the

the verb

substantive
is

expressed

implied,

dative-like

genitive

not

seldom

equivalent to our verb

the other

SftfcT

WT
(I
l

to have.

Pat. 1 , 427 one asks

CplT:

I

^TFT >T3rft
^

HM:

(how

many children have you? how many wives ?).
phrase
I ai^T
est
s

Cp. the Latin
ask you about),
if

mihi
<

filius.

Ait. Br. 7, 13,

1

f^ar

snr siwr smg:, Qak.

=Tf

^ ^[q
txt&z

»fe5tin

have something
HsrfH

else to

Pane.

166

ildlH

srnr

(men make money,
f§r ridM-l
2.

they go
[to

abroad).

Likewise in such terms as
cp.

(what have I

meddle, to do] with him?),

88 E.

131.
ukeg'e-

The

dative-like genitive attends even

on verbs. Mrcch.
is

X,

p.

375 f%*TFT

^WHUHWImHIH
p.

(what
384

to be done

v

££

to this wicked
|Sft

man?) and ibid. X,
is

RRFT PWi:
are striking

Mrl

1*1

(what

to be done for this

monk ?)

examples of the sixth case used
of doing good or evil (as

so. It is especially

3"^,

Bfl^,

W^
l

verbs

,

W^W>

M^f*^ (to

trust),

t^T
,

(to forbear)
its

and some others which

partake of this idiom
the locative
,

concurrent construction being
,

rarely ,

if

at all
47
fQ^i
i

the dative

).

Examples: E. Gorr.

4, 38,

m iMMaKBrfarr jmt

(far^|fo (you

1)

As

to atrriVj

3^,
is

*l<4*,

folyolMj I

do not remember having met

with any instance of their agreeing with a dative;
Bhatt. 4,39.
its

WT

governs a dative

Upon the whole, the

dative of profit

and damage within

narrower limits

very scarce in Sanskrit, cp. 84-

, ,

§ 131-132.
must guard your kingdom by doing well
^PTOT
to

99
your
friends), ibid. 3, 1, 16
i

Wcgm

(offered hospitality to R.), Pane.

cl|i4*d^ (in what hare I injured her
sf^T rRTirarP.
ERTrsrejr

or

289 flp r^rr r ^KiHd lf? you ?), Qak. VII ^ttttsV

(I

have sinned against the reverend Kanva),
trusts
,

Pane. 38
ti*d1<i^

^ ^

ch^jfafeuafa fTT (he

nobody),

Mhbh.

1,

23, 26

rr;

inrra'rrw (be merciful to us
l

who beseech

thee), Malat,

YII

p.

126

dUJ*HwEraoicra Mpifc

H' HRfa? (the

wind declares

to the

young

men

the nearness of young women).

Rem. In
servi, civium

Latin, with such turns as adimo vestem servo or

or civibus dolor auctus

est,

the dative and the ge-

nitive are both available. Sanskrit invariably uses the genitive. Pane. II, 141 swte f| fsHrftr mrffa =r ^rrfeb =t f| fa'^m jjjW uldmPd gw iprr: (it is by exertion, that enterprises
i

are successful, not

by wishing, deer do not
p.

enter

the

mouth
(I

of

a sleeping

lion),

ibid.

145 f^nzrarrsft
137

t^pp^ msm
^fTTfTT

frsrr (H.

made

his reverence to M.), ibid.

qif q^rt' !?Hh:

have

got great pleasure).

132.
MvTof as

Finally, the genitive

is

allowed to attend all verbs,

are

commonly construed with the

dative of concern,
'),

^ote
object.

Such a genitive

may

be not without affectation

it is

1)

So at least

is

the opinion of

Sanskrit Grammar'')

— and his opinion may be considered to hold good nowa-

Anandobam Borooah

212 of his » Higher

» the gen. is also occasionally days in India with Sanskrit-writing people used for the Dat. or Indirect Object especially by pedantic writers" and sit will be seen from the above examples that such use besides being pedantic
,

is

very ambiguous."

The ambiguity, however, cannot be very great,

for

as a rule the context will show us how to accept such genitives, and in such cases as where the context would not enable us to understand him
,

a good writer will avoid all ambiguous constructions. That dative-like genitive has been known and employed in India of old the may though not to the extent, it has got in the classic dialect
plainly,

be seen from some of the examples quoted above. As with other concurrent idioms, there is many an instance of both cases used together, as
R.
'

2, 34,

6 Sjft frfaJH

&

grT!

I

dl^UI«?r VR

q=TT S5T IrcTlUriliSMirf, schol.
3, 3,

i MrDQ-IT

g- friTTST tC^T* ^ n t ne

comment

of Kac. on P.

\\\ the printed

,

100
of frequent occurrence

§ 132.
in literature
2.
').

So

it

is

found
of

with
3.

1.

verbs of giving, offering,

of telling, speaking,
,

of carrying, sending, 4. of showing, 5. of enjoining
7.

6.

promising,

of pleasing

,

8. of being

angry,

9. of

bowing,

prostrating one's self , etc. Examples: 1. Ch. Up. 2, 22, 5 ndlMd(lrilM qi^^lPl
render myself to Pr.), Pane. 85
qjrr fTSJnra'

(let

me

sur-

h^tH

(I

have granted
II, p.

him

safety),
I

Qak. I

Md^

i

MjUl

l

Pi

U^STtarhirarlw,

Mrcch.

80

tMM d^
2.

3^T MoHhT-rIm qiTEf

(give

but to this very fellow ten

other pieces of gold).

Mhbh.

1,

12, 6
i

^m
p.
l

firT:

(be told his father _), Pane. 292

3israTW5>
countries),

iUlMM-a

>H fT, (relate

us

of your adventures in foreign

Mrcch. I,

45 sj^q- aijimJ-di^-am ^msiTOJW, Pane.

246 rmm: ^ra^cT JTrorT iX{ ^m Q^UHj then they went all and addressed { the king of frogs), ibid. 62 ^ H<i,lcftiuiMqmfii dtf-^IUli Ff3W cTcPT
3.

Qak. Ill chyi^HuTl M<?(<w MUlMdfci {
are carried

=s[

whom
her
4.
5.

HicH-TlMij lu i
l

4to-d

(to

?),

ibid.

IV

frnrq'

stow

u|7) ^)rl
i

:

(having sent

now

to her husband).

Kathas. 29, 18 gj^firawr: n(3* l: (she showed her the puppets).

Pane. 289 fft

^

wj

<HHlf^te4^

(and he prescribed me), Qak.

IV

ufrrciw 4UWI4J4W (show the way
has Wlf ilrMJUl
the

to

your

sister).

text

irnjrT.

other reading

nm

is

mentioned in a

foot-note.
1)

In the vulgar dialects the dative has got obsolete, and the genitive
it,

has been substituted to
ture

the few traces of a dative in Prakrit literaartificial
,

being
Inst,

owed

to

the

language

of dramatic

poetry.
,

See
64.

Lassen

linguae pracriticae

p.

299

,

Vararuct Prdkrtaprakdfa 6

Kuhn

Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, p. 70 sq. gives an account of the remnants

of the

dative in Pali,
,

prakrts

and

contain

especially

atthdya

=

both

which are more considerable, than in the other infinitives in "tcwe and datives in "dya
as

skrt arthdya;

a rule, the pali dative serves to
at

denote the purpose.

The same process has been

work in Modern Greek.

Schinas, Grammaire elementaire du grec moderne, Paris, 1829 p. 90: »le g6nitif sert de regime indirect aux verbes et remplace le datif: Sure /xou

^upi donne-moi du pain

,

*4yu toB xpiToS t$v &Atj0siavje dis au juge la venteV'

§ 132, 132*.
6.

101

M.

9,

99 -a^yi ufa^m ii-u^jm £fem (she has been promised
to another).

to one
7.

and given
100, 33

Pane. 235 f^j

^H

A-dri

otst

(does he please you?).

8.

E.

2,

iTfrr nff:

chmPrl (servants are

moved with anger

against their master), Qak.
9.

VII

^h
H^
is
l

fish at gf^;

Var. Yog.

2,

32

imm mjmPd
J

iwf:

(people

bow

to one),

K.

II,

sarga 96*, 47

^int-li-chlchi

lijoim

rH ?: (the

crow prostrated himself
Ait,

to

the magnanimous Bama). Eem. Even i^^j (to believe)
r-

met with gen.

Br.

1,

6,

11

5)s|qt cl-iuu sri' 5TT5>rrfn'he

does not believe others, however many).
is

132*.

The dative
the genitive
x

of the purpose
)

not interchangeable with

1) In the prakrts even then.

It is singular,

that an observer as accu-

rate, as Panini is, should have overlooked the important function of the

dative-like

genitive.
(2,

A

rule

of

his,

indeed,

mentions the sixth case

but the word jpgj% added and the examples proffered by tradition show that according to the vulgar interpretation we have here a very special enjoinment, closely connected to the preceding sutra (61), not one of general bearing. Yet I greatly doubt the exactness of that explication, by which the word =cTrJS5nf is quite
ciHwJ^T

sr^TT

3, 62),

superfluous
suffices

,

as (^olH MH(jHH
I

needs must be repeated from
interpretation.

s.

61, and this

for

the

vulgar

Perhaps

technical difficulty by an other distribution of
sutra
61

we may remove the the words, that make up
^olHiyHc^M
to the inif

— 63.

When
and

read uno
QFrrTR-

tenore,
It

we get

jrii<ysJc?l^l2|s?T

TjHmRf ST^ff s^Hd q^sr
ternal probability

would be convenient both
,

to the simplicity of the interpretation
.

they are

divided in this but slightly different manner: 61 BfKTsrg^f&Grr t£6ldiyy<iJH,
63. %^(m JTrRST ^rpjT- According to this partition,Panini, having given in 61 a special rule about the gen. being employed in some formulae of sacrificing, adds in 62 the general enjoinment that mark mhwj «( which encompassin many cases where the dative is required 62.
after
,

^roRf o(^,

,

es

by

far

more than FHfJTT
,

the genitive is

likewise
is

available

,

either

by

preference

or optionally

,

but not in all.

For thus

the meaning of sr^fflj-

ajferHorfa: eFf^srafir. aiferfl^TOT grfer^ifor
fsfyfcffcrnr

awar
II
,

^nri^cr

(see
it

Boethliugk Panini
no

p. 82).

=a^fm su^sr si^ft As to sutra 63 ^^fa

jrjPCT

gr^m")

offers

difficulty in itself,

but disturbs the methodical arrangement

,

102

§ 133.

Chapter VIII. Locative
133.

')•

The seventh
prepositions
,

case or locative serves to signify the
Its

twTof scene of
where,

the action.
as
in
,

power
,

is

expressed
,

by English
,

on

at

,

among

with

,

by

near.

It

has not only the duty of pointing out the

spot where,
in

but also the spot whither.

In other terms, sometiabl.,

mes

it

answers Lat.

in

with

sometimes

with

accus.

A. Locative of the spot where.

Here we must

make
a.)

the following distinctions. the locative conveys the notion of being within, in. hRh^t BTCT sr^JT (in this [egg] Brahman himself was born),
I

M.

1,

9

Dag, 156
ibid.

rn-fwfe

iS

i

^iii

179 *«jf^Ri=i*^«j
at.

b.) it

denotes a surface
Pane. 307 E.
tj^ij:
3, 5,

^
10

(sporting

in

the water of the Ganges),

f%=rot 5£ST,

trodden or touched
WiU H
l

:

on

,

upon

over,
that

chi"iu-?i3

z?S\

(an ass was seen on

cemetery),

(courtesans, holding fans,

nffr orTprrftarr umik =et iwft waved them over his head), Pane. 331
sra^r]

&

'sr

MrWl snfT

<4I-cmi?t

frof^rT

(and those fishes are being boiled over

of the rules

which treat

of the

employment of the genitive
,

(2, 3,

50

— 73). —
right

For this reason
proper place
so as to

I consider it

an additional rule
expected
it

interpolated at an uns.

we had
by

rather
its

between
the

51 and 52

obscurate

close

following

sutra

62

,

the

understanding of the latter.

That there are several rules

in our Panini,

which did not belong to the original work, but were at the outset varttikas, which afterwards have been taken up in the text, is a fact now universally acknowledged. As concerns the s. 63, I remark,
that

many other vaidik gen.

partitives with verbs (119) are not
HTiT

mentioned by

Panini,

and that the seeming anomaly of

(cp.

45
;

R.)

must have

drawn
his

special attention for all that regarded that verb

in a time as early

as Patanjali, it

was already considered
P.
1, 4,

to

have something peculiar, see

comment on

32=

Pat. I, p. 331 (in the Kajika his words are

wrongly indicated as if they were a varttika). 1) See Delbbuck. Ablatio, Localis, Instrumentalis

p.

27

— 49.

,

§ 133—134.
the
fire),

103
fefTT^fT (my father laid
fjisprt-

Dae.

140

f^
1

fc

QRrhmi

uafr

down on the naked
c.)

earth), ibid.

141 f^-Rf

it signifies
in.

the dominion or territory: in, at, on,
Pane.

Latin apud,
ibid.

319
,

^

STftranw

^r^^ R^'O^

^"rani'

Jr*WTiTf>^T (in
5,

the royal palace there was a flock
^-qisr

^ ^Fk

of rams)

Kumaras.
(in the

60

tp^f

%$

(fruits are
ch
i

seen on the trees).

So

i-i^lMisr

country of the
3irr:

Pancalas),

wm

(at Benares),

Mhbh.
d.)

1,

31, 18 tmfri^rt fei^ cR

(he has been

made Lord over
dii

the three worlds); cp. Ill E.
it

indicates something very near,
,

though not
170, 3

rectly touched': near, on

about

').

Mhbh.

1,

a

i

M^-

in

muiH-<H
29
self
7jt

i;

(P&ndu's
l i

sons

pitched tents near the Ganges), Hitop.

^H ^u
it is

lcMH HBr
at

STTfr

smtnaiwrft (otherwise

I will kill

my-

by

starvation

your door). So Kad.

I, p. 39 sj^ is used,

while meaning »about which spot."
e.)
jHmsr

expressive of among
i

,

amid. Nala
srr

1,

13

rr

HXQM<*rt\ 5>f%fT

JTT^Wsrft' -cikdiM

.rgqarfa

snrr (neither

^&w ^ among

devas nor yakshas nor

men

nor among other beings such a beauty
igiqrjg- cf

has been seen nor heard of anywhere), Dag. 124
gT=rf (this report spread

h d i-i^fSd

among

the townsmen and the countrymen).

Cp. lie.

All these variegations are mixed^

up

in the general

notion
if

,

carried
,

wanted

by the seventh case. Greater precision may be obtained by using periphrasing turns

as the prepos.
FT^",

?FcP

(within), or such
etc.

words as 7\'&X

~^

CpT,

7^^\, m^ft,
to
(I

See 165, 190, 192.
go,

134.
tiveof thespot to
ther.

B. Locative of the spot whither. It attends of course

on verbs and verbal nouns
start
,

of

moving, such as
2,

to

lead,
shall

to

send.

Ch. Up.

24, 5

wTter

tfmiw
is

go

to the

world of him, in
g-

^r §r jraqrror whose behalf the

sacrifice
forest),

performed), Pane. 321
41 ^goiPrfci

srsarf

JTrT;

(he set out to the
fsraTf ^trT:

ibid.

^mj

tffwr:, ibid.

269 srtvR^pr

1) This is the so called ^rprftzr swift

104
(you have conducted

§ 134, 134*.

me

to

a fine spot), E.

1,

11,

24

cfmsr uwtiujiy
l

27TFT (he Bent messengers to the citizens), K. 2, 7, 26 aqol fo

mrf
to

rlcT

signs'

after

having removed Bharata to your kinsmen

enter.

Pane.

283 rn=wt
P-

^n

ulbidm ,
fire).
igrr,

ibid.

52

fcTOT

^

).

a^r

ufdHllfi

(with you I will go into the
in.
3, 18,

to

fall on or

25 <rom

Qak. I ^tn;

cirri^-

aiaj^gSrsr (the dust falls on the trees of the hermitage).
to

submerge
:

in.

Kumaras.

1,

3

^t

f|;

g|Wr luiiy'PmiH PwkIhItO:

(ohiUifSdlj-

(for

[that]

one defect disappears in the contact with

his virtues, like the moon's- spot

submerges in

its

beams).
sr

to

throw
place
sTTJjT

in.

Dag.

61 ^smsr <&£psm sp*r fsHrdl , Pane. 124

to
<TJ
Frasr

,

to

put in
put
it

,

upon.

Mudr. Ill,

p.

91 ^ref qfij

rrasr

(old

age has
(

set its foot

on your head), Pane. 146

f£hdtlM

ftvTO'

in that very beggar's bowl),
^TsTT srtmrafj)

Mhbh.

1, 40, 21

ftst

^Sr

ijrf

sw

3>sY

Apast.

1, 15,

21

w,wi

=5

^fl^WtrT (nor shall he put
p.

[fire]

under his bedstead). Metaphor:
»r&f?r

Prabodh. V,
to

112 u^i^i(h

wra^
frfi"

fiaRlH i:
l

^Torf ^srRrr:

ascend. Kathas. 29, 129
J

climbed in o the
qifJoi
i

tree).

aufc Metaphor: Pane. I, 266

ftst

jvm^f (the raxasl

jrfepr.

^rnrnrafa
fa

(he, on
,

whom
1

the king fixes his looks).

to strike
l

to kit. .Qak. I tjM^imiy &:

<sm

=T

H^+HU
man
pf

i

,

Kathas.

28, 31 r fa-M° lj$H

^^41

(he stroke the holy

with his sword),
(u i

M,.cch.

II, p. 83

EftTrrrat

^fer^
loc.,

zjxfn,

Pane. 295

^hi^H;

And

so

on.
sr

Kem. Note
or on," as

with

a
))

very

common
(to

turn z= »to put in

^^r, ^rf,

qrnTT

1

yf^ ^r

pat at the head), sim.

134*.

The spot reached may also be denoted by the accusative. Compare with the above examples these: Ch. Up. 5, 3, 1 <HfafrH*i U
l

(he

came

at the meeting),

Pane.

143

toiq

'

amr m
i

rrpr (after
etc. etc.

having

put

me on

your back), Qak. I

FTtflcFr

rUdrUfdm El
i

1) Cf. P.

1, 4,

77,

where

it is

taught, that ^chrtj q milch rt) are to be
3kEIT »having put in the

uBed

when=r

ohaving married",

but^r

hand,

taken bv the hand."

,

§

134*— 136.
bringing,

105
carrying, sending,
falling
a

So with verbs
ascending
placing,
,

of going,

entering.
-

putting

Those
as

,

however, of
f%tj,

,

throwing

qn,

*re,

ftararaffT,

ptmmft

— seem
On the

to

be construed with the locative exclusively.
is

other hand the accusative
is

obligatory

,

the metaphorical expression of „to
as

come to" become" (236),
if

„to

and in some other standing turns,
135.
quTu-

H^im^fH

-

According to what has been said

HI,

it is

plain,

that nothing impedes locatives qualifying a noun.
phrases as
krit as

Such

\IZ-

^T

FTTFTcrFT

I

"TW
is

RT^TT are as good Sansis

„water in the pit," „a boat on the river" are

good English.
rary works as
the
first

Here the genitive
crTfi?*Tci?ta'

concurrent.
lite-

In some turns the locative
t-jh

standing, as in divisions of

^rta^WIUUl

sarga of the JLranyakhanda of the

W^Rmi;? etw: Wl:, we say, Eamayana of Valmtki.
applied in so
it

136.
Locative
in idio-

II.

Both kinds of

locative are
,

many
It

and in so manifold ways as to make
to

hardly practicable

matic

enumerate them
suffice

all

distinctly

and completely.

V

s™~

may
i.

to mention the most important and the most

striking idioms:
i. to

drink

"VVe

will notice in

the

first

place

some peculiar
=TpPTltfr>sft

from
etc.

phrases. r
to

Of the kind are:
N

drink from. Pane. I, 327 dW: fefrt g^t i). drink strong liquor even from a man's skull)
to
rice,

(men

feed

on. Dag. 174

^m

^di^mMioidmd

(he feasted on the

without leaving
like

anything).

In metaphorical sense Heart and
locative.

the
;T

may
jftoT^".

also

bo construed with a

Mhbh.

1,

84, 2

^fiT

Cp- 123-

1)

See Delbruck

1.1.

p.

33.

106
to be born

§

136—139.

from;

to beget with.

The mother
l,

is

put in

the locative. Cp.
to reckon

100,

1.

Kumaras.
aiiikid
l

22

^rr

rimm^mEL.

among. Dag. 199

^N

(he

was reckoned among

the gods).

137.
2 *°
si

2.

The

locative in

which

is

put the person, with whom one
123

dwells,

stags.

Prabodh. VI,

p.

tn m^,
i

rcrfr

dtriE^
p.

i

ffi

(I
1,

with,

am

without protector and wish to stay in your house), Mhbh.

74, 12
l

a

\

\

\\

x

\ \

fa^aiMi f| srraag
l

=t

^ejft,

Mudr. VII,

229

sra

qgHdchrT R)f^trct»M

^H^f& H l:
l

(I

have stayed

for

some time with

Mai.).

So Up.

especially
4, 4,

ittt

owfri
I

(^ e

dwells with his spiritual father), Ch.
(v. a.

3 srpErJf Hi

d fa

arWJlfi

I will be the pupil of the

Keverend),

138.
'

3.

^TT or
VI q
r q-

~^r\ with loc.

=

^keeping close to", that
,

is

q?T

observing, obeging one's precept, principle
Cak.
^ihhh
(dsyfa

judgment etc.
order), Dag. 72

ir1 '*' r1

(yon do not obey

my

etc.
l

H rWH

r

.

oTrRcr

(comply with the wish of your mother), Cp. Lat. stat
1, 3,

promissis , stat sententid and Kag„ on P.

on

me
4.

=I
The

23 qi^

fprsr( (it rests

am

to decide.)

139.
cative

locative,

which serves to denote the thing
a)

touched. It
cially
sI'-feT

thing

is

used with

verbs of fastening at

— espe-

as well in their proper as in a figurative

sense;

likewise
to,

with the others,
^T3T,
Tc£PT,

b)

those of clinging,
c)

adhering

as

F|sT etc.,
,

of leaning on,

relying on, trusting, d) of seizing by

feet

e)

of falling at one's
asf.
,

and in other similar locutions,

i.

Ragh.

1,

19

'floff ^FTfa ^TcTrTT (and the string
gak.

bent on the bow),

VI VT$

W^rmr

^FR?I^ <=MJ4MHMf

TJf^T

(an antelope's female, rubbing her left eye against the

vertsrf
fasten-

horn of her male companion). Exam Ples: «) Pane. 238 jrt

^^ q^ mn nfi^

^ TO

srerer,

ibid.

286 srop;4,

l,

Fac.

I, p.

40 :?Rff&

srsT,

Bhag. Pur.

27, 10

§
(oliytlwsrwifT

139-HO.
to wordliness),
to

107
Ragh.
desire).
3,

(he

was attached

4

jjfi^TPsr

fmTi§?f

i^Tf sisr^y
of
'Tng

(she bent her
=sttot

mind

such a

6)

Pane. V, 8

j&fcj sHPioi^n

(crowds of people cling
(one [of them]
falls

^

a rich man), ibid. 307 cFffercr
i

ffteTraf 5Tnfir

adhering.

on his neck)> Da5, 75 H mnw Up. 4, 14, 3 ^i fa [^ qiq- cfw =r

urasTff (he fell in love
ferra-ffr

with her), Ch.

(no evil deed clings to him,

who knows
to vices).
c)

so),

Pane. II, 131 an^prwr srj^

— (a hero, not addicted —
is
a'feiriTi

1.

to

lean on. R. 2, 46, 27

q-

fcmdcj^MyW
trees).

(lest

they
its

should sleep, lying down on roots of

With
the

f§j

and

compounds, likewise with jjd^^i
struction,

,

the accus.

regular con-

not the loc, especially in the metaph. sense »to apply

one's self to
of rely- II,

somebody
=t

,

to implore one's aid."
=t

2. to rely on.

Pane.

194
,

rr

MiriiT

srhr

wc£§

=7

=sn?m

i

and
tritst-

fa(-H(

Qak. I ^^sr^ft %J%fTr^rrmriRTgHrir

femrenrm: TOt mrftr? irFT: (even these who posSo with giror
g^r:
(to

gegg s trong learning, mistrust themselves).
on), fHTSsra
fHJtir

hope
u~rft[

(to trust),
"ET

sim.

yak. II

-srTSTH^r

gwftjar
Cp. 131.
),

qpt^SnT

air

(the gods

have confidence in his bent bow and
(seized

in Indra's thunderbolt), Pane. II, 48 fdUdfafd sigw.
of seiz£• olfalling at
firt.

d)

Pane. 161
Rehi
gfispsr

tntrn
c^-

sm^T

by the hand

Mrcch.

I, p.

"?

39

1

j

^

vs

JlJlrcll,

Kathas. 29, 3

^m

sTClTf ^

(she laid her

hand

on her neck).
e) znzjft- "TFTfrT is

a standing phrase.

See

f. i.

Qak. IV fqn;

trrsTTT: qrtffT.

140.
5
cative
in absense.

5.

The
(I

locative,

vf

'

_«» him I see
^TTfcrarT

when used in the same way as English much skill." So Mhbh. I ^f qiT ioimmfoMq Hrtrfq
i

1

may

expect

all

of

him

,

he can do
is
=T

impossibilities)

,

yak.

n
a
\
I

J^tal

*J*raT

JsrrfqPr

(hunting

reckoned to be vicious in a

prince), Prab, V, p. 109 srTrf'R'm'^sr

^W:

(there

is

no sin in giving

good counsel
fel^j

to the afHicted), R. 2, 7, 10 grErairser

^saro

T^rTT

fsrarr
1. is

(and she told Kubja, of the great happiness

of Rama).

Rem.
locative

When

used

as

the

predicate

of the

sentence, this
,

occasionally carrying the notion of »suiting
iTOTiT (friendship p.

befitting."

Pane.
ters

I,

305 ^MHOT loriEmHHsr
inclinations),
ibid.

suits similar charac-

and

251

qyrtJUlsnwm'

3^

^M*i.

(*^ e

108
royal dignity befits a
rality

§

140—142.
accomplished in political science, libe-

man

and gallantry).
2.

=

Looat. yin the

Eem.

Synonyms explaining the meaning of some word,

meaning

put in the locative, which accordingly
i

— »in this meaning."
2,

are

Amarak.

cF^mt mraT srir mrr^ M^d oif^ (the word kaldpa may have the meaning of bhti&hana ornament, bar ha a peacock's tail, ttinira
quiver and samhati mass or heap), Earn.
is

17 [Sif^f ? Mfr-gJH
1, 5, 1

(i>id

explained
6.

as

meaning
,

:

to know), Apast.
,

141.
L
with «™rds

The

qualities

arts

science etc. in

g^: which one excels
ptiHti rPT:

or

is

weak, equal or unequal, when put
I

in the locative.

ness etc.

qRldUw: yq^r H^rtJUl
irfq j loiqn
ct
X

wu

m
i

i^l\U(:,
rol
-

Mhbh.

1,

88, 13

£TK^"fiT:

tJrWH

!W:i
Ni

n*r;
vi

h?T;
fi>-

Hchifa

Here the

ablative

and

instru-

mental are concurrent idioms.

142.
nouns'of

7.

The seventh

case attending nouns of ability

,

skill,

knowledge and the like.

Here the genitive
i° ).
1, 8, 1 spft

is

the conchUM sw^:
i

/mlL

current construction (124,
(three

Examples of the locative: Ch. Up.

men were
one
,

^ ^i5
»

|

well- versed in the

Word), Kathas.

24,

187 iH
p.

l

l^.

-

cprfvrfiw (of
I I

not being a judge of jewelry), Malav. V,

131 grajf
?),

ch^H ^ HfMfci-Tirl

narHTT
i

(what art the ladies are acquainted with

Nagan.
tions).

I,

p. 2 hii^ 5tTT

5WT (we

are skilled in dramatic representa-

It attends also verbs of that
fitrarr-

meaning. Pat. I

,

p.

280 Q^ihh

fSraniygfcr

Eem.

1.

V&rtt.

1

on P.

2, 3,

36

gives
° fr,

a

special

rule

for

ad-

jectives in

"remade
i

of participles in
Pat.
I,

complying with locative.
oU ch(U
i

The examples given by
grammar), a n
i

p.

458

Writ

i

(well read "in

rH

$^fa (knowing

the theory of metrics) prove that

kind of locative to belong to the general class of words of ability

and

skill.

Cp. Dae. 157

%& ^

^sr q-

din

i

rii

mftnt

grwmrag

nffcrt

Kern.

2.

P.

2,

3,

44 teaches the promiscuous use of locative and
for, solici-

instrumental with the adjectives ufan and jHHch (caring
tous).

§ 143.

109
,

143.
cative

8.

The

locative
_^

,

which denotes the circumstances under
'

oftime
circum ircfmstan
ees.

which the action comes to pass. So
^stress",

?TFTK ^

„in time of

TOT
like.

„in

due time," qTTCPJ
also

,,in

fortune"

and the
extension

This

kind of locative has a very great
the locative of time

and encompasses

as well as the absolute locative.
,

The former denotes the

time at which the when as T3^fT^*T (every day), 5p?TfT
,

(in

the rainy season), fcRTT0"FJ (at night),
<£<J

CTc^T
age).

(at

daybreak),
beginning)

^T^T^'J
3,

(in
16, 2

these days), STT^t (at the
^ d fcj-oi dfa
(in

etc. Ch. Up.

this

The

latter

occurs,

if

the circumstance under which

is

signified

by two nouns, one of which is the predicate of the other. As the said noun-predicate generally is expressed by a participle, it is to the chapter on participles

we
Here

refer for a full account of the absolute loit

cative.
its

may

suffice

to

point out

by an evident example
and time.

close connexion with the locatives of circumstance
p.

Mudr. IV,

147

^a^^ssm

xTTTTTgir TlforlTfVchl'^fol*^

sftuld,^ qti ~R.IH^*h 5^ 'TW ^IdR

^

thus freely translated by Wilson:
these

»But

let

Tour Highness weigh
i

i

circumstances also
i

your forces are collected,

yourself,
i

the heir legitimate of kings,
his very capital
at least
;
i

your adversary but a base usurper;
i

is

hostile

him,
1

in

me you have a
i

faithful guide
;

and

all

appliances and means to boot provided
).

nought

remains but your command"

1)

Compare such
,

locatives,

which denote a circumstance by a
(v. a.

single

word

as

in

the proverb fg^nsPTOT snr^Tfaori^T

misfortune

never
styled

comes

singly), Pane. V, 103 =W:

g^W

sUJUJlrf.

They cannot be

absolute locatives, but serve just the same purpose as those.

,

110 144.
cat.

§

144—146.

9.

The
is

locative denoting, at which distance one thing

of

or fact
3TtcFr:

from another.
'

Ait. Br. 2, 17, 8

sr^msFfr

err ^ft: isott

dlstan "
ce.

(heaven, indeed,

is

from here
3, 4,
x

journeys on horseback), E.

20

KatMs.

28, 188

^

at a

distance of a

thousand
T^fTsr:,

sreriH- ....

WrcftsR

tft)-

q-

crftEftsRff ) jt^it
1.

(my house

is at

sixty yojanas

from here). Cp. 99 K.

Kem.
of time

Pat.

I,

p.

455 mentions the promiscuousness of the turns
JTtsPrrfSr
,

nsrhmrT: yi*l!M
is

'strsaff

or ^Trcr jffsRW.
is is

But

if

an interval

to
TTCT

be signified
(the full

the locative alone
of

available : chlPdcrai

s r m^mufl

moon

Agrahayani

a month after that

of Karttiki).

145.
e"

III.

Dative-like locative. In 134
is

it

has been shown,

ll" e
tive"

that the locative

used with verbs of putting in or on

Pacing

etc.

Sanskrit extends that idiom to

many kindred
etc.,

conceptions, and often uses the locative with verbs of
giving, promising,

buying,

selling,

telling

so as

to

make

it concur with the dative or the genitive of the

remote
^rarir

object. Cp. English to bestow upon.
dative-like locative: B.
1,

Examples of the
*hR-ce$Ih
>

68, 16 hct^ft

MH
1,

l

dl^-{

ibid. 1, 51, 5
it

-^ jm^^i
a
rich

q*r inrrT, ibid.
p.

75, 7
fsrarhr
jtjtt

y^HM
t

ufrWiu (promised

to Indra),

Mudr. V,

159 sr^1,

Hdfd

l

(having sold himself to
(they
(this

man), Mhbh.

30, 6

•cidiH^K"!^
^Hr<*»H
'

gave a name
is

to the

great bird), Kathas. 28, 34
2, 96,

rarfir

done

to

you).

Cp. E.

28 t^ifii

ai^M^

146.

I

n

several phrases the locative
,

may

even be a concura)

rent idiom of the dativus finalis
nitive-like

especially of the infi-

dative.

It

is

namely put to
b)

words of

striving after, wishing, resolving;
to
,

to verbs of appointing
as t*<NU|{1,

ordaining

,

enjoining

,

permitting

,

M ll^3T>

1)

So

ia

tho good reading. Bkockhaus' edition has shashtiyojanyam grham.

§

146-147.
able, Jit

Ill

nT^TsT,
veted
wM'<4.mst

c)

to
a)

words meaning
Mhbh.
1,

and the
nsi
(I

like.

Examples:

138, 69

qtrffirf

jm *m
g?Jr

have coBTOT^r-

your kingdom), Pane. IV, 26 drea^crf
(an

srg

enemy, who ha sprepared himself to take off the whole, may be appeased by a small gift), Malat. Ill p. 50 q^rflwr 3rT. (endeavours to attain at greatness), Mhbh. 1, 141, 2 g^9r afanchutlri^
,

(he

made up
M.

his

mind

to

burn [the Pandavas]), R.
to kill him).

3, 4,

4 gfr

trsr-

^irTsry' iTOl

(both
1,

made speed
ch/ilu
i

V)

28

;ira'3aT

(he has appointed to a task), Qak. I

ITT

oiych^femTTT tsRrsSr

(v. a.

he obliges her
CT3
FTOT

to

wear a dress of bark),
FT^ (the king
a^j-frr reTfqTSoTTR^T

Kathas.

25,

123

13

jt^j jtcTOT

Hmf^Hiri.

designated him to fight the athlete),
(permission to go to you).
(he
is

ibid. 29,

29

In the same

way one
ff

says
<=tjt

-rjfh WTTQrT:

appointed

to

the kingdom),

qffTrir

siimum
tf
i

(she chose

that

man
R.

to be her husband), Pane. 162

dj

M

sfrfSrhoi
like.

M

(he

anointed that [young man] heir- apparent) and the
c)

3, 13,

20

iToTT^sraT;

qfyr^nrr (you are able to guard), Pane.
is

156 g^p^rs a MtN tmrf -s^ich^ (he

not able to supply us with food),
time, methinks, to run away).

Mhbh.

1,

148, 3 ^rr^i T^T Mgtm^i

(it is

147.
taml

IV.

Nimittasaptami. As the locative often denotes
is

VaZp- the spot, towards which there
it

some movement,
is

so

may

be used at a very large extent to signify the
directed,
is

person or thing, towards which some action
in

other terms, that on account of which something
,

done. Speaking exactly
dealt with in the last

the dative-like locative,
is

we have

two paragraphs,

but a conse,

quence of this general faculty to denote that about which

one

is

engaged.
2, 3,
grT:

Here are some examples of
d^tH^rr
tails

Kac. on P.

36 ^firr sfffq^ ffrT
(the panter
is

gnaji

mm wrfi ff^r
its

this idiom:

snfJT qfoftq-ich)

killed

on account of

skin, the

elephant for

its

tusks

,

yaks for their

and the musk-deer on
47

account of

its

musk-gland), Kac. on P.
field),

1, 3,

£% fdd<H

(they

are at law on account of a

Pane. 288

^?hiii<( tejlfMH)

Pd^rti^

, , ,

1

112
(this
3,
is

§ 147-149.
convenient for a lord with respect to his attendants), M.

107 S^JtOtPT ehdf^H gfa ?PT WUT-

148.

This kind of locative

is

sometimes bordering on that
of the motive; locative

taught in 140.

The nimittasaptami

(locative

of reference) often serves to qualify such substantives as

^r^TT, ^TT, fa ^
Examples

I

ST

and the

like.

The genitive is here

of course, the concurrent construction.
:

Dag. 89 HuTlaUch ar^WTcifcrarr (he fomented his enmity

towards Ud.),

Mhbh.

1,

155, 9

sg-^ftr
it

OTT
(

efiiT

irfir

(you must have

pity on me), Qak. I «^|i|fagTrfsr

iPT:

my

heart longs for her),
1,

E.

2,

103, 22 pq- |CTfftjTPT, Hitop. 9

wfai fsrssm:, R,

50, 24
OTtf:

JT^wrfS" ftr?rmT,
(a wise

Pane.

251

q-

g-

t^ytifg

*dcuu yfaftprra.^:

man must

not be careless about business

however

small).

It

also

attends on several adjectives, part of which

likewise

comply with a genitive, as

TETET,

Mfh,

*T^T

in)

and the inverse of them, ^FT (fond of), \*\{r\ (delighting etc. Malat. X, p. 172 sjfrft ^fer dH df( Q&k- II tJjch i^riJ
l

,

l

I

traTsrf

trni-anft<i,

rorfir,

Pane. V, 65

rrra:

Hhsm m>gk jht.

149.
Bvoei-

In

general

,

the

locative
it is

may

denote a disposition p

3-

towards somebody.
as

Then

synonymous with the prepos.
cdrr (n. n.
is

K. srfr,
tionto-

~^rn

sTiyTirrfj; or TTFrt"

good for

his mother).
zrsrrf

wards

-

Examples: Dae. 144 nfnP^J) gistn^

trf^qm (when I

shall

be returned, I shall deal wilh you as you deserve), Cak. I

gjq- g-err

g tjM^ ffiilHm^i^iri i!W
l

STTfT

(how

,

can

it

be

,

that she feels towards

me,
sfit

as I towards
i

her?),

Pane.

IV",

72 iqchil^ti n: snv:
(if

mw& 7WX
for those
is

5JUT'.

*m*ir{«

W.

smr H

^m{: Mfefr-^rf
is

one

is

good

who have done

well to him, what

his

merit? only he

named

§
good by the virtuous,
HBT

149—152.
who
to

113

does well to his enemies), Qak.

IV

^Pdun qfriR (be kind

your household).
as srrsj

150.
( in

Many

locatives

have the character of adverbs,
sfjj (at

the be g innin g)> fl^r (secretly), ^j^, (apart), ^Tas adverbs etc., especially such as denote time or space ').

the head),

Chapter IX. Periphrastic expression of caserelations.

151.

The apparatus
sitions,
2.

for

periphrasing

case-relations
viz.
1.

may

be classed into three main categories,

noun-cases,

3.

prepoverbal forms. The
and the second
is

boundary between the

first class

in

some degree unsettled and
as grprpir, ^ipr, ;kh, cnrfn,

floating; of the noun-cases

concerned here a great deal, indeed
those in ° rn etc.

viz.

such words

are

construed

in the

same way

as the old

and genuine prepositions,
nouns and construed
sTofnrT, srsffiT, %rft:, £,\\u\,

whereas others are always
accordingly
qwj-,

felt as

of the kind are

pfq^i,
of

etc.

The third

class

is

made up

gerunds

as ^grpir,
o

mzw,

3^f^r, iivmT,
?i%t,

jjgTT, srfycfTrip-, etc.

— or
S
).

participles in FT

viz. gar,

^FTi
I.

ffrr,

JTrT

and the

like.

152.

PREPOSITIONS

Sanskrit prepositions should rather be styled „post1)

Mhbh.

1,

140, 49

the loc. OchfiS-M

,

it

seems, does duty of an ad-

verb :=r» singly, alone." The chacal has artfully removed his competitors, and now he eats up all the flesh, alone.

Cp. Dutch: in zijn eentje.
2)

Indian grammar,

which does not possess, as we do, that hetero-

,

114
Preposi ti

§
,"

152—153.
nouns
that

positions

as they are generally put behind the

ons.

they
is

are

construed

with,

^T
,

being

the

one,

always put before. As a rule

they are also allowed

to be

compounded with
is

their nouns; in that case, the

preposition

generally the former member').
dialect used

153.

The archaic

more

prepositions

and used

them

oftener, than the classic language does.

we go back

in time, the greater the

The more number and the
days of Panini
to

variety of idioms.
some prepositions

So

for
srfiT,

instance,

in

g^y,

OTj

<rff

the

seem

have been in

common
met

use, but in classic literature they are, if at all, rarely

with.
still

Eem. The vaidik mantras contain accordingly a
number of prepp. and are displaying a
preceded by an ace,
its
still

greater

greater variety and
:

manifoldness in employing them. So the old words ^p)n (without)

synonym
160.

g^rT: preceded by an

abl., gsr.

(with) construed with instrum., do

likewise

fny;

and

trr;,

see

not occur but in the mantras,

The upasargas
but for a
list

^et,

fq-;

,

f§r

do not

do duty of karmapravacantya ,

few passages;

Panini does not mention them in his

of karmaprav., nor are

they used so in the liturgical books of the Veda.

The once

pre-

geneous set of terms styled parts of speech has no term exactly answering to our » prepositions," but it calls them by different names
,

according

to

their

phonetical,

etymological
so as to

or

syntactical

properties.

When compounded

with roots

,

make up compound

verbs and

the like, they are styled upasarga. Bat the same particles will be styled

karmapravacantya, when separate words.
vacaniya-class

For this reason, the karmapra-

does not comprise such prepp., as 3trfr,
it
,"

the other hand
called
1)
is
*

en-;, Hs?, but on contains some particles, which cannot at any rate be

prepositions
is

as

srfir,

ST.

Cp. P.

1, 4,

58; 59;

83— 98.
on the prepos.,

wrong governed by it
It
it is

to say that the noun-case, attending
,

for

it

is

not the preposition
,

,

that causes the case
qualified

but

the general bearing of the case

which

is

and limited

by the preposition.

§
positional
ft'm oil
flu

153—156.
is

115

employment of
(fresh

f^r;

proved by compounds of the type

from the loom),
^rgrr^TT, 9srf?rar

tWlmifca (from Kaucambi),
with
vartt.)
etc.

if

compared with

(P. 2, 2, 18

154.

The old prepositions are,
i.

in alphabetical order:

srfcr*

1 )

6.
7.

m*
STfr*
5TT*

n.
12.j

frT{'

2.

^T!
3Tfr*

^
q^:
q{T

ie. crfrr*

n.
18.
19.

sri%5

3. 4.
5.

8. 9.

13.

qf^*

f5RT

SFT*

3q"*

14.
15.

5RT:

io.

Sqi^

^

Of them, nine (the
dialect.
a.)

n° * 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15)

are

obsolete or at least used extremely seldom in the classic

OBSOLETE PREPOSITIONS.
used
as

155.
5TH-

1.

srfn

is

rarely
»

a prepos., however frequent,

when

P.

1,4,
'

mere adverb r=
accus.
Ait. Br.

exceedingly, very."
6,

When

prepos.

it

agrees with

4,

13

srirr sr

«dlcMH*<fi

qsisr:

(offspring, indeed,

and

cattle
1,

have the precedence above the husbandman himself);
1

Mhbh.

110,
irfjt

Bhishma says t^

q-;

gfef

cn^rrr

I

^rtl^KMRjltll^ Tthe sovereignty

-<^RieUN[9j

Tt^ (our renowned

family

deserves

over the earth above other princes).
Bern.
is

When
is

being compounded with

its

noun, the compound p

2, l,

adverb: afriPirt^ (beyond one's sleep).
3.
=g-f&

6*

156.
!

of frequent
classic

occurrence in the archaic and old epic
it is
still

%w-

writings.
lation

In the

dialect

used to express the reas well

between the ruler and the ruled,

the ruling over P 1,4
97.

1)

Those marked by an asterisk are karmapravaconiya

,

see foot-note

on

p. 114.

Hence the other

(n° . 2, 5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15,

17—19) do not

share

the appellation upasarga, even
2)
it

when put

close to a verb.

The Kacika

gives no example of 5"iH being employed as a preposition;
its

does illustrate but

being

=

»

too

much"

or

=

very

well." Papini,

however, must have thought also of the preposition
does not

g^.

Patanjali

comment on

this sutra.

116
as
is

§
standing under;
either
=gf&

156—158.
it
:

the
said

then

is

construed with a locative. It

cr^r^sr dft^-a

(Brahmadatta [ruling] over the
P. under Br.).

Pancalas) or ^fy- dffdjH
srcra-

q^M
sttttt;
]

T;

(the

So Dag. 112

jf^rppfnaiir iy<^i

).

When put twice, it agrees with When compounded with its noun,
is

the accusative (171 the

R.)
-

compound

is

an adverb and p

a

>

1>

equivalent to the simple locative of the noun, especially to the

nimittasaptaml (147): ^fitf^ (with respect to women), afygpirPT (with
respect to the deity), etc.

Bern.

In the older dialect
it

g-fif

is

joined by loc, abl. and ace.

With

loc.

indicates the surface

son," as in the old verse quoted
snfEr (holy bliss is seated

by Pat.
ace.
it is

I, p. 4

their tongues).

— sover,

u^j
With
on

^mtf&^cnftl
abl. it signifies

the coming sfrom".
so
it

on
in

With

[a

surface];"

is

often

met with

mantras, sometimes in the brahmanas. Qat. Br.

1, 1, 4,

3 ch&uiihrlH^f&

157. wt
'

6.

aq-

with ablat.

is

mentioned by Panini

(1, 4,

88;
is

2, 1,

12;

2, 3, 10).

The standing example
(it

of his commentators

wj

H)irfeft

Erst jjH:

has rained outside Trig.).
13. qfr,

No

other instances are known.

158.
^fir
and

7.

gfiT

and

both with

ace.,

are almost

synonymous

,

cp.

Greek xpCpi and nepi.

They had
phorical
qfr-

of old the
also

meaning
if

» round,

about,"

when

in meta-

sense,

»concerning, on."

In literature examples of
all;
it

are

extremely rare,

they occur at

seems to have

soon antiquated.
archaic dialect.

Instances of ^fir are met with, especially in the

adverb]

Kag. on P.

2, 1,

14 atiinflr

or w^nfh

[compound
fire);

srernT:

hhPh

(the

fire-flies

hover round the
1

Ch.

Up.

4, 6, 1 ^fir
(Q-.

trfirfiT

feels

^HPT (about the evening); Kath. no anger against me).
1, 4,

10 JlriM^id^l

1)

According to P.
said

98 in the case

of gfysfr (to

appoint over)

it

may be
(he
2)

optionally

either
it).

5W

UTOfv ^l^mfd or S=r HHrMthfimfrl
Diet.

will
a)
f3)

put

me

over

The Petrop.

I

,

p.

142

s.

v.

srfv
It is

wrongly takes xrCT^for the word construed with gfy.
the locat.
is

not the ace. irrq^ but
the preposition, as

plainly

3SiT, which stands in construction with shown by the meaning of the sentence.

§

158—159.
')

117

Eem.
qf^-:

1.

Panini

(1, 4,

90)

teaches a fourfold employment of
it

a.)

it

denotes a mark,

6.)

expresses a quality,

c.)

it

sig-

nifies

that

which

falls

to one's
is

Bhare, d.)

butive

sense.
it

The same
cannot be

stated for

^ and
crf^ -

it

is

used in a

distri.

qffr;

also for gi^,

save

that

karmapravacantya in the

case

c).

The

'gi

Kacika
or
ig^r

illustrates this rule

by these examples:
jrg
-

a.)

a%

trfr -

or qf^

or

=gfij - fgpJl H H

fcRjH
-

»the lightning flashes round the tree;"
or uft or
=g7j

&)

HW^d^rPl

TTrrprfiT

or
i

>M.

is

good

for

his mother;" d.) sw^trlM

u

or

or q#r or
g^=f
rrf

qf^- -

fc*d(d "he waters
-g^r .

one tree after another,"
tQtiri
l

2

)

whereas

c.)

iff

or jrfn or

sirsT

M

'

»give
is

me whatever be my
of the

share of it," but jt^t

rrpTf Mmi H')

here

=gf£t

upasarga not karmapravacantya.
vaidik mantras, indeed, both afq- and qfr
,

In the dialect
of

display this large sphere of employment
qffr in classic

almost the same as that
cp.

Sanskrit, see 170.

"With

=g-f£r

the like use of Greek

xfiCpl,

Germ,
2.

urn,

Dutch om.
obsolete g-pr and qfr classic Sanskrit has sub=gf«TT:

Eem.

To the

stituted their derivatives

and

qfrn:,

which however are only

used of space.

See 186.
ablative
is

Rem.

3.

An

taught with qff, when
;

— sgr (157)ijoT:
,

Then

P. 2, p,

3,

the prepos. should be put twice

qfr qff

Qih vjV
as

5TBt
=gtr

In literature,

g'
5
-

^

however, qfr with
mantras, but there

abl. is as little
it

met with

except the vaidik

has a larger employment, being

=

Lat. ex or at.
1, 4,

159.
"^'

9. 3tr is

frequent in the vaidik mantras, afterwards rare. P.

87

classes

it

among the karmapravacaniya
it is

,

1.

to

denote a

» going

beyond ," then
a karshap.

construed with a locat. jg f5fdF

cfmsrfqrrrJT^

(hy
it

P- a . 3.

more than a

nishka), 2. to denote inferiority,

then

complies with the ace. sq STTcRTTCR" iWch 'rrjTT:
1) P. 1, 4,
» »

90

cr(TdUlr^Hrll*pi|

M^llial «HIH ufrHMtHoi:

91 igfirprrn.

2)

When

used in a distributive sense, a^T,
(y^lfr)
is

sffir,

qfr are rather to be
waters tree tree

considered adverbs; spa' d-trW-l

literally rr:» he

successively," similarly ° qfr or ° gfiT ftrain »he waters tree tree rounda-

bout." Cp. such passages as R. 3,47, 10

iWMHiy \j^\:

»

he entreated [her]

by

[offering her] grants after grants"

lit.

grants grants successively.

118
Eem.
=pjfij,

§
1.

159—162.
2, 1,

According

to

the commentaries on P.
its

6 sq, like
.iucfcuiar

expresses nearness,

when compounded with

noun:

(near the pot).

Bern.
instr.
srch

2.
is

So Daj. 99 3 i|ch^ichiin^ (near the zenana). In the vaidik mantras -^q is construed with ace, loc,

and

H^-

expressive of nearness,

Bgv.

1,

23, 17 grraf

st

srcf

mfiraf

With
3, 37,

accus.,

I have

met with

this instance in epic

poetry.

E.

21 Marica dissuades the rapture of Sitk on ac_

count of the irresistible power of great
riit/HW diOrlM
life
is
(if

Rama

dfe -tUH^ fsr TTIT

'

PR

he will meet you [Ravana] in battle , then your form and meaning

on
f^rr;

its end).

160.
'^V

11.

— in

=
3,

Lat. trans

does duty of
It
is

a prepos. in the archaic dialect of the brahmanas etc.
partly

with ace.

=

found

»

athwart, through, beyond," partly with abl.
3, 4,

»beyond,
khtht:

out of reach of:" Qat. Br.
the
ablat.

6 f^r tbt

g-

gcTT

JR-

Cp.

with

(HJ^AtH and

other words of conceal-

ing (97).
12.

crn (beyond) with instrum., abl. or ace. is restricted to the

vaidik mantras.
13. crfy see

158.
is

161.
ST 1
'

14. crrr

with ablative
It

a time-denoting prepos. of the archaic
1,

and epic
^irinrT
l i

dialect.

means »before." Acv. Grhy.

15, 1

qi

Ml

1

(before
i

his being

touched by others), Oh. Up.

2, 24, 3 trrr

U riK dlchH?lM ch) miri

(before the beginning of the prataranuvaka).

Cp.

175.

Bern.

Sometimes
.six

tjjj

may have
&ik

expressed separation.
tr

Egv.

8,

44, 30 tr^r
life,

jiy^wr:
it,

<r^r jjvwt:

tft

a i^ofcft fn^ (extend our
from misfortune
etc.),

Agni, keeping
Br.
2, 6,

wise being, far
srRsuMl

off

Ait.

14 jp-

rrTWTT

oi<4w(A° l<irtlH^

(he must cut out

the

omentum without hurting the
b).

navel).

PREPOSITIONS STILL EXISTING.
still

162.

The other ten are
all of

in

common

use, though not

them

are equally frequent.
order,

We will treat of them

in

alphabetical

adding moreover to each such

:

§

162—164.
less its
is

119

younger prepositions as are more or
163.
a

synonyms.

[2.]

5T&J":

(below,
it.

under).

Its

synonym
Pane. 211

^frTIrT'
=mfW<sror-

J

a derivative of
nitive.

Both are construed
:

with preceding gegrafer

sry.

9^1.

I •mIoii^i;... >reF?rsTiTTqv

,

Eem.

Sometimes

it

complies

with

abl.

Pane. 145

a^rrsv;

Compare 171 E.

Rem.

2.

To denote

a lower place or state the old dialect pos')•

sessed also the adverbs gsj: and acWlrl
f^oT STTfdVT.

Q a*-

Br.

9, 3, 1,

6 ^oitd Q.
l

164.
^3"

[4.]

3J*T with accusative „after."
it is
,

Like

its

Latin couna.)

terpart „secundum"

used in various senses:

of space

and rank

,

b.)

of time

c.)

= „accordingto
H^H
may be
rank
,

," d.)

— ^adhering
it is

to one's side," sim.

Mostly, at least in prose,
(thereafter),

put

behind the noun-case as
him).
Its
1.

rPT^J (after
these examples

manifold employment
_

illustrated

by

after

in
=g-

space,

time,

.

E.

2, 90,

3

jnTT*TFT

g^lf^d^
sfrst^:

Pane. 203
(he

^[g
his

riToFT

trf^TFT:
;

(warriors inferior to A.)

Kag. on P.
along R.

1, 4,

86

ti^A

2.

2, 83,

26

(hoIUU jt^-wh =3Jjg^

?r

— »adhering to" Mhbh. 12, 45 sTf^fe q^biCMg si% — 4 »after" = »aecording to" E. 58, 19 ^ fTsiMMldf qT^r; (oiesnng (about mmi crt^t; — about Mr. 12, uchdiTl^ — concerning Ch. Up. 17, 9 the gradual advancing of dawn);
lowing"
3,

encamped

army on the banks

of the Ganges);
zRfsrt
2,
S"

3.

»fol-

=et

5.

1

ioi«4

1^4

6.

4,

^arfiat

^
is

srr ^isrr

a^lUi Ere nwr (concerning the brahman who knows

so

,

it

said in a verse
1.
=grr

).

Eem.
a-u
i

may be compounded with

its

noun.

Mhbh.

1,

170, 14

i.

tjttt

(rambling along the Ganga), Kathas.

28, 26 iHdirfQ.

1)

Comp. the upasarga

93cT

and

lacus Avernus, the Latin designation

of the regions below.

120
If
-et;t

§

164—166.
is

hare a distributive meaning, compounding
(day
after

obligatory:
to

a^il
eldest).

day),

tHrt 'a^
J

([all

ranged]

according

the

Bern.
tive.
JHoir^H)

2.

In epic poetry ^pj

is

sometimes found with the abla-

The
Ukift

instances, I

know,
(you
;

are

Mhbh.

1,

99, 38 sptt HnPT-

• • •

HH 1 )

UimMl-dMoimam

are

cursed,

will

be released of the curse)

ibid. 14, 71, 6

— the
etc.;

but after a year you

Pandavas enter

Hastinapura and make their compliments to Dhrtarashtra
ST5~r
crTlch
l

— spTTT23

^
,

rT

Hl-fel l(1" .

giW
(v. a.

=ET- • •

f&|^
2

"Jjlfdroii

E.

Grorr. 6, 10,

tfasr

chiJU

I

I^

men's destiny
).

is

in

proportion to the

cause

whence
3.

it

has sprung)

Bern.
90.

Panini treats of

s-rr

in four sutras: I, 4. 84

The
crfff,

last,
is

which sums up the meanings
1.

of

^tt

when — qfr

— 86

and

and

quoted 158 K.

!"

[5.J

5FcP, a very old
also

particle.

It is

added to a

locative
a).

for the sake of specifying its

meaning „ within" (133,

But often
i

Examples: a) of 5rt: with locat. M. 7, 223 avyaylbhava. ne must give audience within doors), Pane. I, 32 M UW ^TleiwlH (
l


;

noun -4-*M<' are compounded into an

PioHH-j-<H(ifafIil

orf%:
i

(the
:

fire,
i

dwelling within the wood), Eathas.
(and the purohita was likewise led

4,

57

Hfafil -T

cHa-mm-d
6)

Hr

f^r l!

into the darkness)
criirs-:

of ^p^\ compounded.
water),
:

Pane. 144 =g^ ^fchtHM
i

:

(I

entered

the

ibid.

277 a

^u Md
i

l

<**IM

:

tnfrirr:,

Kad.

1

,

47 thUi^HfHQdrHm

([birds]

which have put their young
Tajfi. 2,

ones between their wings).

Rem.

^tft:

occasionally complies with a genitive.
,

104

gshjHMW-rliu^iy

Kumaras.

2,

5

tmw^vi

srtsRT.

166.
and

Kindred forms of

Mt\'<

are the particles

^RTTTand
the
„ without,"

^"M^UI,
accusative.
1) 2)

petrified

instrumentals.
1
st

Both agree with
2
lv

***-

They are
Diet,
v.

=
also

„ between,"
Iri^aa

=

pr.

The The
p.

Petr. Diet, reads
Petr.

tMMdryj

a compound.
ot 5rg

gives

some instances

with a

genitive

See I,

197

s.

I

,

§ 166.
3»y

121
signify

=

„save,

but for;" &y

^FT^Uf may
Like

„with

respect to, concerning."
to


ti
i

W^', they

are allowed

make up
is

a compound with their noun, then the
1.

noun

the former member.

Examples: of

— Qak. Ill
[—
:

dR ^MiU
'

il

oiorTlch^llH

(meanwhile

I will look between

through] the foliage).

When

construed with
I,

two nouns, the prepos. precedes, and
a^T^T
Qat.
fBTT

g

is is

put twioe. Pat.

45

^

qt

=5

chHU-iol

(*h e

pitcher

between you and me),
l

Br.
(m

1,1,1,1
q^rrfij:
fire

^FT^tnT^crritr
l

^
R.

m^qfzr

=ar

)

;

2.

Pat. 1 , 8

*M|UI

fctiMM Pi

yrim'ufrf

(even without the uttering of
2, 11,

mantras

heats

the the
|

plates),

18

fr? fsrt

-cmdd-cfoMd

dlQrH^m

(there
g-

enemy threw thee down
rjT 5TWT: JSTTTT

lifeless);


i

3.

Pane. 60 q^f

criwt -P iimn-rl{

(I

am

sure that voracious
19, 7
srf|;

beast cannot be killed but

by a stratagem), R.
. .

3,

qtm

mj

^tHr
4.

zr:

*i)MJM fg-fe^i
HrtHll

sgTFrpjr.

tI^T^

(none but Mahendra)

;

Qak. V.
2

t^rf

yy^Frto-rt (IT

Tf^qToFrrurr nrfr-sfeT

(therefore
to

I

have incurred a heavy reproof from her with respect
).

queen

Vasumatl)

Rem.
with

1.
,

Occasionally
as

a genitive
29.

is

a-^m

Mhbh.

5, 16,

— Cp. Pat. I, 59 ^c
is 3,

found instead of the ace.
ftich qiHHJl(-ri^l
'

(between these two [families of brahmans] there dwells a family
of eddras), here g-nTTT complies also with the gen.,
it

seems.

Rem.

2.

Difference between

expressed not by a preposition
47,

but by means of two genitives. R.

45

uisri{ fq

^<Pi*iMM^iTl: y (
i

ferente

there

is

difiiu*fWi'{ ohylysTrr^ fr^rq" STyqi^Soi between lion and chacal in the forest, between
=sr

^

l

MuYsFT

t)<-rU*

(what

a rivulet

and the ocean, between ambrosia and the beverage of
is

the Sauviras, that

the difference between the son of Dagaratha

1)

Comp. a somewhat
lites
l

similar idiom in Latin,

f. i.

Horat. Epist.

I,

2,11
rT^t

Nestor componere
2)

inter Pelidea festinat et inter Atriden.

So in

this prakrt passage of the

Malavikagnimitra IV, p. 89

;

,

122
and you),

§

166—168.
qfddm MHm =% As
i

Mhbh.

12, 8, 15 fg^rsr ^Tfarr^TfSr
first

to

the dvandva-compounds in the

example see 207.

167.
R.

A
2,

synonymous prepos. with
98, 15

ace.

=

» bet

ween, through"

is tjQjtj.

rfMdMiin qwfar

di

l

H

-

It

may be compounded
MT,

with

its

noun. Pane. 151 Miuchlfc4«HchHOTT

fHHsh

168.

m

[8]

?TT always agrees with the ablative

and is put be-

~

fore its noun. It serves to denote the

boundary or limit

either the terminus a

quo or the terminus ad quern, mostly

the latter. It

is

available both in space

and in time and
,

may be rendered accordingly now by „ since" and „till", now by w from" and „to." M. 2, 22 is an example illustrative of its signifying the

two termini 5TT FFT^TTfr 5T M° l

(<<T

(the

wise

know Aryavarta
1.

to be the country between
to

the said mountains from the eastern ocean
Other examples:
term,

the western).
l

a quo. Qak. I
24,

=gx

^tH

T^infM^lM

(I

wish to hear
(since
2.

it

from the root); KatMs.
quern.

186

=gr

srr^rnTTWr

-silcPT

my

childhood I was an ascetic)

term,
split

ad

Mhbh.
,

1,

163, 8

=^t

ctiU l

ffs-iddi

:

(having his
sfFT

mouth
sran;


is

up

to the ears)

Qak.

IV a\chkHlfoutft

Q&k.

V

a^M)l~doU
till
i

sn UHciiijsH^ f?TWT (let her stay with us
i

her
l

delivery), Acv. Grhy.
5TT5FT

[viz. sraf^] dlfoU mHrt ri 1, 19, 5 w[ nUui ^ ot snfsrcnrerf^nrerr ^fofsnfwrar (until the sixteenth year the
:

time
f.
i.

not passed for the brahman,
?TT yf(HiuifS,3;<srt ^T

etc.).

In a figurative sense
(I

Qak. I
skill

my

T^T nJ)>lld*)M^

do not approve

the

of performing a representation, unless the connoisseurs be

contented).

5T 175

is

often

compounded with
drunk
his

its

noun

into

an avjayibhava. Dae.

ai<*>U<j,

gqn (he

fill, liter.

»till

his throat"), Kathas. 5,

103 tiiy'Ml^
there
is

jiilrilR4Hchr

ftrirr

-^jRriJHI

(for,

since the world exists,
,

but one thing steady in the Creation
gjiT^tiT

namely unsteadiness);

Pane. I, 39

Prar (a lifelong beggary).

,

§

168-170.
=^t is

123
of the utmost frequency

Rem. In the vaidik mantras
and
is

put to different cases, sometimes before, sometimes behind.
it is

In most instances

rather a mere adverb.

169.

Other prepositional words
^rtsFT,

=

').

„ till

,

until; since" are

mpq and
is

wirr.
6

^nsttT.

*TT^rT

mostly' attended by the accus., sometimes
I, p.

by the
1,

abl. Utt.
rofffT

fo^HoiE
snolr^

r

zrraw

(till

how

long?); KatMs.
;

54, 47 =^ff

uiujdi

SPTf

(—

as far as his house)

Mhbh.

95, 12

CTFETT f^ST

itmTJT illdrtHUIclUlrJ;
is

Rem. As
that
it

d

l

dH

properly no prepos., but the ace. of the neuter
it is

of a pronoun,

used as an adverb »as long as, as far as,"

plain

may

also signify -nduring

rtMldife; *HsUHI tWdolNffriT msnT.

