You are on page 1of 5

ohm's law - the law stating that the direct current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential

difference between its ends. It is usually formulated as V = IR, where V is the potential difference, or voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance of the conductor. Coulomb's law- The fundamental law of electrostatics stating that the force between two charged particles is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Doppler effect - A change in the observed frequency of a wave, as of sound or light, occurring when the source and observer are in motion relative to each other, with the frequency increasing when the source and observer approach each other and decreasing when they move apart. The motion of the source causes a real shift in frequency of the wave, while the motion of the observer produces only an apparent shift in frequency. Also calledDoppler shift. Second Law of Thermodynamics - a law stating that mechanical work can be derived from a body only when that body interacts with another at a lower temperature; any spontaneous process results in an increase of entropy photoelectric effect - Ejection of electrons from a substance by incident electromagnetic radiation, especially by visible light. Viscosity - The resistance of a substance to flow velocity - The speed and direction of motion of a moving body. Velocity is a vector quantity. A vector quantity whose magnitude is a body's speed and whose direction is the body's direction of motion. Artificial gravity - is the varying (increase or decrease) of apparent gravity (g-force) via artificial means, particularly in space, but also on the Earth. It can be practically achieved by the use of some different forces, particularly the centrifugal force, "fictitious force", and (for short periods) linear acceleration. Archimedes' principle - Any floating object displaces its own weight of fluid. Reverse-biased - usually refers to how a diode is used in a circuit. If a diode is reverse biased, the voltage at the cathode is higher than that at the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. Lenz's law - An induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose the motion or change causing it progressive wave - A wave which transfers energy from one part of a medium to another, in contrast to a standing wave. Also known as free-traveling wave. Boyle's law - A law of gases which states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure. This law, formulated by Robert Boyle (1627–1691), can also be stated thus: The product of the volume of a gas times the pressure exerted on it is a constant at a fixed temperature. The relation is approximately true for most gases, but is not followed at high pressure. The phenomenon was discovered independently by Edme Mariotte about 1650 and is known in Europe as Mariotte's law. Charles's law (also known as the law of volumes) is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated.

For example. while heat is an extensive property. An extensive property is one that does depend on amount present. An intensive property means that the amount of substance present will not change the specific trait. Isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant. an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which the net heat transfer to or from the working fluid is zero.A transverse wave .Unorganized or vague. in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0 An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant. For example. its oscillations are in up and down directions that lie in the y–z plane. Amorphous . The unit we shall use most often is the kilocalorie (kcal): the amount of heat needed to warm 1 liter of water 1 degree a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (or right angled) to the direction of energy transfer. An isothermal process is a change of a system. One liter of water boils at 100 degrees the same as 15 liters of water boils at 100 degrees.The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. entropy . . a standing wave also known as a stationary wave – is a wave that remains in a constant position.the existence of an element in two or more physical forms. and temperature is a relative measure of how hot or cold something is measured on a scale.quantity specifying the amount of disorder or randomness in a system bearing energy or information allotropy. Temperature is an intensive property. say the covalent bond between hydrogen and oxygen.For any particular chemical bond. Adiabatic process -In thermodynamics.mechanical. Difference b/w heat and temperature the difference is heat is thermal energy transferred from one object to another because of a temperature difference. allotropism . and phosphorus Bond Energy . the boiling point of water is 100 degrees. This value is called the bond energy. sulphur. or the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance or object. There are many forms of energy: Electrical. A lack of structure. So it is convenient for biologists to measure energy in units of heat. the amount of energy it takes to break that bond is exactly the same as the amount of energy released when the bond is formed.chemical but all forms are ultimately converted into heat. The most common elements having this property are carbon. If a transverse wave is moving in the positive x-direction. the amorphous state of a bit on a rewritable optical disc means that the light from a laser beam will scatter and not be as reflective as a highly structured crystalline bit Isomerism .

