INF 788 12057089

Assignment 1

Introduction This Essay embodies the different aspects that affect and are part of information system development. The essay will follow a question and answer layout and tackle mind-picking activities in information system development better known as ISD THEMES. Q2 Apply anyone systems theory aspect to the problem of late isd projects Mutual interaction is a situation where a change in one component induces a change in another component, which then induces a change in the original component (Kuhn, 1974) How this affects late ISD projects: User requirements DO change during systems development and at times this is a fact that developer’s choose to ignore/ overlook. The result of the users changing/modifying their requirements has an effect on the information system project being delivered late because, as stated above mutual interaction is the aspect of systems theory that states how a change in one component induces a change in another component, which then induces a change in the original component. These changes mean more time needed to actually complete the project. For example, if you are designing a Point of sales system and the user requests a change in the sales user interface of the system the following changes will probably have to be made as well (depending on the new user requirement); changes in the sales table in the linked database, changes in the product/stock table, changes in the salesperson table. These changes will take additional time!

Q3. Main reason BPR projects fail Lack of top level commitment and understanding Business process re-engineering like all other strategic moves in a business requires commitment from management. Many a time these top level decision makers know what they want but at the same time don’t really understand a major concept which is easily overlooked; getting everything/everyone involved to work as a unit. (Davenport et al ,1990:12)

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Now the end user says . What can be deduced from this definition is that Information systems will enable the university to carry out their strategy effectively and efficiently. registration Library information system Online and distance learning system Audio visual information systems including video conferencing Q5.INF 788 12057089 Assignment 1 This simply means they fail to concurrently address business. creating knowledge and making a difference locally and globally” The global aspect immediately implies a web based information system. and also for developing people. information system. The information system should adapt to the new business processes. The information system strategy should also include the following subsystems in order to tie in with the academic strategy: Central information system including. These 3 entities are interrelated and therefore one influences the other. End user computing vs IT developer computing Originally IT professionals wrote systems on behalf of customers / users who needed help in analysing data.student access. Hatten 1997) Based on this definition the first step would be to identify the link with university’s academic strategy and its information strategy. rules and so on. The organizations hierarchy or structure should also be adapted to the “new” business. Without this unity in the organizations’ systems the business process re-engineering process will fail. producing reports. recognised internationally for its quality. and organizational change together with process change. Information systems strategy that will suit the university The initiation of an IS strategy must be linked with an established business strategy (Atkins 1994. Q4. The university’s strategic vision is: “To be a leading research-intensive university in Africa."I’ll do it myself!" 2 . relevance and impact.

Opportunity for Interaction with customers is at its peak. because business’ are currently competing on a global scale. for example twitter . Why has CRM become so important Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with customers. It would be organizational suicide to not follow trends. and technical support.INF 788 12057089 Assignment 1 (Sutcliffe and Mehandjiev 2004: 31-37) This has the following benefits over IT developer computing: Creativity and expertise of end users is put to use Users' needs are met in exactly the way they want There is no need to wait for funds to be allocated to upgrade the existing system by a software house Systems tailored to users Enables creative use of IS Generates competitive advantage Overcomes backlog by providing systems that IS could not get round to doing Puts users nearer the information Allows for variety Increases user awareness Relieves work load of IT professionals Q6.(Shaw &Robert. nurture and retain those the company already has. and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. Lastly. Should we allow requirements to change in an ISD? YES! Users tend to realize more things that they would like their system to do as the project goes along. and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities. linkedIn. This is clearly a very essential part of any business. Firstly. entice former clients back into the fold. The overall goals are to find. attract. customer service. CRM is a global trend! In addition it is beneficial not only for profitability but to retain your current customer base and reach new customers. facebook. automate. and win new clients. Q7. but also those for marketing. The ultimate goal is to afterall satisfy users and 3 . clients and sales prospects. With these you can constanly have your customers attention. it is even easier to carry out CRM with social networks which are now available and widely used . organizations should take advantage of these enablers that are available. 2000: ) It involves using technology to organize.