Cp.

some time." Pane. 198 chd.lP° M<54 R. 1.
ablative

170.
a„ d

M\{ ^T and ^^TTrT common. The former
starting

with preceding
is

are very

properly a gerund
is

= „ beginning-,

v^'

from," SPTTrT

construed with abl. by so2.
zpj fu a ch iWgTp-trmHHcTi i

called syntactic analogy , see Kem. Examples of srr^T since. Pane. 238

=

crfftr

y^Moi-jj

Malat. VI, p. 88

in^rr: nvwioKjileMltHld.!^ (since
first

the day I have seen M. for the

time).
;

Examples of airfrr
in the garden of

=

since.

Pane. 51 sTTwrrffufH <d^ll7ufi Malat.

Ill, p. 50 ^ .WNHUHiP<sWlriwf^ (since the
; ,

day of the procession
-

Rem.

1.

Kama) Mudr. II p. 70 srTWW 5kT: J^^H 5immfri They may also be used of space. Hit. 132 ^chcriQoi -

^I4J(«t y5(3oi(
ITrHJoT.

mmr, Kumaras.

3,

26

^?r

^t;

chMHMniW

^*nrff-

1)

In

a period as early as Yaska

,

wt with

loc.

had antiquated

,

for

this exegete

deems

it

necessary to interpvete the

man trie

expression

aw

WT ^T: (water

in the cloud)

by ^qY

stf -sfy

(Nir. 5, 5).

In a subsequent

time the very gloss of Yaska would have required another, for =&f£f with loc. in this meaning being obsolete (156)) classic Sanskrit would have employed
gTrf:

or "qwj or have said ayTTrTT 5T)

124
Eem.
2.
crvrfH

§
is

170-171.
meaning
is
»

originally a feminine,
its

origin, comat

mencement" and
as
viz.

like

synonym
1° ).

ntf^,

it

often used

the

ends of bahuvrihis (229,
rfrSRTQffP'iTfH'

At the

outset, therefore, such a term

was said

in the
rtrf.

very same acceptation as HrchMl(%. )

meaning

g-

chM

:

jtr frl5ui

By the time, however,
in

the noun qiffH

ceased to be employed as a separate word, and one commenced to

look upon the

adverbial compounds, ending
>.

"trufS',

as if they

were ending in some preposition, meaning
it

since."

By

this

mistake

happened that
the

qrrJH

assumed even the character of a self-existent
,

particle

construed with ablative
i.

by analogy
»

of ;gTT«T and the like.

Hence

f.

compound d-^H*rfw

since his birth" (M. 8, 90) re-

presents an older idiom than jr^T: mf?l(since then), ti^juirfH (since when), ^rgirfff

In such turns as H$JU* rfff the true nominal nature
,

of nvrf^
as

is

plain

,

and

it is

again a misunderstanding to write them

two words

fj^j jjuIh etc.

171.

[10]

3^T|T (above, over, on, upon)

is
is

the very op-

posite of

WV,

see 163.
]

As a
it

rule, it

construed with
latter part

preceding genitive
of

),

unless

makes up the
Its

a compound: rT^TrTlT Or rl^4l^it is

employment

is

various , as

used

a.)

after," c.) of rank, d.)

=

of space ,

b.)

of time »upon

= immediately
e.)

»on, upon, about, concerning, with respect

to ,"

then 3trfr is concurrent with gfn and with the nimittasaptami,

=

jibefore,

under the eyes
a.)

of."
8, 1, 7

Examples:
228

Kag. on P.

jgfr f^rrat

ETC

STmrfH (he carries

a jar upon his head), Pane. 125 pjft
25,
I

5r5T:>3T?ftafY irfwaRTtriHST,

Kathas.

g-

^n-

rTsqT5?r

^mumiM-

. •

grsrsftaij,

Pane. 112 ^nrrawrf^

MH H (moved
f, i.

by anger he made a

bolt
l

at him).

— Metaphorically
etc.
3, 54,

Pane. I, 166 jpgrHiyuf^" ^rn^^lrf( U ir Rlf*rycFT:

»the king

lives

on his dominions, physicians on the sick," R.

23

sfitut

1)

So

it is

taught by Pacini, as must be inferred by comparing P.

2, 3,

30

with

5, 3,

27—34.

§ 171-172.
tfmiloii

125

yyyTlqfr gyrf (the fresh anger grows over

my

forbearance, that

is:

goes beyond
6,)

my

forb.);

Kag. on P.
Kathas.

3, 3,

9 sqf^ qgrfertermi
*);

RT^grn^tT ^

(if

the teacher

arrives after a
c.)

moment)
6,

167

ftt

^eT Hl^Mf r
i

chdotH

(he honoured her above

his queens);
d.)

Pane. 142

fa^fS?;

?r?rrm

^

storr ^srerreftaf^ (I
p.

have now taken
ef UlchJ l

a dislike to this country), Mudr. Ill,
srttrfr

105 -g^r

i

i

dqfiiHm
are not
fT

Q&w-idmrH
towards

(well,

the

king's

attendance
fiH
ftst
i

friendly

disposed

Canakya), Pane. 116

j- j-Ti '-i

fa-rim
cFrari^r;

(what

have you
e.)

to care for me?), ibid. 26
i

q
i

^-flurr HsfRT:
fa
(I will kill

Pane. 266 mil

um

;rafrrf7

g r fi m

myself before

your eyes). Comp. 177.
Bern.
3,

Occasionally

;jcrfT

is

construed with a locative.

Kathas.

58

3tnJrrf:tn-

gr
,

=sr

7Trftf?T&raitT.

"With ablative
,

it is

also

some,

times met with

as in the

passage of TItpala
I, p. 7,
is

quoted by Keen in

bis translation of

Yaraham. Brh.

which has been adduced 73
not forbidden. Pan.
,

E. 3

2

).

Even
as

the aceus.
g-y;

with 3trfr

8, 1, 7

teaches jqfr, nfy and

being put twice
sjwrfy

when denoting
is 1,

a close

nearness
(see
~svt

,

jwrfr

jjiqi-i

i

mW
*

;

here the accus.
2, 3, 2).

standing
4 ^cTPTylr
3
)-

the karika quoted
fi?r: qiforpr,

by Kag. on P.
1,

Qigup.

Mhbh.

120, 9
is

swrij

irs^tf:

SM{Vd*^

172.

a q fT fe iH)

a

derivate of sqfr,

construed,

when

prepos.,

with

1)
etc.

In

full, the

example given by the Kaijika,

is

3&

AJ^rf fd^M (^

JJgHW

In the bad excerpt of the Calcutta edition of Panini these words have been mutilated into M^HI<t|l7i which has deceived Boethljngk in his
edition of Paoini
2)

and
is

in his Petr. Diet. (I, p.

968).

The example of the Petrop.
'

Diet.

(s. v.

V, p. 1191), Kathas. 53, 125

mb|cte)llfti,tWlld

not convincing.
ti

It is rather

probable

,

that the abl.

should be construed with

iolH

[169], 3qf5- being a mere adverb

=

imp-

ward."

For the
in

rest

,

it is

not strange that the wavering between abl.

and gen.
3) It is

construing adjectives and adverbs of space and time (125}

appears also in the syntax of prepositions. Cp.

173

R.

1.

no exception, that Nala 1,2 the gen. is used 314 uq(| sraTsrriT, since the repetition does not imply here the notion of proximity , the meaning being » [standing] high above all men."

126

§ 172-173.

preceding genitive, and generally signifies sabove, upon" in space.

The
plies

archaic

dialect

did
&)].

use

it

»after" [cp. sqfr,

171

— In

also as a

time-denoting word
Br.
it

=

the

Qat.

sometimes com92

with the accusative.
is

Eem. 3$j^= sabove"
TJTisr!

not frequent. M.

1,

q l7chiPHri

But

it is

frequent,

when

of time

3$

jrofifefrn":

nafter," see 174.

173.
-J-7

[12].

Akin to the old and obsolete

Sanskrit possesses q^"~,
°f

ihth,

them

expressive of

^^Wrl, q^cP and q^TIT, all the notion beyond. When denoting

^

[160] classic

^'f
q ^ tIT '

space, they serve also to signify the passing by
ally fT^lTT

— especi-

with accus.

and the

surpassing

espec.

4|trUr1 with genit.
-after" and Examples
:

When

denoting time , they are
Ait.

=

comply with
a.) (all

ablative.
Br.
8, 14,

of space and rank.

3

g- jfr

^

qTTTT

[^i|oi»r
l

i

sHM<^l

i

countries beyond the Himalaya);
v. a.

Mhbh.

1,

232, 11

HjU HrHkuf^ (»p«ss by us",
7 ei
l

»do not
(
tx:

harm

us");

Kim.

5,

61 ^-g^ -

*ci Jl

'

qjtt^ =T

crt-g^i

1 l ,

qTrrVs^sra':
,

nor does noble extraction go

beyond

wealth);

Malav. I

p. 1

in^Nrfl-mtT

(who surpasses

all

ascetics).
b.)

of time:

jafter."
:

M.

2,

122

^fiten<[TrqTiT (after

the salutation),
p.

Pane. V, 58

ijriHfrg^ri

(after

a moment), Utt. Ill,

38 JxMrtJUll g?r; enrrj

F^TTir (after leaving the breast).
rTrT:

So the frequent phrases

tnrr

and the
1.

like.

Bern.
genit.,
r

Occasionally

they occur, when being attended by a
8,

even while time-denoting. M.
2, 33,

223

cn-trr

^UsUl
so

[Kull.

__:

5^rr^T^a 'j], Ait. Br.
Bern.
2.

5

yoirM^
to

qTSfTTtT;
,

As
of

crro etc.

answer

Latin ultra
side

jjdbi
to
us.

is

the

equivalent

Lat.
^oifav

citra,

denoting the

next

When
accor-

time-denoting,
dingly

contrasted

with

trsrr

and the

like is

=
30

sbefore;"
JFTfeJrol
I

then

it

may be
STSJ;

construed with the
fninq&n^l

ablative.

M.

8,

Rcfi

TJWV TraT

^£7%

aMs^l-eS^rtellfl
,

qTW ^Mlri^H

(property the owner of which has disappeared

must

'

§
be

173-177.

127

guarded by the

king for three years. Before that term, the
it,

owner may reclaim

afterwards

it

falls

to the

king).

174.

„After" in time
ablative.

is

often expressed by
,

S&FT or ^FFfTPT

r

_____

and"" with,

Of them ^FTrlT*! commonly makes up the

^7J^"
\

latter part of a
three
days),
it

compound
3, 7

adverb. Kumaras. 6,93 aj^Tjyir (after
5TfTT

~

Ragh.
lost its

g|

i

um TTTO Hl (iH-rU

(a creeper at the

time

has

old foliage), Pane. 52 f^rT
rrg

^UHH^iH

(after

having seen

her).

So

That the single

vi-H^ (after this) and the like. ablative may occasionally express rafter what
(99).

time" has been stated above

175.
cr^nrT;

Another word
y.

for

„after"

is

T^TTFT.

When
,

prepos.,

complies with a genitive generally preceding
Kathas.
6,

mostly used of space and rank.
iW tram
after him).
5r3cPrf;

134

^

and

is

trrfsrer

Fane.

181

t&3 ^^m^V®'- ^f^T
also be denoted

friend I put (n °

Rem. »After"
»west
last

in space

may
q-§-

by words meaning
jrajriFr

of"

a*

Hrtich';

by

(at the

rear)

and

(back).

The

seems to be restricted

to

the old liturgical dialect.

176.
3v'
3X"

[14\]'

The very opposite
and
*|i|
its

of f-J^IrT
a)

is

the old adverb
^f /r|!
,

Cf^"!

= before
b)

synonyms:

the kindred

Qr^TrTTrT,

and WArt'

(literally „at

the top at the

?FfTF

l head").

When

prepositions,

they comply with genitive

=_£•

or are compounded.
err;

They are employed both of space and
applied
to

mm-, of time. etc. Examples of

etc.

space.

§ak.

V

ffiT:

yfdU

i

Prl

jprcT: 3X^t *^*t 3ft%ra; Acv. Grhy. 1, 11, 6 sror [tstT:] y{^IJ>iJ* Pane. 286 KjfSfT (before the victim they bear a blazing stick)
;

frorr 5JT

PRm^

fore her).

[sc ggHcilPi ] (he cast the young shoots
to their application to time

down

be-

As

see 178.

177.

They are
of,

also often used to denote „in the presence

under the eyes

of

= Lat.

coram.

In the same

way

,

128

§ 177.
3Hlr<1*1.
as

FFHsFT and
vicinity

Moreover words
etc.

,

meaning

„in the

of
,

F1M4T
,

Note the frequent employment
of saying
telling

of this

turn with verbs
the same
(fffrT-

promising

,

even with those of going

bringing , appearing

und the

like. It is virtually

tosayrlWra"— rTFT^TT:,
^]Ull[H
etc.)

ST^fft etc.

<Wfrl
^TOTtF
srr
1 )

or

rTR

,

tT3T

—,

tT

PftT

(&fcT-

SJHTtftT etc.) Examples 1.
:

err: etc.

=z Lat. coram. Dag. 96
fpzrr

ril^um^.W-id HT
oi<^4_ (for
4,

M^Hi^Mri
she
lowers

;

Ratn. Ill, p. 67

y<5^W

RiriH

shame
HiRFT[as

her face before everybody); Kathas.
(forsooth,

79

g?Jr

WlchiHHlJlchH tRT
to]

in our presence
TiTls;
,

he has avowed

the money); Dag. 176 from ift
2.

(— wept
,

before her eyeB).

q-r:

etc.

with verbs of saying
tfcfosreftr^

telling

bringing etc. Kathas.

27, 27
fff

h

p*r.

trpr:

(he

told
;

the

king

all)

;

Pane. 274

Rial {ii Hi

fa^Hi

5^MTf|%feTRjtg;
s^Trrf

ibid.

25 the chacal says to
1,

the

lion

f^
':

<£uftqi«>iwJj

Q^IUJH; Nala
",

15

;rerr:

SP?fo

?T

^5f JTWi:
Sotzi

h i Mrl

iWrer "Epftir g ^-dTgrntp: TT".*&n (I myself have promised so
• • •

Kathas. 25, 211 ^riiR-diii
to

the king).

Pane.

277

q^r
p.

7T5TT3T ^trTT

(the basket
<Tf7{:

was brought
<T5g:

to the king),
[or

Mahav. I,

18 ^tjtu^t

ui^iWj

THW^TO

° ^r]

Eem. The inverse
sim.

of Lat. coram, viz. clam »at the back of,
is

without the knowledge of"

expressed by mAthm or *%, tr#, wsn:
error

Kathas. 29, 73 ot srot

T A-gWch^j&JH (she

illtreated

her daughter-in-law without the knowledge of her son).

8).

1)

So

I

have mended the bad reading of mss. and edd.

-){j(rif.

2) In the

brahmanas gf|tH4,

° ?T[rT

when = clam

,

is

also construed

with

instrum. Qat. Br. 1,5,2,7 iJsmT^T qrt^FT, Ait. Br.

3,

36,5 sfipTT ^W^FT

.,

§ 178—179.

129

178.

When

of time
in

,

0^ etc. agree likewise with a genitive
time
is

)
'

Yet „before"
the ablative.
Examples
said
to
a.)

commonly not expressed by
r
,

them, but rather by STRT or QgFT both complying with
of time-denoting

cm

etc.

Qak. VII happiness

is
ftst

be the consequence of the favour of mighty persons
*TTW1
1,
?r<Jc^'.

uma^u Mhbh.
tJEPJ.

(hit

your favour

is

anticipated by happiness),
trgw.
;

232, 1

tr^rr:

*^*Mtei

yUii^mlrf

&>)

of cncF and
*)

Qak.
i

V y|J|^rlf|TdiNHIrtemiJnUdlHM-'tlQvil'.

TpTfTT >3tfT MlNU Prf

Ragh.

12,

35 gfi ti ^HlfMoH (before approaching).

179.

[16] £7lcT

with accusative is, relatively speaking, the
called

most common among the so
generally denotes the
this

prepositions.

It

direction towards, and
is

for

reason
,

it

often

is

a concurrent idiom of the sole used d) with words
1

accusative
of

dative and locative. It
to signify the
,

movement
,

„ whither,'
,

b)
,

as speaking to bowing to striving to
to

love

in such turns

hatred

,

anger

and the

like,

c)

like the

nimittasaptaml

(147) to

express

„with respect to,

on account

of, concerning,

about, on", «?)=„about," to denote nearness in space
or time,
e)

it

has a distributive sense, in what case

one

is

wont

to

compound

MIrl with its

noun

,

as STtET^T

(every day).

As a rule,
prose. Examples:
a)

CTTrT is

put behind
jt^

its

noun, at
set out

least in

Pane. 42
crf^;

Dag. 30 jpE^fcra^sr

rfn uftw

(he

homeward),
iniFr

methaphor.

R.

2, 107, 11

htsHTT^r

1)

Note the ablative with ^?h M.

3,

114 =ffiHf&WTt

W
,

{toMMlsiUrT^he
qsPT-

must entertain them even before

his guests" [Kulluka

g fHf£jwfl'>s£r
9

130
[gri,g(H
b).

§ 179—180.
(by

Gaya,

as

he directed his worship
jett

to

the pitaras).
rrf

Pane. 159 irfqm
WcTS:',
=r

sjumrfjld
wistrar
^ttzt:
;

— BM.

ft

jtt

3)

— Q&k- "VII g^wgTffxrf ofh *rt: — yakl^^jryctiPf^fer^Di^iij^qi^. 23 sr^^r 54,
uriiHs*Tlur.
;

— Mudr.

tjfn

mr;

— B-

2, 52,
;

79 =^f

?Tf jftrRrr

I, p.

22 rnptrf gin an:

£ak.

HI

^oi^gi-

=r rorcrr

Erfrr;

c.)

8,

245 ^faf

trfrr

Wt<H Qd
6

l'

^ (if

a contest have arisen about

some boundary); Nala
cerning
•sfer;

2,

£muwi«
IX,

rirthltf^Uj^rteii

wn mn (—
triflr

cowmi)

his daughter); Malat.

p.

154 fort

ft

HMriT

Ru

Pane. 3 Vishnucarman engages himself to
:j

make

the king's

sons ^yuiiM MrilH^ypil-IJ Qak. I f%
srrrr

W3T Tim EnjqwmcrfWTCIWFEriH

(should she perhaps

be disposed towards me, as I
»in

am

to

her?).

Eem. Note the phrase qt
fr.

ufrT

my

opinion, for

my

part,"

selon moi.
FfH"

In

full

qf

srf?T

H

fail l id (it

looks-,

seems to me). Hitop.

100

T5FTT ychdsH^UII'SiqW JTpfr TT Hr<^ UddrUMUlfri 1, 8,

d.)

Mhbh.

7 gi^qr ^rsfiT

eRSTPaq'irfH

(— about
I

ft

mrsr.

• • •

jot
182

timi*M* ^jt-

the hermitage of Sth.); M.

7,

^uinTttf srir

inf%

tlltlNMi *T^inR: tRT^Tuf oTFT
e).

^T

STT

RTOT

iHrT.

Pane. 286

rrw

atf
1,

qf?r

ch^n^A Hii-^R (he gives him one
jrfrT
JTFT:

camel a year); Tajn.

110 q%

(at
(let

every

sacrifice).

— Com-

pounded

f.

i.

Qak. I nfdMNMiJ^di

each actor do his duty),
StTT-

Bhojapr. 14 f^r

JWI 53J

Rsiu^Hr: qr^fq^i^i ott
1.
q-f^r,

A

concurrent

idiom

is

mentioned 158 K.

180

Panini enjoins also the ablative with

in

two cases
6)

viz. P-1,4,
92;
C]l.

when

pointing

out a)

ones match or

substitute,

something

2,3,11.

given in exchange. The Eacika. illustrates our rule by these examples:
a),
etoit:

chMWrf or chim n
i

:

JrfrT

(Pr.

the match or

substitute

of K.),
beans).

6).

f^wr:

afrT

y-^fn

rrrsrpj; (in

exchange of sesam he gives

I

have nowhere met with instances of that construction
,

in literature
viz.

but for one

,

I

borrow textually from the Petr.
sfrcTRR

Diet.,
^Trar.

Mhbh.

3,

13287 s^rraf <im srf

tWMiMlri

i

rtifri

ft

Yet there are several instances

in the ancient Vedic dialect as
trfrT,

well as in classic Sanskrit of an accus. with

when

signifying

the »match."

Kgv.

2, 1,

8

far

m^iIui

STFTT a.sr

trfH

(you are equal to

, ,

§
thousands
etc.),

180—182.
rr
=et

131
trin

Kathas. 45, 400

md^rdpH

(nor are

you a

match

for him).

181.
5ft

[17] s||f^: (outside, out)

is

the very opposite of^RT!
as a preposi-

^

:

(165).

It is

more used

as a

mere adverb than

tion. In the latter case it complies with preceding ablative. Pane. 176 psf sRnT^ sri^Tsr (get out of the water), ibid. 291 rK<U
srf^f^SfTRT:-

Or

it

may be
is

the latter part of a compound: Utt.

IV, p. 73 aiJiWsif^:.

Eem. Dag. 77 sr%

construed

with a genitive:

a^f

=et

stptt-

182.
-.

[18]

I^TT

{without)

is

construed with instrumental,

p. 2,3,

go

'^ Hl *

accusative or ablative. In prose it is
its

commonly put behind

case 1 ), in poetry it often precedes Examples: with ins t rum. Pane. 266 g^
(I

U chlfii
l

cannot live here

without you);

— with
H UUi
g-

fsraT

foRT msr

creff

accus. Pane.

E.

269 gj JTR' srarr Fat iH^TT ^nHT (but she cannot stay without you), 3, 9, 20 q- farqr mfff H 'erjiT (he does not go abroad without

that sword);

with ablat. Dag. 141
Var.

rTT^STTeT

l

a

i

PdHI (without
rRT ^TpS":

such a store

of happiness),

Brh. 44, 17

j^rf^

Rem.
if

1.

Occasionally
I,

fsFTT

may have

the meaning of ssave «(l^fd
,

not".

Pane.

42

fgr^rr

^.mh^h ^^T ^

ihid. p.

244

q-

^
-

i?hiy fg^rr slbTPT (there

is
i

nobody wise but Eaktaxa).
are construed ger^; and :trt "apart from." p
I can quote
2. 3,

Rem.
Of
of
^fprr,
qT?T3T

2.

Just as fen

when

a prepos.,

no instance from literature
^

only with an ablat. Bhojapr. 27 pavrr: qqfTd&-<^rH (the
lies

king's
p.

duty

outside
p. 48.

the

duty of the scholar), Prabodh. II,

34, Mudr. I,

1)
it

But not always. Mudr. VII,

p.
it

223

f.

i.

ibHd iMIsJiluT Hi farm
I

precedes, stress being laid upon

»even without striking a blow "Your

Excellence has vanquished."

;

132
183.

§
is

183—184.


!"*

Separation
3EFrT^IJT,

expressed

by some more prepositions by

,

as

SFFT(T,
,

5R5T, Wt, moreover

verbal
see 166.

periphrase (202

2° ).

About Wr\JJ and SEFTpiT

5F^T5T with
tive

ablative is

„except, save," in interroga-

and negative sentences

„ but;'

1

Hr[

is

likewise p

-

2. 3,

construed with ablative and generally
save," sometimes
Examples: of
f^FT:
i

it is also

= „ except,
i

srenr

„by default of," rarely „ without." Mhbh. 1, 147, 20 tj ^^ H^ddfaj^rl ^|T -ti ^ai [3<N mMI-r^lr<fHfr<HrHIH (and nobody among the citizens
=ET3T=r.
i

=

=

did

know them, but
its

— ); Oh. Up.

6, 8,

4 ftst

m qo% ^I^^hh inland
The proper meaning of
it,

where could be

root except in food?).

a-tH being of course selsewhere," the ablat., which attends on
is

that of comparison (105).

of =eh.

1.

= save,
j

j&l, Qak. Ill f^f
is

there

for
of.

me, except beholding
2, 66,

^

except.
>T

Bhojapr. 27 chifa<mi^H stq

cFffg-

^

fmn^SRT^H

sr^TTPRJH^ (what other relief

my
,

sweetheart?);

2.

— by

default

E.

27 jrh

ft

qsrr^

5^f ^^<JHHl()^^^
the

(they did

not approve burning the king's body
Tajn.
2,

no son of his being present)
death
of the mother her
-s^cra
1

117

it

is

said

that

after

daughters must have
of

the
;

them

,

the descendants)
it

succession skh ?TTwft
3.

:

(hy default
'

Ch. Up.

5, 1,

8 chqiimchHH ^ysTiOtH^

(how did
in
rrr

forbear to live without me?).

Rem, Sometimes
epic

^

is

construed with the accusative, especially
=ET

poetry.

Nala

4,

26 yQui-H'

JTT

m

=T

chl^l^ ^fcolH^

;

1

=Kr>

qiRioiynm-

184.
its^syno-

[19J

Of

^

»with" and its

synonyms fT^R,

W$%
also

r

nyms.

^T^T a full account bas been given in the chapter on ^e instrumental (58). Mostly they precede the instrumental
,

they are complying with

,

but they
it

may

be put behind or be separated from

by one or more

§ 184—185.
interjacent words
case, adverbs
,

133

')• As they are when without nounmeaning „ together ," it is exactly speaking, a pleonasm to put them to the instrumental, as the notion
,

of concomitancy
the instrument.

is already carried by that case. Eem. Occasionally ^- with instr. may even be expressive

of
in-

Kathas. 37, 62 EHoTRFqrfrf
combustibles).

i^ct
,

(after

having

flamed the
occurrence
in

fire

by

This idiom

though not of frequent
it

in literature,

must be very
f. i.

old, as

is

met already

the

Ath.

Veda, see

8, 1,

11

f^^di

m

yrfrsrarTT

the Celestial burn thee with his lightning).

^

(lest

185.
STf
g.o
Q

Compounding

ti«£

with

its

noun

is

allowed.

Yet in

p

-

6.3,

and

in

com .

most cases to W<q° one substitutes
being the former
the same to say
instance
yvinm'i
^roTT^jBr
1.

^__^

82 '

W,

either of

them
An

pounds,

member

of the

compound.
may
be

{FP FFftrP

or {"FT
?r°

of interchanging sr^f^r


are

and
i

^

It is exactly

FffcnTT.
II, p.

Ven

43 ^Tf.

^mj *h^i^

teis

^?

P^Ph

miu^mh: yJ|y-w_.

Eem.
quired to
in
a)
b)

where q^ is rebe the compound's former member, not e, some others
cases

Some

taught by P&nini,

which on the contrary
in in

q-

must be used. Thus
g^trsrfgjJT (the

is

wanted
his
'

time-denoting adverbs as
blessings
as

forenoon included),

^q-

estrirra'
-,

Sorftr

wnH
-,

(hail to

him with

son).

Yet the phrases ?mswx
?r°

^ng-

^tboTtet

srfer

nw

8l
-

'

'

are ad- p

«•

s>

mitted as equally good as q^ok'Hm and the

rest.

But

— not ^° —
,

is

required a) in

all

compound adverbs,

not expressive of time
(with anger)
sTPTWTrT
(
,

therefore exclusively in such terms as

mltm
to his 7*8.81'

srsr^TFPT (respectfully), Dae. 84 —

qgks^ gsfe
to his

swtw

ne addressed

me

in a

manner adapted

joy and to his excitement) and so often;
as sre^ff ?d)fH&|JT5?iH

— not

shame,

P

6 3

b) in

some special phrases,

Eem.

2.

etyiT

and

grpcr

H<*sH ars;: UddJ^-:> an d the like. are seldom compounded with their noun.
,

1)

So
,

f.

i.

Dae. 156

^

(iigrtJ

^IsidWJUl,

Ait.

Br.

1,

13,

18 "h"^3h

m^ih-m^Fh B.

2,

95*, 29 fiTfr-trarr

Rwi*ter

^,

etc.

134
If this be the case,

§

185—188.

they make up the latter member. Pane. 276

sncRmsr
the

=et sfTfltnV itf&m brahman was restored

m

(with these very words the wife of

to life).

186.
i-sptot,

Finally

we must mention some prepositions not spoken
,

of in the foregoing, viz. „near,

1

st

flW

and FRPTT, both

=
y '"
on P.

a^^.

about,"

2fr

STRrTs ^FT:, ^oFr:, flFFrHT:
all sides),

(round, about, on
of

3H^rT! (on both
• •

sides). All

them agree with the
Examples:
2.
1.

accusative.
.

Dae. 146 ^ttot snvftf^r-

EratpTpnsRWreraJTj
2, 103,

KatMs.
his
sides

33, 113 ^fiirr: $rz

mmRrji
ft

;

R.

21 g^rr

g^i round
seems

rafT roW^wRrTl asr;

Kathas. 18, 5

<HW~HI: crfpft &gj?5r U^ilUll ^=r
like the hosts of stars

(on

his vassals

marched,

the polar- star).

Eem.
it is

1.

A

genitive with ^ftffj, ^FflFT:
prer

is

rare, but

it

regular
2.

with m^HIH ; Pane. 185 In modern writings
faucF?

^rotver

Eem.

with gen.

=

W-d

l

t<4[7jHMfri .

son

all Bides."

II.

PERIPHRASE BT MEANS OP NOUN-CASES.

187.

In the preceding paragraphs

we have already dealt with

noun-cases as have got more or less the character b^mean? suca of nounf prepositions. Those, we will look upon now, have
still

retained as
as

much

of their original

and proper

sig-

nificance

to

consider

them

as

nouns even from a
all of

syntactical point of view.

Of course

them comply

with the genitive or
pounds.

may

be the latter part of com-

188.
^i^ *'
1

In the
r\

first

place: the loc, ace.
,

and

abl.

of nouns,

meaning proximity

SPrta and
other

words

WUQ,
are a

oipmxi-

STTOT, r means tor expressing „near;

neighbourhood (as ^MtI^, f and similar, FTFn^T) or the side
vicinity
,

.

r^

r

-

(^}

to, towards; from."

i

§ 188.

135

T$£i "
ward*!" and the
like

This Penphrase

is

especially
person.

employed to signify a moving

towards or from a
[or <%]
etc.,

„He has come to me" H^Prl^

STTJTFT:
is

or

HrH+ISFT, RrfPfrpT,

^^\W\
etc.
locat.

„he

gone from me"
1.

HrMUM

Examples:

moving

1^

lr|!

to

a person.

Accus.

periphrasing noun.


(M.,

and

of the
,

antika: Dag. 19 sn^r
1

Pane. 269 HdlPH* rWHMJlfq SRTrmqTOT;
(I STcfTTSW

;

— sakdga:
V.),
;

^d^PdcM-ll-'nddHfo)
Ill, p.
l

Mrcch.

125 q^j- jt^
l

go to

Pane. 262

have come

to

you

for friendship)
ijErCsfq-

— samipa
I

=Erf ro
:

rMch U T

»

^U>ftnMH

i

Hit. 22

gtm^rft', Pane. 178

grsr^ Ri^

^m41m

rr?r:;

g^- gqfap&rgva: Pane.

257 oiw^uiaswiWHj
Dag. 133
STT^Tttf rf

ibid.

55 iTnoii^i^iyui: ^RrsrrPTT»si*HH;
fori":

mzvi
his

vfi i^T

tfq-WWr;
60

— nikata:

— samnidhi:

Kathas. 24, 66

foi^Ksii^

• .

g^rir4ch£ rT3T (then

he allowed that brahman
:ffrri;

to

go

to

daughter), Bhojapr.
J-lfo-lrUumfHfiU
l

Dag. 36 oiRdi...father and
easily
);

^ Mpch^

— abhyarna:
to
list

— — upakantha:
Prom
to

il&i

(conducted the

woman
This

my
may

Dag. 39 Hd.MchU 6TTOTarchaic
dialect I
5, 3,

be

enlarged.

the

add an instance
4

of

>m
2.

being equivalent with tnw(he

Ch. Up.

^ fTWT:

-fiH^-

Wdjlii

went sorrowful

his father).

moving from a person. Ablat.
tsfcyc.

Kathas. 10, 26

withdrew from him), Eagh.
from Eaghu
,

^ ^fjrt^ryHiMl^qiy^
5,
:
i

of the periphrasing noun.

(Qrid. with his friends

24 pft Hch m cjrm tttTi (gone without having obtained his desire), Mrcch. X, p. 375
i

^am

^prtarrnw
3.
1,

-di^-riMiyoifri.

Staying near.

Locat. of the periphrasing noun.

Agv. G-rhy.

18, 7 feirdi^.srwMitiMcfcnsr ett^
ibid.

sTT^nn'.;

160 yBr^riT^rr^

=

OM.yH

,

Pane. 277

<*M)<jchU6 fa^rprft

»near the white house."

"When

at-

tending
sin

on persons, the periphrasing nouns
presence
(177).
to.

may

of course be
q-r;,

=

the

of," thus being

synonymous with

%% and

the like

Hence they may occasionally denote the person,
3, 10,

addressed
to

K.

9 rfo

rjzn

snwff fewf^fr (so I have spoken

the brahmans).
Bern.
1.

By

so

called syntactic analogy

q ch m n
i i

is

occasionally
it qualifies.

construed with the abl. instead of the gen. of the noun,

,

136

§

188—190.
i

Varah. Brh. 104, 12 rfucwii Ai^ft qVr: Mch

ailrth^Ml^fel llH

(Mars takes

away
H--.-

the fruit of thieves and princes).
2.

Bern.

Kathas. 25, 129

we have flPdcM :=
H

»near," yum hui PrlcM
I

asrnftfe^J.
3.

Rem.
tives,
q?ft

qiudd :, srqWr:, Mch

l

'J

i

:

sometimes have the worth of ablaf. i.

but sometimes also that of locatives,
riHilisr

Kathas. 32, 99 tn^Ti^ -

=tr 3ft

qnjdd

:

i

=r£t

(—

and at

its

side a river), cp.

Nala

6, 4.

189.

Moreover M^l^lld
and qmoifr^

and also, but not so often, aPdchiH^

— serves
tej
i

also to periphrase

many
[sc.

other kinds
(you must

of ablative, especially
So Pane. 28
procure
ft-i
:

if=„from the

side of a person".
fsraT]

^chiail^d^Fdun ^.ImRjHoU T

me

safety from the side of your master), ibid. 137 irtfe-

jn?tere?T qzrr ftst

^m

i

iH-i

i

uiift-riu

i

,HHl[q srryq 5TIH FT3 q teH-^laiJoiifi (well, I
i

^

i

hr qr

q^ift

iftfrr:

mrm

i

FTr5i5Tf%-

have seen how you have
this

loosened Citragriva of his fetters
for I too
,

,

and I was much pleased at
,

if

from your
i

side);

HchlU lrtifia^
:?feiqj


l

— to receive from:.Mrcch. X, p. 341 A-^im^ uaH: roirMchlUl(^s)-wJ^tHit; — to ask from: Pane. 75
qjrr

perchance I should get into captivity

may be

released

to learn
i

from

:

M.
5

=3fpf
Mlri
l

(vihrt^ji jcal

gswwdl':

— to buy from
grrercr (he

2,

20 ^rT^SBraFiW Mehiyil^Jd-MH:
:

i

ssrear

M.

9,

174 shiuTid i<y*^oH4ril l«f
has bought
called his bought
rlrHchHtiirqjY

iqJ wPrichirij

H £bm:

whom somebody
is

from his
son);

parents that he might be instead of a son,

— to

be borne from: Pane. 318 qq g^?rf <jmfd
his daughter, of her I shall

ijfspErfflr

me Abl. of comparison:
(he will give
M<*iim li.Ultm*dl<-l
i

have a

son).

q

Pane. 271 ^frer m'^hiREt: Hdmi

^ istM=«lu i i

crsHrf?T

(from this time he looked on him with favour

above
like), >
*
i

all

rajputs , showing his grace
p. *

by marks of honour and the
I

Vairacched.

16 g^r x$m <J iWfch'Wyj ova
,

Ph* k mi mi<W mimsh^J ^ ^
.

:

5T Hr 41^fM 3irrt qTslfo (forsooth

if

compared

to the foresaid bulk of
is

good works,

this

second bulk of good works
it).

not equal to the

hundredth part of

190.
\

In the same

way

the loc, ace. and abl. of %lt1^>

RW, sim. may periphrase the being or the getting „ within,"
the moving »from within."

§ 190—193.
a.)

137

being within. Pane. 259
trffir&rsf
:

air+H

'.

5JST

;


c.)

srfifr

M^J-H(

s^^

ibid 67
i

fTO*r

b.)

getting within.

Pane. 246 a
;

tfJU

i

Hl^H l

aMMrtil-d

(he

disappeared in
,

a crowd of brahmans)

ibid.

q&iw ^ u^VaUiv
,H(irii

39 r^ff
3r5iT-

coming from within. Pane. 38
h Raiser

Hfhfd^

Traf

=7

Kr^rfpr

(never at day nor at night he draws the
ftft:

money
'.

out of his belt), ibid. 70
(then
,

^rqyrr^

ftrnuTFrfV ^t^: *h^[?<!IH

the echo caused a noise twice as heavy to go up from the

interior of the pit).

Eem. 5RTT may
So K.
2,

occasionally be

= swith respect

to, concerning."

90, 16;

cp.

the same meaning of g

^m

166,

4° .

As

to

qyjTT see

167.

191.
JTKT and

^TW and
see 116,
iq

"R^M

H are often used in a

partitive
ibid.

sense;
cases,
86 hot

morn-

then they are concurrent idioms of the partitive

Rem.
'

2.

Pane. 120 aTSRiT&ji ar^BfT^^jir;
spoke).

m

i

rchich

:

J olM (among them, the crow
i

192.
° ^f.
etc.

The
_^

locative denoting „on or in

what spot",
°

is

often

specified

by means
_^

of
-

such

words as

^5T, ° 3s^3T,

serving

f

hra se of
the locative.

P

r

° <^> ° ^>
these latter

"^ sim

_^

Wnen translating such tatpurushas,

prepositions:
ftsrtrT

members must generally be rendered by u " in, upon, over etc. Pat. 1, 123 w: ?r *iichini4Jti
in

^5f
,

friWh^tri ^Tonnorf^iH (that smoke being

the atmofalls

sphere

it

does not go athwart

,

if the air

be calm nor
,

down),

Dae. 169

(waafi

w

(shSHWM tr^n^Tifffa (he saw somebody moving
the metaphorical sense of

on the earth).

Eem. Likewise fom may periphrase
the
locative,
as

Bhag. Pur.

1, 4,

13

irt pat

fmh

orrai 5jTrTC (I

think you are accomplished in grammar), Pane. 173 inidNir ^rm<rr (one must not be grieved for the sake of earthly goods).
:t

cRTO:

So often

wx fmh

»in this respect."

193.

Several periphrasing words
of,

may

signify for the sake

because

of, for, viz.

1.

fTrT,

used almost as a real

,

138

§ 193.
^jrTt' the ablative
1
)

f^'^

1

'

preposition,

2.

of

^H „motive," 3.
and
loc.

3, OT^tfT
press'iveof

^T% Wfa and ?RT,
and =h|^UI
„ cause,

the

ace.,

dat.

of

^

(matter, sake), ±. the instrum., accus.

and

abl. of

IHIHfT

cause,
tive,

moaim.

motive."

They are construed with

preceding genitive, if they do not

make up

the latter

part of a compound.
Examples:
IWT
1.
<j£f.

— Pane. IV, 29
for
<d
l

tj

sa^mi

TOT Jjf^ ^TSraH (one
p.

must not spend much
IpTtfT

the sake of little); Mrcch. IV,

131
^fT:

M<R*Wl:
was

TOT

^^jlwHM j
1,

Fane. IV, 51 5H**H

^RWT

(the ass

killed for his voice).

2. |nt:-

Bhagavadgita

35 ^TFT f^rfa^rfir---kill....

frffr

a^TlsM^ Isdm

^rTf: ftj ^r ^^IctiH

(them I would not
Qak.

not even for the sake
less

of the realm of the three worlds,

how much

for the posses:

sion

of land);
for

V ^awf^fi^m:
2,

#TTO cHU^dl

(while

not

caring

your

own
to

pleasure, you tire yourself for the sake of

your people); Ragh.
>T

47
a
;

inpm

roTT

(you

seem
Note

me

^iHfc^EoHmjfc" srfrWTfe thoughtless fool, that you desire to
,

|^j

give up
rT3TTiUT*T-


is

much
like.

for a trifle) graT ^rff:

Malat. IV, p. 65

diQrH
(for

I

UM = ^firl:

(why?), chmipj

%rfl":

some motive)

and the
1)

It

not

quite plain,

how Panini

did account for ^fTh. Yet, his
,

commentators and followers consider it a genitive and it is very likely he has thought so himself. At least, we may draw the inference. After having taught in his sutra 2, 3, 26 etOT ^HHuW, that is »the genitive is
required [instead of the instrum. of causality]

when employing

^fT",

he

adds
of the

this

clause

(s.

27)

gsprfa'xfiTtaT

^

»but in the case of a pronoun

class

sarva

etc.,

either the gen. or the instrum."

With

the said

pronouns
57HT ^TTt:
is

it is

therefore allowed to use two idioms promiscuously

and $FT ^FRT
which
is

f. i.

.

but

for

the rest the only idiom available
%rft:.

that,

exemplified by q^yyj
,

Now,
Then

as efpt

and ^H^T

are both instrumentals
i:liom
,

it is

but consistent that of

cfrar ^FTfi,
,

the parallel
qrisrer

both

elements

are

meant

as

genitives.

of course

The very words of Panini §rrff: must also be considered as genitives both. do not admit of another interpretation.

,

§ 193.
3.

139
ritoi

a.)

=g^ir.

Pane.

169
,

jre?TTef

g[y)H^ddl nf; (he
i

is

gone

to the
(

same bank

for water)

ibid.

212 s^ch

fatft

oreraavnf crafwr:

set out in order to kill the crows),

Mrcch.

Ill, p.

116

q^fSrerrcrr

ftwriumief

oiy-dMHTJT^;
his

JT^rft, E.
to

3, 35,

34 ^Trm-m-miT

^ctii^

ifS^

(he
is

made up
&•)

mind
Mhbh.

fetch the amrta).

It is plain,

that g^ir

in all such phrases the equivalent of a final

dative.

mm. —
will

Cp. 87.

1,

144, 17

q-

i

i

^^i-d

<TTO3oiTTftr

chr<ftH;
;

(they
Ill,

not reprove us for the sake of the Pandavas)
^5T HJriieilU

178

promotes the welfare of his country), here

^

Pane.

nradR' tnf^sff U5T:

(no ruler but a
fjrfJTTftr is

= f%rRT
Prefer

monarch
,

cp.

Nala
c.)

13, 19.

mf.

Mrcch.

Ill, p.

116

jiRji*^
(it

sTTfrnTaF^T

mfdHM

1

,

Pane. 325

^rg^

yrrfq^qj^; fern
after),

is

for

evil days,
'

that wealth
<rl-gMU VJlf q
l

and friends are sought
3jTT
(tT.

R.

2, 118,

53

A P&rt
1,

I

irraf^

has been given to L. to be his wife)
irrqf,

[ittotst

accordingly

Wtt
4.

or

cp.

ibid. 3, 34, 21

;

Mhbh.
J
i

14, 7].
i

fqfq=ra^ etc.

— Dae. 25

rrftsjji5rfw

HsTt f^it-i

siggr^

(he has died
rTHT
(it

for a

brahman)
12, 342,

,

Pane. 228 ^rld^tfoiuiHUicHlf<S->iifaft7l yM^ai^l
m<7T:

Mhbh.

23 sr^rrirsrerrf^fw f| nwTT^SJTOiTTfo^:
adultery

is

because

of his

with Ahalya,

that Indra got a reddish

But however great the authority of Panini may be, as it is, when states facts and describes phenomena there is no plausible reason To him, to follow it, where his explication of them is wrong.
he
,

who

did not

know but one language,
,

^fTT:

could appear as a genitive,

but for us, who have the opportunity of comparing similar idioms in f. ex. Latin causa and gratia English because of, different languages By doing it is impossible not to take ^fff: for an ablative of causality.
,

so

we account
3TSJT

for the
E[rff
:

Therefore

is

to be

idiom in question in a quite satisfactory manner. compared with Latin cujus rei causa not with
,

qua de causa, the Sanskrit equivalent of which
chM-HArft
:

is

^WTSrTT:.
27 f^fM-a*il
UlSrltsr
irrjr

reminds
-

me
it

of

the

vartt.

on P.

2, 3,

^d faf
shows
be

u ^l^UH^
i

This precept
that
at

sufficiently

is strictly true by must not be urged too
,

itself — the word much — but cannot
it
,

Baid

with some reason
it
all.

Panini has left out this rule

as

he did not

want to enjoin

140

§

193—195.
;

beard from the side of Gautama)
fq^THT (he
,

— E. 2, 90, 12
ch
l

f^rpr:

being enjoined by his father because of a
jt^ ^nuiitfi rer
FTcT

ulRiHTM woman — ); —
will take

Nala

4,

4

[Sim-iPTi

^UHH^

(for

you I

poison

etc.)

194.

The
is

foresaid apparatus for expressing the purpose, the

aim, the motive, the sake, though the most

common,

not the sole,

*&, J^FTfT,
purpose,
'

<+il(UI,

^FT,

%T
fair

etc.

serving also for this
bahuvrihi. Dag. 75
of manifoldness
f. i.

when being part
chW sfofl
i

of

a

IdWJ^tfrjgi

:

^TTg>W(5#ftrT (from

astonishment and joy people burst out into clamour).
of expression

A

sample

we have

in

these

lines

from the

Ramayana
A\[ii{ IsUfewmfll

^

ST^T:

SWislriol:

(2, 23,

31),

in

each pdda a In the
^rT,

different

way
the

has been followed to signify the

aim.

first =gq- is

the latter

member

of a bahuvrihi, in the

fourth

in

the

second

dative of the aim has been used,
3, 43, 17;

and the third has periphrase by means of wfer- Cp. R.
Nala
14, 19.
It is plain that datives

Rem.
as

as Tsvrfa, fifi-am

,

^rfir "will signify
I

but the purpose or aim, whereas ablatives as chu
fSrftw^,
in

UI

H

,

instrumental

But

compounds in VsT are only expressive of the cause. some of the foresaid implements for periphrase, as ^£t,
i

WTT, PiPmh

%rft":

>

the contrast, which does logically exist between
»

the conceptions »aim" and ing,

cause"

is

not to be found.

Strictly speak-

they are

standing

on the neuter territory of the »motive"

which partakes of both. See the examples given.

195.

The

cause

either material or efficient

is

moreover
„by the

^^

^J^

often periphrased
rule of" and
Pane. 43 sjw

by G^ITrT
(or

(or

cRfa)

liter.

sMIrj^
i

<s|<rM) liter. „by the

power
^urt

of."

^qHdm
2,

A.mHri

a^,
l

ibid.

327

^cHmir^H
;

OTiTrar-

iw; Var. Brh.

4 aiMi^jj^pM a i oiaH

Tr^ (he may
Kathas.

perhaps reach
12,

the other side by the strength of the wind)

59

Jj|rM-i

:i

:

,

§
ST4SH
^fiisrwTTf

195—197.

141

sq v T

^

'

i r

>V 7TiPlT;

(Yaug. made himself invisible by

sorcery).

196.
Peri-

The

agent,

instrument, means
—n

may

be periphrased by
-Nf*

phrase
of

such words as

<a\i IIT

(by means of), TT^TtTT (by
-^

way of),

St
ZZL

^{"^ I ^
or

'

WH,

^

a Continual line of )>

^^"^

and

^^"^

-^

ST^FTTfT (by

mouth

of),

^ff^T

or ?ftJn?T

(by exercising, practising), ^FTfTT^IJT (agreeably to), sim.
Prabodh.
3ia h-jIM
II, p.
( an(l

35 pr [sc. ^iaf*mj =cr fwnffqRi&y^ i} m fi%j)<* sr^ri'^ e nas spread his doctrine by his disciples and the
I

disciples of them); Pane. 239 tuchinmiif in

UM

I

H (he went off through
i

the sky); Mrcch. VIII,
sr:

p.

255

trfir

q^HM{"4(H T m
of

fUj^ra-Ti" qiorsrT-

(but

if

we

entered the
g- ^TsTT
l

city

U. by following the line of

groves); Pane. 56

^spta^rc at pta^jsTTET ; Qak. II ^grra^TTs;-

zmft ar:

trrai;

Mfad

fd

(he too [the king] earns tapas day after day
1

by

his

giving

J Tm
|

=anTT ofaa (

protection); Pane. 126 oRtfq f&irt

q^ifa^ T^ri" qoRRrspeak according
to

but because of deeds

,

done in a former existence

he was a

thief)

;

Bhojapr. 3

oi^jfl) to|iiril-Hru)

m

(I

my

opinion).

III.

PERIPHRASE BY MEANS OF PARTICIPLES

,

GERUNDS

AND THE
197.

LIKE.

Some
phrase
,

o

participles in

n may

serve the

want

of peri-

as

iTrr

1.

TTfT, often

used as an equivalent of the locative,
,

as it
(she

may be rendered by into
(it

to

,

towards. Pane. 155
I, p.

-Errajfrf-

sana snar

has come into our hand), Malav.
at the window),
faraT = rr^T

12 nsrrarTaT fa^fa

stands

M.

2,

218 n^nat

firat sran^~fijn-=$(d

here rmTaT

ferT

»the

wisdom which dwells

in

his

teacher." Pane. 272 a lion takes up the helpless young of a chacal

holding

it

between

his teeth

^majxta

wise E.

3, 46,

6 sPwiHilHI 5^TT:

Like= 5T?FT«I trees in J* = sMtm M ?Fa> S^m
^jretT

^foTT-

» tlle

11 -"

142
Examples of
jttT,

§

197—199.
3, 43,

periphrasing the nimittasaptamf (147). E.
irn?5rf%
,

48

^m vfwm

nnt ?i|R (Laxmana look how fond Sita is of the skin of the antelope), Qak. I g\jli H [5>nfq q^i q-; (I will ask something concerning your friend).
Ht^lT
i

Eem. Occasionally
manner. See
f.

^ffsffr,

^ifjjrt

and the
3,

like are used in this

i.

E.

3, 11,

65 and

54, 26.

198.
ticipie 8

2.

Such as are expressive
it,

of concomitance or the con-

= trary of
}

as

STt^rT,

-with" and .without." tf*\r\

when

=

Mrti, when °

= „with,"

( I«£f1>

^

„ without."

It is a

matter of course, that

we have

the right of speaking of

them

as periphrasing

case-relations only in such cases, as

where the original and

proper meaning

of these participles has faded

away

in so

far as not to admit of their being translated by English participles. With them may be remembered the adjective wuv,

which

is
E

often almost equivalent to our »with," as Pane. 62 =gfer. ...

m fd

WrfdtrRHm H^: (a lake with much water). Eem. To them we may add scfa, tim d fan<T and the
^ji
i

,

like,
» fear-

when being
less,"
3.

the

first
:

members of bahuvrihis
apityless."
in

as

-tmiMmi

=

Dag. 25 spiri^

Some

participles

the neuter

gender

may be met with

occasionally, used as
1,

adverbs

with a prepositional function. Mhbh.

115, 11

-g^rtH
ST

WTrnpr

(without the knowledge of Dhr.); Pane.

272 }pr iw?rr

girn^rtT: U*rlldM)IH ts: (in the course of the conver-

sation the king asked the potter).

Cp. Kathas. 39, 167.

199.

'

To them we may subjoin,
ciples
,

as they do

duty of parti-

the adjectives

5TPF1W, S^RW,

FH^, when point-

ing out the direction of a

movement. Then their proper

meaning

„ [having]

the face [turned] to" has dwindled
to

down

to a
,

mere

or towards
,

= HIH.
rnrj;

They are

often

used so

either as adjectives
Pane. 208
irf^)
:

or adverbially.
Vrim which
is

Examples

of adjective:
*5ftrj"

ssrtnTfwneT!
ibid.

identical with

vm:

;

— of

or sag^(

nrror;

299
l

y^*Nl n?r.

=

tnrj:

y*iar

adverb

Pane. 64 ht <ml>^

fi^ip|

sm^.

:

;

§

200-202.

143

200
"^

.

A similar periphrase is exhibited by the gerund S^f^T*
as it
is

expressive of the

aim the action

is

pointing

at.

Therefore
£TrrT,

3|t^«T may
is

serve almost the

same purpose

as

and
I, p.

available as well in figurative as in literal

sense.

So Pane. 210
8

^rn^^m
tTT^r:

W<n

i

flid

;

(he fled

to his

home),

Mudr.

©Tl^mM^UOW

(the cooking for the brahmans).
soTCTsjt
° rjTHT!.
(- to

In

the former instance the mere accus.
latter the gen.

would

suffice, in the

or dat. srHjraTFTTT or
3, 11,

Other examples: R.

44 pq-;] JTFT^-siTw^ftsJr
q^TS"

Agastya),
this

Kad.

I, p.

19

^

i

si

Mij^Rwraff^Tf

([the

bird]

pronounced

arya with regard to the king), R.

3, 38,

13

Urm^SJT
cause),

£H%cT:, Pane.

82

R ft-a^f^u
Uiioirti

JTgforiH,

(he

is

angry
srfjcTT:

for

some

Qak.

V fer.
?),

^Ruu

chiwta Hr^*mi4isRr:

m:

(for what purpose —

etc.

Rem. Like

z^wr

it

is

also said ^rqj-f^CT or
all

one makes use of

kindred nouns, as s^ttr-, ^PJ^SFT, SSTjsrm

= swith regard to."
'T^T^FT, ^TJ^ be used in a
si-

201.
Gerunds,
expressive of „about
in regard
c

Some
_
^TF?T,

other gerunds, as q^T^r^T,
j[T\
~^
I

^TT^TRT, ^5^r^, FT^M M

milar way,
concerning
,

of"sim.,as

g-fjj^j-j

...
,

may

viz. to signify in

regard of, with respect

to,

about sim.
fq=[rrf

q

j^
etc.

y

ffT

Examples: Pane. IV, 70

=3

M^H
,

I

f%fcr5Trfa
it)
;

rT=s^rjT

(I
fj

w ju
HlMd
said

ga y something about the friendship

hear

Qak. II g^-

Hlt+iiHcrimfyTOT eld) Pi (but I say so only in
Q.)
ibid. I

regard of the fore-

JWwwj

fijgiriiT

ilkd

l

*!

(sing
^

of the hot season)
-si
i

R.

2, 9,

60 35rrg

g^T u^rm mnf %f
;

srsfr

immm^i

fid^

(Kubja.

spoke well as far as her words regarded the mother of Bharata,

but not well with respect to Rama)

ibid. 2, 40,

14 cHdHH f% 'HWRr

aiwkuw^miPl
life

=et

i

HHr(^)l^ry

yiriui

ssraff 53J (in regard of the

in the forest, her father-in-law gave to Sita

).

202.

Among

the other gerunds

,

which
,

may in some degree
notice

or other do duty of prepositions

we

,;

144
**

§ 202.

"randf

those

>

expressing

concomitancy,

as

^TT^FT

and TT^IPtr, when
2.

= „with;"
separation,
as

such as are expressive of

HcW,

qTsTTMpII,

^Tl^tM?^ sim., as they are

=

„ save,

except,

but for;"
3.

such as serve to denote the

instrument, means,

manner, in short, *JIHJN, sifter,
4.

to periphrase the third case, as

STAFFS*?, SrfeFT;

|g|«^IM and ^TrTTRr

when

— Lat.

prae

„in

prefe-

rence to;"
5.

STTpO" „since."
:

mZTV,
>
l

Examples
(enters

of

1.

Qak. Ill

rtrT;

yfemiR *!MMl<tJU
;

UsmM'ISl&ai
Q-ai-i
i

j)fd l-

a sacrificer's disciple with kugagrass)
:

Pane. 173

^m

MUm

i

H

(he

came with money); E.

3,

24, 12 nftrofT 5t3#

m suu
143
q-

(retire

with Sita into a cavern).

JT^T-

They
Prt^d
(there

are especially of

use to point out the attributes or tools one takes along.
[tj-picJT:]

Pane. Ill,

tr%J{*MI<W TOT

^ cFTJJ?
>i
I

rFTTI

5FT SnfrT; Kathas.

21, 134.^
IT3TT, sisT-

of 2

-

— Pane.
R
, -

203
*>
>

yrf jjgrT =Trerr

h(Rh

f^roTT, ITfi-Rjsjj-.

VtWfi duty)i
jjRol/ TTsTPT

67 19 R<JH*U
(

^:
,

fft

^

^ ^T

is

no other path
l

5f^7T qlf^ri lll dsfarel

Tracfr

an d

all

the people

fell

down, confounded
(I

by that sound
Pane. 273

save Yicvamitra

Janaka and the two Baghuides)
=7

rjzn^br

^iim(5i^

<4f(rU*U

rchfelHHgWqi(<HHl

have caught

to day not a single animal except this brat of a chacal).

g^q-.

NB. Another implement
always making
Brh. 47, 28
(all

of the

same purport as
of a

n^rr etc. is "sett,

up the

latter

part

compound adverb. Var.
ITOT

q-ft^or

cfffqH

gf^fttxT^fwiJ
large

ST5T

f^ITf^H

^^oldHL
have ex-

that has

been told

at

by the old

seers, I

plained, save the repetitions).

f%^Vlfm;QZZ?\^ (what way, ye gods, may lead
that prince of Baxasas, by which

to
kill

the death

of

means

I

may

the disturber

§ 202-204.
of holy

145
[cp-

men?); Mudr. IV,

p.

136
l'

tt
1

stfm^JqT^raST^JT

186]

eMl^iyj'UWsJ f^f
the

fj *^l(«J HHlMlT 4, (\fyii Prince by the interference of Minister Eaxasa but

(we do not approach the

by
45

that of
ttjtt
i

Commander

of the Prince's
i

Army)

;

Malav. II,

p.

5T-

RdiwwysH^U =: q^ Rum*^ » courteously".
Likewise the participle aiRfjH
tTTfWT:
-

Pane.

I,

243
-

=
i

rar^W,

of
r^fg

4.
i

JTrPT

^ehWM^H'.
II. lj£

Qak.

gamST HTmRrarT rWKmH
these holy

l

PtcfclCd qT Jff{

VSJft

^mrST-

[b

^

tufii^^H

(fool,

men

strew about a quite

dif-

ferent

tribute,

which has a greater value than even
i

heaps of

precious
UrtthiyTi^ch

stones);
;

E. 2, 94, 26 ti^oThi^ l^«l? ^ad ferfft s>3T srg. (Mount Citrakuta has even more roots , fruits and water

than the land of the Hyperboreans),
of 5: have been given already 170.
Bern.

This
are

list is

not complete. It

may happen

that

some more

gerunds
M-ll<irt)
-

occasionally to

be rendered by English prepositions
tHI<r*j

or prepositional phrases.
"in spite
of,"
ixsrgwr

So
to

gsr?wT>
etc.

may

be

— Lat.
rrri

may

admit of the translation
as

ob,
forget

E.

3, 18,

15 where
=T

Qurpanakha, speaks so
T?
Fof

Eama

araf m^rfesrswr

5T¥ H*UH

(it

is

for that old

and ugly wife you do not esteem
locality

me), etc.

203.
21

In determining the
used,

site

of

some

gerunds are often
along the
Ganges).
qsffT.

which admit of being rendered by
(the highway [ ^sWli i;]
is

prepositions. E. 2, 80,

jTTsjht FT suttctto

Kagika on P.
FT:
i

3, 4,

afdshitl

ft

<TcirT

river is

beyond the mount).

^

20

l

)

gives these instances : ^htgt R^J
(the

fw-

'ferFTT

mount

is

before the river, but the

Chapter X. Compounds.
204.
In western languages compounds are not considered

a topic of Syntax.

The

fact

of their being

made up

1)

The

rule

of Panini treats

only

of this idiom

when

expressive of

the notions »beyond" and »before."
10

146
Compounds a
topic of

§ 204.
self-existent

f

two or more

Syntax.

tant for the etymologist


.

words
has

-i.-ij.i-i little or nothing to
.
.

however imporT

do with their employment
Sanskrit
it

m

speaking or writing,

in

must be otherwise. Keeping apart such compounds as have got any special meaning, which stamps them to unities *) there exists in that language an almost illimited freedom of expressing any kind of relations grammatical or logical by the way of com,

,

,

pounding.

Every moment the speaker and especially

the writer of Sanskrit
substituting
pression.

may have

the opportunity of

compounds

to the analytical

mode

of ex-

For this reason, Sanskrit Syntax has to deal with compounds, as far as regards giving an account
of the part they are acting in the phraseology

and of

the modes and ways
it
is

how

to

employ them, whereas

a topic of Sanskrit Etymology to expound their

structure and their outer shape.

The three great classes of compounds set up by vernacular grammar, are dvandva, tatpurusha, ba,

huvrihi. They

include nearly all varieties as well of
,

the simple compounds

which are made up

of

but two non-

compound words, as of those, which are most intricate and of an immoderate length. Outside of them there remains only the class of such compounds as are produced by
,

putting together the preposition
ing
1)

-\-

the noun-case depend2

on
Such

it,

as %d=hl!6*i

etc.

(152)

);

in

most

cases

as f^iioriil

when the name

of the

mountain, i^|r±w »noble,"
»

iT"qy »brahman,"

yi|6|il!

the well-known constellation, jy«>M|
§ 1310 calls

woman,"

and the
2)

like.

Whitney

Sanskrit

Grammar

them

»

prepositional com-

pounds.''

§ 204-206.
this fourth class coincides

147

with the

avyaylbhava

of

vernacular

grammar

x

).

1.

DVANDVA.
to

205.
Dvandva.

The dvandva

serves

express

concatenation and
to

P-2,
29.

action. Two
„and
11

or

more nouns linked

another by

may

be united into a dvandva.

So instead of

saying ^FTt

^cT^UT^ we may

use the dvandva ^T*Tc<Tsaid

^Ttft, instead of
Eem. In the
was Tery
members.
the
little.

%?ft sn^TW ^U3T it may be

archaic dialect the

freedom of making dvandvas
vaidik
writings

At
of

least

in

the

dvandvas aro

almost hound to set formulae and do never consist of more than two

Most

them

are dvandvas of divinities, especially in
i

mantras, such as (I^

oifruii

,

A-i lift

See "Whitney, Sanskrit

Grammar § 1255 and 1256. 206. The dvandva has the gender of
and number
-

its last

member.

Its

S

r

number
sons
irTraTfTT

is

determined by the real number of the per,

or things
^TfTT

comprised by
the
3.

it.

Pane.

I,

4 srsnrpjfmifart
1

ajT

(from

three classes of sons:
first

not born at
classes

all,

2

sons died,

blockheads, the

and second

are

to be preferred), ibid. p. 195

mulled eft
to

qfor otl<UM)gH<*iHi Ir^ (there

always

is

a deadly hatred between crows and owls), Harshac. p. 28

^)T)rldl^Ns) T^iT: (no strangers

dancing, singing and playing

1)

All compound advervs,
,

the former

member

of

which

is

an indecli-

nable word are comprehended by the general appellation avyayifohava 16). Moreover this category contains some few kinds of com(P. 2, 1, 5 pound adverbs, whose former member is a noun-case or an adj.; they But compound adjectives are are summed up by Panini (2,1,17—21). never styled avyaylbhava, even if their former member be an indeclinable word. So for example when saying ttjt: srafa:, we havea»prepo-

sitional

compound" indeed,

srafrr:

being

=

^

yldHI

,

but not an avyayi-

bhava.

148
on instruments).

§ 206.

As
etc.

the

number of the members
f.

is

illimited,
i

we

may have

such long dvandvas as

i.

Nala

1,

28

ert f% ^oii rtiofai^ql -

^l{hrWl^.fcoM:

But
if it

if

the dvandva

is

to represent a real unity or

not individuals but categories
generally
is

are linked together,

a neuter and a singular.

So

it is

said

q^ft^T
and
Kem.
1.