velocity of light. Kashmir . speed of light .The speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum.115 ft/s). which is determined by the medium. When light rays travel at an angle greater than the "critical" angle. When they are less than the critical angle (more perpendicular).Light that is reflected back from the edge of the medium it is traveling through. velocity of sound.458 kilometers per second. total internal reflection . which is a physical constant equal to exactly 299. Also known as sonic speed. or about one kilometer in three seconds or approximately one mile in five seconds.A rhombus is actually just a special type of parallelogram.792.236 kilometres per hour (768 mph). and a triangle with no sides equal is called a scalene triangle. This is 1. Current Chief Ministers of Pakistan Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Balochistan Sindh Name Took Office Party List Chief Minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Website Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government Balochistan Government Sindh Government Punjab Government Gilgit-Baltistan Government AJ&K Government Awami Amir Haider 31 March 2008 National Khan Hoti Party Aslam Raisani Qaim Ali Shah Mian Shahbaz Shareef 9 April 2008 7 April 2008 Restored 31 March 2009 Pakistan SOURAV KUMAR Peoples Party GUPTA Pakistan Chief Minister of Peoples Party Sindh Pakistan Muslim League (N) Chief Minister of Punjab Punjab Gilgit-Baltistan Syed Mehdi 12 December Shah 2009 6 January 2009 Pakistan Chief Minister of Peoples Party Gilgit-Baltistan Green Force of Pakistan Prime Minister of Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Sardar Kashmir Attique Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider Sign of the Lion).The phase velocity of a sound wave. Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheedmeaning martyr for deceased isosceles triangle is a triangle with (at least) two equal sides.speed of sound . Isosceles Triangle . is the highest military award given by Pakistan after the Hilal-i-Jur'at (Crescent of Courage). all four sides are the same length. he speed of sound is 340. Also known as electromagnetic constant. sound velocity. sonic velocity. the light reflects back into the medium.00 metres per second (1. Name Unit Captain Muhammad 2nd Battalion of Sarwar the Punjab Regiment Conflict War of 1947 Date 27 July 1948 Place of Death Uri. A triangle with all sides equal is called an equilateral triangle. the light is refracted out of the medium and lost to the outside rhombus .

Indian administered Kashmir Kargil. Planning and Development. Economic Affairs and Statistics. Armoured Corps 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry Azad Kashmir Regiment 1958 Border 7 August 1958 Lakshmipur District clash with India War of 1965 10 September Lahore District 1965 Major Mohammad Akram Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed Major Shabbir Sharif Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Sawar Muhammad Hussain Captain Karnal Sher Khan War of 1971 1971 East Pakistan War of 1971 20 August 1971 6 December 1971 8 December 1971 Thatta. West Pakistan Kargil. Indian administered Kashmir Wagah-Attari War of 1971 War of 1971 War of 1971 10 December Zafarwal-Shakargarh 1971 Kargil. Navtec Media Information and Mass Broadcasting Finance. Revenue. Foreign Affairs Party Office . Indian administered Kashmir Kargil War 5 July 1999 Havaldar Lalak Jan Naik Saif Ali Janjua Kargil War 1948 War 7 July 1999 Cabinet members Incumbent Federal Ministers Yousaf Raza Gillani Arbab Alamgir Khan Ahmad Mukhtar Maula Bakhsh Chandio Mumtaz Kahloon Firdous Ashiq Awan Abdul Hafeez Shaikh Hina Rabbani Khar PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP Prime Minister Communications Defence Law. Sindh.Major Tufail Mohammad Major Aziz Bhatti 16th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment 17th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment 4th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment No. 2 Squadron Minhas 6th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment 15th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment 20th Lancers. Justice and Parliamentary Affairs National Vocational and Technical Training Commission.

Syed Naveed Qamer Ghulam Ahmad Bilour Khurshid Shah PPP ANP PPP Water and Power Railways Religious Affairs Commerce and Agriculture Industry. Manpower States. Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit Baltistan Interior and Internal Security Science and Technology Telecommunications Environment. Frontier Regions. and Human Rights Makhdoom Ameen Faheem PPP Makhdoom Sahabuddin Manzoor Wattoo Rehman Malik Mir Changez Jamali Sardar Alhaj Muhammad Umar Goriej Samina Khalid Ghurki Ministers of State Chaudhry Imtiaz Safdar Waraich Arbab Muhammad Zahir Khan Sardar Salim Haider Khan Ghulam Farid Kathia Mir Dost Muhammad Mazari Rafique Ahmed Jamali Salman Bashir Muhammad Afzal Sandhu Muhammad Tariq Anis Ayatollah Durrani Syed Samsam Ali Shah Bokhari Tasneem Ahmed Qureshi Abdul Raziq Masood Abbas Mahreen Anwar Raja Nabil Gabol Muhammad Jadam Mangrio Shagufta Jumani PPP ANP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP ANP PPP PPP Communications Defence Defence Production Education Water & Power Food and Agriculture Independent Foreign Affairs PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP FATA ANP PPP PPP PML-F PPP Health Housing and Works Industries and Production Information and Broadcasting Interior Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas Local Government and Rural Development Parliamentary Affairs Ports and Shipping Railways Religious . Minorities.