Wi-Fi by “Prince AB”

Wi-Fi is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data wirelessly (using radio waves) over a computer network, including highspeedInternet connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards". However, since most modern WLANs are based on these standards, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synonym for "WLAN".

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A device that can use Wi-Fi (such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone, tablet, or digital audio player) can connect to a network resource such as the Internet via a wireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (65 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can comprise an area as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves or as large as many square miles — this is achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.

"Wi-Fi" is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance and the brand name for products using the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. Only Wi-Fi products that complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification testing successfully may use the "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED" designation and trademark.

Wi-Fi has had a checkered security history. Its earliest encryption system, WEP, proved easy to break. Much higher quality protocols, WPA and WPA2, were added later. However, an optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), has a flaw that allows a remote attacker to recover the router's WPA or WPA2 password in a few hours on most implementations. Some manufacturers have recommended turning off the WPS feature. The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly-certified devices resist brute-force AP PIN attacks.

Wi-Fi by “Prince AB”

Uses
To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless.network interface controller. The combination of computer and interface controller is called a station. All stations share a single radio frequency communication channel. Transmissions on this channel are received by all stations within range. The hardware does not signal the user that the transmission was delivered and is therefore called abest-effort delivery mechanism. A carrier wave is used to transmit the data in packets, referred to as "Ethernet frames". Each station is constantly tuned in on the radio frequency communication channel to pick up available transmissions. Internet access A Wi-Fi-enabled device can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. The coverage of one or more (interconnected) access points — called hotspots — can extend from an area as small as a few rooms to as large as many square miles. Coverage in the larger area may require a group of access points with overlapping coverage. Outdoor public WiFi technology has been used successfully in wireless mesh networks in London, UK. Wi-Fi provides service in private homes, high street chains and independent businesses, as well as in public spaces at Wi-Fi hotspots set up either free-of-charge or commercially. Organizations and businesses, such as airports, hotels, and restaurants, often provide free-use hotspots to attract customers. Enthusiasts or authorities who wish to provide services or even to promote business in selected areas sometimes provide free Wi-Fi access. Routers that incorporate a digital subscriber line modem or a cable modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in homes and other buildings, provide Internet access and internetworking to all devices connected to them, wirelessly or via cable. With the emergence of MiFi and WiBro (a portable Wi-Fi router) people can easily create their own Wi-Fi hotspots that connect to Internet via cellular networks. Now Android, Bada, iOS (iPhone), and Symbian devices can create wireless connections. Wi-Fi also connects places that normally don't have network access, such as kitchens and garden sheds.

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Wi-Fi by “Prince AB”
City-wide Wi-Fi In the early 2000s, many cities around the world announced plans to construct citywide Wi-Fi networks. There are many successful examples; in 2005 Sunnyvale, California, became the first city in the United States to offer city-wide free Wi-Fi, and Minneapolis has generated $1.2 million in profit annually for its provider. In 2004, Mysore became India's first Wi-fi-enabled city and second in the world after Jerusalem. A company called WiFiyNet has set up hotspots in Mysore, covering the complete city and a few nearby villages. In May 2010, London, UK, Mayor Boris Johnson pledged to have London-wide Wi-Fi by 2012. Several boroughs including Westminster and Islington already have extensive outdoor Wi-Fi coverage. Officials in South Korea's capital are moving to provide free Internet access at more than 10,000 locations around the city, including outdoor public spaces, major streets and densely populated residential areas. Seoul will grant leases to KT, LG Telecom and SK Telecom. The companies will invest $44 million in the project, which will be completed in 2015.

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Campus-wide Wi-Fi Many traditional college campuses in the United States provide at least partial wireless Wi-Fi Internet coverage. Carnegie Mellon University built the first campuswide wireless Internet network, calledWireless Andrew at its Pittsburgh campus in 1993 before Wi-Fi branding originated. In 2000, Drexel University in Philadelphia became the United States's first major university to offer completely wireless Internet access across its entire campus.

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Direct computer-to-computer communications Wi-Fi also allows communications directly from one computer to another without an access point intermediary. This is called ad hoc Wi-Fi transmission. This wireless ad hoc network mode has proven popular with multiplayer handheld game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, Playstation Portable, digital cameras, and other consumer electronics devices. Some devices can also share their Internet connection using adhoc, becoming hotspots or "virtual routers".[36] Similarly, the Wi-Fi Alliance promotes a specification called Wi-Fi Direct for file transfers and media sharing through a new discovery- and security-methodology. Wi-Fi Direct launched in October 2010.

When Wi-FiOriginated ?
Wi-fi Was Invented in 1991 by NCR corporation in NETHERLAND. The First WIRELESS products were brought in the market under the name of WaveLAN with speeds of 1 MB/s to 2 MB/s.

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