(children

and grandchildren), JT=THF^ (kine
(awl and knife).
this subject is

horses), %(l^|!(||^|

A

full

and exhaustive account on

given

by Panini
a neuter,
it is

(2, 4,

2—17) and
where
it

his commentators.

They

distinguish

between those cases where the dvandva must be a singular and
those
to

must not be so, and those in which
So,

allowed
singular
parts

use either idiom optionally.
the neater
of the
1

among

others,

the

of

is

of necessity with dvandvas signi2 4 2

fying

either
i
i

body or of musical instruments or of p
likewise
if

the army, as miu g ^q

,

T-fenTrsjrPTj

names of

rivers
2,

and countries , when of
i
l

different gender, are linked together, as p.

4

7.

^HtfluW

;

chftchfrTd;m

.

On
a.)

the other hand, dvandvas

made up
&•)

of

nouns denoting animate beings are not allowed to be put in the
singular number, save
as

very small animals, as ^waichH

,

such p
),

2 4 s

by

their nature are living in eternal

mutual enmity , as

irrafr- p. 2 i 9
1

rpsrgiJT)

jiWrepT;
d>)

c.)

classes of gudras,

not considered abject

asp.

24,10.

rrsrm^"^, Dvandvas of contrasting •nj.

some others

as noTTCEmj

3^=P3J UoMiUM^, <^W< Ior things are optionally
«J

p. 2,4,11.

qualities

put in the singular or in the dual, as snsr:<SiT or ° &,
ostit.

And

^

^

uHdlmN or „ -~
its species.

if. 15,

.

4,

liS.

so on.
2.

Eem.
See Pat.

It is forbidden to

compound a genus with

I, p.

252.

Rem.
be used
gsrer^i
is

3.

Instead of the dvandva
f. i.

mnifidA
f.

the simple
.

fqrrfl'

may

(so

Eagh.

1, 1

jutft:

farfft 375;

mJrito^Mplft
i.

Likewise

synonymous with Somssrsr^, see

Kathas. 58, 89.

P. 1, 2, 70 and 1l
'

1) P. 2,4, 10

^IUIwR^olfyrlMI»I- Kac.

tr^jfr qtif <d'^l"|

U

l

lfq :?3|«rfFr

§ 206—207.
Dvandvas
nere

H9
2,


4.

» brother

and

sister,"

»son and daughter" are not used, P

1,68.

iTTfT^r,

<nft

socrus, fratres
Bern.

= frater

are of necessity.
et

Cp. Latin soceri

— socer
it

et

soror.

As

to the order, to be followed in putting

together
is

the

links

of a

dvandva, fixed rules cannot be given. Yet

^Af'

common

head either the themes ending in t or j, or those commencing by a vowel while ending in =^, or the shortest.
to put at the

207.
icanoe.

Besides

its

most common duty
is

of expressing coordi„

nation, the dvandva

also available, if

and" connects

persons or things standing in mutual relation with one
another. Another species Examples of the dvandva
^ra<l(*xjWl
wild battle
is

the distributive dvandva.

of relationship.

E.

3,

27, 10

rr

(wRi^HKaHciJ i^5Woii(HoifMHl: fwf^ ^Jll^d (then a began between Rama and Trigiras, both of extraor,

dinary strength
53fira?f: f&i^T

as if

between a

lion

and an elephant), Malav.
is

I, p.

21

JW

^

MM^Myjcrl Jl f^'oi l-H ( H^ (forsooth, there
as there is

as great

a

difference

between you and me,
water and
fire,
,

and the ocean), Harshac. 5 pqiiQ^ffefrT)'
9HH1J1JR
:

^ 'W m

between a pond
i

olchJir^dch^

W-

(and like

so righteousness

and anger,
combat

[when meeting]
each other).

at the

same place

by

their proper nature

Examples of
rule

distributive
1

joii^i*ch fuiyw-Fi^Rdiji
severally

^

dvandva.

Malav. V,

p.

137

jff

q-er-

fzjt fa-ireiWT

uTiHlcmi*|miOoi

(let

them

the banks of the Varadii, one the northern bank, the

but the

other

southern, as
;

moon and sun
19

share their sway
=st

over night and day)
faM3i
snfft; =g

Mudr.

I, p.

fgm] Pr^ cRWRrfrtfrdH
fruit of

(I

have bestowed the double
foe

my

wrath and

my
his
to

affection

on

and

friend);

Kathas. 25, 229: Agokadatta by
it

utmost bravery has conquered a golden lotus and presents
the king his master,

who

puts the precious flower in a silver

vase; on that account the poet makes this comparison 3vff chgim trsff

=?

stsmth'

(yni^uu

1

HrsTWrumOoi

iff

Jjqmratei^wt':

(

ana both
if

the

vase

and the flower shone, one white, the other red, as
,

they were that splendour and that glory combined which adorned
one the king, the other Agokadatta).

:

150

§ 208-210.
of adjectives are relatively

208.
o^ad^cTives
'

Dvandvas

seldom

,

if

com-

pared with the frequency of those
stantives. So KatMs. 25, 6 gtmr
^rf-ser

made up
faarsr
=sr

of sub-

fa^reircaT
1,

^

?rf

n^mr(legs
l

Frm (thick and long), Kumaras.

35

qwi^^

^rfk^S 3f
I,

round
see
'

,

well-proportioned and not too long), Kathas. 25, 229
p.
1 :

207, Malav. V,
I

137 ia^fgiui see 207.
(lions

— Pane.

fari frufl

204

sn^-

tfichM)° hi

cWH
is

M^

l

-d,

with dishevelled mane and frightful

mouth) may be an instance of a dvandva of two adjectives, either
of which a

compound

itself.

209.

Two
among
1.

kinds of compounds are reckoned by vernacular
the tatpurushas , which

grammar

by

their

meaning should rather be
'

considered dvandvas

Such

as

%-

fc

i

HHtuiH (eatable and not eatable), chH chH (done and
I

Uon^/participles:

Undone; wrou g ht and
2.

™ wrought),

60

'

^FTT^fT, HHUrdUlrl

-

Cp. Kathas.
his head),

with

27, 1 HpjrTl'liMHH fi&T^n" (by turns lowering

and raising

i-^niwiri
like-

Those made up of two
declares

participles in ° fr, the

compounding

^-n"

1

'

°f

which
are

the

two actions being done immediately one
in time
is

2-|^re
and the

after another.
fci n(i

The former
(as
self).

also the former
seen),
ti f

member. Of the
(after
;

^^g

soon lost as Qak.

it is

^iriH^HH

bathing
(enters

and anointing one's

IV m\

5uifH mTlfrfelH
4,

fSnsr:

a disciple, just arising from his couch), Kagh.
jdd dufH^lfiHi
l

37 gr^wr

IcT ^. ...

:

(l^ 6 stalks of rice dug out and forthwith replant,
:

ed),

Pane.

I,

5 sHmuh

(died soon after birth), ibid. V, 7

O^ia^l
its

:]

HFlrf sTT<T&TCT: MdlHlRol
is

^d$j

:

qirf%.
i

Kathas. 29, 141 an illness (^tt;)
nature

said to have been ^irini41(T

»as soon driven out as

had been recognised."
2.

Tatpurusha.

210.
Tatpurusha.

The tatpurusha serves to express in a condensed shape a noun substantive or adjective together with some other

noun qualifying
5Tf%^rT:

it, as

Hr^T! =
(bitten

rJFT <^T!(his nian),
serpent),

=

$rf^TT

^'

by a

R^ft-

§

210—211.
(the first youth).

151

^FT =
lifying

^
,

Sffa"^
which

The noun qua-

is

the former

member
is

of the tatpurusha; the

noun

qualified,

at
').

the same time the main

element

its latter

member

Rem. The

efficient

elements of a tatpurusha are not

of necessity self-existent words.

The former part may
see 218.

be such a particle as

W,

Zt° ,

W,

The

latter

may

be a krt, not otherwise used but in compounds, as ° st, ° jt, ° w, %, "ipr, "mir, Vr, "sgn, "mf^r, "iftffFT, "frfFt etc. Many of these compounds have got a special meaning so as
to

make them
103

indissoluble unities, as

sEnjsjr

»bird ; " cRtrr^nr »potter,"
also allowed.
=rt°

f=j3iTI,

^servant."
cjrrerJT
^r:

Yet

free

compounding

is

So Pane.
ibid. p.

iffqsW
sstftt

may

be analyzed into

^sHfPT)

28
sir

tots^t^
qt
^rsfer

afar,

d^Woisrim [= ora^rsfsr jtfti], Bhojapr. 2 ^fta^ Pane, 41 ^qsrfirRr ^n^- [=: gqft snWr q° ].

211.

The former member may be
(as

either

=a

noun-case
(as

in

rTF^T!, ^Tl^^rl!),
3

or

= an

adjective

in

R^Tt^T ^).
tical

In the latter case, there exists gramma-

concord between the two members; such tatpufaculty

rushas bear the special appellation of karmadharaya.
karmadharaya.

The

of combining adjectives with their sub-

stantives

into

karmadharayas
2

is

theoretically almost

unrestricted, but in practice not all possible combinations are used
).

Most karmadharayas are terms often

recurring which either have got some special meaning,

1) Pat.
is

I,

p.

392 3^7xr5T^raV'PTC7fq'OT:.
,

In the same

way

the dvandva

styled SLiUmjMQvrFT:

the bahuvrlhi t^q^mufefFTi, and the avyayibhaYa

2) Panini's rule 2, 1,

57 ld£ nu*r OuiMJUl
i

<Bl^trl»l_

plainly shows not all

combinations of the kind to be allowed.

152
or are

§ 211—213.

wont to be much employed though nothing impedes expressing them by the two elements severed. Of the former
kind are such as inf rm (the highest
i

soul), ohtTsT: (heir apparent),

of the latter such
rice),
is

as

eh&ulHM

i

(a

black serpent), gchH^l
full

(cooked

and the great

class of

compounds, a

account of which

given by Panini in the

first

adhyaya of
and
^sf, ngj

his second

ashtakam
,

(see espec. the sutras 49, 58, 61, 67

70), containing those
,

the

former

member

of which

is

a pronoun as

tjsf,

wrr,

S5T,

and such

adjectives as qsr, 3JTOT, qfr° j

qw,
fS(?t,

Tap?,
rpsr,
g-° ,

grr^

(good) etc.

To them

we may add such words
begin by
5^tt;
ct° ,

as

OUPT, and even such as
as sn^T:

£° :

and the negation

(an honest man),

(a

bad man), achlldd (not
f^mrsf Mgi atH
i

skilled).

212.
a

Yet there are instances enough
Pane. 327
false

of a freer employment. •s^WnR' (why do you run away thus by
2 gns^u;
:

fear?),

Pat.
I, p.

I, p.

grisly:,

Pane. 30 tMRiH^lH
actor

aMfdfe i)

Malav.
6

3

dHHHchd

*lfcu,mm
I

(of the living poet K.),

Harshac.
displaying
rhHct»*?rTl

grejsr

^g

^jrr st^Rt gi

Qm mhw^ (like an
of his

y ou are

in

vain a fictitious tranquillity of mind), Bhoj. 28 ut(in

<t,lfTq+Hilo|[ri
is
i

consequence

deeds in a former

existence he
I, p.

now
:

poor), Pane. 37 roitOt)d-° HH (your orders), Malav.
(to

28

jj^jii

M

chcMd)Idchiu

whom

his learning serves
(

only

for a livelihood), Kathas. 39, 131

^j

stttscPT

— gave a best horse).
of

Upon

the whole , such freer karmadharayas are used in a greater
poetry,
also

extent in

when being themselves but a member
as
f. i.

some large compound,
in

Pane. 37

a^g^^l^HrrMd^fS^d people),
i

cmilri^ 0° y selling fine clothes given to

him by many pious

analyzing

which

we
orsrrcj.

get

g^cf^rrif?R[karm.]

^ hi

w^-^m

i

[other karm.] fairer

Bern. In the

case of such words as qnHiltjri :, there seems to

exist a slight difference

between the karmadh. and the analytical
is
»a

construction of the same purport; tim^lRjH :

bad barber" who

knows
See P.

his art badly, but tnq> HlRlH
2, 1,

:

»a barber of a bad temper."

213.

^e

54.
insist

w iN

on some species:
title -|_

a.)

such as are made up of a

the noun of

its

bearer,

§ 213.
as

153
(Minister
I,

tJUHimsRT:

(Sir
i

^
p.
(p.

Utt. II, p. 30
HBTift

115
116)

^

(yon are the learned Kaugiki, are not youP), Mrcch.
f^
iirii i

^ ^-^u
^rsr

Canakya), 5mTf^T?W:
r;

Raxasa).

So

(Prince L.)

,

Malav.

p.

24 qlTUHchiRlchi
Ill,

chm^pchi^chi^Hlriail^

,

but some
i

lines

after
sara^T

we

read in inverse order ii^pchuifu

chi q

1

,

cp.

Pane. 59

fHEnprTTIrTCWTonir

Wl&t R^HI:, here the proper noun [g&m is followed, not preceded by its epithet. In some cases the latter
idiom seems to be the regular one
6.)
,

as

Q^i-cM (Mount
i

Vindhya).
subst.,

those

ending

in

° j^,

the
jitt

former part being a

as

^rtsPT:,

^l^rjsM:,
,

iUsM:- Here
it
»

has sometimes the power of a

collective

be


c.)
f. i.

sometimes

denotes the individual (19 E), Wrt?R:
or even one
»

may

»

womankind,"
hut

women"

woman," and
it

so on;
p 2 2
*) i a nd2!

the type ^ffwrcTi' (half a pepper).
fgt,gcry
i

It is not

allowed to say

("}<-q<yijyir,

mmj

when compounded
foot).

must be

So

Ragh.

7,

42

m^m (halfway), Pane. 203 ^rsjcrrj^mrfo (touching
The same
applies to qsr,
-

mffqmgT

i.

the

earth
:

with the half of his

am-, mtji 3^Y> etc when denoting: the fore-part, the part behind, the lower- and upper part. Therefore it is said lochia ( tne f° re;

part of the body), crafe: (fore-noon), aqii

i

bf :

(the

latter part

of

the

night), j-am^- q^ (head), qvg^; a l
t

(the fore-night),

and the

like.

So jts*t in rp^-r^:
as in Latin

= TOTm^
like

We have here the same adjectival conception
,

summus mons
-g-y-,

media urbs , Greek fiery
»half," is also

vj

wohit; etc.

Rem.
ticiple or

1.

our

compounded with a parsrcf:

some other
2.

adjective, as gyffTTr;

(the sun, half-risen),

Pane. 9 ^WhllirTl dJ^U:

5W..
ft^rter,

Rem.
or
ftji,

As

when

to

compounds, commencing by

fTtThr,

!

sirra

:

p

-

2 > 2> 3

-

»half, the third
as
prgTfefferiT
=srjr

,

fourth part," one

may
like.
it

say as

well

fi^Tfaft'Srr

(half an alms)

and the

The
said
s. v.

same may be stated of
as well

(top,
nail)

edge, extremity), as
as

is

mx^m

(the

edge of a

7mm

(see Petr. Diet.

and the passages adduced there

s. v.

=m).

1)

But

it

is

allowed to say fqur«SJV: (a portion of a pepper). Pat.
to

I,

407 states

gv

be a neuter,

when

meaning »half," but a masculine,
•SBTtHdol l^i"

when =

s>

portion, part:" 5WtriaWTn' HCuHchf^T^t

vfmj:

,

154
214.
poundT
in

§

214—215.
is

A

proper species of tatpurushas
latter
is

made up by those,
,

whose

member is a verbal noun

the noun predicate
.

"Wand of which
the like, the

signified

former

member

monest instances

of the kind are adjectives in *in (being,

by the former member. The com.__
^^
I,

of

wHch

is

a

making up, behaving

as). Pat.

pre ica

e.

^^

39 jpmmjrr a mi J (the teacher,
:
i

p u pjl' s ] authority), Dae. 176 rim ^WJ^l^JUHjrl (I am an example thereof), M. 1, 5 a Mlf^ rPftWTT- Moreover there is a class of much used compound verbs whose former part is a noun
jg

rflje

l

i

,

whereas the
dealt with

latter is the

verb ^r or

it:

they carry the conception

of something transformed from one state into another.

They

will

be
2, 1, 59 with Race's

when
*trj,

treating of the Syntax of the Verb; see 308.

Among

other similar tatpurushas
WHptlTrT,

we

notice a.) those ending in Pg=g.

3ST, H4iyirl',

^T

6*C.

DaQ. 61

fli-sJIMcMsHiT-

^

comm.

sJtrH^HyHlWlHKJmfHmiiifM^icr:

(he

,

being passionately in love with
6.)

Ambalika surnamed: the jewel of womankind);

those in

"era-

having but the name
self

of)

and

"rrrf^T

and

° tr^r

(thinking one's

p

-

3 > 2 - 83 -

),

as

gi

i

^migioi

:

»one

count of his birth, but
(wise
in one's

who claims himself a brahman" [on acwho does not behave as such], qiTijHHl41
Atharvav. 15, 13, 6
Dae. 99 srht^j:
is
1

own
q-

opinion),
srp?TJT,

tld rJl
l

-s

dlrtlsl cP)

K.

3, 21,

17 sj^ih)

).

Kem. Somewhat
part of which
as
is

different

the

nature

of those, the former

not the predicate, but the predicate's attribute,

sxi-ium and
3, 2,

gorrrijrjrjr

given as examples by the comm. of vartt.
3, 2, 19.

3 on P.

15 and qg^rr (going at the head) see P.

215.

Among

such tatpurushas as are made up of a nounnoun qualified by
it
,

rasha^on- case
noun-case

+ the

by
is

far the

most common

are those , whose former part

to be periphrased

by

+

no,in
-

a genitive,

as

(TsFJ^T:

=

{RT?

V$W<,

STf^ =

1)

With them may
9,

in

Kathas.

48

jr ilHtmu- qT

(holding [her] for a piece of raw
for

some degree be compared such tatpurushas as flesh), Hit. 93
a
tiger).
,

ajlU'sltiWrr

(taking [him]

Here the former member

is

the

predicative object of the verbal noun

which

is

the latter member".

§

215-216.
is

155

STTO^:
ture.
-

or Sift: or ST^pTT 1?. As this type
,

met with

on every page

from literaAnother frequent type is that,represented by STf^rT:
it is

useless to quote instances

^I^TT

^fl'. Pane. 118 tt^hiwtUH:
( seized

93

F^KU^
For the

= ^JFRTjfTTiT:, ibid.

V,

by the prince of

giants), Bhojapr. 7 ^.sft

rest

,

any noun-case may become the former

part of a tatpurusha, as RTflRi^mir!

=

TO ^TO"!

(happy for a month), TTFHFTOT
(resembling his mother),

= *rRT or TO: HT5T.' ^T^T = ^qW (wood for

a

sacrificial stake),-

gT^ER" =

^

^"^TTrT or 5T%2ifft

H^R

(fear

of a

wolf or of wolves), TOVfit||<=h}

=

^TT^lf

QT37! (cooking in a pot).

216.

Yet, there are some
treating
detailed
of

restrictions.

For

this reason,
-|_

Panini when

compounds made up of a noun-case

noun, gives a

account of them.

The summary

of which runs in this

way:
The former
j.

As a

rule ,

any genitive may be compounded (shashtMsam- p
are

-

3> 2 8
>

-

a genitive. Asa).

Some

cases

excepted.

Among

others
-|-

it

is

not allowed
-

to use

compounds, made up of a genitive
infinitive,

a participle or a ge. p z 2
>

>

11

-

rund or a krtya or an

nor those consisting of a geni-

tive -|- comparative or superlative or ordinal

noun of number, nor
in
° jt

such as where
or Vgi.

a genitive

is

compounded with some noun

Therefore, such phrases as
^rarrnt

^nmimi
of

STTrFr: O^ 6

mos t heroic
5TCT
_

F- 2, 2, 15.

of men),

T^T:

(the

fifth

the disciples),

=g-qf

(the

creator of the waters), sii^uiyj

cRobr_ or

^ar

or ch(uT)w or

cRm

(doing
ing.

etc.

for the benefit

of a brahman) are unfit for compound,

Partitive genitives are likewise

excluded, nor
fit

is

the

dative-

like genitive

(129),it seems, as a rule,

for being

compounded.

,

156
As
not
little,

§ 216.
so

we

learn from Panini's commentators
srfff:

i)

an objective
,

genitive in such cases, as f^-fi^rr ST3W

mRnR'Hi

here

it

is

allowed to

say ^chfd

:

M fu
l

i

fi-ll

)

since both the subject and

the object of the action conveyed
for

by the noun &$&; are expressed if nothing impedes using the compound tMch Iri Maui' g?fff:
'

i

=

,

the agent

is

not expressed.

2

).

1)

See Kac. on P.

2, 2,

14; Pat.

I,

p. 415, vartt. 6.

Pat. himself rejects

the interpretation given there.
2)

The shashthisamasa
book (2,2,8

some statements are also scattered in the third book, see f. i. 3,3,116. Additions ad corrections on them are of course made in the commentaries. But now and then the cavillations of the commentators have rather obscured the good understanding of some roles. So the Kacika. is wrong loosening sutra 2, 2, 14 from its adhikara SR
his 2d

— 17),

is

treated

by Panini

in the second

adhyaya

of

and interpreting

this rule chHlui cerning the objective genitive. Now,

^ —

as if it taught

something con-

as the sutra could in no

way be

explained so as to contain a prohibition of compounding any objective
genitive whatever, as such

was obliged
il^l!IJ-r>

to

compounds are very common indeed the Kacika, add a clause of its own JOTTOTCTr *i|liTlfd 6) Will jfn
,
1

which statement certainly will be correct by
is

itself,
,

but not the

smallest trace of which

to be found in Panini. In fact

Panini has here

not thought of an
at a stretch
lifies

objective genitive.
,

When

reading the sutras 12, 13, 14

and without prejudice one

sees plainly that giTrf&T of 14 qua-

3kT of 12.

Sutra 14 prohibits compounding a genitive-\- a participle

in ° fT

with passive

meaning.

It
to

is

not

allowed

to

say

FreafuidM

instead of (TOT

^RntH

(shown

him), whereas Panini allows it,
2, 1, 32.

when
afford

representing

Jr^T

S^SHW (shown
sutras 15

by him), cp.

The following

and 16

fjsrarrurt *rli^ ichrlfi

^ —

a fair sample of absurd hairsplitting.

In

s.

15 Panini

had given a

rule

about the words in
Accordingly
it is

° rT

and

° jgeFT
,

when denoting the agent; with them
save the few instances mentioned
2, 2, 9.

a genitive cannot be compounded
prohibited

by Panini

to say asTHrrf instead of dsUjU Mrrf

(bearer of the thunderbolt) or Wt^RTra'^f: instead of tTl^yi

<IM3f: (one

who

But some schoolmaster, who commented on our great grammarian discovered Panini to have omitted some kind of words in ° ^5i, which though not-denoting the agent are likewise forbidden to
cooks
rice).
,

be compounded with a preceding genitive, as

ira<T!

snfir^iT (your lying

down)

cp. P. 3, 3, 111.

In order to

make our

sutra comprise even them,

§ 216.
an accusalive;

157
is

u. compounding the accusative
a)
^frfcr:

allowed;.

P.2,1,29.')
2,

when being one

of time as

inqchymm

So E.

71, 18
i

mn.

qft, Malat. I, p. 14 sr|ftoraWlfaiTFrfe

q^WrfmT Qch ^tp gr2, 1, 24.

6)

with some paiticiples in
as
iiwiir);

° ft

,

with active or intransitive mean- P.
i

ing,

(gone

to

the
,

village), .^chgfrfH
2
s

(fallen to hell), P.
,

2, 1, 26.

3ref5lrT:

(come
f. i.

to hardship)

h fluid

)

sim.

In practice

there are

more. So

the restriction of

toje

(P. 2, 1, 26) to

a reproachful
^rrsjo

term does not imply the prohibition of compounding
wise.
mental""
as

other-

See but Pane. 51 ch|U chU<b T,
i

ibid.

30
is

it

^him

:

^^' compounding the instrumental
a)
if

allowed:

denoting the

agent or instrument

_|_

some verbal noun

,

P. 2,

1,

32.

af^H'.'

The

participles

in "ftcR^ are excepted,

*lf^Hl -j- ^rld

(^therefore not allowed.


i

compounding
P. 2,
l,

Some
i

proverbial locutions
mj:, but

33.

are explicitly

named by Panini,

as ch

ch^

^£i, gsn^r:

the well-known yogavibhdga-exyedient was taken recourse to
sutra was split

up

in two.

One made the discovery that
,

"the

and our word chrifi'
,

admitted of two acceptations
rfrtcFTTWTTT

according to

its

being construed either with
other terms, P. could

or with the general

adhikara
FT

E[^t; in

mean
own

either any genitive -j- agent in
FT

or =g^r or the subjective genitive

J-

any noun in
the

or

=ggf.

By combining both and
felt

assigning to either an

by the commentator found its *£««. See but both in the KaciM. How Patanjali interpreted the rule we do not know, a comment of his on s. 15 and 16 being wanting; from vartt. 2 on I, p. 415 it appears he was acquainted
sutra the
Sexofiu.

artificial interpretation of

at least with

s.

15.

In 2,2,11
cerning the

it

ordinal nouns
(2, 2,

seems strange, that a special prohibition that conis enjoined immediately after of number

the general one
1)

10) which includes also that special case.
is

The preceding

sutra 28

too

artfully
is I

interpreted

by Pat. and
here again an
(I, p.

K&9. to have been interpreted well. It
instance

likely,

we have

of distortion
ch'

given but one rule not persuasive.
2) I agree

M

by yogavibhaga.
r

am

sure,

Panini himself has
384)
is

yrtWduVi

=cf.

Patanjali's defence

the like

as bahuvrihis.

with Boethlingk and Whitney in explaining (iiUdHdch and Panini brings them under the tatpurushas, see
6, 2,

2,2,4. Inversely such compounds as JjrjpfTrT, HNdlH which P. understands as bahuvrihis, are to be recognised as tatpurushas.

170

158
from
this it should not

§ 216.
be inferred that
it is

wholly forbidden to make

up any other compound of instrumental -)- krtya. Pane. 327 corw&ft -sir JTPW. roRTT it° - Yet such compounds are not frequent.

=

V) if lity,

the latter

member
want
:

is

a word expressive of likeness, equa-

P. 2, 1,31.

superiority,

1

),

see 61 and 73.
to

Of the kind are such
(resembling
later

compounds as fgnMH
his mother),
8,

(equal

his father), imTOiSr:

*myk\ and

217

n*s(\

\

A cjw

= fls^-f n
l

qroTsq-: (earlier
efi*T (v.

_,

by a month), M.
finished),

a.

work, almost

Pane. 23

teiiRy^n
c)

^or wsrfcr wfztt:;
-|-

the instrum.

the words

^r^

(quarrel),

ftw

(clever),
l

fer

P. 2,

1,

31

(mixed), S5T50T G ax )- Kac. gives these examples: srlychtf^;, d i^UU i:, tupjjjj i, aHBtterlTtUl t- "When extending the rule to all words of the

same purport
pounds in

,

as

we may do
° 5rfenr,

(see

above

p.

92 N.), the frequent comare included, also

"fSrftfTrr,

° nn,

"gar, ° 3^FT etc.
is

many

of those, the

former part of which

an instrumentalis

partis (73).
d) in the case of
is

compound

adjectives, the former part of
illustrative of the
i

which
it

p. 2, 1,30.

an instrumental of causality,
to
2

adjective

is

joined

).

So

E.

3, 16,

13 fe fciUHi^f a

^ui

:

(

a mirror tarnished
2,

by

exhalation), ibid. 3, 55, 20
;

Jtfw

;

(equal

by strength), ibid.
I,

118, 4
l

HUKMlfea
^rp^T:

(praiseworthy by his qualities), Pane.

39

= dlrtllRni
made up
Panini's

dlrtilfg>k(lrMlg(

H^Vyi^i H^l:. Kumaras.

great

by

their heroic penance).

3,

12 HMlcJlyM^f^ (men,
are the com-

Of the same kind
B.
1),

pounds,
1)

of inslram.

_[_

a{H^ (75
^T
*a

as Pane. 10 fg?

In

text

UdMriHI'HHl'-ll^
qsrfer>

° f course to be construed
,

with each of the members:
2)
rlrfliU

Sutra

2, 1,

30

is

ill-handled
if

HrtJidim-4

ITUIoH-M, as

Wl<y 3?TFr, cp. p. 92 N. by the commentaries. They expound rtr^rTFFr were a dvandva HrchrM -|-

HJpWj

=

i|t!H.

How

they have come

to

this

contorted interpretation I did not

understand before perusing Patanjali;
very cavillations
(1,

from him I have seen, that his 384 sq.) must have provoked it. Yet the aim of the
is

author of our sutra

unmistakable.

He

allows

the

instrumental

to

be

compounded

with

any adjective
:

(llliidMH-4).

cation

by that instrumental
44I4JM:

Ftr^rTraW

= TOITOm r^iiyi

which has

its justifi-

ifCT:

^ill^ .
it

So in f^iSoTRTFy
is

the instance, I have quoted from the Ram.,

the exhalation that causes the mirror to be qualified a tarnished one.

;

§
rsff

216-217.

159

*oMM5T

(are

you desirous of nothing but food ?), Kathas.
some ingredient or by mixing P
an|

24, 176 etc.
e)

in the case of food dressed with
as

two materials,
poisoned food),
a
datire;

^af^:,

rprFTP,.

Likewise Dag. 139 f§rOT^(em-

^g

34

IV. the

dative may be compounded:
aim in such cases
as

a) the dative of the

w^

l

fr

= WW 3T£,

cfrcSsT- P.

2, 1, 36.

6)
*

the dative of the remote object with the words
to )i

srf^T (offer- P. 2,

1, 36.

ng

%T

(good

for),

jjpr

(pleasant for), ^-f%rT (kept, guarded

for)
etc.

and the

like, as Quausifci:, ifrf|rW, Pane. I,
is

47

j^t iterr HIT

JTJT%TT,

With them
in ° j&f

named

gq-

»purpose, aim, scope."

On

the

compounds
an ablative;

V. the
a)

we have ablative:

treated 194.

with words expressive of fear

,

as

a chHW

(fear

of wolves),

P. 2,

1,

37.

E.

3, 27,

b)

20 snWxTT IFm (deer, afraid of the hunter) with some participles which signify a withdrawal
,

i).

Dag. 89
2,

-iriDfrfHI ?TT Mlfd'^H (she rose

from the dance and went away), M.
sdvitri),

89

MlQj ufdH
l

i

(one

who

has forfeited the

E.

3, 25,

24 f%fi^-

sforfirsTkicr
a
locative.

fnTsmrrr mrranrr:.

VI. the locative:
a)

with

such nouns as are construed with a locative of refe3, 19,

P. 2, 1, 40.

rence, as those of attachment, skill and the like (148). E.
strtstt

22

y^MM-ft (two men, accomplished at arms), Pane.
(skilled in the

I,

18 imrj-

sftilid^U li:
b)

commerce

of merchandises); or a place.

in

some

cases,

when denoting a time
also parts of the
i

Of the
"gpsgf P. 2, 1, 41.
_|_ g>FT, p. 2, 1, 45.

kind Panini names compounds in ° f?rs (prepared, dressed),
(dried),
ere;
i

(cooked), "spy,

day or night

as Hich

aufcl-&
'

(prepared in Sankacya), a HUmfch (dried in the sun),
locutions, see P.

ilctfgrchH
c)

(done in the forenoon);

in

some standing phrases and proverbial
list

2,

1,42— 44;46_48.
This
of possible

217.

kinds of tatpurushas,

made up

of noun-

1)

These

compounds are not frequent

-y^rny: (P. 2, 1, 38).

160
additions

§.

217.
will soon appear, if

case
01le
j

-|-

noun,

is

however not complete, as
to

of P&nini there-

undertakes

systematize
1

the tatpurushas occurring in fact
others, Panini does not
sr^r

n gome literary work.
the
abl.

)

So,

among

men-

tion

of comparison,

compounded with
;

and

SfTT? the

instrumental

_j_

words expressive of plenty

the accus. with the par,

ticipial adjectives in ° 3.

Then many more
,

participles

whose former

part
sarily
1.

is
,

some noun-case, are in common use, though not necesif at
all
,

implied by the foresaid rules.
_J_

abl. of

comparison
as Hit. 30

j^th,

especially, if the former part
ar:

be

a pronoun ,
is

n sr ^JV WIT

STbtsttoht:

,

Pane.
FT57JT:

I,

12 trade

said to be the best

means

for
is

making money,

[se. scrrg".]

sfsraTjqoR':

(any other but this
of compar.
,

dangerous).

2.

abl.

_J_

rprr.

Such compounds are an elegant
:

paraphrase

So ^Rhui rT^
175
ftot

=

while calling something
flog

the contrary of

its

opposite.

»left," ^g<^ri( OTTO:
i

(a difficult expedient),

Dag.

^loioiMT

^.tWc^ rU

yy'fcf (he bore his newly

married wife a

heavy grudge).
3.

instrum.

_|_

word expressive of
etc,

plenty.

Of the kind are those
ibid. 7

in

"wkzi,

"JTrTf, "OTTSFtfT
,

Pane. 319

srorfcra^sir Jro,

Rnp£rr^PTToR5T5 feiTci^r4.

accus. _j- adjective in "3 derived of a desiderative.
7,

Pane. 3

nr^wfe^:, M.
5.

197 zpjrT smHiy^nirh.
_|_

Instances of noun-cases
with.
First, such as
as

participles are manifold

and often
socia-

met
tive

where the former part represents a
I,

instrumental,

Pane.

164 q'm-ujudii
illicit

;

HcUM :,
(62).
q=rr
i

ibid. I,

229

nwf

q^wirl T

(a wife,

who

hold 3

intercourse with another).

Then,

such

as

are

expressive

of

separation

Pane.

1,

35

yonQoiPsfdi (abstaining from attendance), ibid. p. 1
(sons, deprived of discernment), ibid.
I,

fadchif^Hl

189 «J*<HQ^M C P- 198,
etc., as

:

Further locatives
?R^Tl HRm rTT
H4.o(l<KrT)"
^IttIMI
:

_|_ ferrr, jtft (cp.

197), sm=r, 3T^r

R.

3, 31,
I,

2

(the raxasas

,

staying at Janasthana), Pane.

128

jm

irfrcft

Ucrin >Mp=mM4|^

(when being in

distress, a

king

It would be indeed an interesting subject-matter for investigation compare on a large scale these statements of Panini with the facts offered us by the extant Sanskrit literature. 1)

to

§ 217.
is

161
ibid. I,

always the

prey of his ministers),

104

qfiggn' rr foUdlfi

firrsTT,

Kathas. 42, 149 srg&rfrftT: (fallen at their

feet).

Or the

former
SrrwtarTT

member
^r:

is

a dative or

loc.

of purpose: Pane.

I,

125

Tm-

(Vrtra,

striving for obtaining the royalty); an accu:

sative: ibid. p. 37
ibid. p. 2 cftgrmMHHI

^dioichi-ijrh

(attached to S.); an abl. of origin:
;

(of

one born from a respectable family)

a loc. of

reference: ibid.
6.

I,

15 iftf§g^teraw;.

And
, ,

so on.

As

to the

compound

adjectives

they

may

generally be said

to

be comprised by the rules of Panini

as their former part is a

genitive or
jrtrcr,

may be
sfitrT,

accepted as such.

Among them
V).

are to be noticed
srfi^r,

UPVSS,

SCW,

those of skill and ability as ferariT,
rjif

chlfelH j

then such as ^pr,
strength

(cp.

216, III

Pane. 17 pirr ifjrpriWT-

sifternT

ffcrT&mWr Ruljwtri,
will

MIBJM^ (his

ibid. 21 f^t =et sisst^^ut h^isw iit be in proportion to his voice), ibid. 27

i-ldl-cM-m^saa') ibid. 13 ^tjt| ^oTFrPra':.
like

Even

indubitable dative-

genitives

are
p. 1

compounded with the

adjectives,
(as the
p. 1

which they

qualify.

Pane.

jy^ m^grr^ lbt^HlorTlbfri

king understood

they

were averse to the gastras

).

Pane.

affords even this
-)- subst.,

instance of a tatpur.,
calling
digent).
7.

made up

of a dat. of interest
(v. a.

when

some king «H*cdir5*Qrqd^:

a blessing for

all

the in-

Compounds made up of a
HU!tiiifeich(W:i ibid. p. 7

genitive

-|-

agent in ° n, though

explicitly interdicted

by Panini, are

in fact

met with. Fane.

I,

2

^•sih
8.

jtw raijra-w) iidifcul fwrl" (two splen-

did bulls drew his chariot).

Finally
,

we may

set

up a category apart
is

for

such tatpu-

rushas
less

the former part of which
of an

a noun-case , doing
tj
sr#r

more or
rt

duty

adverb. Pane. 21
(—
is

RfiJi'T,

here ugmi PdH

ann^qrirerorfg^ a

^

= qgyfTfrTiT »acquired before," Kathas. 29, 82
deceived by words falsely kind), Pane. 63

teiifiH

i

qa

i

mPa

arc

in

|r^wnsr:

(a friendly discourse),

Mhbh.

1,

152, 34

otott:=R
by

^TH^..-.

q

siHrf&5Hrrfir (I will

not awake

my

brothers

who

are sleeping quietly
turns).

in the forest), Kathas. 42, 149 qzrraTf^rflTr: (embraced
all

In

but the

first

of these examples the former part

is

an ittstrumentalis

modi, used almost as an adverb (77).

Cp. the following paragraph.
11

,

162

§

218—219.

218.

The former part
:

of a tatpurusha

may

also be

anad-

(the matter of late), Kathas. mtmbeTh verb or a particle. Pane. 59 an adverb g 165 (flags, waving from every house), ibid. 25, 29 MfriblMfdMHl^i
;

qn^M

or a partide.

m

[viz.

tr^t]
,

^

N
it

-sawnPrraTT (and I have to
3,

go from necessity

to

that town)

Kumaras.

4 f^rTT^rT^TTOT'ftPT: (by very long penance).

Among
[2, 1, 25],
fqirr

the particles several are noticed

by Panini,

viz. sg^ir
[2, 2,

mfh

[ibid. 27],

the negation *"

[2, 2, 6],

^T
')

7]^

[2, 1, 64],

gi,

the

particles styled
little,"

»gati" and such particles
,

as at

q-,

naijWt when meaning »a
end.
»

the

h, £:

srfn [2, 2, 18]

cp.

210

So rnmrv (died

of himself), mfachd (half done),
r&i^HrT (a little

flgllfoU i:

n o brahman" or nnone but a brahman,"
:

elevated), nftJHH^
(a

(a great-grandfather), esPT:

(a

good man),

55^
for f^ds!

wicked man),

etc.

219The former

Some
^^_^_^

relative

pronouns and adverbs are likewise
,

fit
,

member

ia

being compounded with some noun
Ml° lrl.

especially EJEJT

and

IPTT or or-

.^

Those beginning with tTETT are the most
either

common
M*HiqM!

they are

adverbs of the type EfSJTTOT'T,

(according to time,
is
1,
1,

to age), or their second

member
:

a participle in
149,1

FT as

M &ltWT(as said)

2
)
.

Examples Mhbh.

145, 16 ftcTrHar JraTJT^ (go back,

each to his

before); — E.
out),

imwwih
3, 13,

qwrrtmr 2^sriT^(he sent
25 mJigPjv-i
^tsiranrr
craT

own house), ibid. a man as was agreed
,

(on the way, as has been pointed

Dag. 151

iMH§

got the opportunity he will
as

d«?lw^my; myfoTsrfn (when having discharge this affair by such means,
-trtMUi*:

are

fit),

Pane. 295 u«jiPir««:
of
zrrsrJT;
,

Examples
j-=j;

M^yi

m^siijBr.

Pane. 276

(from this day

I

have given
2, 1, 8 a

^fT: mpf JTTdkdl5r HU\rM\ nan my own self to you for my whole
I

lifetime),

Kac. on P.

[sa^i 5HfoUIH

HH^'£i

(invite of the
tiid^i -

brahmans according to the number of the vessels), Pane. 54
rmm~i)rti(o ffeH
i I

(conformably to the rules, taught by Vatsy&yana).

1)

As

to

5,

3;!,

-^TSTfT,

in

*p^
3,

(easy

to

be done), JTScRJ (hard to be

done) and the Tike, see P. 3,
2) Pflnini (2, 1, 7)

126-130.

mentions only the former type.

,

§ 220.

163

220.
P
son

e"

The tatpurusha serves compounds are partly The former are

also to express comparison.

Such
____

adjectives,

pressed

by __.

tatpurts-

of the type

WTT
3,

partly substantives.
(cloud-black), 3F2T-

R7FT (sky-blue). The latter are made up of the thing's real name + the image under which it is represented as
, ,

Examples of the former type. Kam.
(life,

12 rMi-d^tK-sm^ ^5FPT

as

fickle as the
(as

moon,
ice),
1,

that shines in the water), Dag. 174
3, 23, 1

f^rrftrf^"

cold
ass)
,

as

E.

n^rmn': (red-grey
:

as the

colour of an

Mhbh.

152, 2

md,A?MfeUaiim
p.

(

as

dark as a
:

cloud in the rainy season), Malav. V,

122 crfrarrKi^Tfif

,

etc.

The latter type

is

adapted to signify either praise or blame.

Generally the metaphors used are conventional ones. In this
solute, energetic character
is

way a

re-

called

qT&iPM^ a beautiful
:,

face qijrq^PT
is

*U-Mli fSt^t,
standing

si

m

«j

eloquent

speech oTPCTV, heavy
:

sorrow
difficult

by a
alle-

comparison iJlchMUU

which ocean

it

is

or im-

possible to pass,

and

so

on.

In ancient literature this rather

gorical style
limits.

is

still

employed with moderation and within certain
full

But the flowery compositions of medieval India are
so
as

of

them

not

rarely
if

to

make

the

image appear an appendix

wholly meaningless ,
display the

not to please the ear of the reader and to

vaidagdhya of the author. The accumulation of such

allegorical designations

becomes tedious indeed, unless good

taste

direct their employment.

Sometimes the metaphor
set
I,

is

worked

out.

Then we may have a
jftqTofT is
»

of homogeneous images,

expressed by compounds. So Pane.

241 ifttn^T Pirr^RtfwSTy sr: sr:i?tF5JJT, here
it

»king"

but at the same time
ift

is

conveys the meaning of

cow-herd," as

scow" and

=

searth," »he must draw the f§rwsrV3j_ (money-

milk) of his

ctsTOR)':

(subject-cow)
his subjects

by degrees"

v. a.

»a king must

draw the money of

by degrees,

just as the

cowherd

draws the milk from his cow." Mrcch. IV,
T?itt:
i

p.

138

^

goiwfifi?R!

ffiWykcjMcfi

ZTTRT

awf&fTOTfirTrTT:

(young gentlemen

,

164
often
trees
,

§

220—221.

come

to

poverty,

being spoiled by courtesans, like great

the fruits of which are eaten out

by

birds).

Kathas. 29, 188

a
is

faithful wife is thus

compared

to a warrior

— her conjugal faith
mimt
jutrt

her chariot,

duty her charioteer, good behaviour her armour,
i

wit her weapon n^n(*^Ufci: nD<rtyni^Rdrtl: fcWHl^w.

Eem.
pounds
there

1. is

According to vernacular grammar, this
to

class of

com-

be considered a subdivision of the karmadharayas,
This ex-

being samanadhikaranya between both members.

plication cannot

be

right, for

it

does not account for the inverse
f. i.

order of the two members; one should
of
^fbrW
first.
,

expect

TrTtdft

instead

as in the

karmadharaya the qualifying noun
a genitive, but
it

is

of course

put

In fact, we have here no karmadharayas, but shash-

thisamasas.

The former member

is

it

does not

bear

everywhere the same character. Sometimes

is

one, as

among the kings,"
lowest).

g ^mpH ^

i

— q^tiiuii
cp. the

a partitive

(or

5^5)

fe^r:,

{Ml(jy<:

»an outcast

compounds in
it is

3=jq- (best)

and

mm (worst
Lat. scelus

Sometimes, too,

a genitive of the kind represented
hell of a fellow,"

by our »a jewel of a woman," »a
hominis;
so
ir^irfn:

(Mudr. Ill,
v. a.

p.

102)

»a

beauty

of

a

house,"
(P.

iTfTOOTt^ (Mudr. Ill, p. 121)
6, 2,

^excellent helpers,"

mdH^n

126)

»a
;

slut

of a wife."
i-

Not rarely both acceptations are

alike probable

^FhrPT £

m ay

be as well zz ^hsr ttpt »a jewel among

women"
Eem.

as zz »a jewel of a
2.

woman."

Panini treats the said compounds severally, see
6, 2,

53; 56; 62; 66;

126

sq.

2, 1,

Note

q?fr

and

°

wm^

expressing

blame, and

"tjt,

"tnsri

°m

signifying admiration.

221.
shLmld'e

Tatpurushas, made up of three or more stems, are

always dissolvable into two members, either of which
itself.

TmorT may be a compound
tnemes.

Mrcch.

Ill, p.

I25^w:<jmi??n=n^,

jiere the

former part

is

a dvandva sppiajfr:
^FjiTT^rr],

gfsarc

= sra

xr
is

£:w

^ —

Pane. 323 rrr*i!Afern

[viz.

here the former part
that
is jpr

a tat.

purusha
Pane.
II,

itself, i|rchU6fc<rH

being zz

rmw,

cfm£, ferTT.

153

^gfiaicWTTHlfa^UUi:

(stirred

by the

sting-like

words

,

§ 221-222.
of a woman), here f^rrcrr
is

165

the latter member, the former being

a tatpurusha of comparison, the former
is

itself

an ordinary shashthtsamasa.
here
2,

JWRET
is

— .JjforT^TW m-W,
Kam.
is

member
Mhbh.
1,

of

which

sftenoRi
trfstjna-.

155, 24

the

former part of the tatpurusha

a bahuvrihi.^-

43 RuhRmUsIh T (one firmly attached to
of the
species

wordliness)

illustrative

of

those,

whose

latter

member

is

a compound, the analysis being

fttirf

f&ewcr

oirTiTPr:.

3.

BahuvrIhi.

222.
Natureand
characte.

The nuvnni
than
is
..
.

difference
.

,

1S J

between the tatpurusha and the baan essential one. The former implies no more
but the always adds something tacitly understood
its
, ,

the ba'ha-

purported by

constituent elements

bahuvrihi

generally the conception of ^having possessing."

^^T^'

when tatpurusha
huvrihi
foe
is

= i^iyW
„ having

^:

Jndra's foe," when ba-

it

means

Indra for foe,

one whose
^T(\\

Indra;"

colour of

HT^TIP, when tatp. the sun ," when bahuvr. it

=HUfM

„the

denotes „one having
is
J

the colour of the sun."

The bahuvrihi, therefore,

invariably an adjective , referring to some substantive

).

Panini then
vrihi as „a

is

quite right,

when he

defines the

bahu-

complex of elements serving to qualify some
2

other word
1)

).

By

this

it

ia

however not asserted, that a bahuvrihi cannot be
but only
this:

used as a
considered

substantive,
just
as

when used

so, they are to be

J^TrTT when
Srf%:
2)

=

any other adjective, that does duty of a subst. »a noble-man" is to be compare! with such a word as
or STRFr:

when meaning »an honest man"

when

=

»boy."

P. 2, 2, 23 sq. sl^oDf^MchH'iJ'Ji.l^. According to that definition, Indian
restriction as to the

grammar does by no means make
ments out of which a bahuvrihi
is

number

of the ele-

made

up. This is distinctly expressed

in a metrical rule of the {Catantra (2, 5, 9)

166

§

222—223.

Like other adjectives, the bahuvrihis
as adverbs,

may

be used

when

put in the accus. of the neuter sinof

gular, see 240.

223.
be*™

"r^to

From a syntactic point may be made up of three
,

view, the bahuvrihi,
,

it

four or

more elements does

lledtcate

contain but two members, virtually identical with the

an

^r''

SUD Ject and
tribute.
is

the

predicate

of a full sentence, just

as the tatpurusha represents a

main noun with

its at-

And,

as within the tatpurusha the attribute

put at the head and the main noun behind (210),
within
is

The

predi-

so

the bahuvrihi the predicate precedes the
latter

,

the
f.
i.

"dcs.ThT subject
•hViatter

member.

When

analyzing

the bahuvrihi

^^H^FT: we
is

get the clause

3FT

<=flM

member.

JT^FT „he whose strength
?TFT

f £ great ," similarly ti*4° (U|!
is like

=

^W< fgf&fa
•"

„he whose colour
is

the sun's,"

HrlVl M tri rrl t^T!

an epithet

of

somebody, whose

eyes are fixed on the earth

UW

*JflFr

^H

FTt^R.
are

In these examples, the words

^W,

^HTT,

FTT^R

the subjects within the bahuvrihis, that which precedes

them being the
between
1.

predicates.

In treating of the tatpurushas
the karmadharayas
,

we have

distinguished

2.

those the former

mem-

Hi^-yui T3^rm
Nevertheless
gically
, ,

sr^t%

etc.
it

in

analyzing even intricate bahuvrihis

two members either or predicate and subject both of which may be compounds themselves even if it would not always be allowed to use such compounds by themselves as separate words. Pauini himself knows »a class of compounds only allowed for the sake of being used as the former part of other compounds" [P. 2, 1, 51].
there are but
,

will

appear that

,

lo-

§ 223.
blhavrito

167
3.

ber of wnich represents some noun-case,
is

where
is

it

a

particle.

In an analogous
a.)

way we may
subject

speak of three

types of bahuvrihis:

those,

where there
c.)

gramb.)

matical

concord

between
is

and predicate,

such, whose predicate
it is

a noun-case,

such, where

a

particle.
a.

Type

Here the predicate

is

mostly an adjec-

tive or a participle, as

JT'^Mi
qualitatis
,

„having Tndra for foe."

When
of

adjective, the bahuvrlhi has generally the
abl.

worth

Latin gen. or

or

abl.

modi.

So oTITt

S^tf^f: =

keros latopectore,Fa,nc.S2^'.

F^OrftER

— lacus
tive

exiguae aquae.

When
may

participle
,

,

the bahuvrihi

not rarely concurs with the gerund

the absolute loca-

and the

like.

It

as well be said rMfn»H<»l^l

^^TETRT^
left

arfrTi" as

RTT^ FT^T
b.)

or

RTm ^jf^
!

(I

the town and set out for the forest).
are such as

Those belonging to type
a
horse's
face),

^H^FT^ (having

Pane. 71 flsftoRrt

SfRf^TI^RPjqT^
Your Majesty),
S[f%:

57t«^®||^''

(Sanj. meditates of doing harm to

here

57^5^ =
is

3T?T

r^FT
type

(or ?fl%)

whose

mind

to do

harm."
to
c.)

Those

belonging

are

such as ^TUT'-T^"
(pregnant),

(having one's face cast down),

^xTFTrr

7^-

CPTT^T
those,
sons),

{TsrTT (a

king of such a power). Very
fT° ,

common are
(having no

commencing by^° ,

^

:

°,

as

Wtt'

WX^>
a.)

(having a good son or good sons).
c.)

Type

and

are

much more common than type

b).

,

168

§ 224.
of bahuvrihis. Type
a.)

224.

Examples

Nala

1,

5

(now the days are appearing with a mild sun, much fog and a
sharp cold).
Hit. 90
[sc.
sreft

umium

:

(he

is

of a wicked
:

disposition).

Pane. 150

fa

art^rr]....

5yrauT mHrT)A.(

M(cri<>

nrmrari^ •sdfm
belly split

(the Pulinda fell

down

lifeless

on the earth, having his

up by the edge of the teeth of the boar). Malav.
tHdlfadcrltfHii
l

I, p.

14

-^TrTTi

rci

facrTlcki

(as the minister has finished his lecture

of the

letter,

the king looks on him).
(as
it

Pane. 71
I

M'^^mm^m
am come

ScUPTto tell

oTTwrrnrrr

sum
it).

stung

my mind,

myself

you of

Nothing impedes, of course, both the subject and the predicate being concordant

substantives. Bhoj. 17
pra
1

ttsTFP. ^tsisrcfTT csr

fasrfipfr :TRf (no other kings are successful in their wars but those

whose power
are

is

a treasury), Pane. 185

nfdowfc ST [the bahuvr.

— jrerpr^r
:

oimMt

ld

l>

Mchchichiii7om

ZFfim: q^oil^; » whose
cfiirT^irTFTT (a
qprisft

attendance

many
Rem.

crows"],
is

Dag. 82 ^tidd
3,

great merchant,

whose name
1.

Kub.), K.

19, 22

TD^millsHHsifl -

In such bahuvrlhis, as have an adjective behind, that

adjective does duty of a subst.

So

f. i.

Qak. I

ai^wfwr g 17 tin

(the

assembly

is

for the greater part

here the bahuvr.
Malat.
I, p.

made up

of distinguished people)
=gfii=jTrr:,"

g^jjr

^pTgnT irfwr: »most of which are
:

2

3i^rwfw im mioiMHH
l l

"the sun has almost risen,"

R.

2, 40,

17
the

*TirUrHHl<UH clfcK«

(— saw them mounted, having
15
H^?WcFr
it
is

Sita

as

third),

R.

3, 55,

wj

chi£u> ;5TTT (thousand

men whose main
Rem.
in
his
2.

object [qTs^rpr]

to carry out

my

orders).

A

proper kind of bahuvrlhis are such as a Rich; (having
liter.

a sword in one's hand), a^chua (sobbing,
throat").
for

<ione

having tears
turns

In analyzing them, the
iiRjch^: =r itHilfy:

latter

a

locative,
sr-

cFTO

For the

rest,

we have here no

^

part

out

ST

and

ajjjchU cs;

=r mai4jfqr

exception to the general

rule on the arrangement of the

and
to

two members of a bahuvrihi. It is ^f^ which are predicated, not qij nor sfto^", for the intention is g^ say not that M r so and so has a hand or a throat, but what
.

,

§ 224—225.
it

169
has the epithet snwreftsFlT

is,

he keeps within.

T

)

R.

3, 51, 9 Sita

shaving tears in her eyes." Comp. "Whitney § 1303. Eem. 3. In some bahuvrlhis the order of the members
tional.

is

op-

p -^,£

'

One may say promiscuously
the holy
are
fires)
l

tiif^Hlf n:
tnr?rrrT:

and

=g

who keeps
and
fiiuiui

M

l

i^fT; (one

,

sTP=mw:

or

( one having children).

Of the kind

^Hd

d

or jtTrRTrT, see M. 5, 58 with Kull., rrrfJTa
2
),

(fond of sweetmeats)

R.

2,

119, 5
° ft

tr^nr:

chgtaikri

li

(her-

mits with uplifted pitchers). Participles in
if

must be put behind,

the predicate be a weapon, therefore ^sKirT: (with uplifted sword)
2, 2,

see vartt. on P.

36.
a.)

Rem.
is

4.

The type

of the

bahuvrihi
,

in

its

outer form

often identical with a

karmadharaya
In

for the discrepancies in the

accentuation are not heeded.

practice, one avoids to use as
,

bahuvrlhis such compounds as are wont to be karmadharayas

as

ydsM, qfffr,
qrrq-

qrsiT^or,

and inversely such as JT^TSHf

,

sf^^rrT,

3pT3

will not
it

have to be otherwise accepted than as bahuvrihis.
is

)

Yet,

often

only

the context which will enable the reader

how to accept a given compound. T yP e &•)• Pane. 24 chdjfa^ tpE^azPTtroaTRlr 225.

t

g5TT

m

\*

iC\

g^srfe

1) Cp. vartt. 4 of Pat.

on P.

2, 2, 36.

2)

As

to

ftrir,

Pat.

vartt.

2 on P. 2,2, 35 teaches the option.

But

it

seems better to explain

rnrftTO'

as being a tatpurusha, because 1st fer

may
p.

be not only
1 c),

=
in

»

beloved," but also

=

»loving,"

see

Petr. Diet.

IV,

1161 s.v.

2ly as P&nini
"fira".

some talpurushas
ples in
"rT. if not

somewhere else [P. 6, 2, 15 sq.J mentions The same may apply to some of the particicfirT

to all. Since

may

sometimes have an active signification

and sometimes a passive one,
well the tatpurusha
-j)
j

it is

plain
,

we

are allowed to

compound
:

as

gld

=

lac potus

as the bahuvr. qlrl-cTb

= lacte poto.

Comp. what has been
confounded:

said p. 157 N. 2.

Pane. 283 affords a specimen of a
cblR-^l||fSic*il

Mud of compounds, in which two types are
here
the

*wyRu.ii^)rlol<^-ll,

author seems
11^1 riqf-

to have blended promiscuously

two bahuvrihis i-liylMUioldJTT and
have
sufficed.

Mfqujl

,

either

of

which

would

Comp.

Hariv.

5814

3)

See Cappellek

Vamana's Stilregeln:

Kavyasamaya

7

and

8.

170
gjTTT,

§ 225, 225*.
here jirairrn'
is

the epithet of one ywho accepts wages from

both parties," KatMs. 72, 186

^r&vg^tj

fTJff%fra3OTl(two siddhas,
I, p.

who bore

the shape

of flamingos), Malav.

24

ctT fS cht
i i

HrfairaT

(K. wearing the dress of an ascetic).

Eem. Comparison
3iT HiSff onsrvrccFK&fT

is

sometimes expressed by them, as E.
,

3, 69,

43

(who are you
10

whose shoulders are
and
horses).

like those of a
:

bull?).

E.

5, 17,

Eaxasawomen bear
camels
(having lotus-eyes),
p.

the epithet HsTlft^u<4l<i

(with

the feet

of elephants,


;

But

also

by type
(the

*)

as TWterSTNFT:

225*.

Type
SRT'.snf: nisters),

c.)

Prabodh. V,

103

^srt

tWH-i (moon-faced). nmoHdmi * mmkHifrt
in such a
is

queen does not comfort me, who
JTpJrfayraFr

am

state),

Pane.

I,

137

ps!Ti^(a kingdom

upheld by pithy miji=iP^6l
:

Eumaras.

3,

14 the gods bear the epithet

(whose

adversaries are mighty).

Apart from the very common employ-

ment of g-, e,
prepositions
(sapless),

5;:

as the predicate in bahuvrihis, several particles

and

may be
:

used so, as 3H,

f^;, fir, sgfn,

^sf e t c -> as -Tl)M
2,

i^fSn

»one with folded hands," Eagh.

74

ii{qr<4rllchM

_

(a flagged town), Dag.
rT^fBfqcFjsr:

137 3373^: (with uplifted weapon), Harsha 9
Bhoj. 8 laiimqchh'i ^tott frmT.
g,

(a leafless tree),

Eem. Compounding with
power,
as


fq- : ° ,

and the

like has the
is

same

English

-

ful

,

similarly
=*",

English
fir
,

- less

expressed by
etc.
1
).

compounds, beginning with
1)

f!nTfT° ,

drV

Patanjali enumerates alao different species of bahuvrihis

:

a) those,

the

members
is

of

which are samanadhikarana
c)

as

m^ji,

b)

the former part
is

of which

an avyaya, as qrgirw,

whose former part

a locative

or something compared as
gen.

*IJ6*M,

3ET<pr, d)

where

it is

a gen. generis or a a knot

materiae as chUixU (with one's hair tied up,
WollllWj-l)

liter. » [bearing]
e)

of hair"),
is

(wearing golden ornaments),

whose former part
f) negation
-|-

one of the gana

ETTSTT:

[P. 1,4, 58] as crqrrr (unleaved),
c)

noun, as gtrg\

In the case of

an

ellipsis is stated of

a middle ele-

ment
Wfsfer
i

,

cfilibchM representing ^TtTS'OT: chl^rtUsr

and i<am^ being A *J

=

s&rtA >i

^PTOT. As
yufdrlMUU

to

e)

and /) Patanjali states the option between saying

n

full

^5T:

and the abridgment
f. i.

gcrcrrr apfi:,
I

likewise between
riim-c^n with ibid.
l

tlfoWHMJ-Wr: and Wtt;. Cp.

Dag. 35 atrial mtril'eH

176

STT

3£<sll&WlolM; here the full 3"£rT° sfNrc

and the short iAol WT

are synonymous.

,

§ 226—227.

171
fre-

226.
huwftus*"

As bahuvrlhis
uen t> we <l
1.

of three and

more members are excessively

WM

adduce some instances of them.
is

the subject

a compound. Pane. 322

r a?h

l'

^li

ich<U

t

(abstaining

from taking food)

here the subject of the bahuvr.
1,

is

OTfirfeTT

a tatpurusha; Var. Yog.

8

-gifgrifel

H^

l

^Tt

HBrffT

(he loses his wealth

and his kingdom) here the

subj.

is

a dvandva y^rn%- »wealth and
is

kingdom;" Dag. 78 a Jaina monk
UsMchUMssHca gT:
HchfeyHTdlf^tim TfTcr-w:

thus

qualified

gqFtafiTQ?T<T3f:

(v. a.

covered with dust and

mud, enduring a heavy pain by
very
the

pulling out his hair, suffering
like)

much from hunger,
aa d tbe
are

thirst

and the

here the subjects of
n<?\ujrf ,

three bahuvr. are respectively the dvandva
tatp.
^r fciqiMlfdci

the tatp.

chUI<rl3d-iatim

:wt and of them the two
of

tatpurushas
it is

themselves

made up

more than two themes,
similarly

compound ehUM3dH which qualifies 5rzrr> aQ d as the compound g jRmmil^ which is the cause of gj^jpr.
the
y

2.

the predicate
often

is

a compound.

Instances of this category

are
this

very
type:

met

v^ith,

especially
_[_

such bahuvrlhis as exhibit
or
participle _)- subzrer ?T
;

qualifying

noun-case

adjective

stantive. Pane. 42 rTSrrf rriJd^yUj:
72,

= H^T fa^cSRTJTf^
is

Kathas.

180

mn

i

chHrmfilcfr rrr

T^tff^T) here the bahuvr.

to

be analyzed

5T§rar vTrPTT:

fefim mri

m

[T^pjfo]-

But

also other types, as:
gffiSr &chinM-id
i:,

Mudr.
an

Ill, p.

124 vultures (nyr.) have the epithet
is

here the
is

analysis

nm

£terf

fikchmm

<raT:,

the predicate, therefore, curse
is

adjective-dvandva (208).

Qak. VII a

said to be

^^ Jk46

3.
,

both subject and predicate are compounds. Kad.
ifriT

I, p.

ftw

faa 5a (5)MrichyiT,jq ija
parrots

gr cftm=hfachsiifH

yfnayPd
is

w (crowds of
confi-

and

[other]

birds

were dwelling there,
here fBra»<-4f§qi%H
,

building

dently thousand(s)

of

nests),

the predicate

and chcrumH^a the subject of the bahuvrihi
is

the analysis of which
[

of course

mr

fBr?fw f§r(ftdiR

[ iT]

*^iyi^rt y^ifili

sftL

227.

In the case ol non-compound

words, adjectives car,

rying the notion of having
Sanskrit etymology,

,

possessing

as

is

taught in

may

be

made by putting some

172
suffixes,

§
suffixe

227—228.

denoting,
possession

derivative
to

^

as
j

of

FT, "SRT, "TO, *\

subgtantive

as

5^^

*v'

'

"Trf,
\

'

"IHetc. -s
\

fi (

ery),

jj^

(having

"^t-

a son) and the like. Of these suffixes
Kathas. 24, 9 foflfl V
'

,

° 3[*T is

very common 1).
P. 5, 2,
-tog

cfrtr^ft o

frar: <a3Jft
,

^••^

-didiHjrU^H (a divine person -^ \ o
3, 50, 21.
1,

descended wearing a diadem earrings and a sword) , cp. E.

They may

also

be put to dvandvas. Mhbh.
I, p. 1

126, 21

dj. l

Q4) (weai

ring tresses and a deer-skin), Pat.
ytlrtiifi

qi»jMi^dchchi^l5ti

fiiHi

Horfff sr

[mlstsg;:.

sometimes
to bahuvrthis.