errors and breaches? Physical security controls are a key part of prevention techniques. (Heitzman. but in the real world THEY DO. That is the ideal. Furthermore this client would want to see everything a documented. as are controls designing to ensure the integrity of data 4 . if planned properly it is a great advantage. If frequent meetings are arranged .INF 788 12057089 Assignment 1 produce a useful system.2007) Q9 What are the two major issues in IS security? Information system security. Traditional development includes lots of planning and documentation and generally works on the assumption that requirements will NOT change. Can traditional development (in contrast to agile) be used for any type of development project? Traditional development is a structured linear way of tackling systems development. Agile system development supports this aspect of information systems development. heard. Q8. Provision for change should be made in the planning process. showing the user progress as the project is developed each “new” requirement if any can be documented and implemented as it arises. in terms of the EXACT time and budget. broadcast and otherwise used by people who have the right to do so" (Source: UK Online for Business) The two major problems in Information systems security are Prevention and detection! Prevention : what can be done to prevent security accidents. Traditional development would only be suitable for a client that is working on a tight budget / time schedule and therefore does not want the project to take longer than it would due to changing requirements.“the practice of ensuring information is only read. As much as allowing requirements to change could be a disadvantage. changed. There should be a contingency plan in place: expect the unexpected. while agile is the more adaptable non linear way of developing a system.

outsourcing and offshoring. detection needs to be done as soon as possible . In addition it is actually faster to obtain upgrades and bug fixes because there is a large number of developers working on it.particularly if the information is commercially sensitive. we could strategically pick these countries such that development is on going for 24hrs. Firstly its can save on the cost of getting tailor made software from a vendor.g. Q10. Department of science and technology. (United Kingdom. Our bank would benefit from this strategic move in the sense that we could save costs by perhaps outsourcing and offshoring to countires with cheaper labour costs. Moreover OSS is actually reliable because any code that is sent in as a modification/upgrade is thoroughly checked before it is implemented into the software. we have assessed alternatives and come up with a very lucrative solution. 2010) Conclusion 5 . In addition a major benefit would be the time factor. if we offshored to countries that have different time zones. Outsourcing involves delegating our development tasks to another company and offshoring involves delegating our programming tasks to a company in another country. a log of all attempts to achieve unauthorised access to a network). ( Clairvolex. Write an argument for enforcing open source software in an organisation : Open source software can be used for great benefit in an organization. Lastly Oss allows the organization flexibility and freedom to adapt it to their specific needs. Detection controls are often combined with prevention controls (e.INF 788 12057089 Assignment 1 Detection: Spotting when things have gone wrong is crucial. in the sense that it is open to anyone. 2001) Q11. To Whom it May concern With the current shortage of qualified developers in the country.

the New Industrial Engineering: Information Technology and Business Process Redesign.2010[online] Available: http://www. The Logic of Social Systems. in: Sloan Management Review. (1990).INF 788 12057089 Assignment 1 ISD themes are inter related and are a great area of interest. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 6 . traditional software development [online] Available: http://ezinearticles. BIBLIOGRAPHY DAVENPORT. p 12 Focus and strategy in Offshoring. Jan25.com/?Agile-Methodology-VS-TraditionalSoftware-Development&id=6583388 [cited 26 September 2011] KUHN. Clairvolex. There will continue to be controversial issues regarding them. 1974. J.clairvolex. A. debate and research. THOMAS & SHORT. summer 1990. due to the evolving nature of technology.php HEITZMAN C agile methodology vs.com/articles.

clairvolex.php 7 . Department of science and technology.N . 2000 Measuring and Valuing Customer Relationships: Business Intelligence SUTCLIFFE. Jan25. Clairvolex. 2001.A & MEHANDJIEV.2010[online] Available: http://www.2004. ROBERT C.com/articles.INF 788 12057089 Assignment 1 SHAW A. End User Development Communications of the ACM 47 p( 31-32) United Kingdom. Open source software policy United Kingdom Focus and strategy in Offshoring.

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