Now, sometimes,
are

these

suffixes are

added even then,

if

they
11

no "way 8 necessary for the understanding. So E. 'n

3, 15, its

q^,

^

,

finpfe fffr.

ttjjt

qf^tjft

(a

pond charming by

sweet

scented lotuses), likewise Pane. 53 the weaver,
the
attributes

who has assumed

of Vishnu ,
is

is

said to be

QmiRtQrf
,

fenr:, Bhoj. 2 a brahman
-tj
i

said y chert fSNMiHUdM

— lamr = ychtfiy (Swim
:
i

fiui|i

-

rufm

?raf:-

I n these cases no suffix

was required

for the

bahu.

r

vrihis

y^(I|j|,y,

fduu fe^

,

^chcHQt'MM igiT
I,

would be quite regular
I

and
This

plain.

Compare Pane.
pleonastic

46
is

yoiuiqfwH

msft

— Ho u'mwi
i

<roft.

rather

idiom

especially used in

some standing
° Tq-

compounds.

Grammarians teach and practice confirms

being

readily added to

compounds in

"grtHT, "siraT,

"nmx, Vt,

"sfWr, ° 5rnf.

P 5,2
'

'

132.

Typical compounds.

228.
Typical

So

I

call

such compounds whose latter element
is

is

compounds.

almost used in a typical sense, which

more or

less

remote from their primitive meaning.
great importance of
position
fit

By them
Sanskrit

the

compounding
Such
case-relations,

for

comare

appears

best.

among

them,

as

for periphrasing

have already been

dealt

with in Chapter IX, especially
1.

188—196.

Of

the others the most remarkable are:
1) See P. 5, 2, 115; 116;

those in 5IT[T>

128 with the varttikas on them.

;

§

228—220.

173

° ?A\ *t|,

° ^TT^^T, "STHTrT, which are expressive of „and so
those in

on,"

2.

^
T,

I

T

and

JX^T^'

which

may

serve

to make adverbs of manner, 3. those in
4.

QcT= s formerly — ,"
*"'

those in

°

tide,

^Hll^^J

-—-

rTT^I
-

which does duty of a limitative parN

being nearly the same as c(T3T^",

5.

those in ° 5R5*T, /^2£T,

° ^JH
° i?7T,

c

5TT?T,to express ^nearly,

almost,"

6. 7.

those in

ifl^T may be rendered by „na-

mely,"
of

those in ''^FrT^T,

when having
we

the worth

„some" or „other." And soon.
To give a
fuller

229.
STfij;
etc.

account of them,

will treat of

them

se-

parately.

^
M.
1,

Those in 'Wl;), *ilf^*, Vra,
is

Vfffi' are bahuvrihis

,

meaning
f. i.

properly »the beginning of which

,"

as

is

still

plain

in

50 ^Ht^ri

l

W

nrTdY

dfoNl

:

(the existences, at the

head of which
(he per-

stands

Brahma, end
like."

here).

Commonly they
5j

are expressive of »etc.
;

and the

Pane. 8

ircfrp-f^chRhiil
all

qlrHnf(<cM

qj ^ch^
l

formed in his honour
etc.),

the

funeral rites, viz.

the vrshotsarga

Hit. 123 ^di/ioi '^Tf^

«yi^<R

fferfTT^(hestow on them presents
cn^cr-

of the king's favour, gold, clothes and so on), Pane. 62 gir
gr^TSWrTJrai' qcF^:
(all

[aquatic animals], fishes, tortoises etc.
,

).

In these examples the compounds are adjectives but often they are

used as substantives too [see note
srTjjrorar:
i

1

on
i

p, 165],

as Bhoj. 64 #^i|Ej

Fsnq=r srar^ srter **j ui^dln [d.fasT%rafr
»

^srri: eihcft:
is
2. "trcf,

Pane. 27

^rcravffr

trappy 3. i(£*
in

fsrasr

wmx hoi^im^i^ wrfe (from to-day it
may have
i

you by
2.

whom favour, When adjectives,

punishment,
those

etc.

are to be administered.)

° qn and Vp?TT

the

Vr:STTV same purport as those in Vrfs; etc. Pane. 20 oLi fej^l(gdchU| :^T: g^ (all of them, tigers, panters, wolves and the rest). When

adverbs
wftffT

,

the latter
Hit. 7

member
to him).

is

almost meaningless
{

:

jftfanBr UTOrT

=

UTOH-

<tct sr^Ml-lM

;^f

M^i^w rMHdi ^

(respectfully

he

gave qver his sons

,

174
3 -Wrltra
3.

§ 229.
Those in
qg-

may
so

also signify

j having
:

been formerly so and

and the
like.

g0 " b u t

now being

no more:
1,

aifedijoi ~*» c»
cfrf%T£

jone

who once has been
before),

rich," wro?: (of old). N.

13

^

|^° rf (never seen

Qak.

VI ^oJHfcgdrH^ddi J^fe UI*tMI
Lady
Qak.)
in
').

(indeed, I once have

wedded

secretly the
«)
°

HW

'

4.

«)

Compounds
is

rrrar are bahuvrihis

,

used as substantives

of the neuter, and properly ha\e the

(trw) of which
latter

meaning »the exact measure
are used as if their

."

Tet

,

as a rule they

member were some

limitative particle
I,

and "VraT may be trans(it is

lated

by abut, only." Prabodh.
£r

p.

13 Pchd4/*?im;HHrl

but a vain

d 14) M Mil ft M^lilra ^r chl^B (nobody will make you his friend only on account of your voice), E. 3, 71, 22 ni^-HM
rumour), Pane. 192 gfrsft
FT

slHlfi

^r

f^

iTOT T=5m\-

This translation, however, does not suit
"
i

all instances. Sometimes h jh signifies, that the whole class is meant, not single individuals belonging to it. Pat. I, p. 242 gr i^iull
t\

^dau: g^r
said:

r-

trcrfnr

srr^nimT?

^ ^tm y{ wisf
is

=5 =r <rtaw

(since

it

is

»one
not

may

not hurt a brahman, nor drink strong liquor"

one

does

hurt anybody, that

named brahman, nor
liquor"
is

drinks

anything, to which the appellation

» strong

applicable).

Comm. on R.
° srm^ feminine
nayana
chlUllil
/3)

2, 12,

100 i° mitZT3Xl £CT

^TrtT ST^FFT

tJUjH

H<fd

(the

king seeing the foul conduct of K., by his sorrow chides the whole
sex).

In
i

this

meaning VlrPT

is

almost synonymous , as
,

Dae. 22 ^u")q.-itH f^ <shi|rilH^cr| iifT (he obtained the cauda
l

the upa-

,

in short the whole set of sacraments), Bhoj. 62

tm^tdfcl

Adjectt.

in

"TRf.

^

ufeclsllrWRH
°

HrMd
as —

S^T
^

grfETHTt 3?fPT;

ing

.

js

ai g0 p U t

participles; then it is

an adjective and
=raH (one

signifies

»as soon
,

."

Pane. Ill, 3 aiHHM sn|

JT5FT

must
in

abate a foe

as soon as he has arisen), ibid. p. 58 wisnrr

HU

UN

^HiTT^f apim: mvx:, Kathas. 36, 111, etc.

Rem. The

adjectival

employment of those in

° in=r

is

however

1

)

One

is

wont
If

to analyze

iMMd: by
-

orsr ITrT:

and so on, see

f. i.

Kac.on P. one

5, 3, 53,

but that analysis does not give a satisfactory account of the nature of
the adverb era were compounded with the noun
in the
JjfT,

the compound.

would expect qsrUFT

same way

,

as

f. i.

M.

9,

267

<JdH*s*>i l:»

people

who

have formerly been thieves."

§ 229.
not restricted to the case that the former

175

member
• •

is

a participle.

See but Pane.

95 ^im^Ni ^ f%5T ff sprf^TTi. ^Ti (poor people name of men, as they are of no use whatsoever). do but bear the
II,
5
-

° gf5T>

\uTiy?
° crra'-

»Almost, nearly, like" is signified by "Wcr, ° zw, "zyxter, ° wm, 5. which have almost got the nature of pure formal suffixes, and,
indeed, the former three are taught as such by Panini
(5, 3, 67).

Of
39

them, those in
dic^
=T:

"spr^g

MM Hch^
6,

l

Pl

(speech

and ° qnr are the most frequent. E. like ambrosia), Kumaras. 3, 14

3, 16,
cftrt

FsraT

tlfH<-Hcfrg<JH

(you have nearly engaged yourself to do our

affair),

Kathas.

51 ^frr, cFrfMjrgsrt Q^uuiui

5Rf%H^ (some Samavedin
IX,
is

was thus addressed by somebody
Cof
q tid fa rttiui or

like a rake), Malat.

p.

149

^:
tj

U cU

I

U. I

T

(in this
£"sr

manner
JTrT:

all

my

hope

almost

gone),

Pane. 202

chmifSHUlJ

(gone to a country, where

a good deal of the paddy was
(this

ripe),
full

Dag. 78

feqwwi M fcti^WdrH
Those in Vrcr
»the

way

of unrighteousness,

of deception).

are, indeed, bahuvrihis, to be analyzed

thus:

of which
a

is

— ,"
of

just as those in

ner or mode
6.

which

is

° ^^q properly are

greater part
» the

man-

.'-'

=^.
»

6.

Those in ° %q are likewise

adjectives.

As

^qrr

means not only

shape, form" in general, but also »a beautiful shape, a beauty,"
it

so the bahuvrihis ending in
(5, 3,

admit of either acceptation. Panini

66)

mentions
i

the
to

latter,

when teaching such compounds
1
)

as

sTPsrorgT:

iHirlilW
are

be praise-denoting.

But, in practice,

those

in

° ^q-

not

often

met with

in

this

meaning, by

far

oftener they

are employed for the sake of qualifying some general
its
;

kind by describing

species.

Then we may
2, 37, 1

often translate

them

by means of
taries

»f.

i.

viz."

Instances are chiefly found in
[p.

commen-

and the

like.

Say. on Ait. Br.

272 ed. Aufrecht]

1)

Panini speaks of

° =jcr

as

of a taddhita. Kay.

when commenting on
expressed by

our sutra shows ° *%$ to be used to signify the highest pitch of a quality, as

a tM^qfcfr compounds
:t 3TI7T

n:

qcTTO^T a7T

ferffT-

Blame

,

inversely

,

is

in "qror (P. 5, 3, 47), as in this verse of Bhojapr. (p. 7)

^ruifh

jft

^

itrtV UrtPTTSraT!

(the

attendant,

who

does not exert himself,

when ordered by

his master, is a

bad attendant).

176
7. "g'Srfif-

§ 229-230.
Bahuvrihis in "gsrfv
its

7-

(limit)

may be synonymous
Eem.).

of

ztrsfrJ

in

both of
i

acceptations (169
(till

with.

See

f. i.

Kathas.

4,

100

Urdiun dnj
S.^HSTCT-

I shall

have come back);

52, 146.
» excellent

8-

Tatpurushas in ° fegta, when meaning

species," are

expressive of something »first-rate, excellent."

See

f. i.

Eagh.

2, 7.

9.° g^".
or

9.

Tatpurushas in

"Wrro
,

are often to be rendered

» other."

Properly speaking
as a
» variety

hkt^,

fasrsn

and

species,"

and

^ mean

by ssome"
variety,
different",

of something"

is » something

the transition of meaning
Ill, p.

may

easily be accounted for.
(v. a.
I,

— Malav.
^trT3"

60 ijofwi^oi^i-H^qi^l rRWSTrTt
(the fruit of

the lady has changed

her former attitude to
^o|
|

another), Pane.

132 surrsiutii^ wzt
,

£o|M>
83

good and

evil

deeds comes instantly

when
r^t

from the king, but in some other existence, when from Destiny),
ibid. p.
ErfSfT

tftuwlii

(one cannot dwell

<sMMi qwi 357 =7 among wicked
other).

sr^jirr

i

jMidMJ fsnwi h

people, for they will

hurt
is

you by some means or

The proper meaning of
first.

"sg^rnr

not rarely transparent, as in the example quoted

Likewise

Pane. 248 irnfowrfe^tmrra,
(I
10. ° farfv-

Pane. 205

zioEr

fafmM^

srere

miulR

do not hear distinctly, of what kind of things you speak).
10.

Tatpurushas in

"fgrfv:

may
I,

denote, that the action spoken

of

is

done »in due form." Pane.

335 t^HlSlfeH

i

Dag. 80
dinner).

fT5TTT^ .SrUij^ujoi^lalyijcti^cwJin his house I

jhumh m^\n, gave a stylish

This

list

may

be easily enlarged.

Final observations.

230.

Any
classes

Sanskrit

compound belongs
,

to one of the great

of a

mentioned before. Now as not only the members compound but even their constituent elements may be compounds themselves hence arises an almost unlimited freedom of enlarging compounds by taking up into them all sorts of nouns or adverbs serving to
,

qualify the
this

whole of the compound or part of

it.

In

way, very large and very intricate compounds are

i

§
intricate

230—231.
they often occur
•>
,
'

177
albeit that the

ompounds-

available
field of

,

and in

fact

combinations and images

is

in

some degree limited

by conventional usage and by the examples of the best authors. For the rest the frequency and the nature of those intricate and bulky compounds will much depend on the style of the literary work. It requires there,

fore,

a good deal of training to catch forthwith the

purport of

many an
will

intricate
suffice.

compound.
I, p.

A
said,

few instances
like

Kadamb.

15

the king,

it

is

was
fire

saw a lady ^Rjh^ Jjmw^^W MJ-KWW fori 4)*h fad ^f?fa^ >'Who Eati, stained by the smoke of Kama burning by the
Qiva,"
for

of angry

when analyzing
q<HUi
of
Err

the complex,

we

get

*(mhui
parently

^w
a

^hiuhh

4.<frU-iHm

yjrteijw^ MRH4)<£di*jj ap-

tatpurusha,

the

former

member
which
(p.

of

which

is

also

a
so

tatpurusha the
on.

former member

is

also a tatp.

and

Now

a bahuvrihi.

In the same Kad.

39) a forest a|

up bears

the epithet ^ciyrifaRlHUH Rch^iMlHR^Hist^^si^sijvT^fv^ [y*McH^

(where the roots [of the trees] had been moistened by the abundant

blood

of

the

army
subj.

of the

Baxasas killed by the shots of

the crowd of sharp arrows [discharged] by the son of Dagaratha),

here

jtsw
its

is

the

of the bahuvrihi, the preceding complex
as
it is

being

predicate,

an intricate tatpurusha,

thus to be

analyzed
snsr

^qm

^ttot fafgld HI UI(IUli

R*(HI Pmiridl^^H ^wt^TOTt
is

7m sr^T

^fy^UT f%aw. This whole clause

comprehended

within one compound.

And

so often.

231.
Case ." nouns
standing itside the

Case-nouns standing outside the compound are very
often to be construed with
it

or with one of

its
,

memwhich
is

k erS- This
to

is

but consistent with the whole

spirit

mpound,
it

be mstruea
to

pervades- Sanskrit composition. r
the speaker
to
prefer

A

great liberty

left
.

either

a rather synthetical

or a rather analytical

mode

of expression.

He

has the

opportunity of enlarging compounds by making enter within them any noun or adverb serving to qualify the
12

.

.

178

§

231—232.

whole or any part of
compels him to do
well

it.

so.

he

a self-existent So gak.
in

But on the other hand nothing The qualifying noun may as word having its own nounfrl~|^td*l(U?I51TffR:
the
slope

case. )

V f^Wfr
forests
I

(dwelling

the

on

of

mount
by
its

Himavan), here

|<^*-)c|rl

M^J
but

stands outside the com-

pound

as
,

to

its

form,

belongs

to

it

meaning
» having

as it qualifies the
evil report

member -i^rM^I,

Pane. 42
^iHIMoii^
i

a weaver returns home to his wife mrtcT chufriiqim
heard
analytical

(TCIT:

on her account;" when using a mere

expression, the author of the Pancatantra would have
3jforr

said iron aHoil<

or

Ihetical one ^irlrl^Md l^ :, hut

^

frerr

aqdk.

etc.,

when a mere syn(S.,
I,

idiom.

he has here availed himself of a mixed
Urtl
l

Malav. V,

p.

140 smr: Miam
here ^H o ril
l i

ormd

:

who had the
the former
i

horse brought back by his grand-son) ; Kumaras.

37 6HHHI ^sr-

^HifH^ member
here

[mm]
of
also is

^Hj

qualifies

a^u

the compound; Mahav.

I, p.

6 ached

I

quagl-gH

aTl

chidri ,

uchrdi

intimately connected with the compound.
suffice
,

These

few examples will
page of Sanskrit.

as the idiom is

met with on almost every
promiscuous
-

232.

By
there

this equivalence,

and

to

a certain extent also
it is

,

ness of analytical and synthetical expression

also explained that

must be some freedom in using the so called figure of
1,

ellipsis even in compounds. Nala
is

13 the beauty of Damayanti
,

said to surpass that of all other
d>lMolri)

women even

of time past, ^.

. .

d

l

chfarl

dfcHolfadl 5TFTT, here srfT is

of course

=
are

4Uri<4df.

By
aTtril

a similar abridgment Malav. V, p. 137
i

moon and sun
2)."

named

&m f^i UN »the hot- and the cold-rayed

1)

I

wonder, what reasons

may have

speak of this idiom as something irregular. can be more regular.
2)

induced Whitney (§ 1316) to On the contrary, nothing
3, 20, 12, if 1
i

A

striking

example
i

is

afforded

by R.

am
:
i

right reading
fft^T

there ^rsremrT t*J<0m

3^orf? §H5R3T

sftF^Ti

t^mu d M^Hcim

:

§ 233.

179

SECTION
PRONOUNS.
Chapt.

III.

ON THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF NOUNS AND

I.

Substantive. Adjective. Adverb.

233.
stantive.

In ancient languages the difference between adjective
is

tndtX and substantive
as

generally not so

strongly

m

marked
Both

m0(j ern oneSof

g

especially in

Sanskrit.

classes of nouns

number
ing, only

have the same declension, and a great them have sometimes an adjectival meanthey
are
substantives.

sometimes
different

They

are

as to

their

gender,

substantives being
as they
:
)

nouns of one gender, but adjectives of three,

must take the gender

gj*

an*,

Adjectives proper,

w w> gj ^
when used
a)

of the nouns

they

qualify

as substantives,

may

be distinguished thus:
y^rhwiVeW
is

the substantivizing results from
edition has

JT*T

I

*qm q^THW
antithesis

rZT^mjTHnWl; the Bomb,

fCT.

<£WT° - There

between the qnrti

[in full trrtsrrmisn':]
IshHf:]

Raxasas

and

Rama

qyTTiTTEr:,

and likewise between them £^[qi
tamdhir &rs?iah^%\[{\
2, 51,
,

and Rama

who was arsqyTsRT;- The
in the
1)

Oa ]g^qjraiT|iTJs admitted

Ramayana,
this

see

f. i.

8; 74, 13;

3,

64, 23.

By

way we may account

full as it is of accurate

grammar, and minute observations and of acute and sharp distincfor the fact, that Indian

tions,

does not possess proper terms
as indispensable to

expressive

of categories of word's

Western grammar as » adjective" and » substantive." The gunavacana of the vernacular grammarians encompasses more than our »adjective"; neither the dravyani nor the jalayas are the exact equivalent of our » substantives". The term vifeshana, used by Panini himself, comprises both the apposition and the attributive adjecas

common and

tive.

The only term adopted to point out the adjective as such »noun of three genders."

is

^m Qfc^n

180
the
ellipsis of

§

233—234.
[viz.

the concordant subst., as STTrTT'

?TFT!]

„cold water," qfeTFTT: [viz.

^TTH

„grey hairs;" £)they
as

are substantives

when having got some special meaning,
„body;"^|^"
Indra;
adj.

rT*T adj. „thin," subst. fern.

„brown,"
c)

subst.

masc.
are

„lion;

monkey;
as

Vishnu;"

they

used as

substantives

while retaining their

general

signification,

IMU!

when meaning

„a-or

the beloved one," 41^.' „a (the) wicked man." The last

category
tive
sity

is

the sole regarding us here, for any adjecthis

may
of

in

way turn
for

substantive.
different

The

diver-

the

endings

the
1

genders

and

numbers enables to express by one single word such „a young woman," „a phrases as „a rich man,'
business of weight," resp. %H^4!, plural of course,
if

FT^UM,
is

H«(»ri.

The

a plurality of things

meant; hence
ea,

FTTkT „that"
Lat. fausta
,

when

= those
,

things,

Lat.

HSJIUI

sJ«^M multa

etc.

Like other substantives, the substantivized adjectives

may be

an element in compounds. Hit. 94 ^h^rar

^r

chHour *Hot?l ir^T^ra': (one

must not serve a weak [master], but join a mighty

one), ibid. 102

*M+HH

I

ri)rilHM^

R

(enough of

this

chiding the past):

Abstract nouns.

234.
Abstract

Abstract nouns are
ft on#

much used

in Sanskrit composi,

They are partly
,

derivates of verbs

partly of nouns.

The verbal abstracts are not rarely
in translating
especially
if

to be paraphrased

the predicate of the sentence

be made up by them.
prefers finite verbs.
R.

Then, our language generally the man-eater says to Roma 3, 2, 11

P

§
TOT
rimuuloif

234-235.

181
is

^
(he

srra:

Wiu\

with a woman, being ascets?), Dag. 101 =ggqi H-^
{

^

(and

how

it,
l

that you dwell

-d ^rrcr

win: ^rft *m ^

^MJ

I

l"*%Ttr

took an oath, he would release me, and I, not
ibid.
q-

to

reveal
>

the secret),
I, p.

95

^^

f|

^^ ^Jl^mm ^fari^teiei
i i

Ud£-m

Mrcch.

32

q«4iJ)mi|^rd<UHtri rTT (the
its

garden-creeper does
p.

not deserve to be stripped of

flowers)

,

Mudr. V,

180 (Malaya-

ketu to

Eaxasa)

T^jr;

(TT^T -JHUdimMl^tTTldWtllUli

*:rlUHHl ErfEnrwr:

srttsIwt

by purchase from merchants you should have come by precious
jewels
,

^

fdttKJriJU^HH^-

=r

muvf

^fTfT (sir, it is

inconsistent, that

once worn by

my

father,

especially as they have passed

into the hands of Candr.).

235.

Of the nominal abstracts the most important are
those in
of
is

"rTT,

"^R" and ° >TT^:, as they

may

be derived
„ weakness"

any noun. Of *TJ (weak) the abstract
not only

TT^T

or

^f^TT (see P.

5, 1, 122),

but also

H^rll
ing

HJpFT and TJHTsp.
of

Nothing, too,impedes mak-

them

compounds, as 5J^TTFTrTT or

"^T or 0>TT3"!
(° rTT,

„the being the child of a set" or

^rjg^pPT
Hence

"^TT^O

„the
° FTT

having four

mouths

"

\).

the abstracts in
fit

and ° pFT and their synonyms are a

means
,

for

expressing clauses and the like in a concise form
cially when attended

espe-

by a subjective genitive. So

^^rlW

sSfcLNrMPl 1^

=

„the fact of N.N.'s being a merchant's

son,"

^^UI^FFPsFTT
(it

„the four-facedness of Brahma."
this

Here are some examples of
cfFJnRrfJrof <pR?T =TFT EFPCT
is

widely used idiom

:

Pane.

I,

222

a calamity to be father to a daughter);

1)

The

suffixes

for

making these

abstracts are taught

by Panini

5, 1,

119—136. Those
state,

in

° HT5T are evidently tatpurushas, HT5T meaning »the

the being."

For

this reason Panini

is

right not mentioning them.

182
ibid.
p.

§
71

235—237.
<H
i

^y nmm
as

(q^<rich

w

(

i

M

i

>

rTT (I

have scrutinized the good
I,

qualities
felt

of P.

well as his vices); Kumaras.
it

48:

if

animals

shame, the female yaks,

is

said,

when seeing the beautheir pride of their tails
(as

tiful hair of fair
gOTcrfcrftrarof

Um&

,

would have abated
;

(ai(5j<ri

^m:

Dae. 36

gsr^TFer zmrnr ^raV £w]\%

all

were drowned because of the

ship's foundering); Pane. 73 FsraTOT

srfeoTTrSraT-sfi'

Tmm:
the
his

ql^rttrh:

(by having him as your friend you

havfe

neglected

whole of your royal duty);
presence
is
i

Qak. II: king
at the

Dushyanta, as

wanted at
iSrtocrf^r

different places
*PT:
>

same time
farjwnsr.

,

says eftrtjJlPj,j^|roi

^

^

Utt. II, p. 35 er-.
is
l

"the density and the being scattered," that

»the re-

lative density;"
its;;

Comment. onE.

3,

42, 10q=TH.-m| Jt(

(ldmJ (Hm~ilrd-<
is this

(*he difference

between the words pattana and nagara

that the former does not signify the
does).

king's residence, the latter

The

last

example shows

also the fitness of this idiom for

the

sake of explaining and demonstrating.

By

grasping the

dif-

ferent links of a sentence into one single word, scientific or phi-

losophical matters
est

may

be treated in the very clearest and plain-

manner, complex ideas being rendered by complexes of words,
sufficiently pointed out

whereas the relation of the abstract noun with the other words of
the sentence
is

by

its

case-ending.

236.
^m^ioyf

Some
those in
I-

idiomatic employment of the abstracts
° FTT

— chiefly
coming

and "(5FT

must be

insisted upon.

Them.°

Their accusative with verbs of g o i n g and

^fandis
reaching with the
accus. of

often used to express the
,

an

another cp. 39. Hitop. 94 i|riHm<HiHi * one may become mean), Prabodh. IT, p. 78

passing from one state to (even a mighty 5rrfFr
quotes the verse
srrast:

"no'™*

#f^
^ol^ro
i

^

5° TT iTri^T

S^rom* (- become

helpers), Var. Brh. 2, 17

nWT
fnrm

(he becomes an astrologer), Pane, 38 h?;-* mOTora^foTgraTft

mwn%
site

(—

I

will

become

his

disciple),

ibid.

62

gp]
srer-

sM

a iHifH

(the lake will soon

grow

dry), Bhoj. 28

a^t

iTrrrirfrr

<h6m)*«j-

237.

II.

Their instrumental,

may

signify in what quality

somebody or

something acts

(67).

Then

it

may

be

, ; ,

237.
i

183

^tein-

truinental

rendered by means of „as."
n»rt IM<Pl*T
5T*TTrT
(let

So Hitop. 103

^%C^t
f^^f^T
as

tract'noan

some other heron go with him
p.

oHnwhatas

[his] second),

Katn. IV,

114 ^rftf
dear, do

fcfO"

^T^SJrPTT mTT{ (why,
if you were
indifferent
is

my

you behave

This idiom

even now ?). much used with verbs of acting,

,

behaving,

being as; knowing-, considering as

taking for; calling-

signi-

fying as; treating as and

many others.
etc.

Instead of the phrase

sTT^TTlt pTT
sTI<£l

sTHTfa FMWTTfaSffCrf^rTfa one may
pit

say

UMH
:

sTHTfa
cprrrr:

Examples
bodh. IV,
p.

KatMs.
fror

26, 8 gjinyTTrraT ferT: (being steersman)

;

Pra-

81

nwt a^Y^Tw yiHdi^Hyi^iiwoiWot
it is

(h^Rh:
;

(Kama

is

his chief warrior,

you we have looked
(and
the

for as his match)

Dae. 76

^ipjgEagh.

jm-.

qWreHl^h(d^
^m f|

glow

[of passion],

which had been loosened from the holy man,
twilight);
14,

[now] shone as

40

igr; srfgnr

ncrtreHlflRdl srfeqfT: PsTTiv:

(on spotless

moon
h
;

people have thrown earth's shade by
chfaf^rtl

way of a spot)

;

Dag. 112

rrt

=r

^pnrr iRt dHift (nobody here knows

me
SET-

as swc&)

ibid.

93
as

fcraT

Rudnfw

but denounce
• • •

me

the person,
<Hi|ch<yiiL| rT

ri<m (drain i^m<WT: (you cannot you have got it from); ibid. 144

riaoT

aiUlroH

(she has been destined a wife for you)
«iMfd^ aT^JrT (it
;

ibid.

94

^

^oT FTtRsFf rretf{ra

H

l

was the unhappy Arth.
fddRddi usrf^T ronfr
1,

who was

seized as the thief)
<K du [d<yH
i

Pat.

I, p.

399 when treating of the
24

karmadharaya
laOTUTroiR;

:,

says

KatMs.

52,

60

^

ftvrri

qTWW

ram m zrfo JT&ppr, Mhbh.

43,

1)

The germ
in
firT^:

of this

much

used idiom

is

niantras,
JTT

such phrases as g^Udl

(instr.

=

found already in the Rgvedaskrt M^&ldU 0- Kgv. 10, 15, 6
,

f^fw

#R

f%^ft 35"

5W:

on account of any offence, that we, after the manner of men], may have committed against you).

^^TfTT cfT^T (do us no injury fathers men [as heing

,

184
Eem. In the
and
° farr.

§

237—240.

instances quoted the abstracts are ending in ° rpjT

But although these suffixes are the most employed ones
effect.

any other abstract has the same
=fjVTaFT

Dag. 15 HcO^ l^chJldMdtTlfcrfhis

q 17 eh fell H ^-1
I

(I

was appointed nurse of the twins,
arTfT

children);
as

Kag.

I, p.

16 sorfifH frrfmFreit: *Ht)I*H4I

(«»«

is

used

a

designation of kinsmen and property); Pat.
ch<
i

P^uifsr

R=»rtet
1

i

H^u
:

i

Qdf^wiPi

Uorf^r

cKwrnzt

^% w

I, p.

230 >m4l qturfni

qirrf%rfCTTTrn^nT 5ER^TT 5iIIT
stracts
f.

e^

TOTTfa-

For

this reason, different ab-

made from one noun
\

are as a rule promiscuous; compare
ZrHUi with.
Hit. 97 tjtrm £\ni*i
,

i

Kathas. 13, 132 ua

Q\

W

both

Tjtrnr

and

jjirij^

signifying sin the quality of a messenger."

238.
Other
similar idioms:
,j

Occasionally


(

but not often

an ablative will do the same
3, 6,

u ty as the instrumental of 237. E. *
|

aHJirdlHim o
cp.

tt^

|

J-i:

10 rd M
l

l

HN

qwTtTPW. ••• ^ --

we

will address

you, Lord, as supplicants),

Kathas. 72, 165.

Loca3,

The locative
36, 17
grcrr

of the

abstracts
l

may

also

be used so, as K.
It is espe-

Hr^i4 mi^iwi drch

ff

o|thi**w (be informed of the matter,
helper on

which you must perform as
cially

my

my

order).

used with verbs of appointing, choosing, designing to some rank
Pane: 26
[him]

or
will

dignity.

mrnt

d^

chmafd
;

rnrr
3,

ijHTfg-

PtJ sia
l

i

Pi

(—

I

make

your attendant)

Nala

23

rTOH"Urli|
;

£5T

qfrTrir
g-

sT ytitei

5

(choose one of those devas for your husband)

Hit. 91

Note that of abstracts of the feminine gender the ablative and
locative are not used so
,

only the instrumental

(cp.

102).

239.
Dative,

The dative

of the abstracts with verbs of appointing etc. will
1,

occasionally occur. Mhbh.

139,

1

di d) kdia

^iHJH

l

fel

rU

Ife'JI

Jrtyf&T:)

Kathas. 38, 153 d HdlP-HreilU ^Tf c

^mbooks we met with two datives,

Rem. In the ancient

liturgical

one of the person and one of the abstract noun, both attending

on the same verb, especially i^t and
lr

gr^rr.

Ait. Br. 4, 25, 8 i,*A\u

^oTT

s-uwiilii

jy'^iiiy

-iifH«^

(the

devas did not yield to Indra
i

as

to

the eldest and most excellent [of them]) ^t ^did; TT STT^STT^TTrTJ
cp.

a^qPrf
l

ZmU
etc.,

rWU MUrTJ

rTrTt

5T

fT^I

3oTT

sUWUlU

^W^lU

frl W^H

T. S.

2, 2, 11, 5.

Ait.

Br.

7, 17, 7

Vicvamitra thus

ad-

§
dresses his
(

239—241.
HT

185
^PT ICT
i

sons ^ilPlrH

$r

° g-

wmp

^wm cRFmcTH
7, 18, 8.

attend on him [Cunahgepha] as your eldest), cp.

Note

the attraction in this idiom.
tive:

Ait.

Br. 4, 25, 9

— Op. a similar employment of the loca^fw ^TT £ w sTRH »his kin acknowledge
i

iil

i

his

authority."

Adverbs.

240.
"

Sanskrit adverbs
of uncertain
=Enyw

,

as far as they are not old words

Terb s

and forgotten origin
like

as

^,, 5^5,

ttgtt, jtst,

and the

are noun-cases

either distinctly felt

as such or in

some degree
is

petrified.

The accusative of

the neuter singular
Bahuvrihis,
like

as a rule employed, if adjectives
T

be wanted to act as adverbs
other

)

(55).

adjectives,

may
for

do

duty

of
=sr

adverbs,
STfT-

when put
PlfoiuiN

in the accus.

of the neuter.

Dag. 169 grr

qtjW (and he took no less
srSTqi
*-lldi|

care

him

as for himself);

Pane. 55 ^fn
spoke thus
said)
;
,

I'radri' ira^rer i-iHH-'l

srtsrr^ (as

her mother

the princess lowered her head for fear and shame and

Qak. I

nW^-ift^ gjX^rffir scr^t 5^f&:
word
is

([the stag] runs
to

on

casting
its

now and
first

then a look on the chariot so as to cause
1, 9, 1 crrfqTO

turn

neck ever so neatly); Acv. Grhy.
the

^m

I

fg

;

n^r qfrgyrj

here

an adverb »from his marriage, beginning

with his marriage."

When derived from
f§WMimi.im iri ^
f^nptcd-t
»

substantives the adverbs are mostly
, ,

modal instrumentals and ablatives (77

H

AWlftiMcJj-j,

here mrnrm&Ff
»

=

104). Dag.l36^i%
»

falsely;" R. 3, 61, 20
,"

wholly".

Likewise ojrfw
as

alternately

^rterm' "jokingly,"

etc.,

and ablatives,

^

ih

,

^swraTFT.

241.
verbs.

For the sake of comparison one uses adverbs in ^"FT They may be made of any noun and are to be rendered
,

1)

Adverbs are styled fejl
,

l

dUmm P
i

»

attributes
,

of verbs."

The

ace.

neuter of an adjective
see
f. i.

when used

adverbially

is

named

em

fdiUlidiuiillNi^

Kag. on P.

2, 3, 33.

;

186

§
„like."

241—248.
paraphrased, they are

by „as" or
or

When
be

= U*MI
or

i° l

with any noun-case wanted by the context,

therefore

fH^FT may

= fitsc
,

TH^FT^ and so on. — E. 3, 45, 5 gftqg- f^raror M ffrowRi srjsih [=
i

^
i

or

%^[^q

SRjfjcr] (in

the shape of a friend
1
i

,

Laxmana you
i
\

are like a foe to your

brother);

Mhbh.

148, 15 a -Jl^ u 4* u |g kg laa m
if

m ^bidH

[== grzrr sett]

(the innocent

Pandavas he did burn as
IpTrrr:
I

they were his enemies)
ScfiTT ^ST

Kam.
and

3,

31

gp^
if
zr.

SRT 3>lrilol^<sWmcMd*l H|?sR^ [=
1,

3ffT7irRfe-];

Mhbh.

159, 4 rrpar
;

Mdd^^l [=

jp^ar] (P ass over
i|)f,

by me
as

as

by a

vessel)
ST

Hit.
:

10 mHorftTTTTTisr

sum

rrT feoi rt
l

jj|fMdf<Hd^ FTET

qwfH

qiuiH

(he

wn0

looks on the wife of another
all cre-

on his mother, on the goods of another as on clay, on
is

atures as on himself, such one

a wise man).
as
regaliter,

Eem.

1.

Compare with them Latin adverbs
like a king."

when
iftarer

meaning »kingly,
qTsfr

Mhbh.

1,

145, 1 trnrjon:

snj? j iHoM (suppliciter).
2.

Eem.
their

Like other compounds

,

the adverbs in
construction
I,

5TFT

may have
znfh a^r

former

member standing
compound.
"Jrl^)

in

with

some other

word outside the
<Jrl^olr^= JmT cTgT

Pane.

260

^rfftiTwr

^TTST

arfrf-

242.

Adverbs in
parts.

° sr;

involve the dissolution of a whole into

many
will

Malat.

"VIII, p.

135 ^asr ^rt

EWu

s-.

m^m f

ch{)fci

(I

cut her into pieces and cause her to die a miserable death).

As

to

those in

243.
doing" duty
of adverts.

Sometimes

&rr

see

302 E.

but not so often as in Latin and Greek
,

adjectives are used where one might expect adverbs. Qf the kind are f. i. ferer Lat. invitus, fe^r (mere). Kathas. 28,

=

70

Trm faaw
jptt

OT

fflTTsir

(E. disappeared against her will)
cFrrprr

;

Kathas.
die,

29, 120

gwrcrffcrTiT

Adtrfl

fsrfv:

(that she did not

the cause thereof was nothing but Destiny, Germ, nur das SchicksaT).

Likewise others

,

which

in fact serve to qualify the verb,

though
25qtr

they do formally agree with some substantive (31, V). E.
tsr?TW:
5fi*T!TCor

3, 60,
t

(tell

it

me

confidentially),

M.

3,

101

Fjtrrrfr

jJH^A

, ,

§
5ITO
=5rra!f =g SFjrfTT

243—245.

187

(grass, earth, water,

and fourthly, friendly speech).
:

Compare these more
Br.
6,
1, 7,

instances, taken from the ancient language
nirfSr
(it

Ait.

13

STTJTTirfiiffr

(finally

he worships

Aditi),

Oh. Up.
5 33;^

6

h

3KT; ^g^hsrfH

rises

upwards), Acv. Grhy.

1, 11,

HtiRi

(they lead [the victim] to the north.

Degrees of comparison.
244.
"

Of two persons or things
the comparative
is

para
tive

to

same quality point out that which is en,

possessing the

'

57.

dowed with the

higher

degree of it: ^TT^FT^TrrO'T (the
!

better of these two), cl^T

I^FT
,

^"fi^FT! (words sweeter
,

than honey). Even

if

the person or thing compared with

be implied, not expressed

the comparative
„ tolerably,

may be used.

We
flrfr-s

then translate
<y<T)uw
I

it

by

rather')." Dag. 159

chM-l 30

-jy%\
jtot

ferrf^

y=WUci (not very long hereafter
trrflirrrrT

),

Prabodh.
wife,
rjtjol

II, p.

gpi^u'D fersrfq'
,

(I

have abandoned
;

my

though I loved her very much), Pane. 35
(after

fT^FSTT faj-cHch

m ^ jdi

^

manner).

hearing this

P. addressed

him

in a rather respectful

Mhbh.

I

may even express »too." (Paushyaparva) Upamanyu, when asked by his master
Occasionally the comparative
fat

why he

looks

though every opportunity of getting food has

been intercepted

to

him, answers he has drunk the foam, given
displeases
his
spiritual teacher, for
'

back by the

calves after having drunk the milk of their mothers.

But even that livelihood
rolc^-lch^-MUl

jm

JTTTToRft

5TRTT'.

tffjTflf

^3^"^

rK.lwft okMMI d-uq(ltf

gn^-fir (these

virtuous

calves give back

too

much foam,

for pity

on you,

for this reason

you prevent

also their being fed).
„ highest"

245.
u
f,

The superlative expresses not only the

but

t lative.

r P^ " also a „very high" degree, just as in Latin

and Greek.

crilMTS?"

worst.

may be sometimes = very bad, sometimes = the When denoting the highest degree, there is ges.

1)

Cp. Vdmana's Stilregeln by Cappeleeb, ch. Qabdacuddhi,

62.

.

188
nerally
1,

§

246—248.
,

some word added

143, 3

^ WUsV
is

as

FF^FT,

-

cTT^R

etc.

Mhbh.

yH^W^Ttlfl^rPfl" jf^T

(this great

assembly
it

signifies

But for the rest excellency among three or more, the comthe most pleasing on earth).
it

parative being destined for denoting

between two.
c

Of two brothers one
of

is

thesUIMM,

the other

hMIMM'

more one the s%W>, another the
Tet
carelessness in the
is

*M&:.
is

246.
Carelessi

employment of comparative and supera
)

ness in
their

ative

not rare in Sanskrit.
of the
superlative.
sjt

Sometimes the comparative x
I, p.

used

m

em- instead
'

Pat.
sir

77

trjrr

fTpir sj^isi

Udrtiii"

>T

sW: T^V
408
it
,

^

mam
that

q *41diRfn
,

u^yHc^MM™^

instead of ct,R«:.
is

Pane.

I,

is

said

of the

shadgunya the danda
not trrfw:, ibid.
2
:

the

worst expedient

here

ve

find '-nqim-i

p.

305 among

four individuals one

is

said the ^HVHJ

).

Sometimes
parative.

again

the

superlative

is

used instead of the comone
calls

Kathas. 43, 23 of two brothers
brother

himself chP'#
I

,

and

his

&Wis

Pane. 113

snwnrircnpRrTirer

dPmiH

:

(a

mischief
frTiq
i

of either king or minister). Cp. ibid. V, 36
better

Qmm
its

srfeis

(judgment
as

than learning),

here the superl.

of

necessity,

the

comp.

j=n

does

not
crejrr

purport

the meaning of

excellency.
is

For a

different reason

a superl. as to

form,
II,

the equivalent of both sfirst" and »former."

So
(of

f.

i.

Malav.

P-

35

sERriTbirTl^MiSiri:

*ri(«J

rpjJT

ntftri

<^JW:
put
3 ).

whom

of these
first?).

two honourable professors

shall
° j=[ir

247.

The

suffixes

° ;=rr

and

we see may be

the performance the

even to 'Substantives.
Pane. 326
q- g- ^rsrfer-

Instances are scarce in the classic language
1)

Further investigation will decide for

irregularity

we
of it

are indebted to the faults
is

how much of that seeming and the Bloth of copyists and
,

how much
2)

really

good Sanskrit.
26 ijjj^M^ and Whitney Sanskr. Gram-

As to the form
473,
al.

cp. R. 2, 12,

mar^
3)

4.
,

They

are

§

473,

al. 1.

meaning,

as

somewhat more frequent in the ancient dialect see Whitney Classic Sanskrit possesses some, which have a special «UdH|: (mule), drHd| (Ragh. 3, 32) »an older calf."
:

§
wHMoitfTlga
?T

247-250.
(and

189
he
[the

^T-iHMMUolriH

fernrrfya^:

horse-thief]

examined

all

the horses, saw

that the raxasa

[who had assumed
»the most horse"]

the figure of a horse] was the best of them

[liter.

and mounted him).

248.
D e c omp ari3on
in adverbs.

The comparative and
dutJ of adverbs
ter) j ugt ag ig
,

superlative being

wanted to do
So
P
.

they are put in the accus. of the neu-

done

^^

gjj

other adjectives (55).
of VtVFT<, etc.
Pat.
i,

^T:

is

adverb of
*dilrj|t;d

^TH,

ST^FFf
;

10

^3 &
249.

mwfo: Stls^MJdW^r ("will they, who have studied [grammar], apply words the better?) Qak. IV itfqf tfar <RiUll qf^&.

Degrees of comparison

may

be

made from

undecli-

nable words; then they end in

rTijTfr
di

and "FFfFT as3W'exceedingly charm-

FFT^FT (higher).
ing),
cp.

Malav.

II, p.

36 nrfmji

M^
,

P.

1, 2, 35.
is

{^dfrlH T-pTand
the like,

Such
person
|£TT

comparison

made
of

also

of forms,

belonging

to

the P
3<1

'

5>

3

'

finite verb.

Instances

comparatives

made

from
R.
p.

the
2,

of the present not rarely occur in literature.

64,

72

^drl ^TiT^

(my
=T

spirits

almost lower). Prabodh. IV,

87

Eh mi)
q-irsr-

5TSTOT smzTJHiT^f

F5R3TT: (to lose

something gained before grieves
at all).

more than having gained nothing
fcirwi
i

Vikram. V,

p.

1

78
is

H^ uiuil fd isra^(even
f

r

of an infant-snake the poison

rather

strong). Eatn. Ill, p. 74

:MufrH(HT;


:

Kathas. 102, 35

we meeffrnrr
having met

-put to a

3d

person of the perfect
of

w^JjFrnrr.
do
not
recollect
less

Instances

the

superlative

I

with,

but they must be or have been not
!).

allowed, as both

degrees are equally taught by Panini.

250.
rative.

Than with the comparative

is

expressed by the abla-

thrcorapLtive, see 105.

But the

particles R",

•T^,

'TFT, »T3*T:

are also used for that purpose, especially with ^JJ\1
)

Whitney
»
,

forms are
it

perhaps

al. 3 says that both compar. and superl. of verbal § 473 barbarous forms;" for what reason, I do not understand. Is because KalvdeLsa wrote barbarous Sanskrit or because PaNiNi
,
,

did not

know

well the idioms of his language?

.

:

:

:

190
Kathas. 29, 113

§

250—252.
cnr:

than parting

iWtt £(Vtt with my virtue);
all
is

srterftroor:

(death
,

is

better for
l .

me

Pane. 213

dJMHUuft ^^TT"Tfdfel

rr (not

beginning at
ibid. I,

better than ceasing after having

commenced);
is

451

nluiHl -sfq'

gj sr^

q^fr

f<H*l(*: (a wise foe

even

preferable to a foolish friend

').

251.
Concurrent
idioms, ex.

A
,

high degree
.

may
,

be expressed also by several other
5th

idiomatic phrases

.

,

as

YTii'tegree.

inasmuch as TO, see 229, ° l*fa, they are a concurrent idiom of the comparative in one of its meanings
2.

L bv

"W),

V,

by putting

5]^°

or enrr" before.

Pane.

I,

191

d-lTTol T^

sUifri

bi^Rt^i
chlrMd
i'

(slander being rather manifold in the world); E. 3, 53, 1 sraH^.fwrr
'

M^fgrrr;
*%•

Malav.

I, p.

10 some female

is

said to be

HAlRilUH q^n(oi-Ti
P.
5, 3, 68, 3.

Properly

sr^;

means

» tolerably,

nearly" see

qTTT°

» exceedingly."

by such phrases
,

as fiftrrfTsrarrpT (liter.
;

» dearer

than dear"
=7:

=

the very dearest)

M<° llr^H^ Mahav.
it)
;

I, p.

21

H3<li

lf?U<UH^

(we are

exceedingly rejoiced at
4. 5.

Pane. 326 dill^HHJ
see 252.

il-^fri

(247).

by putting the word twice, by adding %r,

see 229, 6 th .

252.
ra twL a

For

different reasons

a word may be put twice

,

either
:

when put two times
or

as a separate

word,

as
,

J(M J(M
>

>

when making up some kind of compound
1)

as £T?T^>! S ).

In a well-known passage of the Eitop.
pt
=sr

(p.

I,

3)

dlM^is construed

with

but not followed by a nomin., as one might expect, but by

the instrumental

The instrum. must be that
for.
»

,

which expresses

:

equivalent to ; exchangeable
for," that is] out-

Better

is

one virtuous son, and [»not to be given up

weighing even hundreds of stupid ones; one moon dispels the darkness, outweighing even crowds of stars." Cp. 70.
2) tj-^frl*tftw

and the

like are

among the examples

of the

commen-

taries

on P.

5, 3, 67.

Cp. 249-

3)

Panini deals with this idiom at the

commencement

of his eighth

u

§ 252.
1.

191

Adjectives

may

be put twice, the two making but

one word, in order to signify our
Dag. 149
^rmTrtwiffi-

„— like,"
^trf?^

„rather."
(a

^5rmyrToiT< ~

i

fa Ji
-

isrrn-fererrarr

woman,
gpr-

who though [of a] rather thin too much lost of the brightness

[aspect]

had by divine power not
3, 67,

of her colour), E.

14

pr

^WT
(in

srraT

sruj-wrfT, Pane.

II,

50 ifWffa: S|T

mfct

n^t fSraqfe

the beginning a foe sneaks along
afraid).

rather

So rajcR, when

=

very slowly, as one being

»

alone," and ep. such phrases,

as qspraf ijtojth, yiw'yyif <TKRT (they blossom., they ripen the very
first) i).

Instances of adverbs put twice are not rare, as y$;

jpq- ;

(slowly ,
etc.

by

degrees), g^rrf

Dag. 172

mi^

;

(repeatedly)

,

cr^rw^: (again

and again),

Tr *&

snfer^.
,

2.

In the same
twice,
p.

when put
time),
(at

way may

substantives
3, 10,

gerunds participles
,

indicate the non-interruption of
5

some time Or
Malav. IV,
the

action. E.

chMchM sr
RejrcTT

(in

uninterrupted
^TnriH

105 qfa
is

m^\:

forerr

fFrftosrfft

very moment she

standing on the path of

my

looks

,

p

-

8>

*>

adhyaya

(8, 1, 1

— 15).
it

In

interpreting

sutra

9,

the

commentaries are

wrong" accepting

as

teaching the formation of the word Ochohits literal

The
»if a

sutra raj sl^cTlf^olH

cannot have this purport;

sense

is

unity,

[it is]

bahuvrihilike." If Panini had meant the word ueffiR, he would
,

have written OcMfl
siitras

not as he does CcRTjj cp. the constant genitives in

Our sutra refers to the cases, mentioned by s. 4—8. There the employment is taught of the »two (<£)" spoken of in

5—8.

Siitra 9 teaches how these two are to be accepted for it says » [but two may be] one then the whole is as if a bahuvrihi" likewise in the case of s. 10. But from s. 11 the unity is as if a karmadharaya. Panini's words in 9—11 are: ff#r arioftflorHJ rnmk =ET chMWI^Ud^W^8, 1
,

1.

,

,

:

these

;

,

I

the conclusion of Kac. on P.'s sutra 9 I infer that the right interpretation had been proposed by somebody, but that it has been ob-

From

jected to by Patanjali.
sense as qSmof: being
afford some evidence for
1)

On

the other hand, such forms with distributive
P. 8, 1,4

by necessity instances of the idiom, taught

my own

acceptation.

See vartt.
1,

7

on

P. 8, 1, 12 in the

also P. 8,

13,

which teaches

to say ytsHMisH

commentary of the Kacika. Cp. and ferfiw. when »with

=

all one's heart."

192

§

252—254.

she suddenly disappears), Dag. 95
r

^

^mq^tif:

yw^lil HIUMltll:

cpt: q^r: «muyHR) HH<pmyim45iMiteii(i.iiiteiV(i. q^JTrcnerp 3^ Moreover, putting a word twice is also often a -£

*•

proper means for signifying a distributive sense
Instances of this
tost:

(rnpsd).
8. l,

idiom are frequent.
i

Kac. on P.

4

TOT.

ing at

f^wqin (every man is mortal),Panc.42 q"rq^ jp3Fr?rc^(stamblevery footstep), Dag. 99 «^^jjj -ioM<=i tmrm^lf^T (offerH-i

ing [her] always* 53
vel

new

presents day after day), ibid. 216

Ertmw

(Jiwiy

(M-caMJiJi tlfiVddPH

(every sixth
jj^- vmzj-

month they
^q-

lose one single feather);

E.

2, 91,

goichHch
octonae
sj st

=?r^ g- rwRTj: (singulos
,

viros
13, 18

septenae

mulieres
trrefr

appetierunt)
*imi5*>?i

Apast. Dh.
stctft,

1,

eara^
(in
is

id'oirM^

y^if^n

M.

2,

20

^

^f

^fr=f fsfirTT^ (they must learn every one his

own

duty).

So

f^fifr

f^%

every region),

a^i^ (day
;

after day)
It is also

and so on.

This idiom

as old as the Vaidik dialect.

used of gerunds. Pat.

1, p.

44

JTOgFiT 3fcpfl7qrff ll-^td.

Here

as a rule the case-endings of the

former member remain.

253.

Sanskrit likes juxtaposition
f f^g

of different

grammatical

The type f orms manus ma-

same word

or of kindred words.

Hence

"""ate'
like.

^e

^P e

manus

mamm
I, p.

lavat is of course
34
jft

very

common
I, P-

in Sanskrit.
pearls),

Mtcch.
II, p.

j^t
the
,

<~ui-^ri

(pearls string with

Vikram.

31 ff^T HirWtiyi yt-nu
cloth

dWr;
,
i

Pat-

233

oTRTt aiM^l^tlfd

(one

covers

other)
ibid.

Pane. 322

cHl4,-"l

trorfH (he rambles
ar

from forest to
5rf|ttT:

forest)

mchlfd

,

Dag. 61

<*i^umoitjrtJ

(J um P in g

267 q^ rq^fg n-dfarf from one elephant's

back on another).

254.

Of a somewhat
2, 12,

different nature is the type represented
l

by E.

8

fjf;

5h=t

rlor

IHUI

trrq'

TFTO^ (what evil has

Rama

done to

you,

evil-minded

woman?);

cp.

the Greek xxxb$ kxxuc xtt&Koito.
is
still

Here the inclination towards homophony

more pronounced
i

than in the idiom of 253. Compare Mhbh.

1,

145, 14 rli^q oilf^i

:

M^l^ faHi< A° lchR»H
'
'.

i

i

idM

(tristes tristis est allocutus oives);

Kath&s.

38, 153
It is

^|Fm^:

FT....

cjrtollp^rolljj

qq\ ^jjt.

here not the place to expatiate upon this predilection of

§

254—256.

193

Sanskrit for bringing together words kindred in sound and playing

with the different meanings inherent to them. Nearly

all literary

documents from the Yedas
dence
of
to
it.

to our days afford the

most ample

evi-

For

this

reason,

one must always be prepared to

have

deal with riddles and the most various kinds of quibbles
this subject is to

and puns. More information on

be given by works

on Sanskrit rhetoric and Sanskrit

literature.

255.
Puttingthe

It

may

be of some use to mention here the figure yathdsamas
it

khyam 1),
stances are

is

employed not rarely and

as its nature should be

thdsam-

called rather grammatical than rhetorical.

By

it

a series of sub-

yam

named
first

together with a series of attributes or predicates
first

so to be

Understood that the

substance

is

to be construed

with the

predicate or attribute, the second with the second

and

so

on successively.
fTOT

R.

3, 40,

12

^mf^-gr

u"ln<fl

*TWT oI^um
etc.,

^

I

ifiMitl

few ^

^taf

5TI3"

HH4HIMJ yi^Prl

i^lrMI-Fl ^MI'-II (the
viz.

kings

possess

the qualities of the five devas, Agni
of Agni, the strength [vikrama]

the

glow [aushnya]
Apast. Dh.
qrnfo
$t°
srr

of Indra, etc.),

1, 5,

8 arf^r
=3

=

^

jt=tot orrsn

^srr

srr

^r^q^aTTJTftniTfJrf&err

crf^r

ir^mr ychc^y-aiiiyfd

stt^tt

bt^; ^jgit stt
it,

gffifomu'jiri

(whatsoever he,

desirous to accomplish

thinks

in

his mind or pronounces in words or looks upon with

his eye).

Chapt.
1.

II.

Pronouns.
possessives.
,

Personal pronouns and their

256.
ronounl.

The personal pronouns are less used than in English and many other modern tongues as they are often not expressed, especially when implied by the personal end,

ings of the verb (10).

wanted

in

Sanskrit,

Nor are their oblique cases always when undispensable in English.
rTfrr

So in this sentence Hit. 24
irrck HrCTf
ject

T5~PJ
'

ii-=^ r y

<jnhHll° l*Mlsh^
at

<*nt{-

m^fo,
of

the word qfo^ iach
l

K
is

is

the same time ob-

of

mmm,

srnfa, of msfic,

it

of course put once, but

1) I

borrow that designation from P.

1,

3.,

10,

which

s.

may be compared.
13

,

194
the pronouns referring to

§ 256—257.
it

are omitted as being easily supplied
is

by the mind, whereas the English translator
[the
cat]

bound

to say »she

reached the young
ibid.

birds,
"ET

took them to her hole and
-rfiW

devoured them." Cp.

96 WT5R7

uu

i

^j

rr^, Mhbh.

1,

154, 30 [h[wc3h 5

M

mnm
is

=g [sc. dtjjt]

i

a4) TOirnTrpnTJlrT , where the pro-

noun

nrrq^

though being construed with two verbs

put but once
i

Dae. 152
3?tefq-

a| ^
and

fi=[

qfif^H

:

fofes^fa

1

)

uPifaPmuu
is

M

*

cjsfarr.

sn^rar: SFrer: I^H^rWU-^ri;, sc. inn, as
^r^ij

plain

by the

fore-

going

q.

Likewise the possessive pronouns
if

may
Hit. 7'

be omitted,

there can be no doubt as to the possessor, especially

of course

when referring
2d
3
)
^.

to the subject.

?m

QnjikHu i:

257.
enclitic

1 st

and
j.

person.

gen -> dat.

are enclitic,

The short forms of the ace, and used therefore if there is

forms.

on fae p ron oun. It is useless to give examples of them, as they are met with on almost
s ress
i a i,j

no

^e

every page. The
as

ace. qr

and
4 ).

fofT

are

hQwever not

so frequent

the other enclitic

forms

1)
2)

By a common

error the printed text has sg^rfSr.
(I,

So was already taught by Patanjali

p. 62)

n

i

di")

dPHrlcti

firrff

JTT7TT

JT5T

JTOT f^TTT.

Epic poetry affords sundry instances pointing to the fact, that the short forms of the gen. and dat. were once, it seems, available for all
3)

oblique cases.
230, 15
rr:

At

= aw\Q
^T:

least, R. 3, 43, 49 pr is doubtless

=

fgzrr,

and Mhbh.
l

1,

The former passage runs thus tiun^ ^ H
irr

(you must keep watchful in the hermitage), the latter
aRTiff:
STrlJJ

oUm^iWH F5T H#

Cp. Vdmand's Stilregeln ch. Qabda?uddhi,
tit,
is

s.

11.

4)

As

rrr

and
it

roTT

and

felt

are easily exposed to be confounded in
enclitical

manuscripts,
disappeared
consonant.

possible

that the
if

forms

have sometimes

in

our
all

texts,

the

following

word commenced by a
oftener in the ancient

At

events,

they seem to occur

dialect than afterwards.

§ 257—259.

195
,

They are
a)

of necessity unavailable

if

some emphasis of

the pronoun be wanted. For this reason they are forbidden:

when heading a sentence, or in poetry even a pada, b) when immediately after a vocative, which heads the sentence c) when followed by some particles that give them some emphasis, viz. g-, on, f sif, ^=r. See P. 8, 1,
,
,
,

18; 20; 24; 72.
[here
joTT

Mhbh.

1,

229, 24

fsrmr^TT|:

cFdmreiini

| Pirfef
ioi

jpt.
N
'

would not be allowed]; Kac. on 8,1, 18 r^t
^h^Addl
[sr:

fcrtou"

l

5pft Hprraf

instead of
i

jrwrrejiT

cannot be,

as

it

heads

the

pada];

Hit, 110 ^Tsn^;
6)]
;

iffewf aTfnj
v^st ^xh Trqor
[not:
q-

nx ^UT: |>W not q, ac(

cording to
I, p.

E.

3,

55, 22

none but me); Malav.
i^'ol

21 SRWarT:

fifcoT

m

=ET

g]

y^H^d vl<?l

M^J;

Rem. According
of seeing ,

to P. 8, 1,

25 they are also forbidden with verbs

when used
of the

in a metaphorical sense.
first

258.
el
,

The

plural

person

may

refer either to a plurality
toe

j

of speakers at the same time or in most cases to

—I

-\-

others

with myself.

Similarly the plural of the
,

2d

person

may

be used,

even when addressing one
others with you.

for

the sake of signifying you and

Pane. 258 the monkey, being invited by the makara
sr& oi-HJ
I

to go with him, declines, for says he
rrgir

JToq^ar =5

sM
is

i

-H

(wo monkeys are living in the

forest,

and your abode
to the

in

the water).

Mhbh.
HT3TT

1,

152, 26

Hidimba says

single

Bhlma-

sena

^

irRicrr

fSru-dftiUHl

Ttsr spTTcFi^ »I

have been sent
all

hither
of

by

my

brother,

who

is

eager to devour the flesh of

you

[viz.

of your mother, your brothers and yours]."

^

259.
and
"-"

The pronoun of the
social relations
;

2 d person

is

used without respect to
is

the singular i^T
is

applied to superiors

as well as to

equals and to inferiors.

The only
(24).

case of

jupt denoting a single individual

mentioned before

Tet

,

when

addressing in a polite manner, one avails
f.

one's self of

^J%

WTJ",

plur.

*JcpTp,

f.

m^' -

being a popular reduction both in form and meaning of

.

H

,

196

§

259—260.
Usted,
Italian

*T3T° rR

„Lord".

Like Spanish

Ella,

H^IM, though

being exponent of the second person , does

agree with the 3 d person of the verb, therefore Y^\ ° h^llr1
H^FJCH'Grrft),

when addressing one,
addressing more
title
1

1% ^Prl
person,
either

H<3t1!

^GjrU!),
pronoun
is

when

).
2<i

Rem. Both modes
rSPT or

of expressing the
ijsn^T

by the

by the
to see

may be

used promiscuously. It
Pane. 73

very
to
is

common
the

them used
StWTiTf?)'

alternately.

Damanaka
bull]
[fieri

says
Sanj.

lion

^srer:

Hoil^iyi^tHoi HfoHd %r ([the

an herbivorous
;

animal, but you [hcTPt] and your
i

subjects feed on flesh)
Uoirj.
.

Kathas. 30, 17 nt^ dQffeFTT] UTof chakdifimMJ

.

wr

(T5T-

• • •

&r^)fri

(make her your wife by the GandharIn the
first

va-rite

,

in this

way
(p.

she will become yours).

book of

the Hitopadega

35 of B. K. Vidyaratna's ed.) the sly cat thus

addresses the blind vulture
5(GRJ
JTTTJT

um ~w^H<
i

l

PdUoi HiraT xfn

UtjJdPH

I

^rfr H5n£«ft idyiddTld.Awf*'
mejti-?t;

W

l

nQiu i:

siif

iTlrJPj^UIH: [s^?T]

as to the plural insirpT,

see 24.

260.
lite

By
titles,

pointing out UcfPT as the proper term for addressing in a poit is

manner,
such

by no means said
sir,

it

is

the sole,

Many

other

as

signify

lord,

reverend, master are used acage.

cording to
addressed

duty,

custom,
,

dignity,

So holy
^sr;
,

men

are duly

by

m dH
i

f.

WTcTfrr,

kings

by

respectable mer-

chants and the like by smf:, matrons by
dresses her husband
etc.

-arraf,

the wife duly ad-

by

srnro^r;,

the charioteer his prince

by a il&HH
i

As

a rule a greater respect

is

shown by such

titles

than by using
is

the general term usTPT (vocat.

iff;).

Another difference
,

this

:

they
only

may
fit

as well denote the 3 d person as the 2*

whereas

itsjpt is

for denoting the 2d person.

Moreover there are some general terms, made up ofirsnTrpre-

1) Instances of ITSTPT construed with the 2d person of the verb are extremely rare aud the idiom undoubtedly vicious. So Qankh. Grhy. 2,
2,

8 ST^rarfrHorr^fl;, instead of gisrtjT or ^|rrran» say

,

you are a brahmacarm:

,

i

§
ceded by

260-262.
prefix, viz.

197
^iran^, fTWUorm,
^msTFr.

some pronominal
and

As
is

stitoTP^

rRTMBTFr point at

Bomebody absent, but the ^WornT
to a 3 cl per-

always present, so the former two cannot refer but
but
ig-giTorFT

son,

may

denote
Utt.

as

well

the person spoken of as

the

person addressed.

I, p. 1

the director thus addresses the

spectators

gg- <ptcjt.... smffngrTfe -dititi ifrr ^d^Ho^r?) fasr^shg, but Qak. VII Dushyanta when speaking of Qakuntala says =g?j q-?]Tr=r_

261.
Third
person,
pressed,

For the third person Sanskrit does not possess a r
proper personal pronoun
,

like

our he

,

she

,

it.

Its duties

are discharged by demonstratives.

When wanted
5T,

to be
obliVi*\,

emphasized

,

by

ST,

^T^T5?,

^PFfT, otherwise

by the

que cases derived from the pronominal roots
^•7, or

what

is

practically the

same,

iD

the ace. by

^%
nomin.

^TFT,
is

"$RFT, plur. T£^F{, '^TC,

^"HlPf,

in

the other cases by the forms belonging to ifMH.

The

not expressed but with some emphasis. See 274.
'

262.
Possess-

The possessive pronouns are relatively
the
genitives
of the FT*?!
,

less

used than

i™
pronouus.

personal ones.

meet
216,

w jth W^
1° )

W*m

-vr

One

will oftener

or ^TFFT *T'' (a shashthisamdsa

than g^JR^feT.

The

difference,

which

exists
etc., is
b.e

in English

between my
Sanskrit;
as „a

and mine, your and yours
^T^^PT or

not

known in

RR

QTFRFIi
also

may

as well
is

„my book"

book of mine,"
predicate are Kern.
2
1

„the book

mine;" RFTtrl^hR"
,

of course cannot have the last meaning

for subject

and

by

necessity unfit for being compounded..
of the

1.

Apart from the regular possessives

person

W^Fl and

^GJ^q

-

,

there exists also

^T^fa

198

§ 262—264.

derived from the polite

H^Mof the

Pane. 168

uaftam^Hi^
prefer

m?:

[= IT5TH:
Rem.

STf" Or H5IrMI3° ].
2.

The

possessive

3d person

is

(if

wanted

nrf^hr), hut here too the genitive of the demonstrative or a shash-

thisamasa are generally preferred.

263.
ReflexTes

The reflexive pronouns
persons.—
is

^"

and *Ht*iH refer to
"""

all etc.

l.^TTFTT,

ace. ^rTrfTT^FT, instr.

*Hr*-MI

the proper equivalent of English myself , yourself , himthem-

self, herself, itself, one's self ; ourselves, yourselves,
selves.

It

is

always a masculine and a singular, even
»soul, spirit, individuality"

when
it is

referring to a plural or a not-masculine. Properly

a subst.
it

meaning
is

and

in this

mean-

ing

has always remained in
its

common

use.

But even when proOccasionally
subst.
').

noun,

origin

more

or less perceptible.

it

may

be rendered as well by a pronoun as by a
2.

£oT generally
it

though not always

— does duty of
,

a possessive;

does denote the subject being possessor
,

and
his
,

may

be rendered
of

according to sense
it is

by my, your,

her, our, their.

Often

compounded with its noun.
pronoun.
(he

264.

Examples
son:

aTrT^r,
l

when

a refl.
qtrr;
1,

— a)

3d per-

Pane. 263
to

^gt^H

rM ^rr
;

MMj

himself brought the

serpent
l

his dwelling)

Yar. Tog.

19 mjljurer ^ri%sr

swf 5rcra>i
by

tmimi ~-iMfH{lr^Pl ^oi4)h
Destiny, he

(if

the king be himself not favoured
minister,

should charge his

who

is,

to

destroy his

dHHoi^-ai |T*r ydJlU fort U74Hlr4MM<iU-Htl jtrt^h (Vasav., though betrothed by her father to king Sanj., gave
;

enemy)

Malat. II, p. 38

herself to

Udayana); R,
[the

2, 64,

29

FTT

trarrriR: wrsi

HuRd'T (both
l
l

of

them touched
:

body

of] their son);

Pane. 184 q^^H^id rMM

M^lUMi
1)

(they

feeling themselves as if they

were born again);

W[tM\A foR^irrPT

Compare the similar use though less developed of Latin animus, animum obtecto. Pane. 160 4illr*4l H^tTIsjjtt (I have given
heart

him

my

=

=

myself).

§
6) 1 st

264—265.
airH-l
:

199
^mrarft (why should

and 2d person: Hit. 107

foiHrchtf rr
q-

I

not elevate

my own
,

rank?), Qak. I

umm^nHH

(in the

meanwhile

let us purify ourselves

),

Qak.

d ddJHM m41^^ IV Htn { rMM;Vsr
l

*-ll

?T*rliMI ror^(by your good actions you have got a husband becom-

ing

to
-a;

yourself);
cj^rfFf

c)

referring to a general subject:
fro:

Pane.

Ill,

174

^7;

q-rq-

q- jtcttfitt srar

(who does

evil,

certainly

does not love himself).

As appears from the
in

instances quoted , the gen.
to

9stt?tr:

or 577^°

compounds are used
even

denote the reflexive possessive.
,

There
fshiiHM

exists

a possessive

^wri

as

Kad.

I,

19 ^ijm f 41^
|

;

(take

him
1.

[the

parrot] as yours).

Eem.
as

It is plain, that ^sr 23TrTT is said in the

same meaning

wmx- R- 2, 6, 21 ^tstt] Wott ^k whwm' ji*! Eem. 2. The instrum. aii^Hl when added to
on the fact, that the subject
i

jiih -sftw^rffT.

the reflexive lays

stress
1,

is

acting by himself.

Mhbh.

158, 30 rll^lrMH^ rM^l (help yourself); Pane. 276
(I

^ sraWrmFT;JtrTT]

^miril-lT offer

cannot bear

my own

self);

E.

3,
x

47, 1

<%%

^ rHHUlriHi
I

(Sita

named
ssr.

herself [to her guest])
a)

265.

Examples
JWt SlfsR: ?£pt

of
Hsrerr

).

3d person:
if it

Nala

3,

13

ti

i

rg<g^Tl

(scorning as
;

were

at the

moon's splendour
l
;

by her own brightness) Pane. 230 ^tott 3r9T!i teuj^ Pj/irl (then at daybreak he rose and went out of his house) Qak. I CrnwifecFr;

mm
;

rHrarr.

STOTTtirPraiq-:

ihwsir:
as
5-g;

etc.

(these

girls

of the
b) (I

hermitage,

with
son:

watering-pots

to
551

suit

their size)
gft m
f

Pane.

Ill,

177

tim

i

m^

1st

and 2d perdr y U P

will

mV

atmch o^jftwit tsubtuw-wR residing abroad it will be hard for us to go
body);
Hit. 137

§wr
to

Qak.
fault)

VI
;

rotrrfg

#

fSrcrtnrrsra

Vikram.

I, p.

2

quested to listen with attention on your

^

^

hBmjIh (when our own country);
without

(and you, do your duty

5BrR5asrf|Mfsiri5Br Hsrfs:
seats).

(you are re-

Yet
valent

?sr

is

n ot necessarily a possessive.
Hit. 109 ^cjsr ^TsTFT

It

may

also be
;

equi-

to

OTfJTT-

305

to

ssiWfwf

sronfir (I will not give him,

Hmrioll^= *JlrMHl JT what I have earned
(I

Pane.

1) air^-I T

may

even stand alone. Kathas. 25, 133 )N$|uj$mr*MI
2, 54.

will

go [by] myself); Kumaras.

200
myself), here
tePl
i

§

265—267.

m ll rre^— ssrW
=et

= OT^-Tlgr
saw
and

;

Schol.
his

on R.

2, 40,

39

Tj-Tifi"

i7Trt|

jwri

^cPTgnFTT 33ST (R-

mother and the

king following after himself).
literature

This idiom

is less
l

frequent in classic
).

than in commentaries
f. i.

the like

Note

^5n=r:

»by

one's self"

KatMs.

As
162

^5T

may be
1.
,

—a

34, 56; 37, 49.
,

i

rHi

it

has also a possessive

;

viz.

ssftzr.

Pane.

tefliifijtjqiri^.

Eem.
to
5,

^ggf,

poss. SoreJWj is a deminutive of
is

53 and

sdptjr

as

its

form

but there

scarcely any difference of meaning.
snTTT RTT| tei**^,

Nala

40

3*zr ft?

TOTcjmf iWf:...
(it

Pane. 233 teichlmfrd
of).

HTtt^T

5rt[iRra'
2.

is

but your own kin you take regard
suus
,

Rem.
»

Like Latin
3
)

^sr
toii

also
.

signifies

»one's relations,"

one's property,"

therefore,

w

»

one's kindred, one's family,
»

attendance," saw

»

one's goods," srawj^

one's

whole property."

266.
it

As a

third reflexive

we may

consider TRsT „owa," as

may

not rarely be rendered by the possessive pronoun.
gsrraff'Ssi

Pane. 56 the king says to his daughter

mm
be

'PtsWrrf htot

IT

ma--otim (idid
i

(you must to day exhort your husband, that he
enemies).

may

destroy

my

Inversely

ssr

mav

als°

= *»own:"

Kathas. 39, 53 isthw qrfer wwfru

267.

The

reflexives are not

frrat hftW mmbound to refer exclusively to

the grammatical subject. In passive sentences they often
refer to the agent, in clauses and the like to the main Subject. Instances hereof have already been given in 264 and
266,
viz.

Pane. 263; Pane. Ill, 174; Kad.
are

I,

19; Hit. 137; Vikram.
grfiiq is
1

I, p. 2.

Here
R.

some more: Pane. 24 ^

3!fT

>WT

ziwr
l

fa«6iTM ilroilr^llfacrrcrt
sfuETTir:
;

PhRh:, here tiirmRyia:
ftst

of course nmrH~P
sc. j,j,«j
i

2, 11,

22 ai^igtrr

jm <**uji
one

ssicrJr ^tt:

orjpj.

Rem.

On

the

other hand,

may meet with

instances of

pronouns not-reflexive, in such cases as where one might expect
As
good Sanskrit,
SoTJT^iT,

1)

it

is

it

makes doubtful how to explain
whether
vs.

such compounds as
2)

S5TVT:,

=

S5rer

JT^or = Sof

^5T

in

JT^JT;

Qfyvatakofa ed.

Zachariae,

187

*cTSTS^r 5R[frT Trrt%TTrRTrqW-

§
reflexives.

267-270.
rdnniWa mmfo:

201
OT3UTTf& srf^

So E.

3, 62,
;

3

h

[not sgj^ or wtfw.)

Kathas. 36, 102.

268.
5SRTIT

The indeclinable
.

F^FT

*"

T ,. " as .Latin ipse.
161, 8
:t Fsr^

does nearly the same duty J J
to

It

may be added

some other pronoun. Mhbh.

1,

oTV4l*l^ teiiWdlr'-M! (nor

am

I desirous of my

own

death).

269.
procai

The reciprocal pronouns ^STFZT,

have almost assumed the character of adverbs. As a
rule , they are used in the ace. of the masc.
etc.

^^T'

4H|H>

pro-

nouns

;

"^^
etc.

*WJ l-MH
two friends
(they shake

while being applied to every gender and every
Qak. I
;

case-relation.

^

[mm\
I, p.

'^w^cW chad
i

i

(the

look at each other)

Vikram.

18 srcftef ^Srf

OTH:

hands); Pane. 216

^rsr

g- q-rarr g-v ^ r^^W

(and in this manner dis5TOJT

cord

arose
^T

between
(oldUdld

them); Dag. 151
(both, either by
to'

31ft

5m=ra^r

STFjfr-

^^PTTPTPT

shame

or

by confusion, do
p.

not open their soul
^faHirti
to
STTOrrf^rJfr

each other)

;

Qank. on Ch. Up.

42

sjqr-

(the principle of life
I, p.

and the sun are identical
uiriftrfim
I,

one another); Pat.

426 OTfw^WcFwfJrosr jRidHi
Op. also

sifri'iWMMi
p.

*f*JrM(^
2,

sfsRiT u^#r.
etc.

Kam.
i.

2,

42; Malav.

24; Kathas.

41

Yet they admit
JSK
iwfftii

also of other case-endings
i

,

f.

Pane. Ill, 200 qTwrobserve the weak

&

=r

^srf^T d^rid
;

(they

who do not
frisri
i

^J' -tH.u putations arose between them). So Nala 5, 32
1,

points of each other)

Harshac, 2

fsraTcTn
ftt

md iUSFT
fT;

(dis-

q iw )

iftcft

Nala
so on.

16 the ace.

t).-J|,tj^

is

depending on the prep,
vartt.

jrfvj.

And

See

Kac.

on

P.

8, 1,

12

9 and 10; vartt.
in

10 teaches the

optional

employment

of forms
f. i.

Vpt,
[or

if

feminine
^Sr

and neuter

words are concerned
^rtnrr

^T^m

"^J

snfpnra^

—^

5*T-

iflrwd:-

The same meaning is (mutually), which is not
2.

carried

by the adverb

FT^T!

less used.

Demonstratives, Eelatives, Interrogatives.

270.

In ancient language the demonstratives are often

;

202
Demonsirsxivcs

§

270—271.
they are to point at in a more

indicating the things
significant

general re-

marks.

manner than in modern tongues. For this reason, when translating from the Sanskrit, it is many
times indispensable to render demonstrative pronouns
otherwise,
f. i.
,

by the pronoun
there),

he, she, it,

by

the,

by

adverbs {here
of

sometimes even by putting instead

them the very noun, they are referring to. In the same way, indeed, the demonstratives of Latin and Greek
must be
translated.
dispense

We

will

here with
freer

adducing instances exemplifying
as

each
It

of

the

somewhat
giving
a

translations,

have been named.

will

suffice

few samples of Sanskrit demonstr. proift iff

nouns to be rendered by English adverbs. Pane. 204
.^<sr

^fq^^
river-

:7tOHl}

HMtefi

Wol i£i

fffvfn (say,

woodcock, here on the
I, p.

side

a

holy

devotee

stands); Yikr.

15 the king says to his
that mountain-top)
;

charioteer gTT

st (T^l^fw^T, (—
here

here

is

Cak.

IV Eanva

asks

» where are Qarngarava and Qaradvata," they answer

W afiqft
i

m: (Reverend,
1,

we

are).

From

the Vaidik writings I
erg:

add Ath. V.

29, 5

33-sfr

ott «i ii <R,< TFrer
spell).

(there the

sun

has risen and here has

my

271.
6

Of the four demonstratives, used in classic Sanskrit,
^MU 1? and
.

of employ

7^
is

are opposite to

H

and *Hil. Their diffe-

tween them,

rent nature

well described by a vernacular

gramma-

nan, when pronouncing that
ness

^T
,

is

expressive of near-

but ^J^fT of remoteness
but

,

and that ^FT implies pre-

sence

H

absence

').

Indeed both T^ and

WF{ point

at something near to the speaker or his time, whereas

1) See the karika, quoted in a foot-note on p. 188 of QRiitaMAMAYAcaeman's edition of Mrcchakatt (Majumdar's series):

«cL*H*cfJ

fSTCT^fS"

FT^frT trfHrf

.

§ 271.
3ffl\

203

something remote either by space by time. Therefore, the latter couple may be compared to Lat. We and iste Gr. ixeivog Engl, that, the
or
,
,

and

$T indicate

former to Lat. Mc, Greek
The
Sanskrit
difference between
texts,

outos

and

ote

,

them

will appear better

Engl. this. when perusing
context

than from instances
out.

detached from the

they are taken
idea of
1.
it.

Yet, here are several, which

may

give some

jm and
to

=g-ijjj.

Vikram.

I, p.

14 Pururavas points with his
sa ys

hand

Urvaci her attendance:

nrrr:

he

^TflTT

jt^T

FT

TOjf^FT (Lat. hae amicae

?tw:

);

Nala

3,

4 Indra declares to Nala the
..

name
2.

of himself and his comrades: a^fi-a) sjprfmr rWoimMni qfH:i.
MlPSTd

grrfazFrfq'
=gT3rj'

(Lat. ego Indrus, hie
g-.

and

Agnis

etc.).

Nala

3,

2 Nala asks the devas, for what pureppgrarr

pose they wish him to be their messenger
FTiifEfT

OW^;
to

37T

ifer-

^

rl^lr

HJJT chld-M ,

here both =^fr and

firT

answer

Latin

iste;

Mudr.
that

II, p.

77

the

minister Baxasa,

when hearing from
to

his spy

the physician,

whom

he had despatched

empoison king

Candragupta, had been prevented from performing that plot by
the vigilance of Canakya, exclaims
-

here both g^ff and
3.

g-

are

= Lat.
it

srs

:

wrerT stth
to

a'er 5T ofcr:

^Jr,

ille.

Examples of

this

and that in opposition

one another.

— Ch.
G et
'srraT

Up.

2, 9, 1

fliWlRrWHiylrT
that sun

rlfwPwiR
is

JHoflfui

UdM-ollil-rllR

him meditate on
on
:

on that
1, 3,

all

these beings [here

earth]
-s

are

depending
(this
is

upon)',

ibid.

2

m^IH 3 <m

\

h

jUu,n w&uP) 'Srn

breath

here and that sun there are indeed
is

the same, this

I

hot and that

hot);

Utt. II, p. 27 ^q-qgToftzni-

f5{fel

:

hoe

Mud

studiorum impedimentum

sthat

well-known hin-

drance

now

presents itself."

In the

first

act of the

Mudraraxasa

the minister Canakya, after having put the jeweller Candanadasa
into prison, thus expresses his contentment:

^r vfs$ S3J3T Tjw.
^r

i^fiT;

FJMrtjfutlolrtimil'iWT fTOTTIRTTf^.

fwotiwimI^ cmjTT
rTOr

=rjf

rRmf^
to

ftm:
adversa suae vitae

refers

to

Baxasa,

=gtjrr

and urs

Candanadasa. In Latin

one would say likewise: ut hie

in illius re

m

204
jacturam
facit,
sic

§271—274.
profecto
et
ille

vitam pro

nihilo putabit in

hujus calamitate.
his

In the Vikramorvagi king Pururavas designates

beloved Urvagl by the pronoun
present

mm,

as

long as he knows

her

and sees her

(1

st

act),

but- in the second act,
j

when
FraT>

thinking her absent, he speaks of piwr 3T5RIT

expresses his disap-

pointment about her female attendant coming

smn

fenf^ri

l

and says on account of her ud r <Hchi whereas in the f% UciJ d *H trliijS

chyilfa
first
rfjf

frorSRt

FTTTiOTpiT

^ TOTat her

act,

when looking
srfw'.,

face,

he admires t£ =pm, exclaims
mjch mi
is

FTTfeR':

is

uneasy, as

wrr

noticed by him.
styled the emphatic

272.

Though mj may be
asks Hidimba,
oFTOT JHrTT,
act

mm,
1,

both pronouns
sarga 154 Kunti

are sometimes used almost promiscuously.

Mhbh.

who she

is:

<>are

you a deity of

this forest?"

mzr

Hidimba,

answers

^Hr^wRl 5PW

etc.

In the second

of the Vikramorvagl the

king offering a seat to Citralekha.

says

CM^m-WIUlHm

i

i

n * ne

nrs * ac * ° f * ne Mudraraxasa

Canakya

to

Candanadasa 3^TreR*TTWTPT-

273.
refor^
i

^PTn*

not

^T — is the proper word
may

,

if

the speaker

w snes
p erson
o

t° denote something belonging to himself by a de1
st
-

™s

to

monstrative rather than by the possessive of the
-y\^
,

person.

rs\\tQ,

t^xvc

hoc bracchinm- Vikram.
yy*<df*H*J
srr

o

signify „this
II, p.

arm

of

mine ,"
p.

oS*

46 Pururavas laments
141

fdufatift: *m«ji-rr:

viz.

qq, Mrcch. IV,

^

is^r

*m

farcrf?;;

srnrirsf^RTJr
,

(I

feel

no remorse nor fear on account

of the rash deed

I

have committed).
sR: a modest phrase to designate the speaker
ols b xvvtp.

Eem. Hence mi
himself, cp.

Greek

Vikram.

II, p.

56
sPT:
;

the

king

when
p.
qircr

taking his leave from Urvacl says

^qHaft.sJr

Mrcch. VII,

238 Carudatta
i

tells
l

his friend

,

he longs

for

Vasantasena,

^

stcptt& h ^ai^rir^ch sir

sw.;

Dag. 164 srteziJTfti'mwi*^

sPrrsHra'igjTfirr:

(my

lord has

much
,

gratified his

most obedient servant).
difference in the flexion of
P- 2. *, 32-34.

2 74.
:

Panini teaches

there
its

is

some

%^^

according to

being used either when referring
of before
,

to

somebody or something already spoken

or

,

§ 274.

205
1
.

when pointing at or showing. In the former case

the cases,

derived from the root^T are treated as enclitics,2.the accus.is

^R,
sing.

^TFT, ^TrT in the singular, ^TH,

V*f\l,

^TT^T

in the plural, ^'•TT,

^t
the

in the dual,
loc.

3.

the instr. of the
is

^^T, ^PIT,

4.

of the dual

Jf^Rt'-

It is in

such instances of anoddega (reference to some-

™ v&

-

thing already named before), that the pronoun bears

almost the character of our he she it. — l. am etc. enclitic: Mrcch. I, p. 55 3-37 h UTiil^d^Odi 5^rt q^ chHl -Hlitf^ri dWT man has by Destiny been reduced ^fdt*4^d H (if h^ihi fruiUu ftT
,
, :

i

1

ti

l

l

a,

to poverty, then
^HUaHMfteld-wUcRT:

even his friends become enemies
^rf
^ol
I

to him),

Qak. I

fadd-H
,

I

5Tft
it
i

q-fcTprret

ciUMHL (these girls

of the hermitage approach hither

is

pleasant to look on them)
1

Vikram.

I, p.

2

qfpr^crT "TOTi

fqfisrOTTT RHrq

^crrctawra;

chain
2.

p^yysRTT sr^wr
made
13,

chiRH^iMij-

instances of ^tj^ etc.
his

Mhbh.

I,

Paushyap.
his teacher
|cr:

futtthtTIPTQHW

uloil-d
,

g^rrr (he

compliment to
i

and spoke
i

to him)

Vikram.

Ill, p.

72

mi
frt

j<t ust gfcqrft'

dioi^ H dgT chHMm
sR^rfFriyT^Hoil-ci

yfdHMUlR, Nala
ii-t^HHMtj^;
,

24

uryi^iidFrsq'-

<^lsWldl

mother saw from the balcony and said
to

as

the king's *wiPd*H^ she was followed by the crowd
5, 16,

(her

the nurse:

»go and bring her to me"), Mhbh.
,

29 lndra receives a deputation of devas
addressed by them
jsrr^r xr-ii -H fdtmsT,

rshis etc.,

and

after

being

^i*- Br. 1, 29
is

treats of the

two

Erf§ry£r

(carts
rrrgtsrr:

in

which the soma-herb
ibid.
1,

carried)

in

§

6

loHT^ft ^ft

cm^fT,

30, 3

^tt refers to

g-JThftiff,

men-

tioned before.

NB. The

instr.

^R"

and

^FTF seem to

be extremely-

rare; SEFFT at least

and

5W M T are regularly used, when
I, p.

anvddeca

is

required. Malav.

14 the minister of king Agni-

mitra reads a letter from the king of Vidarbha;
its

when asked about
^q^r] uRG-H-

contents,

he answers
often.

to

Agn.

^Rcj41m^ .[not:

fiarpr.

And

so

206
275.
The proits

§
iik ew i se points at

274-275. somebody or something known,
it is fit for

^

noun!* and an(i employment.

therefore, like *lMH,
~\

doing duty of the
that

pronoun he,
,

she,

it.

Yet, they are not synonymous.

Like Greek

especially

Homeric

,

&

,

t

,

to, it signifies

,

the person or thing referred to
therefore never

is

well-known, or has

been named just before, or will be named forthwith.
It
is

an

enclitic,

and

is

sometimes

=

Lat.

We, sometimes
3",

= is

„the afore said." Hence

its fit-

ness to be rendered
relative
it

by „the."

When

referring to the

may be equivalent to „he," German derjenige.
.

It is also

used to indicate the changing of the subject , f
,

i.

ST^n^or HT^ETT^ - „the other said answered." Yet it may as well point at the same throughout a succession
of sentences, in

which case one
oiih^omwm

is

inclined to put it at
stjttt
i

the head ,
JVi(!<>HH3T

as

Dae. 12

rnrtysf

g

mrrer jt? anrr-

<*f3Hchrt|tfT5J5lJT.

=hfer*MJjf&iroll
,

gftlRTOrT; Nala 1,5
it

Bhlma king of Vidarbha has been named
JTrnf^T.

follows

§

Ejsrisr

qr

OTT-

rfflm*!-^

d^r^Hl
,

=tft

(T

[viz.

5?^]

*r

iffa:

[the

aforesaid Bh.] UsiichWtritammM

5W sra^t 5?PTf

af

5^T-

Cp. also

the examples adduced 271

3° .

Examples:
VII

1.

of
(

g-

=: *M« (the well-known, the famous).
qsrPr: (the

Q&k.
at-

fTf5TtfCTfgif% mT T M

U*l

renowned thunderbolt, Indra's

tribute, Lat. fulmen
2.
sr

Mud

Jovis).

=

"the afore

said."

Qak.

uyidf^d

srfrraT

ng^qm

17312?

^^

IV Kanva

gsr »as she" means of course Qarmishtha,

^F^
;

^

says to

Qakuntala
>

%$ qc|| ^R

here

Kathas. 27, 109
(llO)^r
;

sriryn'-

ztm 3rerf%rTj srr^rareiTUHPT %5tt: h<t grr^nujgoffTii
H'4imiJl y-j
i

ftp?
1

Rim i=?

sffra^W:
y^

1

riWr: w*\{ 14*1

uiRtrj

m^yi-aH

(Hl)a'

ilrdMd.a W^,rjT«lTdl^jndij :in
oiRjchpHchi
FT'L-'sr:

mkjl H^STJ rTf^grnrt gnnf%f 1(112)^ ft
(some
teacher
too.

yHMUH
,

of the

brahmana

class

had seven

disciples

brahmanas they

Once because of famine

I

§
he despatched these
law,

275—276.
beg one cow from his
set

207
father-in-

disciples to

who was
to

rich in cows. foreign

They

out,

suffering

much from
man, and
name. The

hunger,

the

country,

where
to
g-

dwelled

that

begged a cow of the father-in-law of
father-in-law gave

their teacher, in his

them one,

fit

procure [them] a livelihood).
referring to something
as in vs.

Here we have several instances of
tioned
before,
etc.,
1

menfj

and even such accumulation
,

Ill

?f. ..
,

hR)

I

a pointing at the disciples
It is,

^

at the father-in-law
g-

j=nr°

at the teacher.

indeed, always allowed to employ

many

times in the same sentence, though pointing at different persons or
things,
f. i.

Mhbh.
i

1, 2,

395

?fr

iftsrfT

cfivw-^-Mti S^Tfir farsro
i
i

a<fe^>
srcr

l

^

y^yjHiii

qrnrt

^

UTTTT^r^rt

snrraw f^rr

ftstt

p^ft

i-Torin

^

f^U g^r, the last words mean: »of the one as well as of the other." »the." E. 3, 35, 27 a tall fig-tree is described, 3. ?r when adj.

whose branches are of enormous
fTT:

size:

rM

l

WU H

^nrtOT
l: ;

^-HN CT
king doing king has

u

i

1<° <

:

[i>the

branches

of which]"

one

asks-

^pj

^ j^x

RiMMi

now?) another answers
in

^

:

^

^fafff

(but

mdJldHUmd what is

Utt. II, p. 29

the
:

xxfTT

SffiT^'Sor'W.

nailed

(the

commenced an agvamedha).
4. g-

correlation with
it%

n

Germ,

derjenige.

Mhbh.

1, 74,

40

OT UTqf

m

z^t

<3T

wrf

m smsStrefers
to

Generally the relative clause

precedes, see 452, 2 d and 455.

Rem. Now and then
it

g-

persons

or things not ex-

pressed, but only implied by the foregoing.
is

Mhbh.

1,

adhy. 157
cries

told, that

Kuntt and her strong son Bhimasena hear

of distress
lity

in the house of the

worthy brahman, whose hospita-

enjoying of. Though the family of the brahman named in the foregoing, vs. 10 introduces them by has not been the pronoun fTT^r- The same idiom exists in Latin.

they

are

276.

Ff

nally
fem

may point at a general subject, see 12. it may be rendered by „such a one." Mhbh.

Occasio1,

158, 31

rlHI-d^T^T tfFKf =ET Tl^fo (raxasas, it is told, know the dharma, nor would such a one kill me) Kumaras. 5, 83 17 $f5r^T QT T^fTt

^

;

smmk

1

sjuftfJT

dW\ejM

Q:

*

TFrmcK (not only he, who speaks

evil
sin).

of the mighty, but likewise he,

who

listens to a such,

commits a

208

§ 276—279.

Of

— ."

Eem. When put twice,
K.
3, 9,

g

means

» manifold,

various,
.
I

all

sorts

31 illrHH

PliWtriSFT:

ch^Qrd

l

MUHrf

UMrt RuUIOT!)

KatMs.
civilities

29, 169


,

q^i^t

^
zc.

).

For the

rest

H^mg<T?rr'^rra^T (— with all sorts of g put twice is mostly met with in the
preceding.
sr

apodosis after a double
qrr ^FT ^rqT (287).

Nala

5,

11

mi

fj^ jq^sr

jWf H^

This repeated
,

has accordingly a distributive

meaning

see

252

3° .

277.

With ^5T added
,"

to it,

^ = „the
-f-=|iJd:

very," often „the

^

V? same

Lat. idem..
FTTsrsr
;

For the rest comp. 398.
fSrzrt

Tame."

Pane. 172

ST J^TT
ibid. V,

(^e same two men keep
i

counsel together)

26 Hl-TiP<^aiimf5ch<rufi fi^h ^tpt

stt

srfe-

^yfn^Hi stept
foiF^I^Hrirl

ritpr

n

amwrarr

&t%t:
,

t^st: ?r ^sr

i

m^; mrR
;

nd<Tlfri
is

(his

senses are
is
it

the same

without defect

his

name

the same; his

the same vigour of mind, the same speech; yet
is

how

curious

the

self-same

man, when having

lost the

splendour of his wealth, becomes forthwith a stranger).

The

latter

example shows, that

if g- is

plainly conveying the
cp.

meaning »the
-

same," ra may be omitted,

Ch. Up.

5, 4,

2 ritwHfe-Hin
,

278.

fT

may
see

be added to other demonstratives to personal
to
relatives.

pronouns,
q"!

As to the

last

combination

fl,

287.— Wt^(T%

H ^T
,

and the like, Sffa^T,
worth of a con,

FIT <pFT, etc. mostly are to express the

clusive particle* therefore

for this reason

then ," as will

be shown further* on,
sentences, see 445.

when

describing the connection of

279.
trati"e~s

Some other observations on the demonstratives.
*
-*-


and

n com P ouncls,

rTFT

and

nrTfT^

are considered as the themes,
iTrr, "*
rofrf)

which

when first represent membersof compounds tively the

^ and
.

msr;

v

likewise

thematic

shapes

of ^rr,

~

5FTfT, JTSTFT

^

1

ss

-^

)

roPT,

5ra~T,

rrai--

— mm

are respec-

i

)

By

this

orthography here and elsewhere

I

follow the rules of Sanskrit
to write jjz, BTTgSetc-

euphony; etymological reaBonB would rather require

§
^sft are.

279—280.
,

209
,

seldom used in compounds
employed.

if

they are

the neuter (t^tt

,

3^0
them.

is

But

,

as a rule

,

^rTpr

and

fih are substituted for

In other terms: in compounds, ctih has
ille.

the

meaning of

Lat. hie and fjh that of Lat. is or

Mrcch.

I, p.

3 the director

informs the public
^rlrchQ:
etc.
,

srf^j-

gt ^chfcch

^m

Uch)m* snf^

o^fod

i:

••

while speaking of the poet of the piece he has named.
gsrra'fT

Kathas. 64, 25

main d&mn (he was prevented from injuring
1

them by a
in vs. 24.
Idiom:
2.

passer-by), here cCTTr^ refers to giftfi:.

.

crfriTSr:

[sc. frrqg-:]

=

?
«/«j
fff

no *

The idiom represented by Latin unknown in Sanskrit. Mhbh. 1,
,

is
6,

pavor __ ejus
11

rei

pavor

i) is
:T

stttt^
is

tot <zm mfm>*s:, here at arfew:
afraid

not

of

my
g-

curse

,

who

=w
rTroTT,

Agni says

f§rirffi'

cfrt

[sthtot] srf?T°
it ?).
:

(who
Pane.

has an escape from

158 a boy has been turned out of doors by

his father rr^ T Pi

mf)H

i.

The author proceeds
is

here

=

g fr fq^T

< HI1-H

{*

apparently

^-f^rr
this

jtot

^ WT in
forma-

pulsion". Cp.
3.

[f^t H JUiw ] fSiaS/T »by despair caused by Kumaras. 3, 17, Kathas. 1, 39.
i

ex-

In formulae one uses g^ft as significative of the proper name

£

jjj

m; wh
=srerr

m

the formula
is

is

to

be applied
it.

to.

When
f. i.

employing
Par. Grhy.

them, the proper name
1,

substituted for

See

18, 3
4.

£ter

sr^i

sirPT,

Agv. Grhy.

1,

20, 5.

neuters
e"
strati-

In
ace.

the
of

archaic

dialect,

especially in the liturgical books,

the

the
Ait.
:

neuter
Br.
srif

singular
6

of demonstratives
5oTT;

is

often used
sflcFiTT?r?reT-

adverbially.

1, 9,
<5TTcJi

gnlf ^^tfitf^T

'SPT

nsed as
adverbs.

Urts;

^ -^
The
see

UsWH
1?

sraiH, here

^m

means

»in this case."
etc.
fTFT

4j 2

.

^

15> 4)

ck Up

4j 2) l

^=

»then,"

etc.

classic

language

has retained adverbial functions of

an(i

jrpf,

444 and 463.

280.

The interrogative pronoun
^TrTT and
its

is ^T.

Its

comparative

superlative ^icFT are likewise used.

The po-

1)

See

f. i.

perculit

Romanos.

Livt 21,46,7 Numidae ab tergo se ostenderunt. Cp. Vibg. Aen. 1, 261, Nepos Lys. 3, 1.
14

Is

pavor

,

210
inter-

§

280—281.
„ which?",

rogatiTe9
'

sitive^T simply asks

„who?" „what?"

° hH7,
'

like Lat. uter, arch. 'Ra.g.whether „ which of the

two ?",

3fiT*T

who etc.
and

of many

?"

They are wanted both

in direct ques-

tions

in the so-called indirect questions.

One says

therefore,

Wt ^gTFT

(who are you?), $o|$Tl %r{UV<
is

^TrTp (which of these two
I, p. (is

Devadatta ?)

,

Vikram.

5

crf^Wrrf

3TFFR f^psPTT^T
in

TO

ft

3WV

it

known,
3T

what

direction

the rascal has de-

parted?). Cp. 411.
If

wanted

,

may
ibid.

be the former part of a bahuvrlhi.

Dag. 30 D'rTrSRrwfwiH:
this
air

n*Hii|ferer:

encampment ?)

;

74

(what

is

the

name

an ascetic speaks

— sr^TOsrrafrfwT

of the chief of

m\
Rem.

ipft
1.

f^s^f fwjfj^nft fSnzmi-

The

distinction

between

strictly observed.

Ram.

1,

sarga 38

^ht and gnw is not always Rama asks Vicvamitra, which of
eft,

the two,

Kadru

or Vinata, will

have one

illustrious
frt' ,

son

,

and who sixty
br-

thousand sons
erjt^.

— Pane. 284 STOT^Hmmuwi f&h cfrym fmu:
,

raj; iacmv. gfTt 5T^P5F>T

sr^H fuwj

here

is

used, not

(for

which of the

six
is

well-known expedients s&ma

etc., it is

now the fit time ?) here qror
R2, 85,

used within the proper sphere of ^rPT*
'

4 Bharata asks

Guha gra^nr nffim fa tr ^ ui^M T?rr, though the country is wholly unknown to him, and he, therefore, does not want to be informed » whether" but » which" of the many ways will conduct him to Bharadvaja !). Rem. 2. On the faculty of putting in the same sentence two or
'

i

more interrogative pronouns referring

to different things, see

409,

2° .

281.

At the outset 37
an
indefinite

was
,

both
Lat.

an interrogative and
quis
,

pronoun
it

cp.

Gr. rU
still

and

t/«.

In classic Sanskrit
of

has occasionally

the function

an
1)

indefinite;

yet, as a rule, 3T

is

then combined

Cp.

246 and

the foot-note 1) on page 188 of this book.

,

§ 281.

211

nit'

^^ some P
^^M,
pressing

arti de:

f%FT or

#T or

SR. Hence ^flFT,
pronouns
some,
,

^""NTO" are the proper indefinite

,

ex-

some{any)body

,

some(any)thing;
for this

any.

To

them we must add ^f,
ing
is

word properly mean-

„one," does not] rarely duty as an indefinite, and
r — FJoT

to be rendered by „some" and even by the so-called
is

article „ a. "
5Tran)
etc
-

„every;

all."
it

Md

to

^r = »a." E.

Instances of qifsEH,
2, 63,

^rsrq',

gr^ftf 1 )

is

superfluous to give.

As

32

-^ $$mm ^7:

(I

am hit by an

arrow), Dag. 25

"

^iRii;*'^'*!^)!^ q^ra-^r^mrt^ fiUiivwiA arg^ Wioign gii (once in some forest I saw some brahman being about io be hurt by the

crowd of
132
ent,
grT

my
ott

companions).

Even ^Huh

'

etc.

may be
son).

= »a":

Dag.

5?farM<-i tHHdrTi (she

was delivered of a

It is eonsist-

that

may

also

be combined with some other indefinite.
srfrrr?r:

Kathas. 27, 89 chmn^ sfigr
in the hduse of

WTU: cprqcF^ JJ^ (an honest servant
9 n-qrer EFrerfirf^ffftCT:.
qr,

some merchant), Pane.

Kathas.

1,

56

may

be an instance of the sole
:

bearing

the

character of an indefinite

-ir-J)

ai-uid

37:

(and nobody else knows

it).— Gp. K. 2, 32, 42 ^rjfter ftf
if
fSTCoT.

you have made up your mind).

^jf

srsrejf% (choose

something

else

Rem.

1.

The

old dialect possessed a
it is

synonym

of gsr, viz. fnssr;

in the classic language

no more used, save in some standing

phrases as
f%sar
^oT»

fsrsg- |crr:,

being the name of some special class of deities
fsrsspj

imH or simply Rem. 2. gsf is

= »every"

"the Universe."

and »each," goh ^everybody," gspr
qsr
=r

everything."

Nala 20,6

i^r,

?TFrriH
is

gsraT :rrt%T ersft (not
omniscient).

everybody does know everything, nobody
1)

in

a

According to the Petrop. Diet, the indefinite pronoun grfafqwas made as it does not latter period than the other combinations,
,

occur in the older literature
in the

Manu

included (see II
grt-sftf

,

p. 6 s. v. 37).

Yet

Mababharata and the Ramayana
are as well

and such adverbs and
° ^PT.

as chlRj,

chqn(q

met with
by

as those in "fifiT

R.

2, 52,

45 g;

and

gfcf are separated

%

%%_ f§R

gif* oraTTft.

212
282.

§

282— 28S.

By

adding to the foresaid indefinite pronouns the nega„ nobody,

tion ^T one expresses the negative indefinites

nothing, no, none." It puts the negation. Nala
saw me
,

is
3,

indifferent at
24 uf5m.H

as

I

entered)
,

,

Hit. 95
9,

what place one q qt chfiy^qvwH^ (nobody gfo mmal -sgrrer dloMUl ~)lfw (we
i

have no livelihood)
be named poor).
It
is

M.

26

q

Ida aiYsfer 5nsi^ (there is

no

dif-

ference), Kathas. 34, 120

^rf^s^

t^srh -umMsJ (there

nobody could

not only said

rj

chf&H and

q-

gfrsfrt,

but also

q

ch

l

^fa

-

Pane. 71

q

fehPstemaidH (he said not a single word).

283.
Other"

There are several words for „other",viz. 5F*T, ^T^", ^T^
STT7. ^ ^

?

how
expressea.

Of these ^f'^T

is

the

most common and

has the

most general meaning.
1. =gr?r

generally denotes ssomebody or something else." In such
it is

phrases as g^r fcH^p , »once on a day"
it

almost

— ^rfigH-

Yet

may

also signify »the other." So Hit. 102 when a messenger

wishes to speak secretly to the king, the king removes his attendance
rirfr

fnrr q^rt g- fenft

mi

i

?ert

s;a=r

nm: (—

tfie

others

withdrew).

2.
it

wrr

properly means »the subsequent, the following;" hence
it

has got also the meaning of uother," but commonly
proper nature of signifying what
I, p. is

retains

its

named
(this

in the second place.
is

Mrcch.
other,
3.

55
is

t£|-

*TT

J^Plch

i

i

<<JHH 7T

m

Kadanika., but this

who
enis

she?).
it

etymologically related to our far, and accordingly

serves also to denote the opposite of ^f.

Hence

it

displays

all

shades

of meaning, as are directly opposite to the notion of »own, proper."
It

may
»

be sometimes

=

»strange"

and

^stranger,"
in

some-

times

=
55
his

=

enemy," sometimes
Nala
3,

also

when used

a broader sense

»other."

8 cfw

(how should a man bear
another to a
t[

q sUdH*^: f^y^rM^H "Wl^iy^u'l ajq; to speak in this way for the sake of
desires for himself?).

woman, whom he
(it

Mrcch.

I, p.

qw

qjchQri^^u,H^
Its

does not become a

man to

look on the wife of

neighbour).

adjective cttcrW
is

=

alienus.

Qak.

IV

g*fr

f^

efrtt tTT^tH" UoT (a

daughter

a possession one cannot call one's own).

§
4. jrT^",

283-285.

213

the comparative of the pronominal root t, bears a strong

affinity to

Latin

alter.

It is used, indeed, to signify
1, 4,

»the one" and
^nj:, cp.

»the other" of two.

Brh. ir. Up.

4

^dr^H dci.Udoim
T

M.

4, 137, Kathas. 19, 50.

When
I, p.
?T

dual

or plural,

it

denotes the other
sraT
l

of two parties.

Mrcch.

33

si^afdm^Prt ^

iron

dlidr)}
iSrffr

,

Mudr. V,

p.

184

m\ H^T
may
and

Wt: ffSTRrPTT

5T <Rr|sJcrl*l4l f^RrHoT

ETTr&iTPT;

q^OT

Ijfq- ch

H^H ^

Cp. 217,

J

2.

Rem.
as
it

1.

To the

foresaid pronouns

we may add
»

f«7r sdifferent,"
2, 3,

sometimes

be rendered by

other."

Kac. on P.

29

Eem.

2.

gqr-

grjj-,

when

qualifying some noun,
p.

may

be

used in a somewhat particular manner. Pane.
story of the jackal

77 contains the

who

,

being hunted by a band of dogs, fled to
into a pot filled with dye.
i

some dyer's and there jumped Here ^jr

As he

got out, he had got a blue colour,
ETgTTifrefci.a'r

svm:-

srrpTOT:

rTSTTqf yi^tiUH ^ mMtHHtTI means »the other, namely the

dogs," not
fijl?!

»the other

dogs."

Compare

ibid. p.

83 chiwfSj^Ju^jr
ST^rT-

Ufrloiyfrl

W

I

(TOT -cIMxT^T

WZ! ^fioTRraifWRT5T:
»

Here

=&^r

does not

mean

» other panters etc.," but

others,
fsraoiT

namely a panter,

a crow and a jackal."
Schol. -tj^cU-m
fold
{

Cp. R.
fsryirffT-

2, 71,

U

l

61 g^rr

= »some

widow,"
and
"SjAaxi.

The same idiom
oil

exists in Latin

Greek,

f.

i.

Od.

/3,

411 ^Ttjp

S'i^Jj

ti wcttuu-txi, ouS

'&M.xi

WV

284.
IV,

„ Either,"
p.

Lat. alteruter,
g^ifi*.

is

expressed by ^Trl"^. Mudr.
cp. girTR (280).
it

146 rtJifl^chrij
denotes

^f dJJ ^M r^R^??ffcikl dl-iHch H ^ nfefrer (I will arrange
of one of the six expedients
»see
f. i.
:

0cbr\i\

»one

out

of

many,"

Pane. 12

by means

samdhi vigraha
,

etc.).

Likewise ^^r^T,

Dag. 101.
sneither"
is to

How
ples.

be expressed
i

,

may

appear from these examMrrrfSr

Ch. Up.

5, 10,

8 ««lrlJ)

Wf^

5CTprr =^r hihUjiR

.HcTprT

(on neither of these two ways these foresaid beings are moving),

Pane. 50

Hfr

STTSTfi'

=T

flimH: (neither of

them

will

know

it).

285.

For

denoting

„one.

.

.

.

another"
use

one

may

repeat

?RT

or

3TP9H
also

or

T?W\,

or

them

alternatively;
first link.

WTT- may

be used, except in the

If

214
5RT-- there
and the
like,

§

285—287.
they

^

are

more

links,

may

alternate in various
„first.
.
. .

manners. As to see 439.
Examples:
3IRT
1.

E^FT »s
sgrji.
.

WFffl Vn
. .

=

secondly"
5^1-

of

sp?T.

E.

2,

108, 15 ufi- iTfbft^MHT

JT^iH

(if
),

what
Mhbh.
73[

is

consumed by
other

one,

goes

into

the body
cnf^sranri

of another
sjltrti
l

I

Paushyap. 174g »u[^i^i
(you do

uTltj ft 3TTHT

t^pii-^d

ej^
JTFTT

things,

what you should have done).
rtefg riljd*4MI ^#T


32

my

prince,
etc.

than

2.

of nsa,

cFjfJgrT,

Pane. 297

5RT ft^HM*!:
,

ihtchAjM-dstiPj^

(and as he struck

them
of

,

some of them died
to

some others had their heads broken and
M.
9,

began

cry

violently)

,

srrf :
1

Afa<^
i

-

f§T£:,

3.

more

links connected.
1

Varah. Brh. 32,

fat^chmma} A

<si^>r| -

feri?T5rrferawTiT
fiarft

wT^Rf^nTjtisrsmTO^ra' ^trt sfoyfrspMH f^r:
1

T H-MteH chfWdA ARl'ggachl^riPict.M^I UlJ^Mluf; ("some say that an earthquake is caused by some huge animal living in the midst
of the waters
;

others , however, that

it

arises

when the
if

elephants

of the quarters, being tired of the earth's load, are taking breath;

a wind falling

down upon
;

earth with noise, as

struck
it

wind

,

say some

others

,

however, maintain that

is

by another ordained by
p.

unseen powers; other masters again narrate the following,"

140 of

Keen's translation). Cp. Nala

12, 87.

286.
ti Ve

The relative pronoun

is

^.

A full account of its em,

ployment will be given in the Section in which there will
he treated of clauses and relative sentences. Here it suffices
to point out that *T

noun,

and

H

are standing complements of

one another. Kem. The comp. and
archaic
dialect.

superl.

znrr,

vrm

are restricted to the

287.
genlralized.

The

relative
a)

pronoun

may
,

be generalized in various
*T:

ways
and

:

by putting ^ twice then ^T

=

„ whosoever,"

it

requires $T tf in the apodosis

;

b)

by adding to

it

one of the indefinite pronouns so as to make up the com-

9 2

§ 287—288.

215

bination W<

^fllrT,
?T
,,

W,

^TSR
it

or W>

^fa";
,

c)

by

putting together

and fT in the same case gender and
whosoever
5,

number,

m

FP

=

may

be, any."

For the
jfq-

rest, cp. 453.

Examples of
favourites

a).

Ma

11

is

quoted 276; Bhojapr. 36
sjcRr

^pjt

s^rfim tWMtifH H^itTOJ (TOwr^tTna"
and honours
,

jimmm:

(the king's

always plot to the ruin of whomsoever the king loves
in his
p.

court).
q. chf^i^Mi

6.)
it

Mudr. IV,

158

^g-feffir

>ar

fsraT

tw Odotr
i

.

(whoso4,

^

ever

may

be, that wishes to see me, you must admit him), Nala
i

^ar ^^i^j^h^ Rh fa=eH
is

(myself and whatsoever belongs to me).

This idiom

used so as to be synonymous with the simple indefinite
q' omi'chj- ttf

pronoun, as Hitop. 10
to give the

jtst

ch^fad

< iHffi-csiflj

(I

desire
1

golden bracelet to whomsoever); Schol. on E.

3, 10,

jt^

sft xfcm ufrww =r sh^ft- ')• Rem. The archaic dialect used also
3, 15,

^w

eh 9T5I

=

ar:

^rferTall

So

f. i.

Ch. Up.
exists

4 qrurt
Ait.

sit ^5;

tfiir

zrf^t;

f?R^ (prdna
sprer

means

whatever
sbt

here),
in .

Br. 2, 6, 5

?^§

^

SojrTrJr

^{ M«Jof
its

q^qf^B
verse

It occurs also

sometimes in epic poetry.

So Hit. 20 the
very lan-

?nf5r

guage
c.)

to

wrfa =et fmrfm zmdinfo srmfr ^ proves by be borrowed from some ancient epic poet.

Kathas. 27, 208
(in

^m femr ftsrairffft Jrra
fortune

rfTCr

1

<T5rt

fsur: asTcro-

TTsrfi'iscFfriw

this

way

dwells in any action, done

by

men, when carried out with vigorous energy).

288.

3.

Pronominal Adverbs.

The pronominal adverbs may be divided into four

main
2.

classes:
° rT!,

1.

those in

° 5T,

doing duty as locatives,
,

those in
1)

mostly doing duty as ablatives
occur

3.

those

JT:

^faffr seems to
Diet,

much

less
it,

than the other combinations.

The

Petr.
it.

gives

no instance of

Anundoram bobooah

does not

mention

216
Prono-

§ 288.

in

° 3J

expressive

of time,

4.

those in ° 2U significative
?

verbs,

of manner. They are derived of the roots 3T(^Ff), ^T f — rJ, U, SF^T, =h, H^" etc. and display the same diffe-

T

^

,

rences

of

meaning and employment as the pronouns,

which they are
terrogatives
nites.
1.

made from; they

are

therefore

in-

or demonstratives or relatives or

indefi-

Those in ° 3"are: Interr.

=M

(where ?);

Dem.

ifsf

(here),

FR"
r

(there), "*AH^

(yonder); Rel. *T3" (where);

Indef. 5RT3"
where);

(elsewhere),

^FT3"(l.atoneplace,2.some-

fm^"

(everywhere), etc.

To these we must add

two

of a

similar meaning,

but made with different

suffixes, viz.

Interr. 37

=

^z{ and

Dem.

i<^

(here).

By
the

putting "I^FT,

° ^T

or

° wTto the interrog., one gets
^T^mrl
etc.

indefinites

anywhere;"
ever" (287
2.

^

37T^rT,

-somewhere,

37T^FT (or

=MMr1

etc.)

=

„whereso-

5).

Those in

5HT: (hence),

^
,

° rT<

are:

Interr. 37FP (whence?);

Dem.
(from

(hence),

cFT

(thence),

^FT'
etc.),

yonder);

Eel.

^Trft

(whence);

Indef. ^F^rH
one place,

(from
r

some other

place), yftori'' (from

ti^ri!

(from every place) and so on.

— By putting "Mfi,
?TrT:

° ^T

or

° *IN to the

interrog.,

one gets the indefinites =hrl~

fWT,

^Rrftvffe",

3ttT3R; of course
6).

*rlRH

etc.

=

„from whatever place." (287

§ 288.
3.

217

Those in° 3Jare Interr.

(then);
time),

Eel.

^^T
is

^

^T

(when?);

Dem.

FTTT

(when); Indef.

(once),

Sm%\

r

?RT?r (at some
Besides,

other

(always).
,"

the dem.

FI^RT^T
„now."

the emphatic „then

£^m1fT and


,

WFH ^
etc.

By

putting

"T^TrT,

° ^R

or ° ?Tfq" to the in-

terrogative
„at

one gets the indefinites
,,

^T%R"

=
,

some time ;" UZJ 374JNFT etc. — whenever." (287 b). An other set of temporal adverbs are ^f (when?), fTp£, mjf§
j
,

af^
the

aff crF^fenr- Of these chaic dialect and even in the
phrase

all

but

prf^

are

restricted to the ar.

q

epics they are

seldom used, except

5rf^f%fT^ (nowhere).

4.

In

° 5TT there are:

Dem.

rPTT
r

(so);

Eel.

*W

(as);

Indef. ^F^TSJT
at all events).

(otherwise),

FT^T
is

(in

every maimer

The Interr.

slightly different, being

^FT
i
0-c

(how?).

Demonstr.
this

are also

^cR, ^F^R and
By putting
° T^FT,

Itl

.= „thus, so, in
or

manner."

= „howsoever."
Eem.
a=r 3i
1.

° wT to the interrog., one gets the indefinites 35EJi%FT etc. = „ somehow;" of course ^T ^fltT etc.
(287
b).
g- ;

M

The

archaic idiom

grsi

(287 E.)

is

of course also
1, 3, 1

represented in the adverbs of the ancient dialect.
=5T

Agv. Grhy.

^i

m ^ mid

(wheresoever he

may

intend to

make

oblations),

Ait.

Br. 2, 23, 7
2.

prer oft ^sr

mm

PTS^klrT-

Eem.
Pane. 39)
E.

The adverbial
it

suffixes are not limited to the adverbs,
is

enumerated above. So
,

said gy^r

»in the world to

come"

(f. i.
(f. i.

mjyr
etc.

(f. i.

E.

3, 11, 25), crefsr;

srj (always),
indefinites

p

i

rtigj

3, 5, 18),

Eem.
chg^
l

3.

A

negation

added

to

the

5rf%i=T,
»

chHfSiH

,

fan

,

^rerfferj

and their synonyms, serves

to express

nowhere,"

218

§

288—289.
3,

»from no place," »never," sin no ways," cp. 282. Kathas.
fipTTT

57

q
is

tRT

there
j
I

a

fit

OT HTuf tt€t =TTf*T & EFH%rT (I am anxious that nowhere wife for you to be found); Nala 4, 19 ^sff =T irfaHT FToT
any rate, you
flmf&jrT
will incur

dK^ai-dH

(a*

no sin,

my

king);

Pane

34

mr
149
rr

EfiSTfa

^

nffimT (I

never have eaten cucumbers);
^rsir

ibid.

inrr rtsr

i^rMiUiT ghfa^fti

Spm

(since I

am
c)

depend-

ing on you, I have nowhere enjoyed pleasure).

Eem.
course

4.

The idiom

q;

h:

= "whosoever,

any"

(287

has
?i

of
?j.

its

counterpart in the adverbs derived from the roots
p.

and

Mrcch. X,

360 ^gf?Mcr:ren
ch^f^H

m

JTW fertTT srr (staying

at the

king

of the gods, or anywhere).

Eem.
vix.

5.

'

and chmulM have

also

got the sense of Lat.

Pane. 71

his spirits).
chejjfq

grRT MHHHN With emphasis, one

3OTqfg (after

having scarcely recovered
chi?ichqi|(i| .

says even

Similarly

etc.

may

be used almost synonymous with our »perhaps."
i

Pane. 200 ^omffil^H m^oi-cH
trustworthy speech).

r^

i

i

q (hoHH

(if

° n e speaks thus [to the

king of the elephants] he will perhaps withdraw by the force of so

Eem.
ST^w
take

6.

g^rerr

may

signify

» wrongly,

falsely."

Hit. 95 3 <jHtdfq

£rff btsIh A\r*m\-

Likewise Qak. I ^TO^TT^mrr ?RTHr (do not

me

for another person, as I am).
2.

As

to

n~nm

when—

»

other-

wise" see 485 E.

289.
minai
insrand

The adverbs
° f the locative
rTFT*
etc.,"

in ° 5T

and oFP are not restricted to the
is

p- 5 > 3

denoting of space. Their province

the same, as that
Mr\'<

and ablative

').

Such words as

and

n

-

doing

have the value of the ablatives ^TTTrT, FTFTIrT *^ "^
that
is

lST
ves and
ablatives.

of the ablat. of the

stems ?T and

FT in all

1)

° jf;

is

a

common

suffix expressive

of the abl.,

and accordingly put
by

also

after

nouns (108). Locatives
sq.

in

° 3T made

of nouns are taught

P.

5, 4,

55

But such forms

with in the archaic dialect.
of Sanskrit literature of P&nini.
,

as sTi^UM!, ttd-tl) *IrJraT are only met Yet, though obsolete in the classic period

they must have been in

common

use in the time

§ 289.

219

genders and numbers.

Similarly

3^, rT^
etc.

are identical

with the locatives STfc^FT, rTTFT^T

For

this rea-

son, like the real ablatives and locatives, they express

not only space but also time and circumstances, and refer
,

equally to persons and things.

When

pointing to a sin-

gular, they ves
£«(>,

may

even be used as attributes of ablati-

and locatives of substantives. The adverbs Wi and
though not made with the
suffix ° ^,

have similarly
3T in all

the functions of the locative of the stems 37 and

genders and numbers.
Examples:
1.

of their

not

referring

to

space.

Kathas.

4,

20

awr
a

fuiwjcuu

great
p.

T^RWfTj FRhFi: OTfinforfir sU^ferfr-siTorr^ (Varsha had crowd of disciples; among them there was Mudr. ).

IV,

145 fefTrsT^T

-ri^s|cr:

sstpssrernw^FRHr ^femai^R'
of

stt

mhi«si


g-

(why has Candrag. now put the yoke
shoulders of] some other minister or his
rT

government on
?).

[the

own

Qak. Ill

mj

fwffT HnqWcjn
55

i

fsrstjir iftft qTTfccHft^TnT>^(he,

from

whom you

are

apprehending a refusal, that

man

stands here longing to meet you).
^ofT^fpr
:

Kumaras.

2,

man [me,
fore
it is
1

cp.

5TO^ (it is from this 273] that the Daitya has obtained his glory, there^t;

^

fjtn

myaffrl
kill

not I, who must
FTfsjft

him).

Mudr.

II, p.

86 aHlrtHm i-

f^&zr

55T

srfaTtnTOT

vror^Wi'ra*ttl&l(3wifa (this ring is

engraved

with the

name
their

of the minister; for this reason, he will reward
[is

you with more than
2.

the worth of] this [ring]). Cp. Nala 13, 44.

of

qualifying

some substantive.
IV, 71

— Pane. 273
,

rl=f

5^

j^rpr

(rambling in that

forest), ibid.
p.

cr^irrfJT^ cfteFf
=sf

=sr

(in the

other world and in this), ibid.
(

146

firarjTGT

— put

f^cT ftyiiiia'

Pwra
147

the rest of the alms in that very begging-bowl)
£T5rft

ibid.

j£° f&

WiWkri}

$*$

(they slept both on one couch of kuca.
Efisrrft

grass),

Kathas. 27, 4

^r

mj
a

(at

some emergency), Dag. 80
(and I laughed

=g

EhfertW^A-a grrfpEi

g; fafchda
;

somehow
km

at

some player

making

rash move)

Pane. 308

fTrT:

M kte^ST

220
TirfT:
fei

§

289—291.
,

(from that place they went to their country)
i

ibid.

286 g^rtefa

p eh

[rchRdc!
I, p.

b oU^l^lu (he took some

money from

a moneylender),
rrr

Prabodh.

6

gifffafcr ch

i

j

uioiui
it

i

H (by some cause), Dag. 96

ch^lRj -

tHuifHiH^HU flim fH (perhaps ,

will rescue

me from this misadventure).
tft;

Rem.
(274)
3j5r

1.

It

must be mentioned, that in the case of the anvddega
afr:

P

'33

2 4'

and
2.

are enclitics.

So neither t^ nor

can be used.

Rem.

Instances of the adverbs in

are not rare.
cFjf%FT

So one uses

arf^iT

may be

^rT: qTJT
»

%
..
.

and

° ft:

denoting time,

» afterwards ," rTrT:

— "then,"

sometimes.

sometimes."

290.

There
of the

is

no proper adverbial

suffix for

the category

„ whither."

Nor

is

it

necessary.

For the locative

being expressive of the aim and scope with the words
of going
,

arriving, entering

and the

like (134), it results,

that one says

^ JT^TFT,
^Ulf

fT%

Mrj^

and so on, as well as

^TJTJ Jl^lfa,
adverbs in "FT
side of," cp.

CTrT^I.

On the other hand, since the
the meaning of „on the
"^rfl

may have
37FT!

103,

may

be „on what side?"

„on this side" etc. Moreover they may even signify „hi|what
direction,"
a) Pane.
3rar:
tuiid
i

f. i.

rTrT*

=
=et

,,

to wards that place."
eft

154
(if

^pm
some
17 Tfr
-HnJ

fg; ch^lfa

ir^Tfa, ibid. 289

jrf^ <*>Raf<<

trl

tiger

come

hither)',

Mhbh.

1,

163, 4 ifrraqj

b)
c)

Malav.

I, p.
i
i

ti

i

^JHl^

(sit

down on

this side).

M.

2,

200

5TT rTrft'S^lrr:

(or

you must go from that place

to

another),

Kull. hhii&i STOT^ 1^\\^{

rpnam

;

Qak. I ^MUHqRd-

ehwjch i:-... ^FT ^oTTfitefcT^

(—

are

moving on

in this direction).

i.

Pronominal Adjectives.
:

291.
Pronomina ™.™i
ttdJQC

Pronominal adjectives are
ttu),

I.

pRtFFT (how great quan,

Dem. ^FrT, FTT^tT and ^rll^-fT

{tantus),

with

tive8

the relat. ^TT^'FT „[as great] as."

, :

§
TI.

291—293.

221

^fer

{qualis?),

Dem.

^VJ,

FTT^T,

^TT^
„like

{talis,

such), Rel.

^^[suc^as^Indef.^RTTSSr
also

another."

They are

made

of personal pronouns

^r^T
of

(somebody

like me),

pIT^,

W^ST
„[as

etc.

All

them may end
II.

also in ° £ST Rel.

and in ° ^f.

^TlrT

(how

many ?),
,

mf\

many]

as

,"

Indef.

^TtrrT^rr (some
aliquot,

any)

.

Like the kindred Latin quot

they are indeclinable.
friff

The Dem.

is

not used.

292.

Observations on the pronominal adjectives.
1.

The mutual
,

relations
,

and combinations of the
etc.,

different classes:

relatives

demonstratives

are the

same
that

as with the pronouns.
To^fr

In this
to
FTTcFt^

way
and

it

may

f. i.

be

observed,
to

and jr$j are

rrrgsr>

what

m*^ is

h; that jnBR^and qrpr require
420 3^sfr
STPTaft ?ITpT

an apodosis with

smpr:
rTT^ST 2.

= »of

cTTSFrT an<i FTtTsr;

that such a combination as aiTSTI,

whatever quality" (Pane.
srfH cfrfFrfSlrT

^T

s&); that

=

»however many,"
the former
F.
i.

etc.

Those of Group
"f^jij, ° 5IT^T

I

may be
like.

member

of

compounds in

"gpj,

and the

fer^jpr "tow
ST^mtnr:,

far?,"

fau^f^
\

»how
qir
qzrr

long?,''

fer^rpr^ »how many
Pane. 63 fifETj^

times?". Bhoj. 28

jxw[ 9hU&
13,

{

q^rq ^-tf K,

^

KatMs.
(out

137 ^rftr|

wr

:t

?T[rT!-">

5KFT (for so long
FTST

a

time I did not

know

this

duty),

Pane. 56 fo n -MHifrdrf

%:
its

STJtcT:

how

insignificant

are these enemies of your father).
3.

Instances of ^tjh, felTT and

adverb fer?^ used as indePane. 211
sprin

finites

[281] are
FTTOTffl

now and
cfrfmzr

then met with.

sumidufH

gifH

5TT

(he kills

some of them, some others he wounds).

Note the compound

=

sseveral,

sundry."

Chapt.

III.

On nouns

of number.

293.

As Sanskrit grammars not only teach, which are the different nouns of number for the unities decads
,

I

222
Express-

§
j-,

293—294.
(see

e^ Ctj

u t a\ so how to make the interjacent ones
§ 476
will

noans

£

j.

Whitney
It

and 477),
to

this point

may

be passed
So Varah.

berby
various
nations

over here.
Brh. 11, 5

suffice

give

some instances of the most
7

usuaj idioms for expressing numbers higher than 100.

Wi° h
f.
i.

l

fti<*.^

=
=5

101, Ch. Up.
,

3, 16,

c gfmr snfsirW "116 $**-

years"

[liter,

a hundred of years
<rm
5Ttr

determined by sixteen].

dition, as

especially in poetry.

=

Of
is

ad-

tra^ST, instances are found very often,

Expressing numbers by multiplication
f. i.

not

rare

,

either
fftsft

by saying

fg-;

erg-

instead of

zyj,

or

by using the
1,

type

ssrfrw:

=240
3irorr

[lit.

three eighties], cp. 295.

Mhbh.

32,

24

H5

M

I

^ddiJiplMi

(having

instance

of multiplication

made 8100 mouths) we have an expressed by the instrumental of the

multiplicator.

Eem.
and

1.

A

very singular manner of denoting numbers between

200 and 1000, Qankh. Br.
is

mentioned by Whitney

§

480,

is

met with now

then in the dialect of the liturgical
3,

books and in epic poetry.

2

=rtftT crf

SmH

l

P

<HdrM^I^
160.

I

»360

is

the
the

number

^

the meaning of which

of the days of a year," not, as one

would
gtjt,

infer
ffTO^r

from

very form, 3
2,

but

= 350,
2.

= 280.

So R.

X 39, 36 m: wmmf mr^:

Qankh. Qr.

16, 8, 9

are not

= 3 X 150
is

£

cp. ibid. 2, 34, 13,
:

where the same number
hundreds, that
is

thus ex-

pressed:

-g^MMHId

= half-seven
to
),

3 1 /,

Rem.
in

In the ancient dialect cardinal nouns of number show

X 100.

some degree a tendency
§

become indeclinable words.
of flexion and checked

See

"Whitney

486

c

who

gives instances

from vaidik works. But
it ').

classic Sanskrit disapproved that loss

294.
tbT
ofnnmTip t*

From
,

1

— 19

the cardinal nouns of

number are
vingt,

ad-

jectives but 20 and the rest are properly substantives. So

QTQ
16

Ic^ItT! does not signify

„ twenty"

fr.

but „a

con-

number

of twenty,"

fr.

une vingt aine. For this reason,

f^rfcP and the
1)

rest,

STrR,

ST^^T
M.
8,

etc.

are not only

As a

rest of it

we may

consider, that

268 and Kathas. 44, 77

the nom. M^IHIH does duty of an accusative.

,

§ 294.

223

singulars having a gender of their

own but they are
,

also
is

construed with the genitive. Yet, this construction

not used exclusively.

By

a false analogy side by side
T^TJnTrT!

with the regular construction, as

'TjTTJTFT,

5TFT

^HTFT,
instr.
etc.

one says also

T^FT

J^fOT, 5TFT

J{T%

KSTRTr JJTHTFT
The same

or J^i,

STFR 3{TOFTor J^J,
the compounds in

applies of course to

° WOTrT!,
bers.
it is

° ?TrT IT etc., expressive of the interjacent

num-

It is

a matter of course, that instead of using the genitive

allowed to compound the substantive with the noun of number.

Examples:

La)

of a genitive depending on the
fsrsrrai

noun of num3,

ber: Varah. Brh. 54, 75

^kttdtw (by 20 men); Eagh.

^fn

f%;rt5fV RorfrT =TsrTfej>t *TfT5firj~rf

69

ft<tr (thus the
stfptj

king performed
14, 88,

99

great sacrifices); E.
TMiylrM'sg^it

2, 54,
rT«TT

31

g^f

Mhbh.

35

5w
to

fSTOrTT

fcwrt
;

(300

animals

were

then

fastened

the
ijttitj

sacrificial

piles)

Kathas. 18, 124 337

fa^i ctv m

g^f WTT1,

Dag. 142 gir^TTq^ctig-^iwrsr-

b)

of compounding: Raj.

311

ST

orWrfrr UWU HoPT (after having reigned

seventy

years), M. 8,

237 yrnsirPT
camels).
2.

a hundred bow-lengths), Kathas. 44, 77 ^qseHtid) (500 (

of

fsrsrffl'

etc.

concording in case with their substantives.

E.

3, 14, 10 gsTTOHSj
:

5j3W 5Wjj:

k\h*\\

H^rT: (purified by 40 sacraments), M.
87 min
(we


I

«rf%|%q"

:

>

<3'

aut 8 8 ^roi P(mH
>

ibid. 4,

3,

40 aWf^T
srtf

m

i

mt:,

^Fn^fduiidM., Kathas.
cRef:

10,

39

trq-qffsr^f : qftert

^aia

i

HM

are 1000 granddaughters of the chief of Daityas , Bali);
sra-

Mhbh.

1,

16, 8

STrTRTTTraF^ rTtrtloMy :•

Higher numbers, as ^T^TtFT,
stantives,

FRTT,

° h Il6!,aresub-

and always construed with the genitive of the object numbered. E. 1, 53, 21 5^7^^ nat ^7^(1 give a crore of cows); Pane I, 251 q- niiPTf ?t^tjt ^r cframT oii(?Mi!jj UKfcrii mmrt
==r

TT5TT

^'
(t

ui

A?

feaiH

(designs of kings, that do not succeed

by a

;

224

§

294—296.

thousand elephants nor by a hundred thousand horse , are successful

by one Rem.
5, 18,

stronghold).
1.

The double construction of Pdmid
Cp.
f.

etc.

is

as old as

the Rgveda.

i.

Rgv.

2, 18,

5

xirdlP^Hl

^jfir:

with

Rgv.

5 j

^ q^iw s^iSMiy;
2.

Rem.
fifty

In epic poetry one meets occasionally with a plural
:

of the decads instead of the singular. Nala 26, 2 q^iuifj.ju
horses) instead of qsdiuiHi ^t:-

(with

On
with

the
sjff

other hand,
sT^5T

a

singular

of the substantive construed

and

occurs

now and

then, as Hariv. 1823 ^h^Sut
Pur.
4, 29,

srr^Tirr [instead of srrfft: or srr^rpj],

BMg.

24

asf sttpt').

2 95.

Multiples of to^lTFT and the rest are denoted by putting

them
(the

in the plural. R.
Kausalya,
2
);

2,

31, 22 cfttwot fl wii^mrq^ai-HRtf PTfq-

princess

might entertain
24 jrsmr f^TTT
in
TPJ

even thousands of H^aif gr
=grr£sr

men

such as I am)

R

3, 53,

(by

whom
13,

fourteen thousand Raxasas have been killed); M. 11, 221 fqrrjPTf fowl
•ssSfcfh".-

HI^HIU-H
i i

(eating
3
)
;

a

month
i

103, 14 spirit U H Pi


41

3X80
riJ fa
i

balls);

Mhbh.

Pane. 253 quriU

endeavours); Mhbh.

9, 8,

^

(even by hundreds of

-eiHidM^

l

iu

(and ten thousand horse)
«ii

Kathas. 35, 96 ^sr chissHchltlsr faror:

u(h<4I<j

296.

Numbers, given approximately, are expressed by
such compounds as ?TRT^T^5TT! (nearly twenty), *)g^W.
'

<H<JW<J-

f^TP
jTwo
cngTsrr:-

(not

far

from

thirty),

^<^iV

(almost ten),

?rf^^rrnTrr:
or three"
is

(more than
Q^itu i,
» three

forty).
,

or four" fM-^H^ifttl

"five or six"

Comp. Dag. 94 the compound adverb

fcRMHH

» twice,

three-,

four times."

1)

Another singular idiom occurs R.
passed),
as
if

1,

18, 8 =HrRT

TC

MHrtltl:

(the

six aeasons

Kir

meant »a hexad," not
,

»six."

Cp. Verz.

der Berliner Sanskrithandschriften
2) 3)
l

n° . 834.
l

h^5T

is

masc. or neuter.
is

See the gana sr ^-j f^ on P.

2. 4, 31.

An

irregular plural

Kam. 15,11 H^-UMI <rf}*f<y<4dMW*t

IHT:

MfW Hlft

ffrr instead of either

crfOT^or

tsrfT?

UIHlR-

§

297—299.

225

297.

Note the use of the words
»couple" and
»triad;"
»

%m
is

and =tm, or

fewandfemare often the last

tetrad"

T^rsm. They

members
P-

of compounds.
ufSlUlfd'

M.

2,

76

d^q (the
=3-

three Vedas), Utt. Ill,

37

rTrT:

q^tr

rITRTT

IT^TT

298.
tercar-

Putting ^Tl^T after a cardinal expresses the completeness of the number. So

ST^Tr „both of them ," ^aT^R
says even g^sft, ^r^fTT srfa etc.
sffffrfft aMq-icrU

^
r

a^V.^all
»all
fTTfq--

three
of

Of

them." One
Bhoj. 91

them."

srfPr:

fr

sHcjrwft

^Tf§r-

299.

Cardinals
,

may

often be the latter

members

of

com-

ow pounds

294 and 296. When former members they may make up with their befng wTof l atter members the so-called dvigns. This term is apsee
,

pends pli e(i to

two

different kinds of
,

compounds,

viz.

1.

the

collective
subst.,

compounds

made up

of a cardinal

+a

noun

and employed in a

collective sense; they

must
c

be of the neuter gender, as
.roads),

^"RWEFT

(juncture of four
"J"

but themes

in

° ^ may be

feminines in
or

as
p
2|

well as neuters in ° W\, as

T^Tfar1?

f^FTt^T
,

(the

*

three

worlds)

;

2

compound
,

adjectives

which rank
So the
1'
52'.

with the bahuvrihis
is

but the notion inherent to which

not that of ^possession,'' but some other.
itself,

word FS^T
of]

meaning
I,

bought

for [having the value
:

two COWS."
plates).

Ait. Br.

1,

6 ^hl^u ichU

M

gftnsr: (a cake dressed

on eight

Beside this special use

,

the cardinals

may

be parts of
especially
faces),

the

general

tatpurushas

and

bahuvrihis,

the latter. Such bahuvrihis as ^llttl! (having ten
I

oj^ilri^l^! (with twenty arms), are, in practice, by
15

226
far

§ 299-301.

more frequent than the adjectival dvigus.
Sjsrafsff

Yajfi. 2,

125

grjfer^sremTTTT:

eTr<WUllrMdl:

(the sons of a

brahman own
is

according to the caste [of their mother] four, three, two and one
portions)
,

Pat.

I,

p.

62

faqu ir ^dTif^

:

(this

bahuvrlhi

of three

elements).

300.

Ordinal nouns of number, when
vrlhi, are of course used as substantives

latter
(cp.

members of a bahu-

40, 17 JHlrHHrnm- ll

etfc

l

as

the

third,
:

that

^

224 R.

1).

So

JR. 2,

l

(after seeing

them mounted, having
Sita).
i

Stta

is:

them two with
two
cp.


.

Note the phrase

airMHrtldj

(himself with

others),

a rHH^W (himself with four
Tpirot;
(ir£{i7TT0s).

others)

and
74

the like,

Greek

ocurbi;

An

instance of the same phra*se , but in analytic form,

IV,

p.

=
301.
on8

*iir±HI rtdltw JMcyfardJ-siiui

srn^ST:.

may
to
°

be Mahav.

As

Q,Hid almost

swith"

cp.

58 R.
either

Fractions are expressed, as with us, by ordinal numbers',
phrase
2,

accompanied by some word meaning upart," as in the proverbial
cfTSTt

how
ed.

rrr#r qUufa (see
tiaiu jjca fi
i

f.

i.

Pane.

II,

61

,

M.

2,

86)

,

Ragh.
or
rnTt

66 stri?^

(*°

enJ 0T the sixth part of the

earth),
8,

put alone, when substantives of the neuter gender. M.
fSsr ^tft ^TrT (the king

398
it).

must take the twentieth part of
also

Moreover, they
of a cardinal
fmrrfr

may be denoted

by compounds made up
M.
8,

number

+

such a word as

inrr, ^ar etc.

140

55ft-

i^pd

i

h^ (he

may
is

take ';,,); ibid. 304 yrpsrrOTT: (a sixth part
5,

of the virtue); Kumaras.

57

fifa u ttftim
i

PtmiH (when but a third

part of the night
.

left);

Varah. Brh.~53, 25
-.-

Very common are

mm

i

and

qt^:

= |.

mgm:

=\

1).

They are substan-

tives

and accordingly construed with a genitive, but often also
tall

compounded. Note such turns as Bhoj. 48 mhi^um ji^t: (125

1)

This

mode
,

of designating

fractions

is

however not

free

from am-

biguousness
ras.
it.

as faWTTT

may
be
R,

denote also »three parts." See Mallin. on

Kuma-

5,57.

Nor

are

compounds, beginning with gy° always exempt from

So

f. i.

^ymH^may
that
is

=

half a hundred that

is

50, or

=

a hundred

-j-

half of
Diet., as

it,

150.
,

2. 34,

13

mUHUa

i

rl l:

is

explained in the Petr

being 750

but Gorebsio

is

right in accepting it

=

350.

§
elephants,
51*137:
l^iairi
lit.

301—302.
a fourth of
it),

227
R.
350.
2, 39,

a hundred

_|_

=
as

36 dhrosnTT:
1,

half seven-hundred

women,
(

that

is

Raj.

^TVT oimimw^ian^i^ljj^

reigned 45 years

286 r^rrr-

).

Such numdrferfa,

bers

l£,

2 J-

etc.

are

signified

by the compounds
literally
*).

^yTTtThr etc., that are adjectives

and bahuvrihis,

meaning

•the second, third etc. being [but] half"
^WlPoljft ^sjq^rrn^ (for 4 Jtexts).

M.

4,

95

j^t^fewhrta
a half

month a brahman must study the vedic
is

»One and a half"

more"], as WfsiWq;

=

also

mzrm^
is

[literally

— »with
g-

150.

Rem.

How

the interest of

money

denoted,
g-

may appear from

this passage of

Manu

(8,

142):

f£* %pr gHs*
take

HHUI otp& JT^I^uiWW-iqoiUi: (he may
according to the caste).

qw

stirf

^W

i

2, 3,

4 and 5& a

month

302.
Other
re-

marks

distributive meaning, see 252 •per terms speculator-es Var. Tog.
, ,

By being ,...,.

repeated, cardinals or ordinals acquire a
3° .
2,

Pane. 191 ftfiTfefafrrErr: sjrt
rj^ir crgq- ,sf|

=

35

(every

fifth

day).

The same duty may be done by adverbs
STrTST:, Ms^HSI':

in

° $r;,

especially

by

a^sr:,

»by hundreds, by thousands," also sin hundred,
rrtrrsr:

thousand ways, manifold",
2, 24,

(by crowds!,

f.

i.

Qat. Br. 14,4,

etc.

The proper employment of the adverbs
parts.
pieces).

in ° ^T

is

to in-

dicate a real division Of a whole into so
M.
7,

173 f^rr
133
ptst

sr^f
fr

Kathas. 106,

wm
in

and so many gusn (divided his forces in two parts),
Jjyf

Qdfomfc (—

into a

hundred

Our
krit

adjectives in

fold, etc. are represented in Sans-

by compounds

° 3TTT

— see the dictionary — as
^rppT, H^PTHT.

fejtir (twofold, double), f^THT,
The standard cp. 106 R. 2.
of comparison
is

here of course put in the ablative,

1)

On

this subject see the disputation of Patanjali

I,

p.

426 who as is
,

often the case, rather obscures than illustrates the subject which he treats.

228

§ 303.

SECTION
Chapt.
I.

IV.

SYNTAX OF THE VERBS.
General remarks

Kinds of verbs.

Auxiliaries. Periphrase of verbs.

303.

The verbal

flection

,

which plays a prominent part in

^Hl
verb-

books on Sanskrit Grammar, has not that paramount
character in Sanskrit Syntax, at least within the limits
of the
classic

dialect.

In days of old

,

the

full

value
of the

and the

different

properties

of the rich

store

various verbal forms were generally

much

better un,

derstood and more skilfully displayed in literature than
in

and

after the classic period.

The history

of the

syntax
verbal

of the Sanskrit verb is a history of decay.

Some

forms get wholly out of use, others become rare or
are no

more employed

in

their

proper way.

In this

manner the conjunctive mood

(FTS") has
,

been lost be-

tween the Vedic Period and Panini and in post-Paninean
times the differences between the past tenses are disappearing
,

and upon the whole the tendency
and verbal nouns

of substitut-

ing participles
see 9; 14, 1° ;

234

for the finite verb

is

increasing.

Similarly the faflection
,

culty of expressing
tenses,

by means of mere
voices, but also
,

not only

moods and

newly framed verbs:
denominatives,

causatives,

desideratives

intensives,
in

has

been

much impaired

practice,

though

it

has
it is

never ceased to be recognised by theory.

In fact,

only the causatives that have retained their old elasticity

and are

still

made

of

any verbal root, but the
are
as

desideratives

and

denominatives

a rule em-

§

303—305.

229

ployed within a

little circle

of forms often recurring,
fallen out of use.
,

and the intensives have almost
304.
Causatives.

The causatives are expressive of such actions whose subject is not the agent, but he at whose prompting
i

p

-

s - 1.

the

agent acts, as <5^$tT:

37?T =hl(UIM

(N.

N. gets

the
ive

mat made). They
and
in

are

much used both

in the act-

the passive voice.

Their special construc318, espec. c).

tion has been dealt with in full (49-51).

On

the middle voice of causatives see

Rem. Occasionally the
causative meaning, as
i

causatives are used without a

if

they were primitives
synonymous with

').

R.

1, 5,

9
l-

HiVr oimmn'M (he inhabited the town); Prabodh. II,
rrarg^qfff:,

p.

43

oi^Htj

here aaiHU rT

is

quite

Pane.

168

fg?

JTTjrtnwiwfH
l l

= STiwra,
,

jr^r.

^° ^- 257
-4Mi|[y]-

"t

fe

f%ira

f%J5TcHlui ^TTTJiTrrr sf%i chHllr<H ^ d

wmiuuRt [=
its

Thus

often in

the prakrts.

Sometimes the primitive and
.yrfff

causative are used pro-

miscuously, as
is

and

sj litild
,

both »to bear." Sometimes there

some idiomatic
primitive
for it,

difference

as in the phrase ttsjj chUiilrl (to exeris

cise the royal power),

here the primitive
got
i

not used.

Sometimes

the

having
as

obsolete,

the

causative has been sub-

stituted

(aa ^lfri (to wed) instead of the archaic
it

Qd^H

;

of

which primitive

is

only the participle bug that

is

used in

the classic dialect.

In special cases refer to a dictionary.

305.
Desideratives.

The desideratives are
the action which
,

is

expressive of the „wish of doing" P. ,^ r fP. denoted by the verbal root T^T^u^Irl
:

p. s, i,

=
to

^rlH^irl
obtain).

(he

wishes to

do),

M^TrT
is

(he wishes

Sometimes they simply denote the „being
about to
fall).

about:" faq[rni?T *?K?FT (the fruit
It is
1)

stated in express terms

by native grammarians,
is

This employment of the causatives

termed by vernacular gram-

marians S5TW fuM-

,

230

§

305—307.
is

that the employment of the desideratives

optional

*)

whereas the causatives cannot
dingly
,

be periphrased. Accor-

desideratives are less frequent in literature than

causatives.
finite

They are not only met with when being
and
participles,
(adj.),

verbs

but also their derivatives

in ° ?JT (subst.)

and ° 3
,

which

may

be made from

any desiderative asm^T'Tr (the wish of doing),
(wishing to do).
Examples
alone
that
:

N^l^
^r-

Dag. 90 ^iiJfi^-di

mm-v

^sr set afters fdFdshluA
it is is

gld-HMdHlritfmlH

(she does not care for wealth,
sell

for virtues

she wishes to

her charms and she
ibid.

desirous of

behaving herself like a respectable lady),
l

25 .q^fcra^aTTTijrT

feriWTFf mrUMchMdtrT GhJ (as I perceived some brahman, whom the crowd of my attendants were about to kill), Eathas. 29, 157
TT5TT

• •

MMtSouffUrT: (the king being about to die of illness).

306.
sives.

The intensives are not frequent in literature. In the brahmauas and in the great epic poems they are more

met with than in younger texts. The participles of them seem to be more employed than the finite verbs.
to be
Examples: Mhbh.
t?l<JtWMM<Ji
l-MUti.

1,

90,

4 rrpr

fr

qrrfcr

<rlMmHH

l:,

R.

2, 95,

10

Kathas. 81, 17 the glow of the sun at the hottest
is

part of the day

thus described
p.

^

f|

sfgf?r

i

2J)um

Wi^ lwlwipl l'

W[^T sflstJiqfri:. In Pane. V,
stable,
after

321 the ram, that

flees into

the

having been driven away by the cook with a blazing

stick, is called jrrsoTWTPwfb":-

Various classes of denominatives are explained by Panini
minati- 8
ves

— 21;

25; 27

— 30).
i

(3, 1,

Among

these, some verbs are very

common
cry),

in literature, as

a ehuWfrr
uses

(to hear), ferairt (to mix),

mzmi (to

but they have nothing remarkable from a syntactic point of view
since

the speaker
P.

them ready made and may use them even

1)

3, 1,
s.

7
5.

stood from

yrm: <*i*JUI: STOT^IchHtwR^Wi 5TT sc. STT, to be underBut in P. 3, I, 26, which sutra teaches the form and emis

ployment of the causatives, the particle of optionality

wanting.

,

§

307—308.

231

without being aware of their etymology. concern
if

The denominatives which

us

here,

are those which one can frame by one's self,

wanted,
treats

such as

g^fa
i

intr.
grRFi:

(he wishes a son), drhrffl- trans.
(the

(he

as a son), iw-imr

crow behaves

as if

he were

a

falcon)

and the

like.

Examples of them are occasionally met
I, vs.

with in literature. Pane.
teld-fisfir
i

5

^
if

<?fr#r

<r^iini Md^ behave towards the wealthy, as
the poor even their

^d-MUrf (here

f| yf^rt cq^fa SJsrcwr on earth even non-relatives
i

they were their kinsmen, but to
I,

own

family are rather bad), Kad.
i

p.

30

etcHo)

fsrtfu:

mv

ch{H«?l)MHlai)Hi)Mr< .Ud (everything

which

is

given

[to

me]

by the queen
y|±W|iiH
Inohoatives
Factiti„
,

herself in her

own hand,
^l
I

is

as ambrosia), Bhoj. 61

roi^fS-qjuiN qf&

ctnyM d

f5 H^j..

(Somanatha

has become

a cornucopiae to me). r '

Some
8 * a^ e

„ P.
the notion of coming into some
,

3,1,
12.

,

of those in

Vran convey

ou * ° f another quite opposite

as vrsrraH (to
(to

become frequent
sorry), aT
i

ve 3-

[after
^j^liUrl-

having

been infrequent],

arfprraflT

grow
is

il

l

U fT,

But the number of these inchoatives

308

on P.

3, 1, 12.

limited, see Kac.

Cp. 308.

Inchoatives

may

be made of any noun, by com-

pounding

it

in

a special

manner with the verb
(to

P
*T

5 5 o.

4

'

(Whitney § 1094), as H^ftefrT

become

frequent),
J

l^j
and 32.

3T?TMcTFT (to become white). The same compounds OH when made up with the verb ^T, signify „to bring something into a state, the reverse of that, in which

it

was before
cft^llrl
(to

l

)" as

Spft^lfFT

(to

make

white), ^Gtjft-

make black). These inchoatives are very common. Some of them have got some special meaning
as toiler (to get possession
(to
of),

?T^t^
p. 62.

(to allow), 3T1 JT^T

embrace)

see

f.

i.

Nagan. IV,

1)

Kac. on P.

5, 4,

50

^5Tcjr;

srar:

wvjh

ST^HorfFT

i

ff

arfriH tt|*l*(lfri'

232

§

308—310.
ch^i i-h ': u
i\

Examples: Dag. 59 MchyHd
fvrgtsrfsrT^ tSftusrfH

^

mr:
(I

;

{

ich^sWcr

,

Qak. II

*rilifl-

Prabodh.

II, p. 42 Krodlia says sreft-

giftft' IT5PT srfvfteiftfSr

make

the world blind
(it is

and

deaf),

Mrcch.

VIII,

p.

256

3TEFTJ"

flp^Gn?icRTTiT

difficult to

change poison into
the verb

medecine).

Rem. Panini allows even

inchoatives,
it

made with
is

ailrr.

From
only

the
in

examples

given by Ka§.
-

likely,

they do exist

the optative: m chimin

As

far as I

know, instances are
552.

not found in literature.

309.

Another mode of making inchoatives
to the

is

putting the suffix "sntT p

noun and adding

itotjh,

resp. cRTffn.
o^TfiT

This class

^

-

*

is,

however,

limited to

substantives,
tH

for the suffix

expresses the complete
(it

transition of one thing into another, as afTHMI-froliH
fire),

vanishes in

m^MMlrch^

l

(he lays in ashes).
ssnnrfarfHrr,
5,

According to 308 one
etc.

say likewise gr^iTsrfH,
?r

srnrhfHriH,

may
33, 7
;
i

Mhbh.
i

1,

iTOT

wwu-Qhj
1.

Kathas.

100 jjfn

^H

fSrsrsr

rdl^Mchhu

fMm^q

Rem.
° HTfT

In the case of partial transformation one likewise uses
HBrf^
(in

P-

5, 4,

cFrfrfFT,
l

and also %nyr
this

^ftRTrf

f.

i.

gwf

M-j

i

dNrtjiH^ hst

Ul^HfMM r^iNd
racle).

army

all

weapons become

fiery

by a mi-

See Kac. on P.
2.

5, 4, 53.
,
-

Rem.
signify
iToriH
(

»to

The same idioms *Wr -I- eh A ft nafft, WKm may also p make resp. to become the property of:" dHlt;

M,

,

i

i

hikih )

»it

becomes the king's." Kathas.

38,

157 d fomm^chH
l

srafrT

saw
3.

(she bestowed her estate on the brahmans)

,

Pane.

I,

224

iJ(*Hlr*rTT

fc%rr] (given into marriage).
Pane. 45
rrf

Rem.
309*.
or

"sttft

is

construed with the verb
.

;?(.

It is

written there fear]

HHWHtl-^

The upasarga
(he

jr°

prefixed to the verb has sometimes the power

of denoting the beginning of the action.
orcjfHrT:

Kag. on P.

1, 2,

21 nq\p H
|

:

commenced

to shine), Pane. I, 195

^tt

u^q-rtifTT
if

^Trf y^^fafi- (if he laughs, they begin weeps, they shed tears).

to smile at

him,

he

310.

Periphrase of verbs by means of a general verb to do with an object denoting the special action meant, is

§ 310.

233
that
is

phrlte
verts,

not

uncomm <»-

It is

chiefly

purpose.
^T^fFT,

make

m^
,

So

^m

^

used for this

^tfFT =

^TSPTfrt,

RT^ ^tfFT =
(to

^tfrT = mtrt, EmT*R ^TTfrT
In the same

one's toilet).

way the verbs

,

express-

ive of being

becoming etc. are employed for representing

nominal predicates.

Of the

kind are H^frT,

SETJTrT

3rJH,
lation

frT^frT,
call

OTJTfl' and the like, cp. 3 and 4.
auxiliaries.

It is

proper to

them

But the same appelwhich, in reality,
VF®[' T^TT^FTt
is

should

be shared by

^
:

the causative of the former ones

H^ltl

,

ffT^TR' (the knot

is

,

gets loose), 5F?f ftrfsFT

^T5[1trT (he loosens the knot).

Examples:
(this

1.

of

u and
out

its

synonyms. Qak. I
Pane. 51

msr qrfr
fsfc^of

fBrnrsFTS':

STaff:

deer
i

has

got

of reach),

rdHch^ iQ^ri-n
-i

MdlH
of

(why did you swoon thus on a sudden?), Nala
Ph
JT

9,

19

jt

rq-

sr^RT

Ufarr orrefte mHijJ

(they, having turned birds, bereave

me

even

my
2.

garment).

(

Of ^.


1,

.

Qkk. I grafM^wUllr^M' RytSjUlfa 5fW
3, 25,

STTrlR:
=35ff:

Tf^lj *()R

or shall I conceal myself?), -E.

25 ^Trferf

Pm
4,

i

-sU

I:,

Kumaras.

48

chdbif^Hiitiroi

ftfwr

=5^75":

(the female yaks would
tails), ibid.

abate of their pride on account of their
5ig;<)f|Hp^:
crarar

41 afiT^TT-

STHrrnrrJWFftrJIsntrfa':,

Pane. 58 Vishnu says *iRHeh«tifl}
fft

ehi^wjlft
=sr

srsrt =aeFny

cRTO:

by

srrj;

[= ndTraift ] [— smamm And so gpf:'

-

Kathas. 27, 160 aMiyy r y
=%] on.

g^df
explains

Qank; on Ch. Up.

p.

71

Bern.

Other verbs of

similar,

though

less

frequent and more

limited employment, are 57
»to

^ifn, ^yTin,
3T
(cp.

sr^in, sryiffr-

One

says gnrf

listen,"

^tHM
H d lM

»to clap hands,"

^fm

5J

»to bolt the
like.

door;"
II, p.

qfir STf »to behave"
38 q lg oi

E.

2,

12, 8)

and the

Vikr.

^

^ErawfFf

fcrffFT

([your] eye does not rest
74, 101

on the creepers in the garden) ; Mhbh.

1,

g^

q- 5rft| fstfa.

;

234

§

310—311.
l

fT^f% (you ought not to use deceit); Hariv. 531 H
SfT^r

5i<mm&m^
IV,
p.

(Nar.

was asleep
i

^

l

dUp) 3?r ftcfT

),

Ragh.

2, 7
is

^istcdTrJi'

5TO:

Mudr.

137 tm

rdi lTd<H*UHilcfrJ

srsib": (B.

at

enmity with

"IIemploy-

C); Dag. 19 H^l^lir fir£rniT: (being much astonished). And so on. The verb substantive has been dealt with in the opening of
this

book (2 and 3). Here some remarks may be added: 1. The negation put to nsrfH or gf^r may signify »not
be lost or dead." Mudr. VI,
p.

to exist
rer

at all, to

197

zm mn'ittj l^mMl-a
,

^

srf^T

(those ,

by whose favor
31
?fh=raT

I enjoyed all that glory
-

are

now

dead); K.

3, 31,

negation without verb
dissuades

^%fr JV?t =T ulamfi may have this meaning. R.
off Sita,

Even the mere
3,

41, 19

Marica
^Hdl -

Eavana from carrying

saying

^m(5mR|

2-

jj[?H

)

the 3 d perg. of the present,
in

may be used almost
It
is

as

a particle
the very

the

beginning
Kathas.
s

of tales
1,

and the like. J )
Qiva begins
to

then

first

word.

27

tell
:,

a story: here ^fer
»it

^feT *mftf%iT

<T5T

sTjOT ^TJTJTtmrmT.
)

f^Holr<J l^^crlMol IMH
it

may

be rendered by swell."
that,"
=T

Sometimes

has the force of
i l

happens
irMiit'Sf^

as

Pat.
it

I, p.

48

?r%

cpr:

diR)<^^ mgd < Hfifa a
ibid. p.

iTeriH

(but

happens also elsewhere that _),

3.

ssrfiiT

,

the

first

person

,

is

now and then used
jets'

instead of g^rr.

See

Petr. Diet. I, p.

536

s.

v.

6).

Dag. 158

gft-s ritjfoj

s?"

rOTyi{m*wuichi^ur.

seems to

q^M^rHoiy'-iisWM'WiH, here a^fej be quite the same as sg^ir. Likewise 53ft- and fgnfH may

g^¥

1)

Cp.

the imperatives

serft

and

Hotrj,

which are used to express the
like

necessity or suitableness of yielding to

some outward circumstance,
that

Greek

ekv.

But the present

3gf^T
is

represents,

the

request of

him
this.

who
2)

wishes the tale to be told,

actually complied with.

The frequent employment
,

of this idiom

may

be inferred from
tales.

In the Pancatantra ed. JIvananda there are 71 numbered

Of them,
is

45 begin with Juffn
in
if

and though in most of them no
is

finite

the

first

sentence -- in 14 cases there
all
,

verb

found
all of

yet in the great majority,

not in
,

?rf%7 is not necessary for the understanding.
,

But in

somebody likewise in the two passages from the Kath&saritsagara, quoted by the Petr. Diet., viz. 1, 27 and 22, 56.

them the

tale is told at the request of

,

§
be occasionally used

311— 3H.
12.

235

=

joPT, as is

mentioned by Vamana; see Vdmas.

na

,

s

Stilregeln

by Oappeller, Qdbdaguddhi

312
in

=ff,

*T

and ?JH are

also auxiliaries in another sense

as

far as they help to

form periphrastic tenses, as
}

the periphrastic perfect (333), the future in ° rf

the

durative (378),
others as

etc.

The same may be
illtrl,

said of

some

Irr^TrT,

SFTH,

when

signifying the

durative, see 378.

old.
Ttti rsir

tjj 6 anc i en t dialect

bad the faculty of severing preposition and
1

verb in compound verbs, the so-called tmesis

).

The sacred

texts

from the mantras up to the sutras abound in examples. The greatest

freedom
fisn

is

of course found in the sanhitas.

ott n^ffr

=

Ait. Br.

1,

21, 7 jq fuoi^
i

:

?rfe:rt:

&" m° stitch,
1,
2

Ch. Up.

5, 3, 1

jjrqrpr

rdll^iej((<4rHI

rr ZR tt^dluiN^T ftrTT , Apast.

25, 10 ^ff
).

f=|flT5PS!"{TT

TPT 357?T-

Classic Sanskrit has lost this faculty

Chapt.

II.

On
->,

voices.

3 14.
ille

The Sanskrit verb has three voices the active (3T?gr:

three
of the
krit

q^J), the medial (^TTFFTCT^T) and the passive.
of these
, ,

the active

is

formally different from the other
passive voices have

two but the medial and
in

many forms
made
[for

common. The

perfect ^Jsh

may

be

=

„he

himself]" as well as „he
is

was made ," the future ^l|^4rt
[for

either
1) P.

„he will
80—82 H

bear

himself]" or „he will be
these [viz. the

1, 4,

gWTifr:

I

$<I5 qpfr/ aT5T%IT5I
I

»

upasargas and gatis] are put before the root; but in sacred texts (chandas) also behind and separated' from it by other words."
2)

Perhaps something like a remnant of the antique tmesis

may

oc-

casionally be

met
I,

with.

here

:

Mudr.

p.

20

H

l

l

my -c^-rU ?
In

notes,

I find
2, 9,

two passages regarding us
1

and R.

28 srCsm

=T

FoTT

sfiq^-

236
borne. )"
1

§

314—316.
and
its

But

in the present

system (present,

imperfect, potential or optative, imperative, participle
of the present)
pression
,

each voice has a different formal exetc.

<=h^rl

serving exclusively for the

medium

but |9hMcl again having exclusively a passive meaning.
315.

The
sitive

participle in ° rl

may

have a passive, an intranaf-

and a transitive meaning, as will be shown
See 360.
of the present, it is

terwards.
Passive
in

Apart from the system
form,
viz.

but one

° j single
6

the 3 d pers. of the sing, of the aorist

tens^
derived fromit.

ST^tf^, *IWlfa
passive.
Bern.

— as
tense.

which exclusively serves for the
this aorist in ° t

At the outset even
etc.

was a medial
p.

See Whitney § 845 and Delbruck Altind. Tempuslehre
p.

53 grg^,
for
P- 3, 1,

54 g^fsr

Panini

teaches

an

intransitive

employment

gqrft; (has arisen,
jfsfVfy

come
big).

forth), afffij (has shone),

wfSr (was born),
(has extended),
i

(has awaked),

sgtrfr

(has

grown

full),

sffrfrfir

am
316.
of

I

Hi

(has

grown
3"1

In

classic

literature

aq

Q

is

not rare.

Eathas. 42, 134 j^ft

dumQ
all

FtH (the giant died).

From
3T^,

this

person

in ° j, however,

it

is

allowed to derive p
,

?'
(

4

'-

several passive tenses of
5TT

such roots

,

as

end in a vowel moreover
d.

and ^r,
Mhbh.

see

Whitney

§

998

So

f. i.

cpsqir,

the

1)

Cp.

f.

i.

1,

159, 6 the future trf^ijTOT

d

sna11 rescue) with

Da9- 96 q[7j| HIrf (those two will be rescued) or
I

Mhbh. 1,188,18 aTT^

-rjlit.il

iPT;

(and

Arjuna took the bow) with Kathas. 71, 34
It

h

FTOT

WIS

an%
for

(he was embraced by her).

would be an interesting subject-matter
account of the

inquiry to

draw a
It

statistical

common

forms of the

atmanepadam with respect to their being use 1 with a medial and with a
passive meaning.
especially

seems, indeed, that of several verbs these forms,
,

have the tendency of conveying exclusively a meaning, whereas some others seem to be exclusively passives. Before, however, such an account from standard authors will have been made, it would be premature to state something with certainty on this head.
the
perfect

media]

,

§

316—318.

237

common
•g^fsr

future atman. of jst ,
it

may sometimes have a passive meaning
the future ^jtf
i

sometimes

is

medial,

but

mH

derived from

cannot be used except in a passive sense. In practice
of an exclusively passive
i

these
rare.
ibid.

tenses

meaning seem

to

be very
minister),

Dag. 132 H(^im

isj

l(liQ

(I

was addressed by the

133 chuifq fiajicM^UI cMJUlMWlGiRi.

317.
rence
l)C-

The

difference

between the active voice and the me-

dial is for the greater part only a formal one, at least

tweea
tive°

in the classic language.

Many
,

verbs

are used in the
,

parasmaipadam

,

but not in the atmanepadam
given for this by

and

in-

and'tL versely.
medial,

The

special rules

grammar

^p ^ ^ gqq ^ do not bel6ng to Syntax. Even if the same root is employed in both voices it is not always
,

^

difference of

meaning that discriminates them in poetry,
, ; ,

for inst., particularly in epic poetry

an other voice than
is

the legitimate one
Compare the
in

is

often admissible for metrical reasons.
sometimes the same verb
So
aparasmaip.
dies),
fij!JH ( ne

fact, that

one tense and an atman ep. in another.
is TTfrarfH.

but

the future

318.

Nevertheless, the original difference between active

and medial

is

not

lost.

Not only
itself

the grammarians,

who have invented the terms parasmai padam and dtmane
padam, but the language
of
it.

shows,

it is

well aware

Several verbs

may

be employed in both voices
p. 1, 3,

in this

wav

,

that one avails one's self of the medial

especially to

denote „the fruit of the action being for
f.

72

foil

the subject,"
self

i."^^^fT-'

f

T^r{ ,N.N. cooks

for

him-

" but CT^TFT,

when it is to be told, he cooks for others.
3
-

Of the causatives the medial voice serves always for that purpose: ^iE" ^njflrt „he orders a mat to be made^
for his

own

behalf."

238
Proper
sphere of the

§ 318.
this proper sphere of the

Within
tions

medium some distinca.)

medinm.

may

be made.

The action may be done
*

by

the subject himself in his
T?r\

Own

behalf, as Apast.

1,

25, 10

RRT^T^T TFT

R^-fT (they remove the sin from
of the subject, likewise for

themselves

),

b.)

by order
is

himself; of the kind
of the patron,
self

the

medium

offlsT.

*TsTFTissaid

who makes

the priests officiate for him-

and who obtains the

fruit of the sacrifice,
c.)

whereas

the officiating priests MsllTi,

so that the
4, 4, 2

same per-

son

is

both subject and object as Ch. Up.
,

tlrM^IM

^5T sTT^TFTT

Sjoll&ll!
a.)

(you

must name yourself
b.)

).

Compare with
„I „I

such Greek medial verbs as

iropi&f&xi

„I acquire for myself," with

such as
c.)

iratieucf&xi rbv utiv

have

my

son instructed

,"

with

suchas

xxxvtttoimi

wrap myself." Those
Instances
of medial

in c) are

mere

reflexives.

meaning conveyed by medial forms seem
,

to be found especially in the older texts

yet they are not wanting

in the classic literature.
a.)

Par.

1, 4,

12 a marriage-mantra

contains the words

trfryf^oT

oTiH: (put on the
it

garment
Ait.

[yourself]), 'for (rfryf^
gctr
g-

would mean »put
[for their
i

on

another;"

Br. 2, 11, 1
l

ti^WH-*Jd

own

benefit]; Kathas. 42,
[for
6,

201 aduT ri *wirlfi7 fd<im(*^ch (she chose him

her husband]) and in this meaning regularly dU H
E.
1,

78;

61, 21

Kathas. 25, 232
puts
it

mm

I

,

f-

i-

Kumaras.

-m to

i

TFT (prince, take
I

me

with you);

the king , being presented with a golden lotus,
,

into a silver vase

and says

:

would I had another similar

lotus to put it into the other silver vase
t?ft

gwTSf5f$ an;

— Pat.
rrrrjft

jjl^mlHtid

^m^f^ his hands),

I, p.

281 3=rq^

crrrjiT

(he
;

warms

ibid. p.

282 aid-^H

(he stretches his hands)

— Pane. 64 yrgfa^:
af=r

57
1,

iMshlii ZKKcl (the king's zenana are sporting in the water"); Mhbli.
175, 33
b.)
srr
rrV.

[SlitdlRjlUI

drS^J yj^ldUH Sfmx:-

R.

2, 4,

22 Dacaratha says to his son

Rama

tr^-sftiRl^M

§
(have
c.)

318-319.
),

239
always
with
this

yourself

anointed
3
ar


1,

and

so

verb;

Apast.

1, 6,

^fcpTfMnm^iTM

(he shall not stretch out [his

feet]

towards him); Mhbh.
;

121, 31
,

^fesr

^anf

(show yourself,

gallant prince)

Rem. Rem.
iforci

1.

*npgs qjgw srpng- 3=*5T<?r ^. If a reflexive pronoun be added, one may use the
R.
1,

75, 3

^

active as well as the medial voice.
2.

p
use of the medial causatives
[you] to fear (wonder
faFTHnrfrf

-

1. 3 .

P.

1, 3,

68 teaches

77.

the

and

farerrrcrcr

when meaning:

»I cause

at)

myself,"

whereas the regular forms
Reciprocity
arfH° .

irercrfa',

have

no reflexive meaning.

Rem.
ginning
P.
1, 3,

3.

may
I, p.

be denoted by compound verbs be-

by

These must
Pat.
277.

be generally

medial

verbs.

See

14—16 and
.

319.
Passive
voice,

Th. e

passive voice

is

much used

in Sanskrit both

""
87

1>

personally and impersonally, as has been pointed out

7 and 8. Moreover
as
the

it

serves to signify such intransitive actions

rice boils, the
'),

wood

splits

CJ^Urf
,

M i^MH ITH'tlrl
wood"
is
I

=hl'^ rT

whereas

„I boil the rice

I split the

expressed by the active voice
Hl'ij
3
).

5Tt^T W^IH" =hl^ PT"
l

Pat. II,
is

p.

14

TOTOT fwfHNH

sTteT:

srhEFFr

(from a river-

bank, which
off)
,

about to give way, lumps of earth are breaking
5
rr

Kumaras.

4,

f&^tlf (v. a.

my

heart does not break), Kathas.
1, 5, 4,

25, 45 sr^r spwsJTFT (the vessel burst), Qat. Br.
t

5 g srcsqcTfat

h^

lPr

rrap^' (the "fruits
(to

fall

down from
jq-Jiii?|
fit)

the trees).

Of the kind
(to

are

pjr&

appear,

to

seem),

(to increase), grpEffa^r

decrease), mH7t (to suit, to be
1)

and the

like.

The

passive,

when
,

personal,

is

styled chHfui (expressive of the ob-

ject),

when impersonal

irrg- (express, of the state), see P. 1, 3, 13; 3, 1, 67.

having an intransitive or reflexive meaning, (express, of both subject and object).

When
2)

it is

styled

chH*dH

Yet one likewise says
3,

f. i.

STTV ^TTSTt TcrfH' (the pot boils well), cp.

Kac. on P.

1,87.

,

240
Bern.
1.

§
It
is

319—320.
P. 3.
l,

not allowed, however, to use that intransitive

passive of

all

verbs.

Panini excepts the roots g^;
toliW d
,

,

g-

and

rpj.

One
the

says

»the

j^f - not j^jfi- - rfh cow is milking; the
of the

qq^
all

-

not qujff
Patanjali

- S^TT:

^KPTcr

stick

bends."

extends

exception to others, especially to
varttika
list

causatives, and mentions a

Bharadvajiyas

which enumerates
events
this

even a larger

of exceptions.

This statement of the Bharadvajiyas has been

accepted by the

Kacika.

At

all

,

much

is

certain

that of several verbs the medial voice has also an intrans. meaning.

A

concurrence of medial and passive

is

taught by P.

3, 1,

62 and

63 for the aorist of roots ending in a vowel and also of g-^; with
intransitive
3T|TV,
f. i.

meaning
4lchlf|

it
iffSRFT

may be
5J)T:

said
-

acHfl

or sairT,. a^)f^ and

or

tolWol

On
nally
self."

the other hand, the pure reflexive

— 318
JjaiH

c\

is

occasio-

expressed by
R.
3, 69,
2.

a

passive;

especially

»to release

one's

39 tf^reres jmajtziw
2,

Rem.

Note the idiom
See
f. i.

hii^NH

:

,

a passive with etymo-

P. 3, 1,

logical object.

M.

167.

320.
Intran
sitives-of

Intransitives are often expressed also by the verbs
the so-called four th class of conjugation
,

which

chiefly
r-s

how
ex -

comprises roots with intransitive meaning, as Sh^Miri

$STf?T, faSTTFT,

^TIH.

For the rest,

intransitive

meaning
forms

is

by no means

restricted to a special set of

and
is

may

be conveyed by any.

So

f.

i.

FcPT

„to sleep"

formally an active ^FTftT,

^TT „to lie"

a medial 3TFT, The
of the

^

„to die" a passive H^TrT.

difference of accentuation

which

exists

between the verbs
in-

4 th

class

and the passives, must not blind us to the
of their
close

contestable
is

fact

connection.

At the
° gfff

outset, there

likely

to

ha^e been one conjugation in
,

° ?ih

with intran-

sitive function

whence

both the 4*h class

and the passive have sprung.

Nor

is

it

possible, even in

accentuated texts, to draw everywhere

with accuracy the boundary-line between them, see

Whitney

§ 761,

, ,

§ 320—321.
especially
b.)

241
6, 1,

and

c.)

and 762,

cp. also

the rule of P.

195.

The old language, many instances of

especially the dialect of the Mahabharata, affords

passive forms with the endings of the parasmai-

padam, even with passive meaning.
13; 51, 9; 102, 23; Nala 20, 31 etc.

See
1

f.

i.

Mhbh.

1,

24, 15; 38,

).

Chapt.

III.

Tenses and moods.

321.

The Sanskrit
and moods:
3.
1.

finite

verb comprises the following tenses
2.

the present (FPT),
4.

the imperfect (FT3),
(FT3F), 5.

the perfect (H4"),

the aorist

and

6.

the

future in PTlrT
7.
9.

(FI5) and the periphrastic future (FTE),
(tr\ \{t
) }

the imperative the precative

8.

the potential or optative (TFT3),

(M|:lR|N), 10. the conditional (FRF). To them we must add for the archaic dialect the conjunctive
in
° rT (FTS"),

for the classic
,

language the

participles
finite

and

rT^Tl
1

as

far as they do

duty for

verbs. Of these,

—6

and the said

participles constitute

mood;" the other moods are represented by 7—10 and by the
that, which

we

are wont to call „the indicative

Vernacular grammar makes no distinction between tenses and

moods, which

is,
2

indeed, less developed in Sanskrit, than
)

it

is

in

Latin and Greek.
1) P.

parasmaipada
are
tes that

th class 3,1,90 mentions two roots, which are verbs of the 4 when being used as intransitive-reflexives whereas they
,
,

)

otherwise

conjugated

,

when

transitives.

But Panini expressly
the passive of

sta-

the eastern grammarians

teach so

,

them may
strikes),

therefore.be also employed,f.i. chtejfd or
TstrfFT

oFTOJ^r trier:

feWHol (the foot
Utt.

or

pqfV

of^T

STCRoT

(the

garment

is

dying).

V,

p.

102

^

S5T&

p3rT:.

2) In Panini's

grammar the 10

or 11 tenses and

moods form

one category

16

242

§ 322.

322.

Of the tenses, which constitute the indicative mood,
the present
is

represented by one, the future by two,

the past by four (aorist, imperfect, perfect, participles).

Of the two futures, that in Vllcl
are the general exponents of the past.

is

the general expo-

nent of the future. Likewise the aorist and the participles

The other past tenses

and the other future have but a limited sphere of employment. We may remark that those limits are quite different from
what one would expect judging from the names by which Sanskrit
,

tenses have been termed

by European

scholars.

Sanskrit imperfect

and perfect have nothing in common with their cognominal tenses in
Latin or French or Greek, and the difference
f. i.

between the employ-

Rh and tyifipmnfi can in no way be compared with that which exists between Lat. scripturus sum and scribam.

ment of

Skr. ^[^ih

i

Eem.
lative

Sanskrit

makes no
if
i),

distinction

between absolute and reex-

tenses.

Hence,
is

one wants to denote what was about to
is

be done in the past
pressive of
larly
,

one employs the same tense which

what

about to be done
,

now

,

viz.

the future.
is

Simi-

the same past tenses

which signify that which

accom-

plished now,
will
p.

may

serve also for the expression of the action, which

be

accomplished at some future point of time. Nagan. Ill,

55

fijir

n^

rewind n^T^nf^
i

ft^ioiy

£sr Fa^rWUiH

^ej,

here

the past tense jju

rl

:

has the value of the so-called futurum exac-

tum
tive

of Latin, ego
this

advenero.
too
,

For

reason
past

the present does also duty for the dura-

of the

(327) and the past tenses are also significative

of the remote past (339).

but do not bear a common appellation. The K&tantra names them fgirfiff, by the same term which is used tor the » cases" of the nouns. See Kat. 34 with commentary. 3,1, 11 1) This was at the outset the duty of the so-called conditional, but in classic Sanskrit this employment having fallen out of use, it is the future that is to express scripturus eram as well as scripturus sum. Cp. 347 R.

§

32S— 324.

243

Present. (^TS).

323.
Present,

The present tense
as

is

in Sanskrit
facts

what
of

it is

every-

where, the expression of
such.

present or represented
course the utof

The notion „present" has
It

most

elasticity.

applies to

any sphere
it

time

of

which ourselves are the centre and

may have

as small

or as great a periphery as possible.

Accordingly, facts

which are represented as happening always and every-

where are put in the present.
lustrate this

It is superfluous to

il-

by examples.
v
s 3'

324.
re e f nt;

Further, the presenVmay denote a near past or a near
future.
1.

\ s\

denoting a

The

present denoting a near future
:

may be compared

fj^g'

near
future

with such phrases as

I

am

going on a journey next
go.

week,

instead
etc.
arf£

of:

I

shall

So

^T^ch=^T
(if

>fMH",

Bhoj. 42

^

nsurT

serf

^lriwd*l flWlR'.Mi^uPH

we do not
3,

go, the king's attendants will turn us out to-morrow), E.

68, 13

%W5T
grr^r

foH a u fd (he will die soon), Pane. 143
(I

iTJITfJT

am happy,
this

y^f
is

.tiaddl

s^

fnr

I shall pass the time there

with

you).

In subordinate sentences the present

very often

employed in
Bern.
1.

manner, especially in
be shown
a
special

final

and consep. 3, 3,
4.

cutive clauses, as will
Panini gives

afterwards.
concerning the present
a
i

denoting the future with jnsnT and

286
to

^

m

rule

Example of
till

oirf j

Pane.

ZTffT
it

^STtrrWT

ill

5i<i,4

WUh*$lPl (—
»

I

come

back).

As

qTT,

may be
The

1.

an adverb

erelong."
for both.

2.

a conjunction =r
1%riftfo g_

Lat. priusquam.

rule holds

good

Dag. 136

TTT

ST dPidiJ

l

USFrFT (and that ungrateful
tr^r....

man
i

will erelong kill you)

R.

2, 116, 19

srrffftgqf%rf rmferj

^ylufo

f|;'

£ct^ f^wt^

244
<nmjjjm^ (before those

§

324—327.
inflict

wicked beings

any corporal injury
for denoting a near

upon the

ascets
2.

,

we

will leave this hermitage).
its fitness

Rem.
future
is

Another consequence of
its

exhibited by

doing duty for a conjunctive (356).

325.
sent

2.

The present denoting a near past.
„I arrive"
dlMil<

It

may

be said

^T^TJT^TFT
XJtt. I, p.

by one
Tp£:
(3, 2,

,

who

has just arrived.
just- retired

m

-

kg^a
near
past.

3

i

nikHifemtd
given by

(the

king has

fro

m

his seat of justice to his inner apartments).

Of

this

kind

are

the

rules

Panini
aorist

120 and 121) for the emIf one asks

ployment
or

of present

and

in

answers.

nhave

you made the mat?", the answer may be, when using
-i
i

tt, q- chTlflf

ch tH)
i

»no, I have not," or
:t,

if

an interrogation, nhavelnot?"
-

Likewise with
the present:

g^

:t

c^lfa

or, ^jchlJ^

But with

tjtj

exclusively

7&

^rtfJT
it

sindeed, I have."!).

Eem.

Inversely,

may happen
is

that a
1

Sanskrit aorist

is

to

be rendered by an English present, see note

on page 253 of this book.

236.
ricBi° "

Moreover, the present
actions.

often used in relating past

Then we may
it is
is

call it

historical present.
particle
3,

P
s ent.

Properly

distinguished

by the

FT

added,
u
i

p. 3,2,

118

but

FT
1,

occasionally wanting. Nala

18

^

mm

*T cm^t^fg

f%^T

(they

could not utter a single word to him),
i

cmPh a

an
iio 11".

Kathas.
vatt,

33 ^fn srf% ST iTddt Urdd

M

ftftT

TU:

(thus spoke ParsrsraTntr

and Qiva answered), Pane. 201

a story ends thus:

H^fiHl<ij(«T srar sirr ssrrrw fd^Pri ST (and since that day the hares
lived happily in their dwellings)
(TTT&fJT
;

Kumaras.

3,

13

oil

i

Q hm iwt.
<

waitT 2^te^TW

sta:

(Qesha has been appointed _).

But the most common employment of the historical 327. is that of expressing facts when „going on." preset present
e

dnra-

As Sanskrit imperfect (FT3) has not the character of
a durative, like the imperfect in Latin and French, A
varttika,

tmse par excellence.

1)

expounded and agreed to by Patanjali
[ttrU

finds fault

with this rule of Panini

1W 1^ fcSd fadre IH
l

-

See Pat.

II, p.

122.

,

§ 327.

245

^T5[ may
and of
tuli').

be both a synonym of Latin ferebam

}

But the present >T^Tfa is by its nature a durative tense, and for this reason it is eminently
adapted to signify the durative, even of the past. Of course,
it
is

FT may

be added in that case (326), but
is

not necessary and

generally wanting in the
,

body of a narration. Accordingly

*T{TFf
this

is

often

= Lat.
qTferofr=t
i-fisr-

ferebam. Examples: Pane. 165 a new story begins in
feeffiwrn y| Picriehi J7FT *l(cH*l
f^rrrft ?T5^r sr^nijrTTSTriH
RTE^TsTTT^rfVcFj
(*'s

manner ^f^j grfirr\

sraffT

W {hdbitabat)
\

^

=ar

vestes

conficiebat)
;

qj- prer
1, 2,

Ewrafe SWT
(fuit)
i


;

(fiebat)

Ch.

Up.

13

^ ^

q-ft-

ifklMl^idl spgr
h^-57, 5

sr

^ &w. chmHun g-fo
epqT ?Nr ?RJ
ftfsr

(incantabat)
(at

Mhbh.
\dh^

Ry^pH

ct

ff5T

that time they
I, p.

delivered the food begged to Kuntl every night); Pat.
^dcjjylrjj
rr ftoi
;

5

q-

j

^qTrp-H { ^TTcrl

sTTfTUTT odlch^UI FTT<?fejW (discebant)

d^rd'

Bhoj. 40
i

FirravrfFT =r

Pidifd

=tet

usSt

=t

#r^rf%d^r fer^nrftTTq^rr:

feraT fed Par tlioMM fa (from that time he did not sleep or take food or converse with anybody, but with a heavy mind he la-

mented night and day)

;

Pane. 145 begins the story of some
9t)

monk

who

did inhabit

(q|doi<dfd

some monastery,

his ordinary life is
Sorfifn'

described by a set of present tenses without 9t (grrrarfH
y^lx)l<Ji)fH)-

— A

past tense and the present

may

even be put close

together.

E.

2, 63,

14 Dagaratha relates to his queen IoEPTet forT^off

with ^it, according to Delbruck always =. Lat. imperfect never =. Lat. perfect: »Das Prasens mit sma steht im Sinne der Vergangenheit jedoch so nicht so dass damit em einmaliges vergangenes Ereigniss viel ich sehe
1)

In

the brahman as the

present

Altindische Tempuslehre p. 129,

is

,

,

bezeichnet wurde.

was

sich ofters, besonders

Vielmehr druckt das Prasens mit sma dasjenige aus, was sich gewohnheitsmassig ereignet hat."
is

In the classic dialect, however, ifrfH ST

both z= ferebat

,

and

tulit.

Plenty of instances

may be drawn from
118; 119, and Kathas.

classic literature.
1,

Only

see the

examples to P.

3, 2,

33 quoted 326.

246
Wd{ i Mbii ui^
\
\

§ 327-328.
(at

the time you were not married and I was heir-

apparent).

the Kern. Panini especially mentions the freedom of employing
present
instead
of a past tense with j^t (formerly,
th
f.
i.

before).

So

Pane. 202 the crow says
is

R4 fei foir

<ipt

SRTTft.

Here the present
i

used, but the aorist
f. i.

Kathas. 25, 74
JftT

perf.

ibid. 24,

19 srnsp£

jm

^ Hjr^ fau Pat.
and

:,

the im5 quoted

I, p.

above.

Past tenses.
328.
Actual
past

In defining the employment of the past tenses one mugt distinguish between such past facts, as have not a
lost their

and
histori-

actuality, ^

and such as have, and therefore
.

caipast.

belong to history. The historical past may be expressed by any past tense, but the actual past not. In other

terms, as a rule, English he did and he had done

may

be rendered by Sanskrit aorist, imperfect, perfect or
the participle (=hr1=U«^, ^irT^FH), but English he has
done

only by the aorist or the participle, not by the

imperfect or
Historical

by the

perfect.

i#

p or

expressing the historical past, the four past
,

past
GTET)T6SS —

tenses are used almost promiscuously

and the historical
fifth.

ed by any past

present (326, 327)
vs. 11 the other replied

may
it
( aoii<)rf

be added to them as a
is

Examples: Kathas. 24, 10
Ibid. vs.

told,

one asked (^q^rj^imperf.),
13 the former asked again
i

aor.), vs.
rr
i

(<nr^

perf.).

214 (irm^T
is

H3T h«j iui*-d* ^rtiPdWjs^xi
it

&

^

HMsJcH
,

sas they could not tell

him

[themselves], they sent
aor., perf.

messengers
imperf.

who

told him")

an other instance of

and

used promiscuously and without the
Pane. 276
HL

slightest

difference

of meaning.

we have

this

succession of facts: srranirf
hiuihIh^ (aorist)
i

nwfaffifijdol
'

i

(participle)

^rfwnr
(histor. pres.

a^

rrerr

qmolldchmi M^iTTh^R('UIh
i

with durative meaning »was

singing)" fi^rSfT Hmfif^HH (partio.)

M^aJ

l

rj;

(imperf.)

and so

§
on.

328-330.
,

247
this succession of facts:

In an other story Pane. 51

we have

(nf^oTSTrT: w) in the same town and lived always together (^n^ RHH:)- O ne day a great festival took place fcfofTr:) and a procession, in the midst of which they

a weaver and a cartwright dwelled

beheld (js^rf) a maiden of great beauty.
fell

On

seeing her, the weaver

in love with her and

swooned fa^rr

Uri9t Pinmrt ).

His friend

the cartwright got

him

carried

home

(saTT^TTRTJnjrr)

treatment he soon recovered (jh^hwI

sjusr).

and by proper
,

Upon

the whole

there

seems

to

be a tendency to alternate the past tenses in literary com-

positions.

329.
feet

Now,
to

the imperfect and the perfect are restricted
of

and
re-

that sphere
l

employment.
as
of

They cannot be used
their actuality for

a"
S
1C

except of such facts

have

lost

to the

the speaker
historical

).

Both

them

are only available for the

"ioiTrf
toricaf
past.

past.

They are to be rendered by our past

tense

,

both ^T^T^TrT and ^T^JT^ being
to facts to
,

= „he
actions

did."
repeated

Both of them are equally applied
continuous (Lat. imperfectum).
2 )

that have happened or

but once (Lat. perfectum historicum), and

330.
rencV
bet WGCI1

There

is

,

the imperfect. It

however, a difference between the perfect and P 3j 11B is taught by Panini in express terms,
_

<'"~^^^_^_-

imperperfect,

that the perfect (k<16)
not

is

restricted to such facts as have

been

witnessed by
is

the

speaker,

and the practice of
to

good authors
ment.
It is

generally in accordance with this state-

somewhat uncommon

meet with a per-

1)

This

is

meant by Panini, when he teaches 3T3 (and,
214 ^H fcdMtfprtgT
l

aa it stands

under the same adhikara, also f§TC0 to be used
2) Cp. Kathas. 24,
I

tJ'nyH'T. P. 3, 2, 111.

nr

^ rRsJcFT^ nuntios

miserunl,

iique ei dixerunt, with
of

Mhbh. 1, 68, 9, which verse describes the happiness the subjects of Dushyanta during his reign saw ^"fq^ amf:

^IM^JollchHl tTOT: erantque ab

— hominum
tuti.

ordines

suis

quisque

officiis

delectabantur,

omni parte

248
feet

§ 330.

when

expressive of an action the speaker has wit-

nessed himself. Good authors, accordingly, avoid using the perfect tense, if the facts narrated have been witnessed by the speaker. The
Dagahum&racarita abounds in
very
persons
stories

of adventures, told
all

by the
in the
his

who have experienced them;
,

past tenses are

employed promiscuously

only perfects are wanting.
is

But
if

,

same
heroes

work,
is

if

the author himself

speaking, or
,

any of

relating a fable of olden times

the perfects
J ).

appearance side by side with the other past tenses
observation

make their The same

may be made with respect to the KatMsaritsagara 2 ). Yet, from this one must not infer, that on the other hand
is

the imperfect

restricted to
3

the relation of past facts
,

witnessed by the speaker

).

Even

if

Panini had taught

1) So there is not a single perfect in the whole story of Apaharavarma, as he relates his own adventures; for the same reason perfects are wanting in the stories of other princes. The sixth ucchvasa, Mitraguptacarilam has no perfects, while Mitragupta tells all what has happened to himself, but as soon as he is narrating to the giant the four little tales of Dhumini etc., perfects abound. 2) Exceptions may, however, occasionally be found. Dae. 110 and 111 prince Upaharavarma, when relating his own adventures, says twice JTTteC)
,

while speaking of a

woman, who wept

before his eyes. R.

3, 67,

20 the

vulture Jatayu informs
VTWT-

Kathas.
uses

Rama, how Ravana yld IM liiJU d<^M<*l<4IH fliirT6,43 the clever merchant, who has made his fortune by
55JJ,

trade,

the perfect
of

while relating, that each woodcutter gave

him two

pieces

wood,
p.

as he presented

them with a

fresh draught.

Likewise Nagan. V,

77

hhm

instead of the aor. of a fall, which the

speaker has seen on the same day and with his

own
,

eyes. But, I repeat,

such deviations are upon the whole very rare
3)

,

at least in good authors.
is

The term qrfft

for the sphere of the perfect It is asked,

a point of dispute

with

the commentators.

what kind

of actions

may

be said

to fall under this category,
signifies

and as the term, when

strictly interpreted,

to give

» beyond the reach of the eye," it has been deemed necessary an additional rule in express terms, that » well-known facts fall-

ing within the speaker's sphere of observation are

imperfect

not in the perfect

even

if

to be put in the they have in fact not been

§ 330.
so
a ),

249

such a rule would be in direct opposition to the

constant practice of Sanskrit literature up to the Vedas.

The imperfect is always and everywhere used both of past facts which are within the compass of the speaker's experience, and of those which are not.
witnessed by him."
is

This varttika seems to be as old as Katyayana,
II, p.

it

expounded by Pat.
1)
It
is

119.
Still,

not quite sure, that he has.

when looting
f§T?7

closely at

Panini's own words about the employment of ^n? and

and at the
it

commentaries and disputes
the grammarians , that
f§T£.

of his scholiasts,

we may
sjgsrrT^

consider

a tenet of

5FT5 is

not available within the sphere set apart for
»

Prom

3, 2,

116 s^[«cldl5FnFJ5

R, 3

with ^ and

(forsooth)


s.

cp.

^frj

may

also be used within the sphere of f?rr£', cp.
,

115,

397 we

can draw no other inference

would be wrong

in using

^3

than even this, that in any other case one qrt^f. But it is possible, that this sutra

116 did not belong to the original work of Panini. Indeed setting this sutra apart, the very arrangement of the rules which treat of the suffixes and tenses of the past would rather induce us to suppose Panini having both aq^l^t and q^y'. Prom 3, 2, 84 up to taught the employment of
,

5^

123
of

uh

is

adhikara, the suffixes taught there are accordingly expressive

»the past."
it

comprises

any past whatever.
is

Now, from 84 — 110 this With s. Ill
past."

»past"
the
is

is

not specialized and
restriction

first

makes
»

its

appearance,

stated that the imperfect fere)

used #rKlrl>4

denoting
s.

the not-actual

Prom

there 4M<UrH remains adhik&ra

till

119,

but s. 115 a second restriction is added to the first: the suffixes are not only expressive of the past 4M4lrM but also qTfa'. Now the question is
simply this:

Has

Pfl,nini

meant sutra 111 (employment of
of
q!T5_ » aorist")

5rT|)

to

bean

exception to 110 (employment

and likewise 115 (em-

ployment of

fsrTT)

an exception to 111

or

is

each of these rules to be

interpreted separately and considered by itself? According to the former acceptation the aorist is taught to be restricted to past actions that have
,

happened to-day, the imperfect

restricted to past actions before to-day,

but witnessed by the speaker; according to the latter, the pressive of any past both actual and historical, and the any historical past both witnessed and not-witnessed by The former acceptation is that of Sanskrit grammarians up

aorist is ex-

imperfect of
the speaker.
to Patanjali

and the author of the varttikas the latter
,

is

in accordance

with the practice

of Sanskrit literature.

;

250
Eem.
tenses
1.

§

330-331.

In putting questions, the difference between perfect
it

and imperfect vanishes, and and the
even
aorist.

seems, also

that between those
3, 2,

If

I

rightly understand P.

117, the

employment of both

perf.

and imperf.

in putting questions is prescribed
i

by Panini
19, 6

,

if

the past action be »near in time" a »H-)chM - Kag.
i

exemplifies this rule frfarshfar^fd

^T^ idUj*
cfrrsoirsr
?).

:

i

smTT

toRjr;- R- 3,
i

Kharaasks
strong

his sister

Qurpanakha

n^

i

cfi&rdi Qai,n f Tjeh
4, 14,

J

^ (what
Rem.

man

has disfigured you thus

Cp. Ch. Up.

2

quoted 345.
2.

Another rule of Panini
According

3, 3,

135

— forbids

the im.
[frti \-

perfect, the perfect
nsirsrerfTtanrh.
is

and the present wither 1 ) in two cases:
to the gloss of the

Kagika kriy&prabandha

» uninterrupted

action,"

s&mipya »the time which immediately
In these cases the aorist and the

adjoins the time of the speaker."
participles

are stated to be employed, not the other past tenses.
(as

Kag. gives these examples uioiWTiciiHH^lH
distributed food [to the poor]),
(at

m gluWiafHshl^H^mgM
teacher
injunction
is

long as he lived he
l

Jl ssffrTTftfT
fires).

I

moon do not know how far
the

next

full

the
this

worshipped the holy
confirmed

by

the evi-

dence furnished by Sanskrit literature. For the rest

cp.

341 E.
function,
ing

331.
of the
dialect,

At the
it

outset,

the

perfect had not

the restricted

,. which perfect
the
nally

has in the classic dialect. In the old vedic mantras , like '
it

aorist,
it

may

denote every shade of the past, and occasioof- a present tense, in the

has even the power

same way
,

as for instance

Greek

IsTif x«
5,

oi&x

,

Latin memini consuevi

Gothic
113, 3

"'
fe

vait

mag,

sim.

So Rgv.
still"

60, 3

(5i

nm
p.

»is

afraid," ibid.

1,

when

a f^rfT; present

tense.

Delbruck Altindische Tempuslehre

^

»they stand

and the other instances to be found in
103 sqq.

The

classic

language has but two perfects, expres-

sive of the present, viz. ol^ (he knows)

and %(l«^ (he says)
2

the latter
1)

may

also be used of the past.
either

)

From

the litur,

Though not mentioned
them

by

KS,c.

or by Patanjali
,

the

f§r?T

and the 3TE ST-must needs be implied in the prohibition

for the adhikftra

*MUrM
2)

implies

too.
,

My

notes contain

however, two other instances. Pane. 246

ti

i

di li q

,

§
gical writings
is
I.

331-333.

251
employment of the perfect
»he rules"
Ait. Br.

— -where,
»he
is

for the rest, the

already confined within the same limits as afterwards , see Delbruck
I.

p.

131

— we
f.

may adduce moreover
awake"
it

fcfr

(f. i.

1, 30, 3),

junj
i.

Ch

Up.

4, 3, 6

and perhaps some

others, see

Ait. Br. 2, 41, 4. is sufficiently clear,

332.

From
and
2d

the above

that the

l 9t

person of the perfect are hardly met with in
Patanjali
at

classic Sanskrit, except of
person,
is

a loss,

^

and
to

i|'(«^.


it,

For the

is*

how

employ
a )

unless to re-

late facts

done while being asleep or drunk.
is

That the 2& perobserved, that

son

of the plural

not used,

is

evident from a passage of the
it

commencement
not say
<&

of the

Mahdbh&shya; there

is

=5ra7) q^ 3^ but g, mnrfSm: See Pat. I, p. 8, 1. 23; p. 9, 1. 11. 333. There is no syntactical difference between the perfect and that, which is made by periphrase with .phras. simple

such forms as ot, HTj

exist in theory only, as one does

perfect.

3TTW,
for
is

^FHT" medpurpose.
2
)

^, and ^T3".
-^ch
i

In the brahmanas
this

a

and

^r

are almost exclusively used
auxiliaries.
3

Nor does Panini teach other
tfxu.

)

used in the sense of Greek

The serpent
[viz.

declares to the frogs

rfiTf

s^

UU-II*

cTr^WTRnTPT

(by this

the curse of the brahman,

whose son he had bitten to death] I have come to you in order to be your carrier). In the Gauri recension of the (Jakuntala, V, p. 109 of the 2 4 ed. of Tarkavftgi9a (Calc. 1864) Camgarava says to Dushyanta jrfnrq:

y^yi^i
an action
1)

-McOilt

^Rrt|
is

iTon-TOW H^TOT

sftfFRFTT norfl^-pnfPT. In

both

instances the
past.

perfect

rather expressive of an action finished, than of

The example given
employment

is rfi^t

— or wt _

s^; i%cfT

Q<rMlu-

Another

case of its

is

in strong denials, as

when one
l

asks

^RimiMy
3, 2,

ufd^ fer
115
2)

and the other answers qT^

5^%rrnxrq'

ufdd

j,|.

See vartt. on P.
is

in Patanj. II, p. 120; the instance given there

evidently a quo-

tation from some literary work.

In

the Aitar. Brahm. the periphr.
interprete P.
,

perfect

with arH

is

used but
gj -|-

once.
3)

See the edition of Atjtkecht,

p. 429.
if it
,

To

3, 1,

40 g^n, as

were a praty&haraof

IT _)_ =g^r, is

not to mention other objections

too artificial and too subtle

252
But
iffTCT,

§ 333—334.
even in the epic poems
all

of

them are used,

especially

which seems
the rarest.

also afterwards to

be the most frequent, whereas

5TU5J is

334.
Aoriat.

II.

The aorist (FT?) ^"^

is

expressive of
.<->

any past
„I did,"

,

either

historical or actual;

^f^WH" may

be

=

and

=:

„I

have done." Examples of the historical aorist have

been given 328.

When

denoting the actual past, that

is

such past used side
neither

acts as are so recent as not to

have lost their actuality at
is

the time of their being related, the aorist

by

side

with the participles in ° H^*rl and

° rf;

imperf. nor perfect are then available. „I have seen the

man" is ST^I^f

J^T
ST

or

£2"3"RfFT

[not

SJW ^ nor
1

Examples of the

aorist denoting the actual past.

Ait. Br. 1, 6, 11

HWI<MisflUWlJ^lfjiffti

tN^iTlPlrtll^mM snjpvfit (for this reason,
if

one says to an eye-witness: have you seen it? for
has ," they believe him) ; B.
2, 89,

he says she

5 Bharata has spent the night

with Guha,
S oilrtrTi :
l

the next morning his host asks

him

ch f^ rM *??

h^)h17
1,

ch chrtgr

uid(l^ (have

you

past the night

well?);Mhbh.
to
for

167, 23

king Drupada having

lost

half his

kingdom

Drona,
aveng-

goes to some brahman, ing himself,
predicted
to

who may procure him a means

and says z\m: Ui la g JTTOj Dag. 27: it has been the brahman Matanga that he will soon meet with

a prince, now,

when he
nor

really

meets

with

a prince, he tells
i

him

this

prediction and adds these words H4jA.UI -muiMoi Hoid.uw g-irarT

qqufT [neither
congratulates

sp^sr are

here admissible]

;

Qak. VII Matali with his son,
desire
is

Dushyanta on finding back
Sr

his wife

the king replies 3T^grf?7P3T£qv?Tt

trtijv:

(my

gone

to

be true.

Panini knew, or at least approved, no other periphrastic

perfect, than that

which

is

made with

cFT.

§ 334.
into

253
ni-tr

sweet

fulfilment)

;

Kathas. 40, 108

jtut

JM^lfti
it

(v. a.

I

have

made you
before

king);

Pane. 16 the jackal
the

begs permission to

appear

the lion,
1

doorkeeper

grants

him with the
etc.

words timaitOaoiPT )Bern. In the archaic dialect of the bralimanas
seems to serve
exclusively
for
this

the aorist
contrast

actual

past
is

2

).

The

between the
that
it

historical

tenses and the aorist

so striking there

cannot possibly be

overlooked by anybody

who

peruses

these
tion

writings.

The most
fact

instructive
first

passages are such, as mentold

the

same
find

twice,

when

by the author,
actors.

after-

wards when put into the mouth of one of the
invariably

Then we

the imperfect or the perfect in the historical ac7, 14,
i

count, the aorist in the oratio directa. Ait. Br.
srft^iff
5TT

5 ft^T

^ Z^T

^terr=nw
STfTT:

bit stst

wr

(then

mx ^ zjm: qi^ n s{ld wwruw 37?™ he got teeth; then he said to him: she has,
then
,

indeed,
said to

got

teeth"
»his teeth

his

teeth
,

dropped out, then

he
5,

him

:

have , indeed
told:

dropped out"). Ch. Up.
(nirrcr)

3

the

following

story

is

Qvetaketu once came

* ne

meeting of the Pancalas. To him the xattriya Pravahana said
(3Erra):

»has your father instructed you?" (^r ra
»yes, Sir."
of
:)

i

tui&ifcldl ) 3 )-

The

other answered:
successively,

Then

Pr.

put five questions to

none

which he

could solve,

have you said
these things?"
to his father

(aaHm
and said

yourself instructed, as

him »why you do not know
and said:

Then Qvetaketu, being sad with
(jorre):

grief,

came

((ju\u)

»why

did you say

I (mioiHddVrO

1)

We may
II, p.

translate here the aorist

C&k.

38 ed. Tarkav&giea

*m

by a present: »as you say." Cp. mat/Tr rr siMiRi ifr reWoWdlCh (you

do not know her, since you speak thus). Cp. Greek r/ iyfaourag; »why do you laugh?" and the like. this 2) Delbeuck Altind. Tempusl. p. 128 »Memals steht der Aorist [in kind of works] im erzahlendem Sinne, wie etwa das Imperf. oderPerf."
Yet, Ait. Br.
3)
2, 23,

3 the aor. =&5fnT is

,

indeed

,

used in a historical sense.

Such passages as this plainly show, methinks, that the system of the grammarians, according to which spast facts done on the same day as they are related" must be put in the aorist, but when done before
that day, in the imperfect (resp. perfect),
is

refuted

by the very

facts.

,

254
have instructed you
five
i

§ 334—336.
(grr rd fum n )
i

,

a simple xattriya has put (wrsfcr)
I

questions to

me

and I could not (hiu

cw ) answer even
1,

one."

So in the story of Ucasti Cakrayana Ch. Up.
fect
is

10

etc.

the per1, 11,

used while the author himself

is

speaking, but

2

when the king excuses himself him to be his officiating priest,
Md( T lreiril
i

to Ucasti, that

he has not chosen

the aorist appears
(I

m d^i
i

5TT ti^ftffr

:

tftf%f WTsnff aT

ti^Q-ptiw MdjS
6, 13, 1 etc.

have looked
')

for

you

for all these sacrificial

offices,

but not finding

Tour Reverence,

I have chosen others). Cp. ibid.

Delbruck, Altindische

Tempuslehre

p.

117

etc.

has given a great number of instances from

the Qafapatha and the Aitareya.

335.

The
both

aorist is used

throughout Sanskrit literature in
Instances
2

its

acceptations, actual and historical.

of the historical aorist occur as early as the Bgvedasanhita, though, I confess, not

many

are recorded

);

and afterwards
cal tenses.

it is

no

less

frequent than the other histori-

For the
is

rest , it

may

be observed that in easy

proseworks and in compositions of rather simple style,
the aorist

comparatively rare
,

,

and mostly limited to

^
336.
1)

certain verbs often occurring as

%Mrl,

*NMM,

*(<m~

Tet, in more elegant style, in the works of such

writers as Dandin, Bana,

Somadeva, the

aorist is

em-

ployed as often and with as
past tenses.
3

much
in ° ff

ease as the other

).

The participles of the past
Construe nJloldl
correction.
is

and "RgFcT

may

afy-^H,

instr. of*)(dF3i.

The reading ia good
to

and needs do
2)

A

prayer-book, indeed,

not the

fittest

document from which

learn the historical style of a language. In epic poetry the historical aorist
is

common.
3)

For

this reason, I

am

astonished at the statement of
is

Whitney

532

of his Sanskrit grammar), that the aorist
Sanskrit.

»seldom" employed in

classic

,

§ 336—337.
T
partiaplea

255
at-

£

e
.

do the same duty as the aorist, whether they are ^ J
'

in

tended by the verb substantive
are expressive of facts done
,

,

or without
,

it (9). it

finished

and

They makes no
lost

-

doing"difference

,

whether these

facts belong to the historical

a^asT past or

have been done

of

late

and have not yet

their actuality.

In both acceptations they are of the
x

utmost frequency. They represent the younger idiom,
the aorist the elder one.
if
,

)

Accordingly they are rarely

at all thus employed in the archaic dialect. 2 ). 1. Examples of. the historical past. a.) partic. in ° fr- Kathas.

_

4,

36 dio|[?*fi<Hl
,

FTTsrf2ft73T

?TT

3^lwr (when
;

she had gone some
'

steps

the purohita stopped her)
(once
;

Pane. 51 ch^jRkH
feast

iiMW^lrMoi

:

gsr?:

it

happened that a religious
g-

with a procession

took place)
b)

Dag. Ill
"ftoRT.

jm
;

f%f
R.
1,

srgwr srsrt |^ft =5
©rnjptfr

sr^r

i

i

fclHi

;


:

partic.

in

Pane. 148

£frf%«[

d ly [$

«ir«)Hoil-i_ (he

asked a brahman for lodging)
(the

56, 14

sj^TT^r
;

son of Gadhi threw the SraAma-weapon)
Jnft

ssfai

?m\ Q'-wjmsh

rTfsrr

siw

^TsTPt firasrnT

H'<H vm; uuihoim^ (— made hi"3
Rdij' 5n-?llfs

Hit. 109

obeisance to his king Citravarna).
2.

Examples of the actual
to

past.
• •


a.)

partic. in
l

° fj.

R.

3, 17,

24

Qurpanakha says
Kathas. 42, 100

Rama -rpr faT. M*jt)d [w (^*> ^ am come *° y° u )j srqTTrerT *m fw nfert mt STtfrfw^ (how is it that
,

our father has brought us that are guiltless
I [the charioteer to the king] ot"fTSRj. R.
jjiff

into this state

fsnmz:
to

^tT
(I

j

?)

;

Qak.
in

&•) partic.

1, j^HdHfoT Or^f ^HoIhR deed you have done); Qak. IV Kanva

76, 2

v ittttst

have heard, what
JTrlddi

Anasuya 5377^

srt

^^

H-dlfruTi

(Anasuya, the friend and companion of both of
Ill, p.

you has departed); Mudr.

107 Canakya to Candragupta

^sm

in

Hence commentators often explain aorists by participles. doing duty as finite verbs, 2) I do not recollect having met with them br&hmanas and upanishads. But, as I have not yet made a special
1)
I

inquiry into this subject, from that class of works.

refrain

from affirming their entire absence

)

256

§
participle in
cM-l
I

337—339.
be sometimes expressive of the present
asleep,
is

337.

The

° ?t

may

(361). sp;

:

"the boy

is

sleeping" as well as she

has just awaked from sleep" (actual past) or »he slept" (historical
past).

To remove
serve

all

ambiguousness
as

,

one
,

derives
dlrldi-i

participles
,

in

"fTERT even from
participles
n:

intransitives ,

)MdM
(—

exclusively
ff

for

the

past.

y<JdW Vikram; V,

;

such
173

p.

titjdi-^j;-

^

vm
I,

IvtlfipMM

the peacock, that has slept

on

my
l

bosom),

Pane.

mQuiH, ot
i
l

^

alter

224

d-i-TiiiH)

^jf^

sn?i=irft,

Kathas. 81, 51

y^nTlorTl •serai- <tott:
i l

*rmwz da^ornr, Qak. IV
1° .
°

Hdd see 336, 2° , Hit. 109 nu rH -^ But if the participle in t{ has a
its

see 336,

passive meaning, that in
is

is

corresponding active:

s^m

(it

said,

— has

HoM

been said,


(f.

was

said), 33,01

H

(he has said, he said).

More about them 360.

338.
° l*
ciples

The

old and genuine participles of the perfect, as nftfldH
°

rltfltTl ) or g^nrn:, had the same function as those in ho|-t< and ° fr, which have almost wholly superseded them in the classic dialect

past

(359,

2° ).

In the epic poems and in kavyas

several of
finite

at least in the active voice

them
;

also do

duty as
E.
16.

verbs

they

are then expressive both of the actual past, as E. 1, 58, 2 i<j(3oiM

(you have gone to
muftiolH . Cp.

)

and the

historical, as
1,

2, 12,

6

;rrrfytr:i *fr^-

Kathas. 35, 41 and Qicup.

339.

Sanskrit lacks

a special tense for the so-called re-

^™° te

mote past

or plusquamperfectum.
It

The general past

tenses are used even then.
to our uremote past."
l

must accordingly be inferred

exclusively from the context, in what case a Skr. past tense answers

That f. i. Kathas. 25, 180 the words a^r pprmean son the very spot, where he Aadgotit," ri^sr o iqolM can only be shown by reproducing the whole story from which
,

they
cruel

are

quoted.

R.

2, 26,

3

Eama
who

has told his mother the

order
forest;
it

he

has just received from his father, to retire into
goes
to

the

now he

Slta,

did not

know anything
fR^Jor

about

oT^ grftr

(Tr^rsr

=7 SJSJTdT
it).

not yet heard anything of

hmRoH)
Dae. 92

(the

unhappy princess had
fow£ch
;

i=r <pT<5T

§
nrfrorT

339-340.

257
that very day."

=

»

Vimardaka had indeed already departed
gerunds are especially
fit

It is plain, that
past.

to signify the

remote

FuTUEE TENSES.
34=0.
incfrr.

Sanskrit has
phrastic

two future
(Fj£):
:

tenses,

1.

the so-called perithe future

future

=hril|^,

2.

made

with

The former
a noun in
person ,

«W (5J5)
is

SfT%ITfa.
a compound tense, being made up of a formal element, expressive of the
either

° FT

+

signified

by the
*).

auxiliary

(^TFT
° r\

etc.),

or by the personal pronoun
neither
fice:
is

Yet

for the third person

wanted and the simple noun in
r

may

suf-

one says SFuTUFT or =r»rll^,
d

WUfo
is

or ^TRT
available.

i^H, but in the 3

person the simple 3RrlT

In the dual and in the plural ° RT remains unchanged,

when attended by
3TFnFP, but
1)

r

the auxiliary, therefore ^TrTTFcpj
3d

in the

person ^RcTT^t,

^r[T^'>

,

and

Panini- does not mention the 1 st and 2 d person formed by simply
"flT

putting together the noun in
this

and the personal pronoun. Accordingly
official

mode

of formation has

been excluded from the
is

paradigms of the

periphrastic future. Yet cTSTT^T
clrhli^M.

quite

as

correct

and

as

much used
are forms

as

That Panini

left

it

unnoticed,

may
of

be due to his
olrfolW

system of
to

explaining

grammatical
because

forms.

be

dealt with,

To him by the union
but

olfhll^M,

arises,

bearing

one
,

accent,

5TH7T -f-

5^

both elements a new word

and the

like
,

are units

syntactically only

not so from a formal point of view. Hence to Panini not even the nomin. of a noun, but a simple stem

the noun in

° rTT is

to which the personal suffixes are to be added.

Upon the whole, the
,

information to
1,

be got from him about this future
7, 4,

is

scanty, see P. 3,
7, 4, 52.

33;

2, 4,

85 and

50—52,

cp.

Boethlingk's note on

17

.

258
of course also

§ 340.

=hrll^MMFT, *rll(l
;

3^,

sim. Both

pronouns and auxiliaries are occasionally severed from
the verbal noun
follow.
E.

the pronouns

may

precede as well as

Even the
1
st

auxiliary sometimes precedes in poetry.
26, 31
I, p.
i

Examples:
3, 69,

and 2 d person: Kathas.
,

n^ii^
mTTT

(I shall go),

40 =Erfvn?m1% adj^jfa|m

Malav.

15

nmr mycra^ rjrfti^
;sr

(then I shall release
f^opj
fTBf

M.), E. 2, 118, 10 hii
to heaven),

(

^jU
p,
1,

MidymNUl
n\

you
(

will

go

Mudr. V,

175

trgisr^rftciilMol
^£ji Pi

TPTnTi

ourselves shall start),
oFrrf

Mhbh.
1,

136, 39 f^r

d^f|; ^isisni^H

^rRrr <tot ^t, ibid.

120, 26

wm

ijui*h<-h

s^rr

3 d person

:

Ch. Up.
it]),

4, 6, 1
I,

afire

cTKTT

(Agni will
I

tell

you a

fourth part [of

Mhbh.

Paushyap. 56 a fid H
rr

??ri%i FTT tprfwtsfr rolt

^tjTWRT ^Frf^, Bhojapr. 55
7,

stir

illrll^d f^sr:
also used

^T ^

Wti ^ala

5

q^FT sTFTT
1.

WcTrf^ H^rT) IWT.

Eem.
subject
° 5[T

The
1,

future in

"prr
i

may be
^ra^T
f. i.

E.
,

38, 8

mm shQh
especially

with a feminine
fern, in

,

but occasionally the

is

used
,

at least irfg^t, see

Kathas. 35, 105.
j

Some

krts

in

° t^t

fern,

"^ft,

irrfspT

are al so significative of a

future tense (see 359).

Vikram. V,

p.

181

mm
i

fd4<ij JTIsFt (a
'

quarrel

between gods and demons
auxiliary — are

will take place).

Eem.

2.

The medial endings of this scarcely met with in the
§ 947).

future


is

or rather, of the

archaic dialect (Whitney,

Sanskr.

Gramm,

In the

classic

language they seem to be
of course

no more employed.

Without auxiliary, there
study) from the medial
,

no

for-

mal

distinction
(

between the active and the medial voices. One

says wrrTT
l

ne

w iH

=giJftjH,

Pane. 161 =^r

as well as nf^iH from qf^sliuft sive meaning may be conveyed by

f.

i.

^r

or

sraTT.

Even a
3,

pas.

this future.

Kirat.

22 ch. .

J.^RiHm
56, 5
iKt^.

chfiJiH^H
. . .

(they
Vp&iTr

will
SJsTTrT

be eradicated by
I

Arjuna), E.
(if

3,

roWT

oT

UlRlrll

F5T ^<T.

#ST

I shall be

violated by you perforce, you
roots,
as

will

perish

in

battle).

Of such

may have

special passive aorists,
is

futures, etc. (316), a

special passive form

accordingly available, she will be killed"

§

340-341.

259
be given" either
^tttt

may be
ftjfilHl
,

either ^rprr or tilPiHl see Kac. on P. 6,4, 62
3.

= 11,
(I

,

"it

will
p.

or

311 of the Benares-edition.
is

Rem.
jective

Mhbh.
65

3,

176, 20 this future

construed with an ob-

genitive ujt
p.

toj

rld

l

fa

shall see

you again). Likewise
as ap-

Nagan. IV,

cft^ttTT frsr
is

T^fi) the

meaning of which,
you,

pears from the context,

j>who
is

will protect

my

son?" As

a rule, however, the object

put in the accusative.

341.
Employ-

As regards

its

function, the tense in "FIT cannot be
,

P

'

^

3'

ment
of the

used of every future

but only of such actions
other

,

as will

not occur soon
actuality.

,

in

terms which have not yet

ture
tenses.

It is, therefore, a remote future.

The future
,

in

° Hllrl

on the other hand,

is

the general future and

may
or

be used of any future action, whether intended

not,

whether actual or remote. Hence, for the

future in ° tTF one

may

everywhere substitute that in

^TTrT, but not inversely.

That the future

in Vlltl

may

express also purpose,

intention etc. will be shown hereafter, see 344. The grammarians make the same distinction between 5T£ and
crfir

as

between

5^

and
2

^tj.

Both imperfect fas) and ^r£ are

restricted to the SRSffW

)>

Commentators explain the term Jbt-NrH m(o|WW as meaning » future happen to-day, but to-morrow and afterwards." According that which will happen to-day cannot be signified by 5^7. to them
1)

facts, not to
,

When
names

exemplifying this tense, they are wont to add
it

gsr;.

The Katantra

£M4jrM is no less narrow as regards the future, as it has been shown to be for the past, see note 1 on p. 249 and note 3 on p. 253 of this book. Nor are instances wanting from literature of cfTT denoting facts to happen on the same day. Pane.
even
gsrefprt.
,

Yet

this explication of

161

some bride has been

left

alone by her bridegroom and the whole
at the threatening

marriage-train,

who have

fled

approach of a wild

260
»

§

341-341*.
2),
Sij° i
3>

is

Hem. The past tH^rH as has been stated above (330 E. to be expressed by the general past tenses in two cases.

milarly the future
in o^rfH in the

g.-mH~l

finds its expression
viz.

by the general

future

same cases,

» uninterrupted

action" and »the
uioisdl -

time adjoining immediately that of the speaker," therefore
EPT^f
<^i«j(ri

[not

jTirr],

titwwicuwiiiiPMrUd wuiwiul-sjlVjiyiyifd
fires).

(at

the next

new moon

the teacher will worship the holy

Some

additional remarks are

made by

P. 3, 3, 136

— 138

to

exclude

^Z

in a few other cases; but nothing, 5TC, if the time be exactly defined
» night."

he says, prevents the use of

by a word meaning sday" or
is

The employment of stt together with such words
it is indifferent

proved,

indeed, by instances, drawn from literature.

341*.

In most cases, therefore,
ture
cURT1,

,

what
R.
1,

fu17

is

employed.
sriw:
,

Often

both alternate.
^tr smrfci
is

70,

hut in the following cloka
22.

crfw:, cp. R.

38, 8

and

2, 8,

This alternation
is

most apparent in conditional

sentences;
(Ait.

then either ^jz
1,

used in both protasis and apodosis

Br.

27, 1), or in the apodosis only, but 5j£ in the protasis
*ft«er.
1,

(Kathas. 28, 131
versely (Kathas.

Jrf^ gtrtjfri

i

h^J|(m
1

vrfarrTT

JjFg:),

or con-

60 037

iTOT

chtn

i

EM

q&q<^d Ud*lfy

FT5J yiqife^l-

?to), or the future in "Wfff in both (KatMs'. 39, 67).
tions
,

In putting ques,

in uttering prophecies the future in
')
,

"fit is

,

indeed

often

em-

ployed

but the future in

° ^jfrf

is

even there more frequent.

elephant; then a young

man comes

to her rescue, takes her
,

by the hand
l i

and says

rrr

H(Jl^
II

l l(?=llrll-

Prabodh. VI
the

p.

134 Purusha exclaims M iu ^l
future
;-

yPl^
SET:,
f.

MiddlR^
i.

?RT:,

Inversely,

other
Soft

Malav.
,

p.

46 rd^y^q^ui
in the

^W
— 8,

is

used even with

1)

Delbruck

Altindische

Wortfolge p. 6

treats the future in

"jtt,

as far as it is
it

employed

Qatapathabrahmana. He concludes that

is the ^objective future, denoting the certainty of the future fact, apart from any wish or desire on the side of the subject." Though this will hold good in the majority of cases, it is not always supported by

facts.

A

strong

desire

,

an intention
demons:

,

etc.

by
his

3TT- R. 1,20, 3

Dacaratha

offers to
Jsrrnrr

are occasionally also denoted Vicvamitra to fight, himself and
[viz.

army, against the

&m\] *r%Tf

nroTT *TteT*f

,

§

341**— 342.

261
3> 2 112.
-

341**.
ln

According to the vernacular grammarians the general future p
o

STTH

r^

may even
is

i

be

expressive
to

of the past in this case,

if

a

verb of remembering
imperfect, then,
stead of
it.

be added

the

past action related.
to

The

forbidden and the future
this instance

be employed in-

Kac. gives
,

^ferRrfe
:

likewise uii fy

'srwras

we dwelled
if

— ?"

-Shum
this

di-uin-i

=

ibsrSjT

sraiT% dtkuw.,
P
3 2

»

do you remember, that

But

substitution of the future cannot be,
is

113.'

the

action
rule

remembered or reminded
on
if

introduced by

Qcj.

A
j^
'

third

of Panini

this

head

is

explained as allowing both

imperf.

and future,

the

verb

of remembering introduces two the

or

more past Of
this

actions,

of which

preparatory

action

is

first

named, the main
instances
as

action afterwards.

See Pat.

II, p. 119.

strange
those
,

and rather awkward idiom I know no other
adduced by grammarians or such authors
').

but

aimed

at exemplifying the rules of Panini

Chapt. IV. Tenses

and moods
is

(continued).

342.
C

The subjunctive mood
four tenses
:

expressed in Sanskrit by

\we
mood.

~

1

.

TFT3

,

called

by some optative, by others

potential
tive,
tive.
3.

,

2.

^TlfMsf fr?T3 the precative or benedicthe conditional,

FF3

4

FTtS" the impera-

The

dialect of the
fifth

Veda (mantra and brahmana)
rTTE"

has moreover a

tense called

by vernacular,

^f4u

i

M|

ii

^T5T
i

yrrarrfTrfjfTTJT
l

W^^Pl
341
R.

;

when he then adds

ZTToT-

cmmi-fcll^m
1)

ffi

as the action

is

H a-JlKA RuiM^:, a permanent one
i

he muat needs use the other future,
,

op.

cannot persuade myself, that Panini's words have been well understood by the commentators. Especially the phrase ^fi^nopSR is likely to mean something different. If it could be proved that Panini
In fact,
I
,

used

i&fijfrr in the sense of

»

purpose" ^fWTJT,

all difficulty of interpre-

tation

future

would be removed. Then, indeed, Panini would simply teach the dicin ° mfft doing duty as a future's past (322 B.), axril (d

=

turus erat.

,

262

§

342—343.

conjunctive by European grammarians, which was
already
obsolete in the days of Pattini.

The duties of
the present

the missing tense are performed by the imperative
partly also

by the present
,

(FTS)-

Nor
its

is

the only tense
indicative,

which apart from

expressing the

may sometimes have

the force of a sub-

junctive; for the future in ° HllH

— and, in prohibitions,
lc<1>£

even the aorist

is

occasionally concurrent with

and FTfC. That the conditional (FT3) was at the outset

an indicative tense, appears
its

sufficiently
its

not only from

outer form, but also from

original

employ-

ment.

Upon

the whole, the boundaries between inless

dicative

and not-indicative are
and Greek.
finds

marked

in Sanskrit

than in Latin
343.
Thef§^jn
(optative

The subjunctive mood

its

general expression
'

or
is

po-

is

termed 1FT3' by Panini, and which one "^ wont in Europe to name either optative or potense
,

^e

tential)

the

tential

though

it is

not restricted
possibility.

[to

the expression
,

ffciisrfll

exponent
subjimc-

of both

wishes and

In

fact

any

shade

of meaning,

inherent to the Latin conjunctive,
it.

may

mool

be imported by

Its

manysidedness entails the great
According to sense
do,
,

variety of its translation.

may be= I
{would)
Its subdi
visions.

can

{could)
{should)

,

shall

I may
must do
,

{might)
let

^TFT
,

will

me

do

,

sim.

We may
a.)

make some main
is

distinctions:

IFT^
it is it
is

used in exhortations and precepts: hor-

tative.
b.)
c.)

expressive of wishes

:

optative.
k

a potential,

that

is],

it

may

purport a

§ 343.
possibility,

263

or a

probability,

on the other hand
sentences.
,

also

uncertainty and impossibility or improbability.
d.) it is
e.) it

used in

hypothetical

may

be used in such relative sentences

as bear

a general import.
/.)

it

may

be used in subordinate sentences expresor of inevitable

sive of a
«.) tortative.

design
7, 3, 1

consequence.
cFraffar

a .) Ch. Up.
dusifa
(let
gcrer

qrsn^Mk
t

(let

me

study the mantras),
mjr:

P

3
1 «i loi.

'

me

do

sacrificial acts);

,

Pane. V, 103

^rnr

=r

tf^tfT

iW.
take

frrmnnn ^trt

^

ir^fcsrFT i^ffssrraf^ FSm<)

\

(one must not

sweetmeats alone,

nor wake

alone

among

sleeping people,

nor must one walk alone nor consider one's
4,

36 jora^f

fire

m

;

From
must

^

Rl U loiT H ofcH rol by the breezes of the southwind); Dag. 152 jm\
-i

^

affairs alone);

Kumaras.

(you [Spring] must inflame the
=3T^
Rirl*H

grirqHWT (and now, I might return
these

to

your

father).


to

examples

it

appears,

that

the

hortative

f^j
be

is

ex-

pressive

of any

kind of exhortation.

WoTFTsJixrhT

may

»you

study" or
»it
is

»you may," »you might," »you are allowed

study,"

your duty, the due time
20
,

—"

etc.

See P.

3, 3,

161;

163; 164 with comm.
*).° P6.)

E.
l

3, 19,

QurpanakM
I

utters

this

wish

HmRHqi^
To
this

poo
^fiq"

157'
a »d

fqsrc w^-j foi

(0

that

might drink
=gfqr

their

blood).

pure
II,

optative
p.

often

the particle

is

added or

=gi^ q^rr.

Mudr.

89

=g-fq

to
may

5jTfTH*imicw^H5rra^TTjt Prarr; R.

2, 43, 9

w^r^f
'

*T cF7T*T:

^JTTfT....^

wnrftf

jm&H
here).

(

if

that time

were already present

and I should see
added,
it

Rama

also

be put in

The verb of swishing" being ^g^ 3 the f^qj. One says either 3-^1 ft

iwtrT nsrFT or Txfej
tential.

c.)
1.

w£fa HBTT^r. Op. R. 3, 58, 5. The potential f^n? comprises various kinds:
and
ability,

possibility

as Pane. 226 cfr^T^jf grr^rcft iffUKiH

stojft

(perhaps this brahman will awake by the lowing of the cows),

Mrcch. VII,
see
rz§

238 qmn: f%firowt f| =^XCTT (for princes can through the eye of their spies), Kathas. 2, 37 y*-c£rWtl mvt:
p.

xTTC

m^UR

(this

boy

is

able

to

retain

by

heart

all

he has

heard but once).

;

;

264
2.
'

§ 343.
probability.

Mrcch. VIII,

p.

268

the rake says gsraT

JTfif

T\k

rraftfr

^m^H
sI
I

l

M

(in

my

absence the cruel
rft

man
old

will kill her), Kathas.

25,

24

hWm

gj5t

sTTfj

tffta. (that

man, methinks,

will

know
3.

that town);

(for

V Rij^fdw wronrr *I!w«jh qr^^fTsjijisrHr: nfpTT: sj: what reason may the Keverend K. have sent holy men to
doubt.

Qak.

me?), Pane.
^f^T 7TE
dividual

I,

215

^

s^ji-j

m

^n

I

(<N gs?r ippTrTT

i

gfegfelrftr^£T
hit

<H~imchM

(the

arrow shot by an archer
ruler);

may

one inhits

or

may

not hit him, but the wit of a witty
its

man

a [whole] kingdom with
4.

in

negative and interrogative
or
impossibility.

sentences

f§o may express
i

improbability
ct^Tt]
i

Dag. 92 Piimiiifew^P iMaUSTPT
carefully
p.
,

[sc.

5W

oTltMW trT
he?),

O18

sought

but did not find him
m
i

how
Ul)

could

Mrcch. VII,

236

grfg
life,
sr

ium^
rft

ip^rf

q-

g
:

Fat

UIUIHM (I had rather forsake

my

than you
iggfT
=7

who

are a sup-

plicant to me), R. 2, 37, 32
5.

A

5^
this."

qf^
R.

^|iWHc[H

special kind is the fsrj being

employed

for asserting one's
-

j^"*

power
iTfTTHit
i >

she

may even do
1

3, 49, 3

Ravana boasts a,\ii
f^jt

g hRh)*W^ iwr:
,

«iR<aii ^35"
(I

^ ^u

^w fknn:\ a^ fjgt
377)

a '?«aTl-gU iroin^-Ml

f^ JT^trRW

am

able to

lift

up the earth with
this," in
is

my
see

arms
P. 3,
to

drink up
152.

3,

the

ocean
if

etc.).

So often with %$j (or
»he

But

one says

may even do

order
sary
,

express

blame on that account, the present

neces-

and the f§re is forbidden (P. 3, 3, 142). Kag. gives this or ;nrj example 5^ rnWcTPT_ ajsm HMufd (he is even able to

officiate for
d.)

a gudra).
f^re
is

hy,

d.)

the

hypothetical
is

used,

if it is

wanted

to say,

what

P?

e'

will

happen or would happen,
It

if

some other

fact occur or should

occur.

used in

the

protasis as well as in
1,

the apodosis of
to

hypothetical sentences.
ronrte qrHaHl ST^F?
=ajtf

Mhbh.

82, 21
(if

Qarmishtha says

Yayati

yifrpFW

I

had offspring from you, I
,

would, walk

in

the
5TT

highest path of duty)
fiSTrSffafcT

Pat.

I, p.

2
,

jff

fthlM

*

ik sTTpif
kill

^TTr^T

*RI qfm:

WTH

(for

he who should
it,

a

brahman

or drink strong liquor without

knowing

even

such a one would

be an

outcast, methinks), Pane. Ill, 203 irf^

, ,

§

343-344.

265

%Ti. Cp. 489 and 471 E.
e.)ffsT5
«•)

L
1,

fwr? used

in relative sentences of general import.. A.cv.

relative
8

^, 1

ZHT 5?

^

^Im^rUtlH^ (wheresoever one has the intention of perI,

g^™

^! ^f C6S OX
1

e

formin g oblations), Pane.
ch^iF^-A
^T

165

gr

Mltd^Ul

oRTOT C

* <mfh
v^j

wrfFT.
c^

i

g^f^T ufraHT
of paying
ITrtf

5^fg g-crsrr:

(the king

who duly
,

observes
),

the

time

the
=T

wages

to his

officials

him

ibid. I,

271 SrcfylsU^
f.)f^p
1

!Tt

^-AllrH

^JcT-

f-)

f^T3^

ex P ress i Te of a design or a consequence.

KatMs.

36,

"final"

106

^T

S^^T^Rr
?rr%T ^
i

^

sri

=TcT

5;:wftt

UH^fsH 4)^ 11

^

(I

betake my-

and
COHoc"

se jf to Hari , in order that such grief

may

never again befall me),
18

cutive
clauses.

R.
zft

3, 13, 1 1

5; sr

re

orercpr

,

ibid. 3, 50,

^ m-j gW mm\ v
as will not

?ff

-md^
its

iiji rT

(one must bear only such a burden,

exhaust

bearer).

Rem. irr 405 R. 1.
It

"i epic poetry also

q-

with t%3=

»lest."

Cp.

needs

no argument, that the

subdivisions laid
arbitrary.

down
It is

here and other similar ones are

somewhat
is

one and the same fr^TJ that
it is

involved in all of

them, and

only for the sake of developing the
,

variety of the logical relations which are signified by that
so-called ^optative" or „potential," that

we have

tried

to distinguish at

all.

344.
idioms, it

Apart from the many-sidedness
is

of
is

its

employment
most cases not
,

to be observed, that the

TFT3
,

in

"""en" th

indispensable.

The imperative the present the future
occasionally

JT

the krtyas are often concurrent idioms, the conditional.
b)

and

c),

as

The imperative in the subdivisions a), will be shown hereafter (348-352), the
subdivisions
treat of

present in the

appear when

we

and /), as will plainly subordinate sentences (458 b
e)

,

266

§ 344.
,

468 471)
Especially the future
in

1

).

On the krtyas see357, on the
especially the r J

conditional 347.

But

it is

future in

"S+TTrT

that often

is

employed so

as to express a kind of subjunctive

mood.
posi-

° RT

"

The
tive

difference

which logically

exists

between the

statement of some future fact on one hand and
,

the utterance of an exhortation
supposition, sim.
practically
as

a wish

,

a doubt

,

a

on the other,

is

not so strong a bar
Occasio-

to keep

wholly apart the functions of

the future tense and the subjunctive mood.
nally the same grammatical form
both.
state

may
cases

do duty for
there

As

far

as

Sanskrit

is

concerned,
of
,

we may even
is

that

in

the

majority

no

boundary between the two. Indeed
is

the future in ° tMlri
,

available in almost every subdivision

belonging to

the department of the Tt<T5", save the hypothetical mood. Examples of the future sub junctive mood.

=

a.)
PPT!,

exhortation and precept. R.
it

1,

61, 2

f^m„ji

HMrWmw H»^l^^
mean:
let

from the context
let

is

evident that these words

us go

to

another region,

us do penance there. Kathas. 43, 86 h^-c^
(

TOST H HIN £WRT ^HMmfcl
6.)

you
sfr

shall return quickly at daybreak).
i

wish. R. 2, 96, 21

srfq-

cmwui-^rchlfoi^feoisTl ^rjt wfa

vn-rPT^ (o that I

might see the banner

^snft

,

that I might see Bharata).

The interchangeableness of present and optative in such relative made clear by this. In Pane. I we have a series of ten 9lokas (54—63) expounding what kind of people are fittest for attending on a king. All of these clokas are framed on the same scheme three padas being made up of a relative sentence, whereas the fourth makes up the apodosis, being the refrain g- Hold IdolcHM :. Now, in five
1)

sentences will be

1

clokas

out of the ten,
it is

the verb
it is

of the protasis

is

an optative, but in
is

three

a present, in one

wanting.
(I,

In the tenth the optative

employed

together with the present

55)

HMuy|^

fsriT SJTT3" iff FiJlritirjj

§ 344—344**.
c.)

267
i

possibility
i

and doubt. Pane. 282
(jwtt:

aJR^HmmH fcw^-Hm
i=RT tr

.

*r£wifa fsjr=r ch<t.iui«ii: rogue reflected: What

cRfafq'

y^wjfn

^H-w

sn?^ (the

shall I

do with her?
I
shall

And

perhaps some-

body

will

venience),

come

after

her;

then

get into great inconufnisrfH',

Especially the future of the auxiliary,
1, 76,

often

expresses probability. Mhbh.

32

amr

^fft

rreft

orrfa

ch-dtdM
died),

nQmfff
hunters,

(I

am
the

sure

,

father,

Kaca

will
tells

have been injured or has

Pane. 176

deer
qrr
njr

Citranga

how

himself has escaped the

but

rrepi^houfmRd

hBwIh

(my^ flock

is

sure to

have been killed by them).

Eem.
is

1.

If

such phrases, as »I blame," »I do not believe,"
»I

»»I cannot endure,"

wonder

if (srf^;),"

»I suppose

,

surmise,"
is

»it

time" are added to the potential statement, f^n?

idiomatic

(see P. 3, 3,

147—150; 152—153;
3, 3,

168), the future being but rarely
if

allowed, cp. P.
are

146 and 151 with comm. But
future in "^rfn
is

the said verbs

only

implied,
a
)

the

used side by side with

the optative.
f.)

purpose.

Pat.

I, p.
cJttt

7 the master of the house
Err

comes

to the

potter and asks
that
I

him

says to

may make use Kama ^ ^a ^d W
i
i'

cHUM ^R chfTwi 'rHH (make me a pot, of it). Likewise E. 2, 54, 28 Bharadvaja
lri III

l\

5 fa) PjSrfRTfe

(at

a distance of ten

kroga
Lat.

from here there

is

a mountain where you

may

dwell, cp.
1.

mons

in quo habites\.

Op. also

rr

with

fut.

r= lest" 405 B.

344*.

Inversely a Sanskrit optative
future.

may

occasionally be rendered
at

by a
-

Mhbh.

1,

160, 1

Kunti asks the brahman,
his

whose house
[5;:^] fdf^reU

she dwells,

why he and

family are lamenting

qj q ch RU
je

i

sreJr

irSTT^rf^rTO^ (I will

remove your pain,
,

if possible,
is

fr.

chasserai votre douleur).
optative

So Pane. 282

which example

quoted
^sr

above,
rlcT

and future alternate; likewise Pane. 65
STCT

rildrilimtlMI

(d-llR in

nOwioU^!*

^

OfT,

t)d

I

-^4 ^

^

SJTnT.

344**.

Even the
mood.

future
as

° rrr

may sometimes

express a subjunctive
is

As

far

my

information goes, this employment

limit-

1)

The sutra
s,

P. 3, 3, 146 is accepted too narrowly
c

by the commentators.
be sure cer,

It enjoins the future in

mfh

for expressing the notion »to
it,

tainly," and

147

is

to be considered an exception to

268
ed
to

§
the

344**— 345.
the
potential

dominion

of

mood. Mhbh.

i, 12, 3

air

s^ l-ti-dfH JTW*l-£fcyj gar ^r*TT utoirTT foramrr: (he examines my horhe is sure to be a connoisseur in horses), Pat. I, p. 250 prar ses
,

fa^j
wise,

-SoUfhMi^fi

£gT y*i^
one
is

Hcrf^r

T%ff ^qRoi di^uTl

^rftor (like-

if

at a distance

one sees a person of
likely to say
:

whom

one can only

discern the outline ,

it

looks like the wife of a

prince,

it

looks like the wife of a brahmana).

345.
expres-

Sanskrit makes no distinction between the different
tenses
of the

^-

subiunctive mood. J

The TFT3 *^

expresses

thepast
as the

the past as well as the present.
onnally
2

^TFT may
etc.

r

be occasiCh. Up.

present.

^ ^ ^^ ^
my
dear?"

=

„I might,

I

would
,

have done."

fo^er

&S ^ B his disciple

»who has taught you,
g?r

srW

gft rr

rdMaiailM

the other replies
12, 1
(a
gj<£T

^

JTPrfsTKnH

(who should
fi^rJr

have taught me?), Gaut.
trrsTT

ftsTTtrWtTOVTOT-

dU^Uimmimmj-

U-ilM^lH

cudra,

tionally reviled twice-born

men

who has
firprfft

inten-

shall lose the

member, whereby

he has offended), Mrcch.
iTT

Ill, p.

124 Carudarta speaks

nm:

i

^TTT aER5TT5^RTJf cFOTH^ (Maitreya tarries; how,

if, in his distress,

he should have done some forbidden
the past of the

thing!).

Yet an optative of
p^rr
(in

may

be made by adding
f.
i.

HTTfT^

or irar^ to the participle
irarff

past,

Kathas. 27, 32

-Rfi 1

HOTtTfrf

what

can

I

have offended the king?).

)

Likewise, by putting them

to the participle of the future

one gets the subjunctive mood of
hardly

the future.

For the

"rest,

Sanskrit can

be said to possess somea
)

thing like tenses of the subjunctive mood.

Only a kind of op-

1)
ijU
i

So already in the archaic dialect.

Ait.

Br.

1, 4, 1
,

q:

<TcW«T)ill-r.

-H^

(to such a one, as has not sacrificed formerly)

^sTI^T is

the partic.

of the perf. atm. of ZT5>
2)

The Rgvedamantras

,

indeed

,

contain

many

optatives

,

belonging to

the aorist, some also, which are made of the stem of the perfect. But In the archaic dialect they have early disappeared from the language. the conditional may occasionally do duty of the past of the f§T?i see

347

R. and cp. P.

3, 3,

140.

§
tative
call

345-347.
it
,

269
is

of the

aorist
is

has survived, but

not what

we should
T
a'

a tense. It

rather a kind of

mood

see the next paragraph.

346.
tive.

The precative

or benedictive
to

mood

is

restricted

(^|R|fa fv\3). This \% benedictions, and even there it
:

has a concurrent idiom
f^rcmpferT:

the imperative.
i

Malat. VII,

p.

91

crpr^wtat Tf^nrfrr 5«ttot 'grrcrg; (ma y tlie g° ds make the issue as happy as possible may I obtain my desire"), Utt. I, p. 5
,

fchM^^iyiKM^ a^uysTT
i

itot:,

Dae.
J )

I

64 w^rs

^r

^s: *lm^iy: irorcwof
i

JTTcT^T^IdHlRi rdrtiyi^tl

tTTslRIri'-

347.
Conditionai.

The so called conditional (FT3F) f "^
f

is

properly the past
its

the future in
is

p ° ^M Irl.
o

-

In classic Sanskrit

employ-

ment

limited to the expression of the so called modus

irrealis,

that

is

the

mood
,

significative of
if

what would
should have
place.

happen or have happened
occurred,

something

else

which really has not taken

Then,
con-

mostly, both protasis and apodosis contain the
ditional.
Ch. Up.
it,
2

)

6, 1, 7

g-

^rl^d

I

ffarerfr

*t

znsm^ (for
me

if

they had

known

why

should they not have told
fTfft

so?), Pane. 237 h^iR, (TOT
(for if

oH-Wchi^mHH

^ ^st^t^m^mmfsm^m^
,

they had done

according to his words

then not the least misfortune would have
fft

befallen them), Dag, 111

y^MMyl R^(£cildoiidrwidiRuHi *i£m
grown up
this

Hart EfjftaRerRBTWfTTT
without
accidents,
6,

(if

those two princes should have

they

would have
=TTCT:

reached

your age by
earth,

time), Kumaras.
(sjtstT

68 jumii^^if

ST iyirM^lrlMoiMt'ilif

=T

° 3rT

(how would the serpent [Cesha] bear the
it

you

[Vishnu] had not lifted

up from the bottom of

hell?),

Ch. Up.

1)

Nala

17,

35 the precative STOTCT does the duty of an hortative im-

perative.
2) P. 3, 3,

139 f^ri^f^ft gyg J9hmlriMT&
140

w{

^.

Eac.

UFT

=ET

ZR&

fctfeffi*

lsWJl(ri<4??l

^rU\

;

270
1,

§ 347.
4
7T bit

10,

wtfawftm^'pn^

(forsooth, I should hare died, if

I

had not eaten them). In the examples given, the conditional
it is

in the apodosis sometimes denotes a hypothetical past, sometimes

a hypothetical present, but in the protasis
of a
past.

always expressive

I

do not recollect having met with any instance of

the conditional denoting the hypothetical present in both members

M.

7,

20

f. i.

it

is

signified

by the
af^; q-

f^ry in the protasis and

by

the conditional in the apodosis
SRFf
) :

nuid^

l

ttl

3TJ3"

^U^UdoidP^rCi

^r<aifHdm-^.<sM *5l^d-d(l (if the kin g were not P r ompt to inflict punishment on those, who deserve it, the stronger would
roast the

weaker

like fish

on the

spit).

For the

rest, it is every,
f. i.

where allowed

to use the f^n? instead of the

2, 64, 22 jrwHiarJT

w^wi zmh: ^tot
told
in

conditional,

K.

i

th<?i-wf

w

fr

^isHHy: STrW-

^mn

(if

you had not
fallen

me

yourself this evil deed, your head
grsnr:

would have
acfisrfiTOT:

off
-

a thousand pieces),

and cr^fT =:

and jjtht^MH

Bern.

In the archaic dialect the conditional had a larger sphere

of employment.
future's past
to
(f. i.

Though

rarely used in
2
jft

its

original
^

meaning of a
about

Kg v.
,

2, 30,

cMW fM-W^mrimH »who was
it

take

away

the provision of Vrtra"),

occurs there occasionally
S.

as the past of the f^r:?
1, 8, 1
^r

even in not-hypothetical sentences. Maitr.
(Praj.

rltpT

^iQ^rtldiqfcuieli)^
i),

did

not get what he

could

sacrifice)

§at.

Br. 14,

4, 2,

3

fi<t

^arer

m

srferrcr

5RWT-

dTKjiTOIrT

(from that

moment
2
).

his fear vanished, for of

whom

could

he have been afraid?)

1) Even here and in similar instances the conditional shows its origin. The sentence quoted from the Maitr. S. treats of an action put into the past, if it were a present one, the sentence would assume this shape rr

Qtjcl
2) In

ZTStrarfn

or sT^nrT-

In other terms,

a^teH may

here be con-

sidered as the past of ^jwifd-

a well-known passage of the Chandogya-upanishad
is

(6, 1, 3)

the
5fiT

conditional
HSrf?T etc.
it

hidden under a

false

reading 3FT

rWUHWU
,

1-ffiTl

iMI^rl

Qankara explains WRIT: by (j^olHfa

the Petr. Diet, accepts
if aor., it

as

an

aorist,

though

it is

then a barbarism, for

would have

been ^yi-dii' Replace tlUT^i:> and all is right »had you but asked the instruction, by which etc." Cp. P. 3, 3, 141.

^

:

§

348—349.

271

Imperative.

348.
ratfve.

Sanskrit imperative

(H

K)

comprises more than
It
is

is

conveyed by

its

European name.

not only the

equivalent of what we are

wont

to understand

by

this

mood, but and doubt.

it

is

also

expressive of wishes, possibility

We
i.

will treat

severally of its different
,

The

j_

The imperative

like

ours

,

employment signifies an order or
I i

of pre-

injunction , permission
"Tfire

and* exh ° rta"<

precept , , Examples: 2 d person. Kathas. 81, 56 ^i^ol R4tejCT
mfff
iTS'gr cK7:
,

exportation , admonition.
Uii^lfdiiil-

^ipr (enjoy the hospitality of our mistress, get

up

,

take a bath
I

thereafter take food), Qak.
,

IV 37^

uft^TT: T^TR'-

^ IA.U

<JHM

(my children
cFi

show your
<

sister
;

the
3d

way),

103 wr

<T=T5FT:

Wrnr
may

Richie
ftst

m

nfTT:

ST Zj*
this

q Afifef qq

Prab. V,

p.

person. Dag. 132
17,

(let

wicked elephant withdraw), Nala

32 crarRT

stars

wmjl^kii qmtrr (your attendants

must try

to

find out^Nala), Malav.

rule over
|

— —
);

V,

p.

137

fft

t

roigRlch^
Ill

%CTT3Kiw

(they

1 st

person. Qak.
will

c^|dlRj

(if

you permit, I

make

),

zrtfqq^ rT3^qqf fsrSRJ Mhbh. 1, 146, 29 g^rq 5RT7, 7

irrfqqTq

(let

us wander oyer this country), Nala

qjf g^- *rmj:

Rem. In
2d

exhortations,

some

particles

are often added to the

349.
mons
^ion.""

person, as sg-fq, =sj, qq etc. See 418. In courteous injunctions and requests

it is

very com-

mon
the

to
2d

use the imperative of the

passive instead of
is
to

person of the active.

Then the agent
p.

commes-

monly not
senger
Sire).

expressed (10). Ratnav. IV,
the barber enjoins his wife
dear, fetch

100 king

mm mmMsm^V,
Pane. 48

messenger to king £* sranw G ist en,

i^

#fy^i41urlf *rprtI, p.

rj^q

(please,

my

me my

razorbox). Vikram.

4 the
off

apsarasas

are

bewailing their companion Urvacl,

carried

by
of

the

Danavas, Pururavas intervenes and says ^rWlsfcPdHWiN^oiy"
^TFTT
5RrTt
HSIrffi

qrqp>r

qf^lrW T ^T-

~

F° r

the rest, usrrq

is

272

§

349-351.
I, p.

course here likewise available (Malav.

4 rdjdi

Hsrt^T)

aQd when

showing respect and reverence, one uses the
addressed
^tnTJTH

title

of the person
i

instead
is

of

it

(260).

So Pane. 86

fT57J

qf M-dB

rell

Jmirr-

teji^ll

a more respectful mode of inviting,
ibid.

than

^ifri"

mu
350.

i

ktrr^r,

cp.

48

stusrt

itsrt;

cruras;:

(v. a.

I request the

judges to

listen).

Another manner of expressing
is

polite request

,

equally

wheT frequent,
ph"a-

using the verb ^T^TrT. One says

^ Irl*i«^lt1 =
Nala says
to

^PTrTT^T, cp. our „deign to listen." Nala
S 0QB TT
^T

3, 7

theim- * ne
tive.

U&lfiirwlm

(please, send not me), Qak.
i

V

the door-

P era- keeper to the king cfifg ^m wn ^vi

m

i

md'<m*ri
.

5° r:

Kem. The
precepts

f§rj and the future in
the

o

sTlrHalH -s^

-

^rfn are concurrent idioms
in exhortations

with the imperative,
(343
,

former especially

and
a).

a),

the latter,

when giving
cease
to

instructions

(344 ,

The

future
it is

does,

however, not

be a future; in other

terms,

not used in orders or permissions to be acted up to
if

immediately, but

two or more injunctions are given, then often
is

the one prior in time

put in the imperative, the latter expressed
p.

by the
arTTT

future.

Malav. Ill,

79

«^

yiyjfy

i

rrq-

(you

may
the

go,

but

first

hear

Hlo^Mloi^Miqng

31-

).

Hit. 108

the old jackal

instructs

others,

how

to

get rid

of the blue jackal, their

insolent kinsman.

"When giving the general precept, he uses the
but the future
eh 17mm
,

imperative

gj^rT,

when giving

the special
').

injunction, to be acted up at a fixed point of time in the future

351.
II.

II.
,.

The imperative

is

expressive of wishes
Hit. 118

and

bene-

Im-

perative ex-

UlCtlOnS.

,.

sive

presof

Examples: Such phrases as i%f *

§tss,

rps

[ddiTt

nsr,

wishes.

1) In this very
2"1 pers.

meaning a few passages of the Mahabharata afford a
fc5PT.

plur. of the medial future in

instead of ° ioT in other terms
,

a formal difference, which stamps these forms a9 imperatioes of the future. Borr, Vergl. Or. § 729 quotes three instances: Mhbh. 1, 17, 13; 3, 228,
8; 6, 27, 10, see
I

can

calls

Holtzmaun, Grammatisches aus dem Mhbhta p. 33. To them add a fourth, Mhbh. 1, 133, 13: Drona being seized by a shark, upon his disciples for rescue jrr^ ^roTT JT *Ttett5T TI^-

§

351—353.
(

273
princes

Nagan. IV,
Pane. 16

p.

61

ferarFrt
qwrrrr:

ERtTTfr

ma y

the

be

victorious),

%5TT^
p.

?fh

(y. a-

Gtod speed you on your way),

Mudr. VII,

231 f%pT5rrT

itst

mf^oifti^tim :.

Here the precative
limited
')

(346) and the f§t? are concurrent idioms.

Eem.
in

It is to benedictions that

the imperative in ° HTrT

is

P
'.,k

the

classic language.
it

Dag. 16

^Hiw^
2, 6,

fopeft Hsrmfa^irTTiT2

In the ancient dialect
series

had a wider employment, only see the

of precepts quoted Ait. Br.

13—16.

352.
impeexpres-

)

HI.

The imperative

is

a kind of potential mood, ex(cp.

pressive of possibility

and doubt
1
st

344).

It

is

especiPane.

siyeof
possibility

ally used in interrogations. Examples are frequent of tho
225

and 3 d person.
,

I,

doubt

^

it

says , a serpent even a not-poisonous one

is

to

be dreaded

H5r3

m

JgrmTTCTsWt

ui&if:
is

(it

may have

poison or not, the
1,

swelling of a serpent's crest

dreadful),

Mhbh.

37, 8 =gfg

q^some

d^imn f^

^ft qsoTiT rfra^r (perhaps

by deliberation we may
?srr:icFPq-

find

means

for rescue), Malav. IV, p. 117

q

t,° tyWlr^chll-<H)-caia1
I, p.

(how may we be rescued from
cMa-l^fd

this

danger?), Utt.
it?),

21

crf?jrr

(who
rT

(IdR*'

W:

M

on earth

will

believe

Vikram. V,

p.

184

iff

efipff <Jlch^n ^T:

(say, king,

what may Indra moreT^TOrS":

over

do for you?), Hit. 118

cfisqrrjr

u^imdi

(how may

this

great-hearted

man

be praised

[as

he deserves]?).

353.
lmpera

IV.
press

The imperative with RT prohibition. Tet this idiom
it

or
is

RTFT
or

serves to exlittle

comparatively

'!l
an <J

used, but instead of

either

^FTT

^TFFTwith the

instrumental of a verbal noun, or the aorist without
1)

Sanskrit inscription

Another instance is pointed out by prof. Keen as occurring in a on a stone, originating from Java, which stone is
the

now

in

Museum
See

of Antiquities at Calcutta.
g-

Vs. 4 of this metrical

inscription
victorious).

has this close:

iltlHI<<j^-HWI
in

^T:

(king Erlanga

maybe
1—21).

Keen's paper
Altindische
"fTTrf

the Bijdragen van

het Instituui. voor de

Taal- Land- en
2)

Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie, 1885 (X,
Wortfolge, p.

p.

Delbruck,

2—6

has endeavoured to prove

that the imper. in

did duty of an imperative of the future in the

dialect of the brahmana-works.
18

274
other

§

353—355.
or

augment, preceded by

$™t

=
2.

?EFT >FFT, ?tf
Examples
:

3^ m TO:
or
rrr

*TT

TTFT. „Do not fear"

f. i.

P
i!g

3

expressive of

1.

of imper. with
jrrfr

and rtw- Pane. 294 qr
I, p.

fa diliii
*

-

prohi1 Ion
'

n^,
of

Kathas. 39, 233
3j^{jt

qn?rf
53

tfTWrT

(go on, do not stay here);

and

cFfFT

with instrumental. Mudr.
p. oirM

46 acdiimu-<ui

(no

hesitation

more), ibid.

M

Ibitii^H (be not sorry,
>

my

dear),
Aorist

Pane. 64 s^f HHqrn") Qak. I g^T <J^H
jttc*T

3.
1,

of aor. with qr.
153, 34 qr t%7

Dae. 143
^WTi
(do

HdrJ

l

W:

(do not fear, ladies),
2, 42, 6

Mhbh.

not tarry), E.

s^fir ^iWchi^iR qT smfi: mrfesrar

(do not touch

my
is

body, you evil-minded woman).
also construed with a

Rem.
Ill, p. p.

1.

g^rq

gerund or an

infin.

Mudr.

124 tierlMMMiH (do not censure

106

^

me any
is

longer), Mrcch. Ill, people).

HUsH

gsTra fdH^ (do not

awake the sleeping

Eem.
in

2.

In the epic dialect the augment

not always dropped
1, 2,

the

aorist
fltffwt

with

qr.

So in the famous imprecation E.
ST^T:-

15

TT fmJZi
-SFJTmrOT-

roWW.

UIIUoIH):

Op. Mhbh.

1,

37, 7 qr q: cFT^t

Eem.
the

3.

With

qr^q

not only the aorist

is

allowed, but also
2, 9,

P

j™

3 3

'

imperfect
HrHT^HiPTr
4.

tense,
*TT

of course

without

augment. E.

23 qr

WT
the

^TqfwTGraT:, Dag. 160 qr^q TOT
is

qF5irrs«T5reHr:

Ml^yM.
In

Eem.
dialect.
cr=r

qr with optative
also
1,

of course a concurrent idiom.

prakrts

qT

with future in
the
three

'WfH-

Likewise in the epic

Mhbh.

30, 15

idioms are used side by side
fort

qT yiriy

grnffqf

wf

^<-«jy

armqiqT

ripr:

srwsx dMfirisrui

Jrftt%TT:.

354.

The

aorist

with

^TT is

not restricted to prohibition.

It does occasionally duty as an optative with negation. Mrcch. VIII, p. 280 srsPFT'FRiiMwwrq' stiht jtt arsar irear f| sf^i

xni^mi Mi^} arairr taw 5>£r, R- 2, 30, 19 qr srsf fe&irii nqq. It may even express a doubt (352): Kathas. 42, 114 q^Hl f^ <TPT
i

grer

Tr ^fen-a^l

(how can a crime
:

^

,

recklessly perpetrated
I, p.

,

fail

to

cause

mishap ?). Or anxiety

Pat.

41 8

rrof

(dTl Ri
l

(lest

one

should decide thus).

355.

In classic Sanskrit the

1

st

person of the imperative

,

§ 355.
Archaic i s i ess

275

use a than f^e

ther two (Cp. 356). In fact , these
viz.

junctweist

persons belong to another set of forms,

the so-

-called conjunctive (FT5). In both
compositions
,

dialects

of vaidik

in mantras as well as in

brahmana- works

this conjunctive is still to be
qualifies it as archaic.
i st per-

met

with.

But Panini already
,

In epic and classic Sanskrit inexist

deed,

its

2d

and 3 persons

a

no more whereas
,

its l 8t

thTim-

persons

are the very forms considered to

make

part

twTbc-of the imperative (FTT5").
This vaidik conjunctive shows a great relationship both in form
the tyfe""*

and employment
dialect. It

to

Greek conjunctive, especially that of the Homeric

tative,

and

may express both, the hortative mood and the opis much used in subordinate sentences, conveying a
having general bearing.
=et

doubt or a purpose or
instances of
its

Here are some
=sr

use.

Ait. Br. 2, 2, 5 zrf£

fjmfa

irf£

mr& ^iarnwrT

oiiw

i

q

ywTrT

(whether
10, 85, 36

you are standing or lying down, give us
the marriage-mantra nnnTft
ibid.
gft

wealth),

Kgv.

m iroim

^rf

mr

qrUT sr^feiemr:,

39

£ter%}w
life,

zr:

iiRsifoiiiri

st^i stot

(may

her

husband have
TS.
6, 5, 6,

a long
jffs?ft

may he
sr

reach a hundred

autumns),

2

straw 4IWI*
us). ').

^cfftsStT

(who

shall

be born of her, must be one of

Kem.
so
Jrfr

1.

Like

rr

with optative in the epic dialect (451 K.
in

with

conjunctive

the

vaidik works
(lest

may be
HL .

1),

»lest."

Mr.
go

1,

11 q-fe^TT zraft ^TJW

qrrm

by going astray we
i

shall
tlleT

to hell), Ait. Br. 2, 12, 2

^q- ^q\sqfimtFTT g oM-ih^

( lest

should go to the devas unsatisfied).
Bern.
2.

Some few

conjunctives, occurring in the archaic texts,
ofrnrr in

belong to the system of the aorist, as

Bgv.

10, 15, 6

qr

1) Instances from Bgv., AV., (|)at. Br., Ait. Br. are brought together by Delbkuck in his treatise Der Gebrauch des Conjunctivs und Optativs It im Sanskrit und Griechischen Halle 1871, especially p. 107 190. may be observed that the Chandogya-upanishad has not a single instance

,

of the £qr in the

2<i

or 3 d person.

,

:

276

§

355—356.

f^fw

ftr^": EfR f%TT nz ^arm": ^ktht st^pt (do us no injury, fathers, on account of any offence which we after the manner of men,
,
,

may have committed
356.
l Bt per-

against you).
1"*

Instead of the

persons of the imperative, classic

son of the pre6ent

Sanskrit often uses the

present

(tf16),sometimes ~~

_^_^

when

having the nature of a hortative, as J|^l*i! when
„let us go,"

em-

but especially in dubitative interrogations

tTrf
tive.

f% ^"TiH
a -)
yH-AldyriiyyT

|T
(let

il^lfH (what shall I do, where shall
2, 96,
),

I go?)
fa'ald
i i :

present with hortative meaning. E.
us

20 ^digST

stand

still

here


3>
i)

Pane. 86

H^J rM^

fi

-

(4,M
i

aiJT:

G e * us present him with our body), Prabodh.

nan flfoniyn y^ufdmifa
(let

[=: "(dunPiL us search through the whole forest),
fTTHrT.

R

61, 18 spt

^

II p. 29

fdF^Wd:
regular

The idiom

is

with
I

Qak. I

nsrjT

i

U|<*M |^H F{ri

^5T fdtid*jli fTTonbrt
p.

qumfi (Well,

will look

on her
l

),

Mudr. IV,

138 Malay aketu to Bhaguralet

yana

H^Tl'JMiifd:

U Uld<aH

l

dH

(therefore,
^rlsr

us not approach, let us

rather listen),
znsrrT^

Pane 261

^f ^ri^ldA^ mtw
:

nldMiFH

-

Cp.

with present 478

al. 2.

6)
JTrprrf^

present in dubitatrve interrogations
f^r

m

Pane. 40 f%
(shall

si^Tcrr

f&rsf

ga^ifa

f^r

him with a weapon,
one
f£>
kills

m
;

^tiffm otimi^aiEi

I kill

or give

him poison or put him
er

to death as
1,

a beast?), Hit. 95

mm:

f*
An

5TT
,

cFHT:,

Mhbh.

155, 42
,

*{)wi^ldfuii fcnsrj

d^Mm

(friends

tell

me

frankly

what
>what

shall I do for

you := f%

ch;<dlfu i° )-

instance of this idiom in

the passive voice
shall be

may be

Pane. 37

frf^r ftran [sc. ?nsrR^rnT]

done by us?"

1)

If these

instances

occurred

only in verbs of the

1st

conjugation,

where the formal difference between the endings of the present and those of the imperative is a Blight one, one could account for them in a satisfactory way by supposing errors of the copyists. But in reality
,

instances
it

being

likewise found
as

among
person.

the verbs of the 2* conjugation,

must be recognized,
is

we

do, that the present instead of the impe-

rative

idiomatic for the

l Bt

Such phrases as

BRif:,

Ujuia

;

=

*UldW

and UlUldld should have moved Cappeller

in his edition of the

§ 357.

277

K
357.
Krtyas.

TYAS.

The krtyas,

as far as they do duty for finite verbs, J

'

may rank

with the tenses, which

.

are

expressive of
of Latin

the subjunctive

mood. They have the nature

gerundivum, and,
voice.

like this, they belong to the passive

But
.

their sphere of
,

employment
is

is

wider.

They
do or p
«. 3,

signify

not only that
.,

which one
,

obliged to

what
.

1

is

prescribed to be

done but also what must happen
,

m

163;
;

ness

by necessity or that which is jit, expected likely to happen, Examples: 1. duty, precept Yajn. I, 117 ^irrfpTTOTrT^tfitmanysided(one must make room for an old man, one oii-dftfjijii q^err jhr:
of
>

their

charged with a burden, for a king, a sndtaka, a woman, a sick

,

.,

em
ploy-

man,
be

a bridegroom and one in a carriage),
(do not kill me), Qak. I srpsnnpfrsEr

Nala

1,

19 ^HotTU fer

ment.

^ ^ ^nrc

^ ^-rm: (— may

not

killed),

Pane. 269 spivf OTf twiuichollj
i

ddlCd* H^HWlR qj
cfjtft

fSraT <HrdichH5h ?nr

WTTTsnT-

When

substituting for these krtyas the
first

active

voice,

one would get in the
q-

example

^h
i

1

,

in

the second qj &Si:, in the third
2,

grfes^T^fH', in the fourth f^-.
n-doU*^
(I

necessity.
I,

Pane. 167 jtotoTW

^imj
iterr

must needs go

abroad), ibid.

450

ijprftnf

gfuiH

l

fq&TPTT iT^nRT: (blockheads

are ihe natural enemies of the learned, the poor of the wealthy).
3.

probability, conjecture, expectation, etc.
FHTT
tr loirlc^iH

Qak. Ill ^fcn

gHimUM

HfaHjdiH

(she is sure to be in the neighbourhood of
i

the bower), Pane. 240 fy^ry-dUWiy ^TOTOJt JTfTOT jrsn

sfcTTfa ^ra^TT-

iHoiH (the lion reflected
hole
seraT

:

surely some animal will
p.

come

into this
fifWrT

to-night),
(

Prabodh. V,

106

arfirjWfT: chmf41fa:

erttt

a re they likely to confer any benefit or have they done so

before or are they doing so now?).

The

last

example plainly shows,

that the krtya borders upon the sphere of a participle of the fu-

ture

,

CKT&

being here

may

be even

almost

= thf^mu

i-

Thus n faded

or irrsr

»future," ufadoUdi

"the future."

Ratnavali in Boethlingk

's

Chreslomathy to leave intact the presents of the

kind, he has changed into imperatives.

,

3

278
4.

§

357-358.
by them. Ka§. on
P3,

Even
169

desert

and

ability find their expression

P.

3, 3,

gives

this

example
?

cf>ait
tT

a^H

= MdMHdxRtrl

,

nsrm

*prer

3?*tt ortearr
>3tfT

=

Holing

and on sutra 172 ^arlT

UTft d)i>aU:

diP^ srar:some fact not expected. Mudr. VII,
liputra

The krtyas may be

also expressive of indignation at
p.

220 Baxasa

,

when hearing

the glory of his foe Canakya proclaimed in the very streets of Pata-

exclaims oh^Im ^FT iidy-l ^Jlrlcaii (and even this Baxasa { must hear!); Dag. 78 the wretched Jaina monk deplores his mis,

fortune and the necessity, he has been put to, to break with the
faith

of his
fe

fathers

rpr

?T

rjyirariT

WdrWHJ lifldm'rDrf
fruit,
faith).

q^vrnrer wrffi fangWuitlMUmffiti,' (thus on such a road of disbelief, as
,

this,
if it

which gives no
were the true
P-

but rather deception, I must walk, as

Bern.
° w\3X, cp-

Some krtyas
3, lj

125.

— Other irregularities of meaning are caused
voice, as jrjqfa,
g?(g-

are restricted to

»necessity," viz.

those in

by the improper employment of the passive
denoting
»the person

who

deserves a gift,"
j^d-Tit)

»one

fit

to

when make
P
3
3

an alliance with" (Pane.
142).

Ill, 8),

»to

be dreaded"

(ibid. Ill,

-j^j

Some may have even an
Chapt. V. Participles

active meaning, see P. 3, 4, 68.

and

participial idioms.

358.

When

laying down] the syntax of the participles, there
participial

must be distinguished between the
the participial employment.
?™. ti ~
ci pit's*

forms and

As

to their

form the participles are adjective nouns
suffixes

derived

by constant
are

from any verbal
exponents
1.

root,
partici-

and
Diffe-

which

the

proper

of

pial

employment. Sanskrit possesses

three participles

cL^es for
of

the continuous action, one in each voice 0*igM> *"
:

them.

^5CTtrn, |9hMllm o
present
1)
'),

)>

which are named

participles
,

of the

2.

two
its

participles
term
is

for the future
improper, than in

one in the
other lan-

In

Sanskrit,

this

less

many

guages, because

present haB chiefly the character of expressing the

durative (sirWM), see 326-

,

§

358—359.

279

active voice

(^T^FT) and

one serving both for the
3.

medial and the passive

(^T^WTTHTO,
4.

the krtyas,

which are passive
the past

participles for the

future, but with

a special employment, see 357,
,

two

participles
,

for

to signify

what

is

done achieved completed as
,

^FT and ^FT^FT,

the latter of which has always an
unless they

active meaning, as to the former see 360. It must be kept in mind, that the participles,
themselves
future

do

duty as

finite

verbs, denote the past, present or

only with regard to the time, involved by the chief verb

of the sentence.

359.
in

Additional remarks. — the active may be considered
,

1.

As

participles

of the future

also a.) the krts in ° s,

derived

from desideratives
cp.

as fachl
ft?
=et

iSi

(wishing to do, being about to do),

52

a,

f.

i.

Dag. 166

ssnz:

m^bmnfo 9Fi.H wi<hoi R
I

« Qsj-doi
in

:

tH THi

m

(and there

[on

that

island]

we descended,
fruits)
;

desiring to

take sweet water, fuel, turnips, roots and

b.)

some
go

° 3,

mentioned by P.
lage),

3, 3, 3,

as

jtjtt

ii

l

*W

(one,

who

will

to the vil-

they

do

even

duty as

finite

verbs: Kathas. 35, 104 3rt%w

Tra^nsft
to

you

h
),

sftfr asry^: grr:

(get up,

my
i

king, a son will be born
irra^

Vikram. V,

p.

181

in

"acff,

when put
52
there

g ^ib *idj
i

fr

= "ufam;

c.)

those

close
c. ').

to the chief verb;

they are expressive

of a purpose , cp.
2.

Further

are

the old participles of the past, formed
f.

with reduplication,
active voice,

such as ^gjoTPT,
got
out
of

xRfjisftj

n

-

^TcRoTrT

for the

and

xreffrnT.

for the passive.
use.

In classic Sanskrit they

have

almost
to

wholly

Already Panini

restricts P.

3, 2,

them

Holy

"Writ, with the exception of six, viz. ^-f^crpT, STfiterRj

109

was wrong, in doubting, on p. 39 N. 3 of this book, at the corNala 21, 22) USFfmfifen^SFt: of the example (Mhbh. 3, 73, 25 quoted by Whitney. When reading once more not only that passage but the whole sarga, I clearly saw, that McJt)^ cannot but depend here
1) I

rectness

=

on

*lftioll<t*:.

280
srejsrPT,

§
the compounds

359—360.
s^rf&srnr,

gm aaH^

«-h*K!.

The
it

participle

in "cTPT

(aw)
,

is

,

however, oftener met with in the post-Paninean
,

literature

than would be expected by this rule

but

occurs chiefly

in epic poetry and in kavyas.
(bH<i.6i) )

Mhbh.
i

1,

44, 10 f3frfion~r, K- 1> 26,
:,

25

Kathas. 25, 72
6, 1,

afa^m P frgn
That
it

Kumaras.

2,

4 rprcmi

ft<^qjjq , ibid.

72 m^ihwi&ii rsm,
17 etc.

ibid. 6,

64 ^RrejitrWdW^, Kathas.
as finite verb,

81, 31, Cicup.

may even do duty

has been mentioned 338.

But the
is
;

participle of the past in ° wtt has

wholly antiquated,
see
f. i.

and

only met with in the archaic dialect,
11, 1, 6, 8 etc.

Qat. Br.

3, 9, 1, 1

360.
participles

Of the participles in
passive

° r{
it is

the great majority have a

meaning hence
,

customary to

call

the whole

in 0fT

passive
tranliactive,

class the passive participle of the past.

But some others

are no ^ P ass ^ ves
(died),

?

Du ^ intransitives

,

as JTFT (gone), 'TFT

PT^T
,

(split*.

Some again may be even transitive

actives

as TirT (having drunk), STTCT (having reached),

ToTFTFT (having forgotten),
this case

T^IW?

(having

divided), in

they

may

generally convey sometimes a passive,
For instance:

sometimes an active meaning.
jjTfTS

act-

Dag. 138

wtz&n

oft^t

pass. E. 2, 83, 5 jih «3*iliwibiMi

amiy-W^n^i-iiPi.

*H^Ufc Pl
l

(the

scholiast

adds

Mlf^fiT:)-

"With this verb, the active meaning
TOjT act. Utt. Ill, p.

is

the more
1,

common.
a feqln
i

38

pre

^jj^.

pass.
j

Ragh.

12

h^U

v

crerfTT

[sc

gfcrr]-

srarT:

I^wDm:.
ij.

wrjrs

act.

Qak.

I grtrqq^Ts^rTqfer-

pass.

Kathas. 17, 48 -^mr HdliU
(there
is

rrriTfeT

(how, have I offended

^

no offence done
28

to

the holy men?)
jrfo^ act.

you by the queen),
29 a
i

Vikram.

II, p.

^Ml -

pass. R. (Gorr.) 5, 56,

jrfafs-

H

TOT

5JWPT;

mg

act.

Mudr.

I, p.

7 srfwjrrr

na^T-

pass.

Hit. 24 crf%fu:

dfrfrl^

fflW. OTPTi

(welcome guests are

come

to ray house).

§ 360—362.

281

Moreover ,in accordance to what has been stated above the
neuter sing, of
all intransitive participles

may be
^TFP,
Cp. Pat.

employ*

p

3 4>
.

72.

ed also in a passive sense. Instead of

?PT

5PT TFT:,
I, p.

one says as well JTrFFf'T, SJcFFFT

468.

Rem.
tive

1.

If

a participle in

° r{ is

used with intransiis

meaning, then the transitive passive

commonly

expressed by the corresponding part, of the causative. ftrr means »split by itself" ^%T » split [by somebody]," crsrs »awake"
but
gsftfVrT
»

roused,"

jftft

»born" but sH^h
etc.

»

engendered,"
c
rr

qffjrT »fall-

en" but

qifrid
2.

sthrown"
far

Eem.
wt,

As

as

I

know, the
;

participles in
,

never convey

a transitive active meaning
fusr, Trr.

they are

as a rule

,

intransitives, as

361.

Occasionally the participles in
present.

° rT

F 2 are used of the l ltl

'

They are then expressive
,

of

an action achievTT^TrT

188

-

ed

,

completed

finished.

So

3TFT

and

when

=

„being,"

?M>
will

„able," *JrT ,dead," H5T „broken."

362.

II.

We

now

treat

of the participial

employ-

^\" ment. Before

defining it,

abstraction

is

to be

made

X"
ment.

of

the case in which the participles are nothing more

or less than simple attributive adjectives, as F^pot r „a forbidden law," or even substantives, as 9FP, when

— aRT: when — „old man ," f$T®T:

„when

- disciple.

1

).

Apart

from this adjectival function, the

participles serve to

express attending circumstances or other qualifications
1)

A

special rule of Panini (3, 3, 114) teaches the neuters of participles

in
JJrf

° fT

to

be admissible as nouns of action.

So Mhbh.

1,

157,41

stcTi

STOT

T^
,

^
W

>T dlloirl

1

SPT*r (it is better to die together,
l

nor can

I

bear

to live). Pat.

I,

p. 11

f^fechri^far|chU|fiiH (H ^5T ^tTOT HoTprT STTC!rHJ<il

(hiccoughing

laughing and scratching are neither sinful nor pious actions).

,

282
of the

§ 362.

main action
,

,

whether temporal or
,

local

,

causal

concessive

conditional, hypothetical
,

etc.

In other terms,

in Sanskrit , as elsewhere

the participles are a concurrent

idiom of subordinate sentences, of which, indeed, they

may

be said to exhibit the rudimentary form. Examples: 1. the participle equivalent to a simple
Pane.

relative

clause.

2^?( JT^wt ^fw ^HHi
t

are five hundred scholars ,
2.

ulujHHi Usemidl' Ih^R (tore who enjoy" a salary which I give them).
(* ne

the participle denoting time, state, condition, circumstance.
filled
:

Pane. 268

chlM ld g
i

said to him), Bhoj. 17
rtMr«W«iyTfir
etc.,

(now,

^

trWdH

jackal being filled with anger,

(drilRptja

as

the

king

^dfuY ^TSTT? g#r ch^ift^wmi made such expenses of money

his

first

minister once addressed

him

thus),

Mrcch. VI,

p.

222

sri"

oUiy-n^Hl nrraR

U^irM

5T^ft (better to die while

showing prowess,

than in fetters after having been seized).
3.
jtot

the participle denoting cause , motive.
i

Pane. 58

^ rWT

chHcdl

im

Wi ^ihh

i;

mil

=r

ii-^Pn (they must be brought to such

a pass as to be excluded from heaven , being killed in the flight),

here the
not

complex q^rrcRfT ^TTPTT:
heaven;
E.
1, 1,

points

at the cause of their

reaching

99

CTs-^-pTrarfr

^j: fer

S5rxf

^jterf

(by reading the
4.

Eamayana one
equivalent
l

gains heaven).
to

the
ifr

participle

a concessive sentence.

Pane.

304

fifS-A^d

Mill^WiW

=T

Sjnftfw

(though I have dissuaded you

several
is

times,

you do not

listen to me).

In

this

meaning, aft

generally subjoined to the participle, see 423.
5.

the participle expressive of the protasis of a conditional or

hypothetical sentence.
Holrchcrl

Dag. 140

chgij^

W

=toj

h

m(uiiil^<*«J

*lfrlM-MHqWHI

(if I

should not follow the path of

my

[deceased]
jj^nytlHl

husband, I should dishonour your family), Kathas. 77, 92
TTT^mFT

%ff

iJTOTfFf

^TOJW:

(if

you do not say

it,

and know

it,

your

head will
6.

fall

off into

a thousand pieces).

the

participle

denoting a purpose, aim, intention.
of

Thus

is

the

proper

employment
?f

the

participle

of the

future.

Kathas. 38, 157 praRTr
to
1

sir -dl^uiyid^ir) srafK ^orrg; (being about

eave her

country

,

she

ceded her house to the

brahmans),

I

,

§ 362—364.
Dag. 79 srerfn^^i^oryiw^uTfgHyf^rr
to
<rf^

283
trfHTcFToP^ (as

I
1,

wished
163, 16

bring

them back
^irrttH:
i

to

their
irfrf

natural

state

cJ^idjU
tree

rfTjf5rKTO=T5T

y^Tc^ST

— ^^

)

Mhbh.

(the giant took

a

and ran once more

at

Bhima,

that he might strike him),

363.

As a
pose.

rule, the

mere
is

participle suffices for this pur-

Now,

as this

by
if,

far less

done in modern lan-

guages, different connectives are to be added, when
translating, as when,
though, because, as, while sim.

In short, participles in Sanskrit are as significant as

they are in Latin and Greek.
The only
particles

added are js,

to

denote comparison, and
TTfRR'-

gfr, the exponent of a concessive meaning. Pane. 54 qwrrear

7mmi

she were
satisfied,

3^ y
cf

3TraT 3° T

srflxraraoTT

f&HTar^t

(her

body looks

,

as if

),

ibid.
is

278

qftrrteriTTtnTf'T =r

H^hI^M (though she

is

being

she

not kind),

ibid. II,

173 q chrdT-f.chHIrl ^

TfTfOTJ: qfT^rfcr
fall

(a

noble-minded

man

falls

as

a ball does , if
is

he should

at all).

364.
S

The

participial

employment

not limited to the parif it

w° "h
P
1

ticiples.
1

Any

adjective
It
is

may
,

be employed as
it

were

p iai
ploy*" e "

a participle.
ticiple
is

then usual to add to

the par-

H^rT

(being).

Yet

WT\

is

not indispensable and a bahuvrihi that has a

often wanting, especially

if it is

added,

participial

employment. Examples: a.) of sr^ added.
i

Qak.

arpT (though living in the forests,
cfirTJ^r

IV 5Hi*y|-sfg grjff <y?if**TH we know the world), ibid. Ill

chMH U TOT ijfreWrSrFnr (how did you come by that sharpness

you,

whose arrows are but
5^T I5q
i

flowers?), Kathas. 24, 67 srr£ *Kn

m

wft
i
l i

ftf-M

sm

i

JTOHT IT5PT (I

saw that town, indeed, while
grsr

I wandered about
-c^ fa
6.)

when

a student), Pane. 44

rssr^RsTST

STcft

FT^

(how can I go there, being
of the
1

tied with strong fetters?).
I,

mere
is

adjective.

Pane.

109 f^r n^FTTCR^T f^f 5T3RTif

Mchli? u

1

(what

the use of a faithful [servant],
if

he be not able

what, of an able,

he be not faithful?), Qak. II two young ascetics
,

are approaching , the king , before their being ushered in

knows
0> v

them by

their voice

and says nh

fefiprcr *rt*ai\ SrW fei fwfBtrTarir.

,

284
the

§

364—365.
is

sound of their voice, which

strong and soft at the same

time, they must he inferred to he ascetics), Hit. 91
csr HronmnriU ^'T (wishing to
tell
it

HH

I

Hi richW
i

[sc.

the news airTfijL * nave

come

here).
1.

Rem.
generally

Bahuvrihis,

the

predicate

of which

is

a participle,

share

the participial employment.

ST&rR^TT cdfa^rmH
reflected),

(when he saw him
25
gisr

,

^x <T £ST he became anxious and
i

Pane. 130

Ven.

I, p.

^M-aHWr^
I

l

fatu Hl fq'

usrfft

HliMfaH

l

(Madam, by the angry mood
coming
sn^Prfer
of
here),
7"T?jf

am
i

in, I

have not noticed your

Mudr. Ill,
{

^
,

M

ffid

(if

p. 112 a lKud ^TcirTt Pfr-A-Sfcrnn^m qrr mylord in this manner crosses my liberty

movement
Rem.
2.

my kingdom
however,
nrr

seems a prison
is

to

me

,

not a kingdom).

sFtT>

occasionally added even to real par-

ticiples.

Pane. 126
that

jjpftjr

sn^uT
felrT:

ars^r

am
i

sfrft

fdf^n

:

mow,
ing

stupid

monkey, being
cheh^H^ cT
the
r?=r
,

in

an

angry temper, gave a

blow), ibid. 335

si\sfq-

M-MMU
etc.),

mHUl^H^ (while
Mhbh.
1,

standg-.

on

that
i

very

spot,

crab

166,2

ijgftoimdi

*mV <^Jmrl(<J

here snrt added helps the understand1.

ing of the remote past.

Cp. Pane. 248,

7.

Absolute cases.
365.
i u te

As the
rest

participle

is

an adjective noun
it is

,

it

needs must

on some substantive, of which
it is

the predicate,

cases

and with which
case
(27).

to agree in gender,
call

number and
,

We may

this

substantive the subject
it is

of the

participle.

When

being a pronoun

often

not expressed (10), as

little

when a
,

general subject.
,

But

,

whether understood or expressed
part of the chief sentence
is

it is likely

to

form

which

at the

and by its noun-case same time that of the participle, it
of the logical relation,

marks the nature

which

exists

between the principal action and the subordinate one.
Tet, the participial employment
is

not restricted to

§ 365—367.

285

the case, that the subject of the participle occurs in the
chief sentence.
it

In Sanskrit, like

guages,

extends also to the

many other lanabsolute cases, by
its

which name one denotes the participle with
if

subject,

they are but loosely connected with the principal

sentence, their noun-case not being grammatically de-

pendent on any word or phrase in the chief sentence.
Sanskrit
genitive.

has two absolute

cases: the locative
is

and the

Of these, the former

the general one, the

latter has a

much narrower employment.
is

366.
^u t°
t° ive'

The absolute locative
is

a very frequent idiom.
It shares the

It
37,'

the Sanskrit counterpart of the Latin absolute abla-

tive

and the

like genitive of Greek.

whole

manysidedness of signification of the participial employ-

ment.

In other terms,

it is

equivalent to any kind of

subordinate sentence: temporal, modal, causal, conditional, hypothetical, concessive, etc. Examples: Kathas. 5, 106 fgof^isr n-cfo-M (time going),
134 ^rlfe-I^H
care I
for
^"TsraH cfi^qr iTRraft:
ibid. 28,

(that prince being dead,
srrerin

what
a

my own

life ?),

Qak. I qf^-3 d^jHi'
1 1

(while

Paurava rules the land), Dae.
^vJiPSih
STJFTltT'wir

8 fmfa fairing ~5tfm ttCJI*] (when darkness had spread and the moon had
bed),

risen,

I

went

to

Qak. I

spiff

^^wfijpr Tf&
5,

UTOqnii

(she

hearkens, when I speak in her presence), Hit. 96 ^o(H*5rfH £H (after
the messenger had thus spoken), Nala
jT^hrer:

33

^r

ft

!Wr

URJT

yiW Mi
j

^?rnirCT

daughter of Bhima,
othrt uttrtT 3rfsr?'-

a^Kg
),

;

(Nala having
ii«jli|Mrii

been

chosen by the

Pane. 17

^ah*) ftf^T m*F! fqjvm

367-

It

is

not necessary, that the predicate of the absobe a participle.
It

lute

locative

may

be also a noun

(adjective or substantive).

Often, however, £FrT,

^rT-

^IFT,

TFTrT

etc. are

added.

,

286
Examples of
iHtf tit
i i

§
^tjt etc.

367-369.
to

added

the participle or noun. Pane. 242

^sirtt [cp.

blind)
/it

mMMcdcW 364 E. 2],

sirST fat

day-break,

when

the owls had become
srfrr

ibid. I,

310

^r=fr

^qfanaichiPrH HHidRvi
is

is

at

night-time that the light of the lamp

pleasant, not

when
jrfir

the sun has risen), ibid. 56 the
<£f|rrft

king says to his daughter

fori?"

m*§ mnjstl

iWT

drWMldi ^TJWCn' Wlolfw iHMIrlf^ fefrT rri75RIToT 33Jrf fert *=t Ph (my child, as you are my daughter,

and Lord Vishnu

^

my
i

son-in-law,

how

etc.)

Examples of a nominal predicate without auxiliary.
^rTf^": 5?*f
srfof

Pane. 62

znsriTT

srfwr
it

ST55R

T^k

msf 4JmPh
(if

(this lake will

soon

become dry, when

will be

dry, they will perish), Bhoj.
[viz. <^T:]

12

^Tftr ufifftT

yfwr:

<IT<T

tnmrfr:

HST

the king be vir-

tuous, the subjects will be virtuous,

if

wicked, they too will be
:

fond of wickedness), Qak.

V <m

mffo>tni5 t

?ifTt

j

^ferij
i

rsrfir

(—

while you are the protector), Prabodh.

II, p.

39

eh

Msh ferrf^isr ufdM-dM

cMtw?^ (h
Anger
against
etc.

rrerrfa

^ylyyj [y f^ft HHoif^H^r iwkurr

umm^

(as

Love,

are her adversaries,

them ? Nevertheless,
if his

how will she [Vishnubhakti] march no one who is desirous of victory, must
,

be careless, even

enemy

is

rather weak).
is

368.

Occasionally the subject in the absolute locative

understood, as
(after [this]
it
is

^T

FTfrt

([this]

being

so),

r^M^rf
as Dag.

had been performed in this way). Of course
wanting with impersonal verbs,
having consented), Mhbh.
1,

always
WTflf^

107
^r

rr=TR dM)iH

(after his
STcTair

154, 21 rreTsr

f%7"

(since

we must

start,

we cannot

stay here long),
;

ibid. 1, 150,

369.
late

^ nsnni3Tyoiu<JiiU4j<4i<i'i Sometimes the absolute genitive is a concurrent
4 f%i^H '^Tjrsm ifmjrit It is far

idiom of the absolute locative.

from bearing
,

g
ti"e.

the general character -of the latter.

It is limited

in-

deed, to the expression of some action not cared for

while performing the main action.
solute genitive

Sometimes the ab„ though,

may

be rendered by

notwithit
is

standing, in spite of" and the like, sometimes

simply pointing out, which action

is

going on at the time

§ 369.

287
,

when
late

the main action intervenes
it

then

we may

transits

by

„ while"

or
its
is

„as."

Other restrictions of

employment
tive

are;

1.

predicate

meaning, and

therefore in

must have a, duramost cases a partisubject

ciple of the present, or at least a partic. or adjective,

which does duty as such;
person.
ally

2.

its

must be a
is

Upon

the whole, the absolute genitive
').
is

usu-

found in standing phrases
to P. 2, 3,
for,

According
chief sentence.

38 the absolute genitive
while performing

expressive of
action of the

some action not cared
RTT:
it

the

The commentary

illustrates this rule

by the example

msf sTirf which is interchangeable with r^jn qr° , because means pjrn Q* f^chH ^TTgrgT udfdH (he has forsaken the world
l

,

I

:

not caring for the tears

of his family).

2

).

1) These rules have chiefly been fixed by F. de Saussure in his valuable and exhaustive treatise de Vemploi du genitif absolu en Sanscrit.

The

rule

of the

subject

being a person

is

violated

Kurnaras.

1,

27

4Mfl^MJ«l TSftf^ ffT R^thMMf srf&SfTO^T (though spring has an immense variety of flowers, the rows of bees cling especially to the amraflower), unless it be supposed that Kalidasa means the personified Spring. —
In this passage of the
srSloHYssTsfirTj cTTrTT'T

Ramayana

(3, 11,

58)

FTrft

H*oldi
in

fTEtt

By

I

HI (mI

Pl&thH^fH a participle of the past
runs thus: Eret

"fToRTk the pres.

dicate.
2) Paniui's sutra

MMl<^- The

preceding

37 ror

=et

iJXaFT
s.

^IdTltdU M enjoins the employment 38 allows the genitive too, but only
l

of the absolute locative.

Now,

for the case, that there is to
is

be expressed
term.

ibHItij
it

.

One may ask, what
»disregard,"
or

the exact meaning of this
rather a more general im-

Does

mean

has

it

port, that of »indifference?"
participial action being
is

no requisite
,

phraseology
sense.

it

The former interpretation needs implies the known to the agent of the main action but this to the latter. If we consider the practice of Sanskrit becomes very probable we must take iMI<^ in its widest
, ,

Then
the

all cases of absolute
1, 60,

genitive
I

may

range under
<*>

it.

In such

phrases as R.

15 qmfl() ^S5Tp f^H
,

sTCTFT

1**81 jpfrf TOTrlt FT^f

eyes of the munis, the king [Tri9anku] ascended to heaven) the anddara is to be found in this that the chief action is going on

(under

288
Examples:
Pane. 193 g^r
1.

§ 369.
the gen.

=

though, in spite of,
FT5T

rprr <VS\:

yRiolHaHId^ fejHWlR

aPT^Nmi'Tjthat I

have asked them,
trial),

though you were here, was but to make a
1

Mudr.

Ill, p.

24 rp^r:

qstor $HT

^HT: TOJrfr ^ItHWJ
gstTrrr >T

(—

under

the very eyes of Baxasa), Pane. 152
1,

rpsraT:]
I

qfyxipr,

FSTeR:

dlTTMUII STOJT^TrT HpT dHHMMIHiy: T%%W<J l^>W (Vicitravirya became consumptive when being young, and died in spite of the efforts of his friends and

102, 70 (dft^diJ^H^Uri
i

^
,

Mhbh.

sTITTT

skilled physicians), R. 2, 100, 4

q-

f^

fgf

j>dH<HUl

d-WUI^ffil

(do

not go to the forest during his lifetime

[—

eo
if

vivo]).

In the last

example the notion of disregard appears,

one eliminates the
is

negation: »the action of going to the forest though he

living,

must not be done by you."
2.

').
,

the gen. the

is

expressive of a situation

existing at the time
as.

,

when
thus,

main action intervenes, Eng. while,
cd'aychJxHUlrtl

Pane. 131

jm

ol^HtHWJ

H

f^HFT:

fwr:

(while he

was speaking
ibid.

the

said

hunter came and concealed himself),
asks

44 the
(the

barber's

wife

her
her

friend

rmf

M MirMi
i

tra

JTFTrcrr

3f??j<T:

rogue [she means
during

husband] has not risen [from his conch]
fe-rl«LiH*HHl

my
:

absence, has he?), Kathas. 18, 356 ^fn
f^Hi:

FT?

rTimJmdd
3,

(while

he reflected thus, females came),
tfferf

ibid.

11

mJ

fSrerarTt
1.

frt-

zfw*r. h±wiuh.
different

Bern.
nitive

Between these two
are,

kinds
links.

of absolute

ge-

there

of course,

interjacent

The anddara of
be more than

the action conveyed by the absolute genitive

may
,

simple independence and less than

full

disregard.

Mhbh.

1,

153, 7

a^HH

^fateilfi tj-ri-rtu

^

Mumn

»I shall kill

him

beautiful lady, and

quite independently of the
spectators.

circumstance, that the holy

men were
,

its

Then

,

the term an&dara holds also good for the case
is

that

the absolute genitive

merely expressive of the situation.
rule, the Katantra does not

The Mahabhashya has no comment on our
mention
1}
it

at all, see Trilocanadasa
p. 23.

on Kat.

2, 4,

34

(p.

See de Satjssuke,

In the same book,

499 ofEGGELiSG'sed.). 74 plenty of p. 63

instances prove the frequency of the phrase qyiirt*riyj and the like.

§ 369-370.

289

even in your presence," here the absolute turn denotes the easiness
of the enterprise.
*)

Eem.
archaic

2.

The
2 )

absolute

genitive seems to be very rare in the

dialect.

370.

Apart from

this absolute genitive, Sanskrit

upon the

whole shows a preference

for

employing genitives of

the participle, either as dative-like genitives (129) or

when, depending on some substantive.
of this turn

The frequency

makes

it

sometimes

difficult to distinguish be-

tween the absolute and the not-absolute construction.
J£?_
absolute genitive.

In

some phrases both seem to mingle. For them we ma^ use £h e term of semi-absolute construcy
for

tion,

the

logical

relation

between

the

genitive

and
ing,

the
is

principal sentence, though not wholly want3

very loose, indeed.

)

Here are some

instances. Pane.

him

154 ^ar f%*Wfft TfTcfTS^ H fSoT?fV ^ (n ail -di (»he thinking so" or »for as he thought so" the day passed slowly), Dae. 144 t^ =ar zft
,

oRT^Wf ST5;sr WJT. STTrSHT: and so regularly to denote awhile somebody was doing so and so some other arrived the sun rose or
, ,

set, time passed etc."

See
ibid.

f.

i.

Pane. 56,
This

1.

1,

R.

3,

11, 68,

Kathas.

15,123,
treated

R.

2, 62, 19, 2.

85,14.

idiom

borders

on that,

128 R.

Of a somewhat
Y,
p.

different

nature

are

such instances as Mudr.

180 xr^Tmpr
(as

farsfffT^fifcfr

sTwfq^ffriefrftfim" nw^rTErt

^ut

qarrr

Enm

Candragupta

in selling

them

[the jewels],

desired an ex-

1)

de Sausstjre,
aught.

p.

fact,

that the absolute gen. occasionally
oldest instance of it,
l,

24 and 25 quotes a few passages pointing to the may answer to fr. pour peu

que

2)

:= for The

known
*Tf;ff

to
fsrir

de Satjssure,
A

is

Maitrayaniyo-

panishad

4

fH^rTl

^yortfer

rzrarrsiTTcfjWr^j
is

cfti

yuiHi:.

Another

instance

from
p.

the

archaic
p.

dialect

Ap. Dharm.

1, 2, 7,

13

qWTfaST'
3) See

C P- t fle foot-note

on

288 above.
19

de Saussure

33—41.

290
orbitant profit,

§

370—372.
price),

you, cruel man, have made ourselves the
dtoi-rtji

Pane. 162 pi^T gmr *TT

^Rr: MlPui
I, p.

iT^tarfff,
rr f-jd
i

Qak. I g^- amPcT-

«m\

ftsrfir

^friydfei^y^M)
Pidlri

Nagan,
:-

8

HJlmffif*

iviywjrtV^

dHriWtrMI*

In the

first

of these

mtsfi q^r examples the

genitive

may be
it

accepted as a dative-like one (129), in the re-

maining

depends on a noun

Likewise Nala 24, 15, Pane. 57
etc.

^

(qifum

ipr

rpT understood, pjfa ;). ^Hiqa-RHm ^rtljQmld , etc.
,

Cp. also the foot-note on p. 94 of this book.

Eem.
solute
»T

The

differences

between the absolute and the semi-abjra

genitives are sometimes very small, indeed. Pane. 156
itrjt iPT
Slftrrr

ft-Hiir^

kam

sTTrTT:,

here the absolute turn would
1st

be doubtful but for the pronoun of the
in

person repeated.
this,

That

such phrases, as
is

» while A. was doing

B.

arrived," the
is

genitive

thought by Sanskrit-speakers an absolute one,

proved

by

this, that the absolute locative is
i

used

too.
,

Mhbh.

1,

169, 1 sra^r

rig sr^i-T TTHSBnj
ST qfir g-

M^lrH^ iiisNimm Hii^J amr:
l I

Kathas. 42, 165 ^enrcif

^U'imdM f^J^U rt<*aEi^mT.
no hindrance to the absolute construction,
occurring °
also
if its

371.
Theabsolute turn
admissiif its
J ent js

It

is

subject
sa-

a wor d '

in

the

main sentence.
,

Pane. 67

\

f%7frarRFTW

sub° c"

°^

m\*\ ir; «P? nrsrr mirer H«Jiii fwr: here FTCT, the subj. fefWW means the lion, h*AI J the same lion. Kathas. 29, 77
s I

j

cars also

chd^iffd

m

in the

though
by
asr-

^

zrimx H a
its

i

fa*

r

reimt<i

subject

fErfir

is

ftm, here the absolute loc. is used, also represented in the main sentence

teSr"

° p-

R

-

3 > 57 > 2

;

Nala[ 5 > 33 -

372.
solute in-

The semi-absolute employment must
f° r 55

also be stated
Kathas. 29,

the instrumental.
qfifT
iriff;

Here are some

instances.

strumental.

ih^Hsf^T

=T

rT

H famPi

{by eating these fruits
*r

you
i

will
felH
:

enjoy eternal youth), E.
(as soon as the

2, 64, 18

xTl^HH smita ^t^TT
,

Ww
all

arrow had been drawn out he mounted
Sl^fiT^T^r
<TT^r -d l'traH<f3«s4j

to heaven),

Pane. 57

h^Jt

gq^:
«•£

ipf

(my

dear, I will

not take either food or drink until after having killed
mies),
ibid.

the ene-

178
as

^T

ftrteiHU)

Q&P53 Pd-W H

;

(do not

fear,

with

such

friends

we

are),

Kathas. 55, 213 rsOT Pi^JctlPi^l UrTlnJl
^arq^T:

feWltwPi,

Pane. 194

^trrfFT;

T^ra awt

usrffT

(Lat. his cog-

,

§
nitis
et

372—374.
obnoxii erunf).

291
In
all

tui

et

adversarii

tibi

of

them the
repre-

absolute locative might have been used.
sents the action, expressed

The instrumental

by the

participle, as the cause or motive
in this respect it

or

means of the main action, and

shows a close

affinity to

the Latin absolute ablative.

Other participial
373.
Participie

idioms.

Other participial idioms are:
I.

ml

The

participle added to a verb, expressive of

some

to »

verb of
tion
of

affection of mind , to signify the motive of the affection. p anC- 149 f^ -^ ^^m csr <?ioi u i; (do you not feel ashamed at
i

speaking thus?),
for
^T

ibid.

147 sfri%rT5TO5f
ibid.

jtst

JTrT.

(one must pity you
i&flFsrm'

having become proud),

112 srratfafHf
kindling

fsm

JFmr

5»w

(you have not done well by

discord between
*rarff

them),

Mhbh.
Mahav.

1,

145, 9

cannot endure their
side),
I, p.

fept mwi^rtjlfr =T having obtained the kingdom from
rTT

^ UU

(Dbrt.

their father's

18 ^^rrfir
,

p*w^M ?rim

^TrT

5^mr.

374.
cative

II.

The

participle

'which expresses the predicate of the
,

object of the verbs of seeing, hearing knowing, thinking feel
,

tiveand inff,
natTve

conceiving, wishing

and the like. Since, of course, it must
it is

agree with the object,
active voice but a
,

an accusative with the

"el bT'a

Jw noun

1

;

chief verb (6).

nominative with the passive of the So it is said qf afsTSFrRTOrT (he saw
"X

used as
such.

me

enter), pass. %J«fc*FFr

STJ^T^^T. By

r—-

*~n

using some

other noun instead of the participle ,

we get the idiom

^f ja|MHWfT (he saw me being young = he saw, I was young). This much used accusative with participle is the
mentioned 32 c),
f.
i.

counterpart of Latin ace. with infinitive, which construction does not exist in

Sanskrit

(390 E.

2).

Con-

current idioms are the oratio directa with 3T|rT and re-

{

,

292
lative sentences

§

374-375.
foil).

with the conjunctions ST^orM^K^Qi
with an

Examples:

a.)

active

chief verb.

Pane. 51 5rrfWTsT-

cfRTf ch^UkhUfci

<HHl^ldi

gSafim (they saw some princess ap,

proaching on elephant's back)
crtitt:

Mudr. IY,

p.

158

^

tj\

gjfacRrft^jiw

(the prince

does not desire

my

being
,

far),
sr

Qak.

IV

sH^T

^r

iimMfc-H^ (y° u do not know, I
H6U*<H
feTltft&d
sr^TToT

am

near)

Hit. 2

>^j(H(*^I

<*WlfiJ

(once the
l

king heard somebody read two

clokas), Kathas. 9, 74 gra^ur ^Alsh -HM^otil

M^-dH
the

,

<?&k.

VII
I

33^-

Uch^Hl^fcMplT FT^jf^rT^omrTV-s^ (on
.

seeing

ring,
last

remem-

bered that I had wedded his daughter).
cp.

As

to the

examples

14, Vlliy.
6.)

with a
:

passive
tells

chief verb. Mudr. Ill, p. 120
his

cR ^ti^ lfuii i

tictim-^iMFtdri

(why have you overlooked

withdrawal

?),

E.

3,

67, 16

Jatayu

Rama, he
friend

has seen the carrying off of

Sita,

QiWIUII
srrrTT

WIT TZT TTcnTFT, Kathas. 41, 4 ftgt!T *f5rTl5U^TT. ••••
tTFT:

WJ^X

ciSTTWU

(a

has

now

told

him, his brother died
i

abroad),
?TTCTr:

Qak. Ill

n^yam

feoffor si^Tt

{idPl*^*!': vgpn Mf^uTlactionis

fqgfiraTfvRf^gTrr:.

Predij.

Bern.

If not a chief verb, but
its

a

nomen

is

attended by

the predicate of

object, both the object

and

its

predicate are

t!ve -

put in the genitive [110]. Pane. 67 the animals of the forest have

engaged themselves
lion for food lion
;

to
it

send

every day one among them to the
,

when

was the turn of the hare
» as

she went to the

and said, she with four other hares had been sent by the
<r)fcjH)m trerrar

animals qir
[a]

foi^tm

they

knew me
I, p.

to

be reputed
appear

rather insignificant [animal]", Malav.

18 jifc spraHcnsrafa"it

H (\ii

J dlfrti tteOTiK
l

(in tne

ver 7 presence of the king
inferior).
,

will

which of us

is

superior and which

375.
s a° 8 '

III.

In translating Sanskrit participles
necessary to substitute for

it is

someor

kr
P
e8
8<

t

times

them

infinitives

the

nouns of action. So the abs.
be

locat.

^rt
regum

27TTFFT
,

may

rJ^ea

= »after

performing the order." This idiom the coun-

terpart of Latin reges exacti

= exactio

,

is

not rare

8

,

§
emcti^
ctio re-

375-377.
>).

293

especially in

the instrumental
l l

So

f.

i.

Mgan.

I, p.

5

9Um
-

f%tRRN*aHHI fePrirM aj HH ^ciMf»rl (do not reflect on this nonsense, better would it be to act after your father's injunction),
Pane.
I,

5 5r| siirHMi cqrrft ?r ai^sr
rRJr:

af5(rrr.

-

^ xrnasrR cW^Qm an unlearned
2, 36,

rnmait'SfcT

(better

is

it,

that he dies scarcely after being born

better
etc.).
s
)

is

the

birth

of a

daughter
in
"ft

than

son

So often the participle

with fcror <&&%. E.

30

ri^f ?;&

jymx

tottt

O^hui

fsnrr

(therefore cease to destroy
FrrfsFR fTOfeRT

Kama's
strike

happiness), Mrcch. VIII, p. 244
this poor fellow?).

fej^r

(why

Participles attended by auxiliaries.

376.
phraspioy.

Sometimes
dieate.

participles are expressive of the chief pre-

In

this

case,

auxiliaries

are

often

wanted

to denote the person or the tense or the nature of the

ofpar- action.
p J° g"

The combination of

participle

and auxiliary

effects

a kind of periphrastic conjugation, which some-

times has an emphatic character, and sometimes serves
to express special shades of tenses or

moods not to be
,

pointed out by mere flexion.

Rem.
duty as

It

is

only the past participles, that
the subject
1
st

may

do

finite

verbs by themselves, without auxiliary.
,

But even this is only admissible from the context. For this reason

if
,

is

evident

in the

and 2 d perSee 11.

son the absence of the auxiliary commonly necessitates the expression of the pronoun, and inversely.

377.

We may

divide this periphrastic conjugation into the

following classes:

1) See 2)

de Saussttke,
instance

p.

94 N.
the

1.

An
sit

from
^frifcr]

archaic

dialect

may

be Ait. Br.

1, 13,

HaT f

^t

[sc.

sfitarnfrr

a-^a-

294
Peritic

§

877—378.
H^Hrl
3tT
ST

I.

To the past
,

participle the present *||tcl or
p.
1

is

added

f.

i.

Prabodh. V,

03 ^r q=cm:
-

3>

JTrTr:

W

tenses

and moods.

utddxny., Maiat. IV, p. 65

gwju^jdHfoj

This idiom

falls to-

getter

w ^j1

^he employment of the sole past participle
participle is attended

as a past tense, see 336.
II.

The past

by another tense
g- iiJlquf^rTl'SUrT

or

mood

of *l|tri Or H^lrl.

Here are some examples: Da?. 100
I addressed

?&

(and

him with
i

these words), Kathas. 79, 132 |idl<4*lf<riH) srwET
1, 42,

r= ^lsH<jj*MM
this).


i

Mhbh.

34 gft

f|;

ft^ FT3?g^ (for

he had heard
here

Qak.

V f*M^Rw
TWf

wrarrr ^rrsa^
is

J-irtHchiy^&w: sfprr: si:,

the optative of the past f^?
Hti

expressed by periphrase , Kathas.

2.7,

32

qchH

HoiH^ (in

what can I have offended the king?).
1, 4,

From
(he,

the archaic dialect I add Ait. Br.

1 n:

Ud^JlsiH

:

an

who has never before performed a sacrifice). Cp. 345. Rem. By putting irfaisrfH to the past participle the future perfect may be expressed. Mhbh. 1, 162, 21 ^fr ^ TdEi Rmjhi JifvfwT
,

nld^lrl

:

(both purposes will be performed), Prabodh. II, p. 45,

firT:- -

miPHfrt|{Hl

ufawfd (then Qanti

will

have departed
is

this life).

III.

The
idiom

participle of the future
almost
limited
to

accompanied by
In the

the auxiliary.
This
is

the archaic dialect.

Brahmanas the
and emr.
i

participle of the future not rarely joins

with nEffH

Ait.

Br. 2, 11, 6

ft

it*

p^fim^H

l

Hcri^ft

r^^ajaff^J^TT-

to kill [the victim], there the ^q mfa adhvaryut hrows sacred grass [barhis]), Qat. Br. 3, 2, 2, 23 jrar *H troll

(on

which spot they are

M-Hldrf im^oifri (when he, after having slept,

is

not to sleep again),

lev. Grhy.

1, 3, 1

zrs

f

=st

^m-rm

i

rj^
,

37

IV.
oTrTrT,

The

participle of the present with ?TJ^' 1 ),frrslH

}

*Utr1,

H^Irf

is

expressive

of a

continuous

1)
tipp'

Cp.

the

similar

employment
'i\i

of
i

Homeric fr&u.
frteti

II.

«, 133

S)

IStAe/?

«Stos '£xW Yh<*Si tvraf

«i/r<u;

Seudfisvov.

'

.

§ 378.
oonti Jnti-

295
to be

action and

is

to be
-ing,

compared with English

with
is re,—

action
express-

the Partic in
fleeting," _
p^

fepT^T^f

orfrT^irretc. „he

ea

by

peri-

Nrltl s=| TFT

phrase.

T^ffi^
(the

e tc.


(but

e^

„he has been reflecting," I^RT°

Pane. 42

^f^

:

weaver was always concealing
the
princess
(she
is

his disposition), Kathas. 42, 140
FT

^^ f^^. ^^
Pane.
;

^t-s^W ^tegTCT

(he was sporting with her); Dae. 156 ^gTPTiTT
will not cease weeping),

^F&sr
1)

^rmrffl-

330 Hi ?T?p |WTrarr

frryfrT

being guarded carefully)

Mhbh.
his

H>

5 frerrf rTTOT
Utt. II, p.

sftif

jIMHTSW

(I

was knowing the power of

ascese),

34 ^nrg- f| brtottt wet (do

ofo^ f%^

qjT cT^FT:

(this is the

very
rrr
ijft

forest,

where we formerly dwelled
in

for a long time),

E.

2, 74,

2
1.

not weep for the dead one).
° ft

Bern.

The

participle

or a verbal adjective, provided

that they have the

meaning of a present, may be similarly conand the
is

strued with
frnsr

mm,

frryfrf

rest.

Pane. 285

sraT-sftr

am

^raj-

{

(HRH'A'tH

(everybody

content with his trade),

ibid,

283

T^fitfst: yHyMilvRshuj
ibid.

160

frer

®f% fefiT mm (— is staying outside the -water), sleeping £\ri^ (— was ^y*yj y s^r*«y FTS wti
I

m

\

on that couch),
with porridge), E.

ibid.

318 qf^qufr sj ar:
29 qr
=g FT

srarfuciriff

(this

pot

is filled

2, 75,

^T^nwn^W (and may
p.

he never see him occupy the royal dignity), Vikram. IV,
4i q ^h^PfalUUlRd^[H

131

(—

is

sitting

).

Eem.

2.

In

the

same way verbs meaning not ceasing
(*^e

to

do

are construed with the participle.
51 ^
1

*1(0'^ LH< "'^'^H
l lL|

W

^ on

^

Pane. 65

=
f

H^t] RrUHoiHchl^-m -

no * cea se killing

),

ibid.

275

Eem.
also

3.

The archaic d i a 1 e c t expresses the continuous
participle
,

action
(cp.

by the
§

with
6).

the

verb
Br.
1,

t,
25, 2
off,

occasionally
Fit

Whitney
<rrf

1075
jffRPT

a and
(it

Ait.

[sc

m]

^

araiftrnTT

tir^TfT

was

this,

they shot

and by which they
sttjtj

destroyed the towns), Pancavimgabrahmana a^ujjr
1) Cp. this passage

u^d^(Prl ')

from a

classic

author (Pane. 282)

?rT

[so.

HTCrf]

^

,

a96
Rem.
sive.
4.

§

378-379.
also

Note that the auxiliaries may
6.

be put in the pas-

See 32

Chapt. VI. Gerunds.

379.

The gerunds hold a place somewhat intermediate between infinitive and participle. As to their etymology
they are petrified noun-cases, and for this reason they
are not declinable.

Gerund
in ° rcTT
(° jr). its ori.

I.

The gerund in ° 3T

0?

(

T)

is

the petrified instru-

mental of a verbal noun. At the outset ^(^l was, as
it

ginal

were

,

a kind of infinitive of the
is

aorist.

This oriis

meamng.

ginal nature

discernible a.)

when
b.)

the gerund

con-

strued with r7*T and

WFT,

if

the action conveyed

by

it
a.)

has a general subject. With fg^r and ^^tjj, the gerund
353 R.
»what
1.

serves to express a proiMmfciroil

hibition, cp.

Dag. 137 fgr

fT5T

(»do

not cona

ceal,"

liter.

[profit

should be] to you by concealing?").

R.

2,
6.)

28, 25 =g^

^

SFT nrcrr (have

done going to the
^rciT

forest.

Pane. Ill, 107

d-diR^riT qar^roiT

srrf rrref jf^r

^un

(if

man $ty^*c(Vn by cutting down trees, by killing victims,
is

w

).

1)

Something of the kind, indeed,
tlcrftflcrft:

contained in a rule of Panini

(3,4,18)
rians

srfwhrat: crrat WfT » according to the eastern
is

gramma-

the gerund

to be put with

iffsTT

and

if^rr, if

they express a

prohibition."

The following
bal root
sfltra
irr,

sutra

(3,4,19) 3^Nrr Ttft oUrH^ir has been wholly

misunderstood by the commentators even up to Patanjali.

Not the
,

ver-

but the particle of negation

is

meant.

I

am

convinced our

the

does not contain a new rule, but it is the continuation and at same time the explanation of the preceding, in other terms, it is an old varttika. The eastern grammarians, it is said, teach the use of 4M*J^ and i^crf in prohibitions »tn exchange for [— instead of] (oUtTl^ll)
ITT,

prescribed
*5TcfT

by the Northern

ones.''

In fact, a^Tchroil

=

»TT3rraf;.

Of

thus used I

know no

instances from literature.

'

§

379—380.
to

297
heaven, by

by shedding streams of blood, if thus one goes what way does one go to hell?).

380.
employ-

But

in

its

most common employment the gerund

may

he said to do duty as a past participle of the
Like the absolute locative and the other par-

mostasa
P

a ctive.
fr° ipi al

"h

of" P the past,

employment

it

enables the speaker to cut short

subordinate sentences and to avoid the accumulation
of finite verbs (14,1). Ladeed, of a participle.
it

has the

full

function
T
f{
4'

As a

rule

,

it

denotes the prior of two
subject.

actions, performed
its

by the same
if
if

Accordingly
it
is

subject

is

that of the chief action.

So

usually
active,

refers to

a

nominative,

the chief verb
it
is

or

to

an instrumental,
its

a passive.

Nothing,
,

however, prevents
the

being referred to other cases since
occasionally be a
gen., locat.,

main

subject

may

dative etc.
1.

Instances of the gerund referring to a
are so
fr?lT rft

nominative

or to

an

instrumental
faatrimsU

common vfcm
king

as to

be found on almost every

page. Pane. 3 wreft
tjrt
l

sireTT

riw

msj
this

dl-cMI(l-yH<4

m

(then
to

the

having heard

promise, en-

trusted

the

princes
HJTt§-

him and was highly

satisfied

with
sra"

this),

here
|

mm

and

refer to TTsfT;
qf^FHrarr;
,

Pane. 70

H^" i|Q gf%cr qwT:
2.

the gerunds

^r H^r ft q^a and gf%qi

irrdirMW

refer to f^t:

Instances of the gerund referring to other noun-cases

1. to

an ace us.

E.

3,

41, 18

that yourself will be lost,

a rHH when seizing
i

=5

^ff fgrfs froTT

Sita)

;

stare (be aware
a

2. to

genitive.
wrf*PTCTOr

Nala 3 14
;

FTOT sjhsr

asff

snwit
fair

-^i^iRi-Ita (his love increased as
one),

soon as he had beheld the
OT q^fdPrd r TRTrr plored his strength);
(it

Pane. 69

q HpgH
2,

does not befit mylord to go before having ex3. to

a dative. Kumaras.
5

18 ^uid^STFr>

yWrfRWTax ^rsT
5

sr=

welcome JF "^'' (

to

who uphold your

oflBces

by your power);

y° u mi g nt y ones

)

4. to
is

a

locative. Pane.

125 oTR^ ST5R ^foTT

5TTg &3?rffT,

the loc.

the absolute one: »as

. ,

298
the

§

380—381.
the fan , was fanning".
often

monkey having brought
gerund
is

The

subject

of the

comparatively

a genitive or a locative

owing

to the frequent

employment of the dative-like genitive (129)
locative.

and of the absolute
Bhoj. 96
ch ifa^
'

For the

rest,

it

is

only from the

context, that the subject of a given gerund
f.

is to

be known. That
arfrsr-

i.

^3T p^TT yi(Mn}
|^t

farErpgrf^Hnifeaj spsfT ymm-fTf
s^srr refers

^PRT
3.

in^ the gerund
refer

to cfJTftH,

but

Z^ST to ttsTT,

can be learned no otherwise.
to a subject
,

The gerund may even
p.
it

not

expressed,

but understood. Utt. IV,
text
is

72 ^mijpu sH^f arear:
is

from the conp.

plain,

that ForaT

implied.

Likewise Nagan. V,
[sc.
V).

91

^t gUTT^

aRif

cmriwrrsfq'
f. i.

sicW jr q(|rdsy tFvk
E.
3, 48, 23.

foWt]-

Or

to a

general subject, as

Cp. 379

Eem. Like
149 HldRi

the

participles,

the

gerund

may

serve to express

different logical relations, as is evident
fTWift"

from these examples. Dag.
(I

HHsifeiT

4WllPi uftsianiT
is),

shall not rise before
rl
l

having learned what
H ^i^mJl
Ill,
-s

this really

E.

3,

21, 10

-n4t

Mfdril^ l-

••

ud^m

(token I
cfijoTT

saw
f%T
^T:

great fear arose within me), Pane.
faf<kiI(d<mfH

77

35Tcf>

qqfrf

(what

profit shall

we

have, if

we make

the owl our king?). Cp. 362.

381.
eipr™f
si^ui° -

Not always the gerund can be
there
is

said to denote a past

action , done previously to the chief action.

Sometimes
i

simultaneousness. E.

taneous '
ness.

Slf%fwTTi3orrEr

^

»Laxma n a

thus speaking and dissuading her."
i^jrti ch

3, ^j gemfr *\&*& uEhoi J aki) here rfmjn and adium are simultaneous, -^ o

43, 9

Cp. Dag. 159 ^q-

R R^4lryoC4H
body?),
ibid.

M
5^

srr

vroii-jrehftiArf

^5T.

frtwfri

(by what cause do

you keep apart, not caring
182

for the feast, as if longing for

some-

U&H4.WUI

[MtHoHMfM^-qu

r

adial

nfridM Ei (by
l

your
it

orders I guard the cemetery and in virtue of this function

is

there that I dwell).

Cp. also the idiom, taught 203.

Hence the gerund,
as *H*fT,

in the

same way as the

parti-

ciple of the present (378),

may

even attend such verbs

Irl^ItT,
t

<^rl r\
fftaftyt

,

to signify a continuous action.
"jfaarr

Kumaras,

1, 1

jdfq^

cfm^r fwrr.

^sr

hh^uj

:

(ex-

,

§ 381-382.
tending to both oceans
,

299
Hima195

the eastern and the western, [Mount

laya] stands as the measuring stick of the earth).
(T-4d)fir ofrTH'

Dae. 177 gspfr'),

(he

is

the foremost of

all

the

townsmen

M.

7,

3*rrajlf|niy)fT (he [the king] must keep the

enemy
giro

inTested).

Rem. Occasionally
cative
is

the

gerund

is
'

even expressive of a predii

attribute.

R.

3, 19,

4 ckmhibi KUHHrf

"T^

sraiH (he
his neck),

unaware, he has fastened the rope of Death round
p.
i

Malav. V,

124 g^r T^Wm^frOFraT wr^ngr "Tskrf^: ewrtHTrr ^Shh

(my

friend,

you only think